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1.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 24(6): 294-303, 06/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343622

ABSTRACT

Kuhn in 1962 establishes the revolutionary character of science: "new scientific theories are not born by verification or falsification, but by substitution." The objective of this review was to analyze the ideas and paradigms through which studies on obesity and its relationship with environmental pollutants, diet and epigenetics have passed, in order to illustrate the current situation of this object of study. Articles were managed in December 2020 from the Web of Science. The strategy was Obesity AND (pollution OR contamination) in the Title field, AND (epigenetic* OR obesity OR food OR nutrition OR diet) in the Themes field. 654 articles were obtained: 577 original investigations and 77 reviews. The documents were exported in BibTeXformat to be quantitatively analyzed with the Bibliometrix program. For the qualitative analysis, review articles were selected in whose titles, keywords and/or abstract, carried the word paradigm*, identifying 19 who underwent content analysis. From 1980 to 2020, four periods were recognized, the first and third are classified as normal science; the second and the fourth, crisis of knowledge or revolution. The evolution of the studies has been differentiated. First, the central theme was environmental pollution and secondarily, obesity. For the second and third period, the epigenetics related to environmental pollution and that associated with obesity are investigated separately and at present, causal relationships between environmental pollutants and obesity, nutrients and epigenetics are hypothesized.


Kuhn en 1962 establece el carácter revolucionario de la ciencia: "las nuevas teorías científicas no nacen por verificación ni por falsación, sino por sustitución". El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar las ideas y los paradigmas por los que han transitado los estudios sobre obesidad, y su relación con contaminantes ambientales, alimentación y epigenética, con el propósito de ilustrar la situación actual de este objeto de estudio. Se gestionaron artículos en diciembre de 2020 de la Web of Science. La estrategia fue Obesity AND (pollution OR contamination) en el campo Title, AND (epigenetic* OR obesity OR alimentation OR nutrition OR diet) en el campo Themes. Se obtuvieron 654 artículos: 577 investigaciones originales y 77 revisiones. Los documentos se exportaron en formato BibTeX para ser analizados cuantitativamente con el programa Bibliometrix. Para el análisis cualitativo se seleccionaron artículos de revisión en cuyos títulos, palabras clave o resumen llevaran la palabra paradigm*, con lo que se identificaron 19, a los que se les realizó análisis de contenido. De 1980 a 2020 se reconocieron cuatro períodos; el primero y el tercero se clasifican como ciencia normal; el segundo y el cuarto, como crisis de conocimiento o revolución. La evolución de los estudios ha sido diferenciada. Primero, la temática central fue la contaminación ambiental y, de manera secundaria, la obesidad. Para el segundo y el tercer período se investigan por separado la epigenética relacionada con la contaminación ambiental y la asociada con la obesidad, y en la actualidad, se plantean hipótesis de relaciones causales entre contaminantes ambientales y obesidad, nutrientes y epigenética.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollution , Obesity , World Health Organization , Diet , Environmental Pollutants , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Nutritional Sciences , Epigenomics
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary objectives are to (1) examine the effects that low-level environmental chemical exposures have on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders, as well as perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco.@*METHODS@#The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the progress of the Hokkaido Study, summarize recent results, and suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the latest details from questionnaire surveys, face-to-face examinations, and a collection of biological specimens from children and measurements of their chemical exposures.@*RESULTS@#The latest findings indicate different risk factors of parental characteristics on birth outcomes and the mediating effect between socioeconomic status and children that are small for the gestational age. Maternal serum folate was not associated with birth defects. Prenatal chemical exposure and smoking were associated with birth size and growth, as well as cord blood biomarkers, such as adiponectin, leptin, thyroid, and reproductive hormones. We also found significant associations between the chemical levels and neuro development, asthma, and allergies.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Chemical exposure to children can occur both before and after birth. Longer follow-up for children is crucial in birth cohort studies to reinforce the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. In contrast, considering shifts in the exposure levels due to regulation is also essential, which may also change the association to health outcomes. This study found that individual susceptibility to adverse health effects depends on the genotype. Epigenome modification of DNA methylation was also discovered, indicating the necessity of examining molecular biology perspectives. International collaborations can add a new dimension to the current knowledge and provide novel discoveries in the future.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Child , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Health , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Female , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Follow-Up Studies , Growth/drug effects , Humans , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Prevalence , Smoking/adverse effects
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Little is known about the effects of environmental cobalt exposure on insulin resistance (IR) in the general adult population. We investigated the association between cobalt concentration and IR.@*METHODS@#A total of 1281 subjects aged more than 20 years with complete blood cobalt data were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2015-2016 cycle. Blood cobalt levels were analyzed for their association with IR among all populations and subgroups by sex. Regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of blood cobalt concentrations in association with fasting glucose, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were estimated using multivariate linear regression after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, education level, and household income. A multivariate generalized linear regression analysis was further carried out to explore the association between cobalt exposure and IR.@*RESULTS@#A negative association between blood cobalt concentration (coefficient = - 0.125, 95% CI - 0.234, - 0.015; P = 0.026) and HOMA-IR in female adults in the age- and sex-adjusted model was observed. However, no associations with HOMA-IR, fasting glucose, or insulin were found in the overall population. In the generalized linear models, participants with the lowest cobalt levels had a 2.74% (95% CI 0.04%, 5.50%) increase in HOMA-IR (P for trend = 0.031) compared with subjects with the highest cobalt levels. Restricted cubic spline regression suggested that a non-linear relationship may exist between blood cobalt and HOMA-IR.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results provide epidemiological evidence that low levels of blood cobalt are negatively associated with HOMA-IR in female adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cobalt/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Pollutants/blood , Female , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin/blood , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Sex Factors , United States , Young Adult
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The majority of studies linking exposure to metals with certain health outcomes focus on known toxic metals. Alternatively, this study assesses the extent to which exposure to a wider range of metals during gestation is associated with childhood morbidity.@*METHODS@#We analyzed the concentrations of 25 metals found in urine samples of 111 pregnant women of Arab-Bedouin origin collected prior to birth. In addition, we collected medical records on their offspring for six years following birth, including every interaction with HMOs, local hospitals, and pharmacies.@*RESULTS@#The main types of morbidities diagnosed and treated during this period were preterm births, malformations, asthma-like morbidity, cardiovascular and behavioral problems, and obesity. Multivariable analysis showed that offspring born before term were more likely to have been exposed to elevated maternal concentrations of zinc, thallium, aluminum, manganese, and uranium, all with adjusted relative risk above 1.40 for an increase by each quintile. Likewise, children with asthma had been exposed to higher levels of magnesium, strontium, and barium at gestation, while behavioral outcomes were associated with elevated biometals, i.e., sodium, magnesium, calcium, selenium, and zinc, as well as higher levels of lithium, cobalt, nickel, strontium, cadmium, vanadium, arsenic, and molybdenum. A heatmap of adjusted relative risk estimates indicates the considerable implications that exposure to metals may have for preterm birth and developmental outcomes.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The current study shows that perinatal exposure to metals is adversely associated with pediatric morbidity. Further such analyses on additional samples are warranted.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arabs/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Environmental Pollutants/urine , Female , Humans , Israel , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Metals/urine , Morbidity , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The industrial revolution has resulted in increased synthesis and the introduction of a variety of compounds into the environment and their potentially hazardous effects have been observed in the biota. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting effects of chronic exposure to the low concentrations of bisphenol S (BPS) in male rats.@*METHODS@#Weaning male Sprague-Dawley rats (22 days old) were either exposed to water containing 0.1% ethanol for control or different concentrations of BPS (0.5, 5, and 50 μg/L) in drinking water for 48 weeks in the chronic exposure study. After completion of the experimental period, animals were dissected and different parameters (hormone concentrations, histology of testis and epididymis, oxidative stress and level of antioxidant enzymes in the testis, daily sperm production (DSP), and sperm parameters) were determined.@*RESULTS@#Results of the present study showed a significant alteration in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and relative reproductive organ weights. Oxidative stress in the testis was significantly elevated while sperm motility, daily sperm production, and the number of sperm in epididymis were reduced. Plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations were reduced and estradiol levels were high in the 50 μg/L-exposed group. Histological observations involved a significant reduction in the epithelial height of the testis along with disrupted spermatogenesis, an empty lumen of the seminiferous tubules, and the caput region of the epididymis.@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggest that exposure to 5 and 50 μg/L of BPS for the chronic duration started from an early age can induce structural changes in testicular tissue architecture and endocrine alterations in the male reproductive system which may lead to infertility in males.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Infertility, Male/physiopathology , Male , Phenols/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sulfones/toxicity , Testis/physiopathology , Toxicity Tests, Chronic
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878912

ABSTRACT

Chinese medicinal material is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) industry. Its quality is not only closely related to the health of residents but also the key to the development of the TCM industry. Pesticide residues, heavy metals and mycotoxins are the major pollutants of Chinese medicinal materials. In recent years, quite a number of rapid detection methods for pollutants have been constructed. Among them, surface-enhanced Raman scattering(SERS), which has been widely used in food chemistry, environmental analysis, and other fields because of its speediness and non-destructiveness, shows its great potential in the pollutant detection in Chinese medicinal material. This paper firstly reviews the application of SERS for the detection of common pollutants in Chinese medicinal material. We then discussed the characteristics and advantages of SERS technique for pesticide detection, including the principle, SERS substrate design, specific recognition, etc. Finally, simultaneous detection of multiple pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal material was explored.


Subject(s)
China , Environmental Pollutants , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Spectrum Analysis, Raman
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878337

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate involvement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in the immunomodulatory effects of cadmium (Cd).@*Methods@#The effect of Cd on AhR activation ( @*Results@#Cd increased @*Conclusion@#AhR signaling is involved in the lung leukocyte proinflammatory cytokine response to Cd. The relevance of the AhR to the cytokine response to Cd provides new insight into the mechanisms of Cd immunotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/immunology , Cadmium/toxicity , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/immunology , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Male , Rats , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/immunology
10.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 33-38, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098369

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Air contamination happens when unsafe or inordinate amounts of substances including gases, particles, and organic atoms are brought into Earth's climate. Objective: This review article defines air pollution, describes the types of pollutants, enumerates the various causative factors, enumerates the ways it impacts human health and suggests preventive measures to reduce the impact of air pollution on human health. Methods: Literature was studied extensively and effects of air pollution on human health have been described. Results and Conclusion: Air pollution has tremendous effects on human health in the form of respiratory diseases and aggravations in the form of asthma and lung cancer, cardiovascular dysfunctions, and malignant growth. An affiliation has been found to exist between male infertility and air pollution and a relationship has been established between air contamination and higher danger of immune dysfunction, neuroinflammation, neurobehavioral hyperactivity, crime, age-unseemly behaviours, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Traffic-related air pollutants have been found to affect skin aging and cause pigmented spots on the face. An association exists between air pollution and irritation of the eyes, dry eye syndrome, risk for retinopathy and adverse ocular outcomes. Chronic exposure to air pollutants during pregnancy has been associated with adverse effects on the developing foetus in the form of low birth weight and still birth. Air contamination has been seen as a significant supporter of the expanded predominance of allergic diseases in children.


Subject(s)
Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Disease/etiology , Costa Rica , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis
11.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 14(2): 29-42, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128982

ABSTRACT

En el sector de Quintero, desde los últimos 50 años han existido diversos hitos relacionados con la contaminación medioambiental. Iniciando con la instauración de la termoeléctrica "Ventanas" en 1950, Chilectra en 1958. En el año 1993 el ministerio de Agricultura de Chile declaró a Puchuncaví y Quintero como una "zona saturada de contaminación" por dióxido de azufre (SO2) y material particulado (MP10). En el año 2011, 135 trabajadores del complejo Ventana fallecieron producto del cáncer. Durante el 2014 hubo un derrame de petróleo en la Bahía de Quintero, 2015 un informe del Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP) arrojó cifras de arsénico que superan 23 veces la norma establecida por el Código Sanitario de Alimentos. Frente a dicho escenario, se hace evidente la necesidad de comprender cómo es la situación de los pobladores de dichas comunas. La presente investigación busca asociar los niveles de contaminación de las comuna de Quintero y el número de hospitalizaciones durante los años 2012 hasta el 2018.


In Quintero, since the last 50 years there have been various milestones related to environmental pollution. Starting with the installation of the "Ventanas" thermoelectric plant in 1950, Chilectra in 1958. In 1993, the Chilean Ministry of Agriculture declared Puchuncaví and Quintero as a "zone saturated with contamination" by sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (MP10). In 2011, 135 workers at the Ventana complex died of cancer. During 2014 an oil spill emerged in Quintero Bay, 2015 a report by the Institute for Fisheries Development (IFOP) showed arsenic figures that exceed 23 times the norm established by the Sanitary Food Code. Faced with this scenario, the need to understand what the situation of the residents of said communes is like is evident. The present investigation seeks to associate the levels of contamination of the commun of Quintero and the number of hospitalizations during the years 2012 to 2018.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ozone/analysis , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis , Chile , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Government Regulation , Methane/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis
13.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(1): 77-86, 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120572

ABSTRACT

La Enfermedad Renal Crónica de Causas no Tradicionales (ERCnT) ha aumentado en los últimos 20 años, convirtiéndose en un problema de salud pública importante que se observa principalmente en países de Centroamérica y Asia, afectando especialmente a trabajadores agrícolas jóvenes. La presencia de factores de riesgo relacionados con toxinas, medio ambiente y condiciones laborales sugiere una causa multifactorial, la cual puede que involucre la exposición a agroquímicos, contaminantes ambientales, y episodios repetidos de deshidratación. La comprensión de las condiciones sociales que unen estos factores en grupos específicos de población es fundamental para el desarrollo de programas de salud pública tendientes a la prevención de esta epidemia devastadora. Luego de presentar brevemente los antecedentes, este ensayo discute el paradigma de causalidad de la enfermedad implícito en la literatura disponible sobre ERCnT, concretamente la "multicausalidad", sitúa el enfoque en su contexto histórico, y presenta sus fortalezas y limitaciones. Luego, el ensayo presenta dos paradigmas de causalidad que podrían ayudar a avanzar en la investigación sobre las causas de la enfermedad, específicamente los enfoques socioecológico y de determinación social de la salud. El ensayo concluye con recomendaciones para una agenda de investigación e intervención que enfoque en explicar las causas de la ERCnT.


Chronic Kidney Disease of non-Traditional Causes (CKDnT) has increased over the past 20 years, becoming a significant public health issue observed mainly in countries in Central America and Asia, primarily affecting young male agricultural workers. The presence of toxin-, environmental-, and work-related risk factors in the affected communities suggests a multifactorial cause, which may involve exposure to agrochemicals, environmental contaminants, and repeated episodes of dehydration. An understanding of the social conditions that bring these factors together in specific groups is essential for the development of public health programs to prevent this devastating epidemic. After a brief background, this essay discusses the paradigm of disease causality implied in the available literature on CKDnT, namely "multicausality", puts it in its historical context, and presents its strengths and limitations. The essay then presents two causality paradigms that could help move forward research about the causes of this disease, specifically the socioecological and the social determination of health approaches. The essay concludes with recommendations for a research and intervention agenda that focuses on explaining the causes of CKDnT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Social Conditions , Causality , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/prevention & control , Working Conditions , Public Health , Risk Factors , Agrochemicals/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants , Farmers , Guatemala , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology
14.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180637, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132189

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study describes the use of bentonite in suspension for the caffeine adsorption (pollutant of emerging concern) by taking different conditions of the pH, adsorbent mass, adsorbent calcination temperature and interferents into account. The results were compared with those obtained using bentonite immobilized in alginate beads. The acid medium has a greater efficiency for the caffeine adsorption and the adsorbent calcination temperature exerts, due to structural changes. Caffeine removal higher than 90% was obtained at optimized conditions. The Langmuir model indicated a better fit of the data and the adsorption capacity of caffeine onto bentonite. The bentonite immobilized led to a slower adsorption process in relation to the suspended.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification , Bentonite/chemistry , Caffeine/chemistry , Thermodynamics , Caffeine/adverse effects , Adsorption , Environmental Pollutants/isolation & purification , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Models, Theoretical
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828999

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To verify the health advisory for short-term exposure to phenol.@*Methods@#The method of this validation experiment was the same as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for toxicology experiments used to determine phenol drinking water equivalent level (DWEL). Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered phenol in distilled water by gavage at daily doses of 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) from implantation (the 6th day post-mating) to the day prior to the scheduled caesarean section (the 20th day of pregnancy). The following information was recorded: general behavior; body weight; number of corpus luteum, live birth, fetus, stillbirth, and implantation; fetal gender; body weight; body length; tail length; and abnormalities and pathomorphological changes in the dams.@*Results@#In the 60 mg/kg b.w. dose group, the mortality of pregnant rats increased with increasing doses, suggesting maternal toxicity. Fetal and placental weights decreased as phenol dose increased from 30 mg/kg b.w., and were significantly different compared those in the vehicle control group, which suggested developmental toxicity in the fetuses. However, the phenol-exposed groups showed no significant change in other parameters compared with the vehicle control group ( > 0.05).@*Conclusion@#Despite using the same method as the US EPA, a different NOEAL of 15 mg/(kg·d) was obtained in this study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Environmental Pollutants , Toxicity , Female , Fetal Development , Phenol , Toxicity , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Toxicity Tests, Acute
16.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 11(2)jul.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093328

ABSTRACT

El componente investigativo forma parte del currículo de los estudios en las universidades médicas. El objetivo de este trabajo es generalizar los temas: Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones; Medio ambiente y ecosistemas; y Contaminación ambiental que fueron incluidos como objeto para aprender a buscar información en el componente investigativo de la asignatura Informática Médica. Los temas estuvieron interrelacionados, aunque cada uno contó con sus propios objetivos. El seminario fue la forma organizativa para la exposición y socialización de estos temas por parte de los estudiantes investigadores. La incorporación de estos temas contribuyó a fomentar la responsabilidad social, colectiva e individual de los estudiantes; incrementar sus niveles de información y conocimiento, reconocer el riesgo del impacto negativo ambiental y social; así como les permitió adoptar prácticas más sostenibles de consumo y uso responsable de las tecnologías(AU)


The research component is part of the curriculum in medical universities. The objective of this paper is to generalize three topics: Information and Communication Technologies, Environment and Ecosystems; and Environmental Pollution included as part of the research component of the Medical Informatics subject. The themes were interrelated, although each had its own objectives. The seminar was the organizational form for the exposition and socialization of these topics by student researchers. The insertion of these topics contributed to promote the social, collective and individual responsibility of the students; to increase their levels of information and knowledge and to recognize the risk of negative environmental and social impact; as well as allowed them to adopt more sustainable practices of consumption and responsible use of technologies(AU)


Subject(s)
Medical Informatics Applications , Ecosystem , Environmental Pollutants , Information Technology , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
17.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(4): 310-315, nov. 5, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145353

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the influence of the manual manipulation of two composite resins: Filtek™ Z350XT (3M ESPE) and Herculite Précis® (Kerr), with latex gloves contaminated with powder, human saliva and alcohol, on the microhardness values. Material and Methods: Manual manipulation was evaluated using latex gloves with powder, latex gloves without powder, latex gloves without powder with saliva, latex gloves without powder with alcohol, and without hand manipulation or contaminants (control). Each resin was manually manipulated for 10 seconds and photoactivated for 20 seconds with a light intensity of 1000mW/cm2 using a VALO ­Ultradent LED light­ cured unit, and then each sample was evaluated on the microhardness Vickers tester Leitz (Wetzlar). The collected data were analyzed using Kruskal ­Wallis and Mann ­ Whitney post-test (p<0.05). Results. Microhardness values showed a significant difference between the evaluated and control groups, showing lower microhardness values in the group of latex glove with powder for Filtek™ Z350XT and the group of latex glove without powder with saliva for Herculite Précis®. Conclusion. The manual manipulation of composite resins decreases their surface microhardness.


Propósito: Este estudio in vitrotuvo como objetivo evaluar la influencia de la manipulación manual de dos resinas compuestas: Filtek ™ Z350XT (3M ESPE) y Herculite Précis® (Kerr), con guantes de látex contaminados con polvo, saliva humana y alcohol, sobre los valores de microdureza. Material y Métodos: La manipulación manual se evaluó utilizando guantes de látex con polvo, guantes de látex sin polvo, guantes de látex sin polvo con saliva, guantes de látex sin polvo con alcohol, y sin manipulación manual o contaminantes (control). Cada resina fue manipulada manualmente durante 10 segundos y fotoactivada durante 20 segundos con unaintensidad de luz de 1000mW/cm2 usando una unidad de fotocuración LED VALO - Ultradent, y luego cada muestra fue evaluada en el tester de microdureza Vickers Leitz (Wetzlar). Los datos recopilados se analizaron utilizando Kruska ­Wallis y post-test Mann­ Whitney (p<0.05). Resultados: Se observó una diferencia significativa en los valores de microdureza entre los grupos evaluados y el grupo control, con valores más bajos de microdureza en el grupo de guantes de látex con polvo para Filtek™ Z350XT y el grupo de guantes de látex sin polvo con saliva para Herculite Précis®. Conclusión. La manipulación manual de resinas compuestas disminuye su microdureza superficial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Composite Resins , Dental Materials/adverse effects , Gloves, Surgical , Hardness Tests , Permeability , In Vitro Techniques , Physical Contaminants/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Latex/chemistry
18.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(4): 417-426, Jul.-Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099317

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: Environmental and occupational agents are causes of cancer and disease worldwide while their control and the reduction of the associated disease burden remains complex. Materials and methods: This paper summarizes the current status of the burden of environmental and occupational causes of disease in the Americas based on presentations from a panel on environment, occupation and other environmental risk factors for cancer in the Americas, delivered in Panama, at the international conference Promoting Health Equity and Transnational Collaborations for the Prevention and Control of Cancer in the Americas. Results: Three case studies are presented to illustrate the impact of specific environmental and occupational agents and the challenge of control. Conclusions: There are still fully avoidable exposures to carcinogens, as well documented in the case of asbestos in Brazil. Thus, there are abundant targets for intervention to reduce cancer in the Americas.


Resumen: Objetivo: Los agentes ambientales y ocupacionales son causas de cáncer y enfermedades en todo el mundo, mientras que su control y reducción de la carga de enfermedad asociada siguen siendo puntos complejos. Material y métodos: Este documento resume el estado actual de la carga de las causas ambientales y ocupacionales de las enfermedades en las Américas a partir de las presentaciones de un panel sobre medio ambiente, ocupación y otros factores de riesgo ambientales para el cáncer en las Américas, realizado en Panamá, en la conferencia internacional Promoviendo la Equidad en Salud y las Colaboraciones Transnacionales para la Prevención y el Control del Cáncer en las Américas. Resultados: Se presentan tres estudios de caso para ilustrar el impacto de agentes ambientales y ocupacionales específicos y el desafío del control. Conclusiones: Todavía hay exposiciones totalmente evitables a los carcinógenos, como está bien documentado en el caso del asbesto en Brasil. Hay abundantes puntos estratégicos de intervención para reducir el cáncer en las Américas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease/etiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Panama , Asbestos/toxicity , Americas , Brazil , Carcinogens/toxicity , Petroleum Pollution/adverse effects , Epidemiology , Risk Factors , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Sex Distribution
19.
Lima; Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática; abr. 2019. 56 p. (Colección poblaciones vulnerables).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022047

ABSTRACT

En el marco de la política institucional de explotación y difusión de los datos censales que permiten, entre otros aspectos, identificar grupos de población en condición de vulnerabilidad, el Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática ­ INEI, pone a disposición de sus usuarios el documento HOGARES EN LOS QUE COCINAN CON COMBUSTIBLES CONTAMINANTES. Población involucrada y distribución territorial, que muestra la magnitud y características de la población y jefes/as de hogares que todavía utilizan leña, carbón, bosta o estiércol y residuos agrícolas (combustibles de biomasa) calificados como combustibles contaminantes, para la cocción de sus alimentos. Asimismo, mediante mapas departamentales georreferenciados se identifican los distritos más vulnerables. La información que se presenta brinda un panorama de aquellos hogares y población que, directa o indirectamente, se encuentra expuesta a la contaminación que genera la combustión de biomasa empleada, principalmente, para cocinar. La incidencia de estos factores de riesgo que se manifiesta en problemas de salud ha sido validada con diversos estudios epidemiológicos, a nivel nacional e internacional. El mayor número y porcentaje de hogares que utilizan los combustibles contaminantes para la cocción de sus alimentos se encuentran ubicados en el área rural del país con 70,1% y en la Sierra con 59,3%. Asimismo, solo el 37,9% y 17,2% de los hogares que cocinan con leña y similares cuentan con servicio de agua y servicio higiénico por red pública dentro de la vivienda, respectivamente. Estos indicadores, entre otros, demostrarían que la pobreza sería la principal barrera para el empleo de combustibles más limpios, es decir, menos contaminantes como el gas o la electricidad. El INEI reitera su agradecimiento a quienes proporcionaron información, lo que ha hecho posible la elaboración de este documento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rural Health , Fuels , Social Vulnerability , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Health of Specific Groups , Peru
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Low-dose exposure to organophosphate (OP) insecticides during pregnancy may adversely affect neurodevelopment in children. To evaluate the OP exposure levels, single urine sampling is commonly adopted to measure the levels of dialkylphosphates (DAPs), common OP metabolites. However, the inter-day variations of urinary DAP concentrations within subjects are supposed to be large due to the short biological half-lives of the metabolites, and it is thus considered difficult to accurately assess OP exposure during pregnancy with single sampling. This study aimed to assess intra-individual variations of DAP concentrations and the reproducibility of the exposure dose categorization of OPs according to DAP concentration ranges in pregnant women in Japan.@*METHODS@#Urine samples were collected from 62 non-smoking pregnant women (12-22 weeks of gestation) living in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. First morning void (FMV) and spot urine samples taken between lunch and dinner on the same day were collected on five different days during 2 weeks. The concentrations of DAP and creatinine in urine samples were measured using an ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted concentrations were used for the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) calculations and surrogate category analyses.@*RESULTS@#For all DAP metabolites, the creatinine-adjusted single ICCs exceeded 0.4, indicating moderate reliability. Overall, ICCs of spot urine samples taken in the afternoon were better than those taken as FMV. Surrogate category analyses showed that participants were categorized accurately into four exposure dose groups according to the quartile points.@*CONCLUSION@#This study indicated that a single urine sample taken in the afternoon may be useful in assessing OP exposure as long as the exposure is categorized into quartiles when conducting epidemiological studies in early to mid-pregnant women in Japan.


Subject(s)
Adult , Chromatography, Liquid , Creatinine , Urine , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Monitoring , Methods , Environmental Pollutants , Urine , Female , Humans , Japan , Mass Spectrometry , Organophosphates , Urine , Pesticides , Urine , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Young Adult
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