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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248946, 2024. tab, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364502

ABSTRACT

Environmental pollutants may often alter the genetic components of natural populations. In this study, heavy metals and genetic diversity in land snail (Achatina achatina) from three populations of south-western Nigeria were investigated, using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and DNA Sequencing technology respectively. Metal analysis revealed that the snails accumulated lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in high concentrations in two of the three states, while cadmium (Cd) was the least detected. Editing and alignment of the sequences of all snail accessions generated a range of 384bp to 419 bp. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) in all 18 accessions was low at only 16%. The query coverage (QC) ranged between 96% and 100%, with 14 (77.8%) of the 18 accessions showing 100% identity. Pairwise comparison of the accessions studied also showed a high genetic similarity. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) generated two main clusters. Cluster I was unique and contain one sample (AaOy06) while the other cluster are very closely related and can be further sub-divided into sub-clusters. The similarity index of between the clusters is 0.5357. The close similarity among the accessions may be due to the geographical proximity of the three states. The uniqueness of accession AaOy06 in comparison to other accessions might be due to the negative influence of heavy metal, particularly lead. The determination of evolutionary relationships among snail populations may be useful towards the breeding efforts of the species in Nigeria.


Os poluentes ambientais podem frequentemente alterar os componentes genéticos das populações naturais. Neste estudo, metais pesados e diversidade genética em caramujos terrestres (Achatina achatina) de três populações do sudoeste da Nigéria foram investigados, usando a tecnologia de espectrometria de absorção atômica e sequenciamento de DNA, respectivamente. A análise dos metais revelou que os caramujos acumularam chumbo (Pb) e níquel (Ni) em altas concentrações em dois dos três estados, enquanto o cádmio (Cd) foi o menos detectado. A edição e o alinhamento das sequências de todos os acessos de caramujos geraram uma faixa de 384pb a 419pb. A análise de variância molecular (AMOVA) em todos os 18 acessos foi baixa em apenas 16%. A cobertura da consulta (QC) variou entre 96% e 100%, com 14 (77,8%) dos 18 acessos apresentando 100% de identidade. A comparação pareada dos acessos estudados também mostrou alta similaridade genética. O método de grupo de pares não ponderados com média aritmética (UPGMA) gerou dois clusters principais. O cluster I era único e contém uma amostra (AaOy06), enquanto o outro cluster está intimamente relacionado e pode ser subdividido em subclusters. O índice de similaridade entre os clusters é 0,5357. A grande semelhança entre os acessos pode ser devido à proximidade geográfica dos três estados. A singularidade do acesso AaOy06 em comparação com outros acessos pode ser devido à influência negativa de metais pesados, particularmente chumbo. A determinação das relações evolutivas entre as populações de caramujos pode ser útil para os esforços de reprodução da espécie na Nigéria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails , Genetic Variation , Metals, Heavy , Environmental Pollutants
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248910, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339342

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study determines the associations among serum lipid profiles, risk of cardiovascular disease, and persistent organic pollutants. Using Gas chromatography technique, the intensity of toxic pollutant residues in serum samples of Hypertensive patients were measured. Based on statistical analysis, the effects of different covariates namely pesticides, age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and lipid profile duration was checked using the logistic regression model. Statistical computation was performed on SPSS 22.0. The P-values of F-Statistic for each lipid profile class are greater than 0.01 (1%), therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis for all cases. The estimated coefficients, their standard errors, Wald Statistic, and odds ratio of the binary logistic regression model for different lipid profile parameters indicate if pesticides increase then the logit value of different lipid profile parameters changes from -0.46 to -0.246 except LDL which increases by 0.135. The study reports a significantly increased threat of cardiovascular disease with increased concentrations of toxic pollutants.


Resumo Este estudo determina as associações entre o perfil lipídico sérico, o risco de doença cardiovascular e os poluentes orgânicos persistentes. Por meio da técnica de cromatografia gasosa, mediu-se a intensidade dos resíduos de poluentes tóxicos em amostras de soro de pacientes hipertensos. Com base na análise estatística, os efeitos de diferentes covariáveis ​​- ou seja, pesticidas, idade, pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica e duração do perfil lipídico - foram verificados usando o modelo de regressão logística. O cálculo estatístico foi realizado no SPSS 22.0. Os valores P da estatística F para cada classe de perfil lipídico são maiores que 0,01 (1%), portanto não podemos rejeitar a hipótese nula para todos os casos. Os coeficientes estimados, seus erros padrão, estatística de Wald e odds ratio do modelo de regressão logística binária para diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico indicam se os pesticidas aumentam, então o valor logit de diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico muda de -0,46 para -0,246, exceto LDL, que aumenta em 0,135. O estudo relata um aumento significativo da ameaça de doença cardiovascular com aumento das concentrações de poluentes tóxicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticides , Environmental Pollutants , Persistent Organic Pollutants , Lipids , Lipoproteins
3.
Rev. colomb. neumol ; 34(2): 47-58, July-Dec. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1412777

ABSTRACT

Mediante la disminución de los niveles de contaminación del aire los países pueden reducir la carga en morbilidad derivada de accidentes cerebrovasculares, cáncer de pulmón y neumopatías crónicas y agudas. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar los efectos a corto y largo plazo que tiene la contaminación ambiental sobre la salud de la población por medio de una revisión narrativa de tipo cualitativo y descriptivo. El método de búsqueda e identificación de los estudios se realizó por medio de las siguientes bases de datos electrónicas: Medline, Pubmed, Science Direct, entre otras; con un estado del arte de máximo 5 años posteriores a su fecha de publicación. De acuerdo con la búsqueda realizada en las bases de datos, se seleccionaron un total de 10 artículos en los cuales se encontraron diferentes efectos de la contaminación ambiental en la salud humana a nivel respiratorio, cardiovascular, hepático, neurológico, gestacional, inmunológico, entre otros sistemas a causa del material particulado encontrado en el ambiente como los son del PM 2.5, PM10 Y otros gases relacionados con la contaminación y los efectos sobre la salud. Los resultados de esta revisión narrativa confirman los efectos asociados a la contaminación ambiental a corto plazo y largo plazo del aumento de las concentraciones de las partículas contaminantes encontradas en el ambiente. Palabras claves: contaminación ambiental, partículas contaminantes, efectos corto plazo, efectos largo plazo, material particulado.


By lowering air pollution levels, countries can reduce the burden of disease from strokes, lung cancer, and chronic and acute lung diseases. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the short and long-term effects of environmental pollution on the health of the population through a qualitative and descriptive narrative review. The search and identification method of the studies was carried out through the following electronic databases: Medline, Pubmed, Science Direct, among others; with a state of the art of a maximum of 5 years after its publication date. According to the search carried out in the databases, a total of 10 were selected in which different effects of environmental pollution on human health were found at the respiratory, cardiovascular, liver, neurological, gestational, and immune levels, among other systems. due to particulate matter found in the environment such as PM 2.5, PM10 and other gases related to pollution and health effects. The results of this narrative review confirm the short-term and long-term effects associated with environmental pollution of increased concentrations of polluting particles found in the environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Pollutants , Environmental Pollution , Particulate Matter , Lung Diseases , Morbidity , Stroke , Lung Neoplasms
4.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(1): 91-99, jan.mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400112

ABSTRACT

O aumento da prevalência de doenças respiratórias crônicas coincide com o da exposição aos poluentes atmosféricos pelo crescente processo de industrialização, aumento do tráfego veicular e migração da população para áreas urbanas. A poluição do ar é uma mistura complexa de poluentes e outros compostos químicos tóxicos e não tóxicos, e o efeito na saúde pode derivar dessa mistura e da interação com parâmetros meteorológicos. Apesar disso, busca-se estabelecer o papel de um poluente específico em separado e consideram-se os parâmetros meteorológicos como fatores de confusão. Há evidências de que a exposição aos poluentes contribui para maior morbidade e mortalidade por doenças respiratórias, especialmente nas crianças, mesmo em concentrações dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação. Identificar os efeitos dos poluentes no sistema respiratório, isoladamente e em associação, é um desafio, e os estudos têm limitações devido à variabilidade de resposta individual, a presença de doenças pré-existentes, aos fatores socioeconômicos, às exposições a poluentes intradomiciliares, ocupacionais e ao tabaco. A maioria das evidências sobre o efeito dos poluentes no sistema respiratório de crianças deriva de estudos que incluem desfechos de função pulmonar. Entretanto, esses estudos têm diferenças quanto ao desenho, ao método de avaliação de exposição aos poluentes, às medidas de função pulmonar, às covariáveis consideradas como capazes de alterar a resposta aos poluentes e aos tipos de modelos utilizados na análise dos dados. Considerar todas essas diferenças é fundamental na interpretação e comparação dos resultados dessas pesquisas com os dados já existentes na literatura.


The increase in the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases coincides with that of exposure to air pollutants due to the growing industrialization process, increased vehicular traffic and population migration to urban areas. Air pollution is a complex mixture of pollutants and other toxic and non-toxic chemical compounds and its effect on health can derive from this mixture and the interaction with meteorological parameters. Despite this, it seeks to establish the role of a specific pollutant separately and considers the meteorological parameters as confounding factors. There is evidence that exposure to pollutants contributes to greater morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases, especially in children, even at concentrations within the standards established by legislation. Identifying the effects of pollutants on the respiratory system, alone and in association, is a challenge and studies have limitations due to the variability of individual response, the presence of pre-existing diseases, socioeconomic factors, exposure to indoor, occupational and environmental pollutants as well tobacco. Most of the evidence on the effect of pollutants on the respiratory system of children comes from studies that include lung function outcomes. However, these studies differ in terms of design, method of assessing exposure to pollutants, measures of lung function, covariates considered capable of altering the response to pollutants, and types of models used in data analysis. Considering all these differences is fundamental in interpreting and comparing the results of these researches with data already existing in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Tobacco , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Environmental Pollutants , Respiratory System , Prevalence , Toxic Substances , Lung
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1398811

ABSTRACT

El material particulado (PM) es uno de los contaminantes más importantes presentes en el aire, representando un riesgo medioambiental para la salud. Las partículas con un diámetro de 10 micrones o menos (PM10), al ser inhalables, pueden penetrar y alojarse profundamente en los pulmones, contribuyendo al riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades cardiovasculares y respiratorias, así como cáncer de pulmón, enfermedades mentales, dermatitis, daño ocular e incluso al aumento en las tasas de mortalidad. Se estableció como objetivo determinar la calidad del aire interior asociada a la inmisión de material particulado (PM10) en la zona este 2, un sector industrial ubicado en los distritos san juan de Lurigancho y Lurigancho-Chosica, Perú. Para tal fin, se propone el uso de indicadores duales: ecológicos y sociales. De acuerdo a los indicadores ecológicos explorados, la concentración media de PM10 en el aire exterior (CME) superó el límite de 100 µg/m3 establecido por MINAM. Aunque la mediana de CME (93,7µg/m3; IC 95%=89,07-98,33) estuvo por debajo de este límite, el cuartil superior lo superó, entendido por elevaciones puntuales de hasta 131 µg/m3 (Figura 2), potencialmente dañinos para la salud humana. El coeficiente de correlación de Spearman de 0,921, obtenido del análisis bivariado entre los valores de concentración media diaria de PM10 exterior e interior, previo a la instalación de filtros en los sistemas de ventilación, es sugerente del efecto que puede tener la inmisión de aire ambiental con material particulado como vector de la contaminación del aire interior. al considerar los valores de la concentración media diaria, obtenidos en los 15 días posteriores a la instalación de los filtros (CMIFI), se observa que la concentración media de PM10 en el interior disminuyó en relación a la quincena anterior. El coeficiente de correlación de Spearman de 0,869 entre los indicadores CMIFI y CME, permite proponer que, en esta segunda fase, la calidad del aire interior fue influenciada en menor proporción por la contaminación de material particulado del aire ambiental, es decir que se presentó menos inmisión de PM10, gracias al proceso de filtrado, lo que disminuye el riesgo para la salud de los trabajadores(AU)


Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most important pollutants present in the air, representing an environmental risk to health. Particles with a diameter of 10 microns or less (PM10), being inhalable, can penetrate and lodge deep in the lungs, contributing to the risk of developing cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, as well as lung cancer, mental illness, dermatitis, eye damage and even increased mortality rates. The objective was to determine the indoor air quality associated with the immission of particulate matter (PM10) in East Zone 2, an industrial sector located in the districts of San Juan de Lurigancho and Lurigancho-Chosica, Peru. To this end, the use of dual indicators is proposed: ecological and social. According to the ecological indicators explored, the average concentration of PM10 in outdoor air (CME) exceeded the limit of 100 µg/m3 established by MINAM. Although the CME median (93.7µg/m3; 95% CI=89.07-98.33) was below this limit, the upper quartile exceeded it, understood as point elevations of up to 131µg/m3 (Figure 2 ), potentially harmful to human health. Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.921, obtained from the bivariate analysis between the daily average concentration values of outdoor and indoor PM10, prior to the installation of filters in the ventilation systems, is suggestive of the effect that the immission of ambient air can have with particulate matter as a vector of indoor air pollution. When considering the values of the average daily concentration, obtained in the 15 days after the installation of the filters (CMIFI), it is observed that the average concentration of PM10 in the interior decreased in relation to the previous fortnight. Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.869 between the CMIFI and CME indicators allows us to propose that, in this second phase, indoor air quality was influenced to a lesser extent by particulate matter contamination in the ambient air, that is, there was less PM10 immission, thanks to the filtering process, which reduces the risk to the health of workers(AU)


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Occupational Health , Air Pollution, Indoor , Environmental Hazards , Environmental Pollutants , Sodium , Sulfates , Cardiovascular Diseases , Filters , Chlorides , Ammonia , Nitrates
6.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Dirección General de Intervenciones Estratégicas en Salud Pública, Dirección de Prevención y Control de Enfermedades No Transmisibles, Raras y Huérfanas. Unidad Funcional de Atención a Personas Expuestas a Metales Pesados y Otras Sustancias Químicas; 1 ed; 2022. 18 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1370225

ABSTRACT

La publicación describe la información actualizada de las atenciones integrales de salud realizadas a las personas expuestas a metales pesados, metaloides y otras sustancias químicas, por curso de vida. El Perú es un país de gran diversidad geográfica, geológica, étnica y cultural, con una variedad de actividades productivas, extractoras y de servicios (formales e informales) que generan, aparte de sus beneficios, agentes contaminantes y desechos, pasivos ambientales y otros focos de contaminación que vierten al ambiente elementos tóxicos tales como el plomo, mercurio, cadmio, arsénico, aluminio, bario, cromo, cobre, hierro, que se dispersan en el ambiente y llegan a los cuerpos de agua superficiales y subterráneas directa o indirectamente; los cuales pueden alterar procesos bioquímicos y/o fisiológicos en el organismo, por lo que brindar de manera oportuna atención integral de salud a personas expuestas a metales pesados, metaloides y otras sustancias químicas y el registro en el HIS de toda acción y/o actividad realizada desde un tamizaje clínico, apoyo al diagnóstico con laboratorio por medio de un dosaje, entrega y evaluación de resultados, diagnóstico, tratamiento, y seguimiento, contribuirá a obtener información valiosa y exacta de la atención clínica


Subject(s)
Biochemical Phenomena , Hazardous Substances , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Comprehensive Health Care , Toxic Substances , Environmental Pollutants , Environmental Pollution , Clinical Coding
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935767

ABSTRACT

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) an exogenous agent that interferes with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or can mimic the occurrence of natural hormones that damage for the balance of homeostasis. Exposure to EDCs results in damage to human health that may persist in the long term. In recent years, accumulative evidence has demonstrated that EDCs also play a pivotal role in the onset and development of myocardial fibrosis, including heart failure, hypertension and vascular stiffening. Studies indicate that EDCs plays the negative effects of the cardiovascular system, however, EDCs-induced toxicity on heart remains unclear. This review summarized EDCs-induced myocardial fibrosis, and discuss the possible mechanisms of myocardial fibrosis induced by EDCs. This paper could provide further understandings for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of myocardial fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants , Fibrosis , Humans
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935245

ABSTRACT

The ex vivo biosensor assay is developed to assess the health effects and toxicological mechanism of environmental pollutants with internal environment homeostasis changes by integrating the in vivo exposure evaluation, in vitro outcomes analysis, and systematic environment component screening. This toxicology testing model combines the real-world exposure of people in the field and the study of molecular mechanism exploration in lab experiments to overcome the shortcomings of a single toxicology method. It provides a new technique and perspective for toxicity testing and risk assessment in mesoscale between macroscopic population study and microscopic mechanism exploration.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Humans , Risk Assessment , Toxicity Tests
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1209-1218, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405272

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is among the most common plasticizer additives that humans are in contact with daily. DEHP can be released from plastic and enter the human body, whereby it is metabolized and transformed into oxidative hydrophilic molecules. Clinical follow-ups in patients exposed to this phthalate and investigations in cultures of several cell types have provided information on its effects. For example, it is associated with inhibition of diploid human cell development and morphological changes in cultured germ cells. Although skeletal muscle represents around 50 % of the human body mass, knowledge about the effects of DEHP on this tissue is poor. Cultured skeletal muscle cells were exposed to DEHP (1 mM) for 13 days with the aim of exploring and evaluating some of the potential morphological effects. Three culture development parameters and nine cell characteristics were monitored during the bioassay. At 13 days, growth area, cell viability, and concentration of total proteins were lower in DEHP exposed than in control cells. Cell width and area, as well as the diameter of the nucleus and nucleolus, were greater in exposed cells than in control cells. These are interpreted as signs of cytotoxicity and suggest potential adverse effects on the development of skeletal muscle cells from DEHP exposure, as reported for other cell types.


RESUMEN: Diariamente los seres humanos tenemos contacto con aditivos plastificantes, el di-(2-etilhexil) ftalato (DEHP) se encuentra entre los más comunes. El DEHP puede liberarse del plástico e ingresar al cuerpo humano, donde es metabolizado y transformando en moléculas hidrofílicas oxidativas. Seguimientos en pacientes expuestos a este ftalato e investigaciones en cultivos de varios tipos celulares han aportado información sobre sus efectos. El DEHP es asociado con la inhibición del desarrollo de células humanas diploides y cambios morfológicos en células germinales en cultivo. Sin embargo, aún es poco lo que se sabe sobre los efectos en el músculo esquelético, a pesar de que este tejido representa alrededor del 50 % de la masa corporal del humano. Para explorar y evaluar algunos efectos morfológicos en células de músculo esquelético, cultivos primarios fueron expuestos a DEHP (1 mM) durante 13 días. Se dio seguimiento a tres parámetros de desarrollo del cultivo y nueve características celulares. Al término de 13 días de exposición, los valores del área de crecimiento, viabilidad celular y concentración de proteínas totales fueron inferiores con respecto a los cultivos control. Se observaron cambios morfométricos en las células expuestas. Particularmente, el ancho y área celular, así como los diámetros del núcleo y nucleolos, fueron mayores a los registros en las células control. Estos resultados se interpretan como signos de citotoxicidad y sugieren efectos potencialmente adversos en el desarrollo de las células del músculo esquelético ante una exposición al DEHP, como se ha registrado para otros tipos celulares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasticizers/toxicity , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Diethylhexyl Phthalate/toxicity , Biological Assay , Muscle, Skeletal/cytology , Environmental Pollutants , Primary Cell Culture
10.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1-9, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377219

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between ambient air pollutants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in relatively low-polluted areas in China. METHODS Atmospheric pollutants levels and meteorological data were obtained from January 2016 to December 2020. The medical database including daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD10: J44) was derived from the First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University. The generalized additive model was used to analyze the percentage change with 95% confidence interval in daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in atmospheric pollutants levels. RESULTS In total, occurred 4,980 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions (not including emergency department visits) during 2016-2020. The mean concentrations of daily PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO were 37.5 μg/m3, 60.1 μg/m3, 18.7 μg/m3, 23.5 μg/m3, 70.0 μg/m3, and 1.2 mg/m3 in Ganzhou. Each 10 µg/m3 increment of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 were significantly associated with 2.8% (95%CI: 1.0-4.7), 1.3% (95%CI: 0.3-2.4), 2.8% (95%CI: 0.4-5.4), and 1.5% (95%CI: 0.2-2.7) elevation in daily chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions. The estimates of delayed effects of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 were observed at lag6, lag6, lag8, lag1, respectively. The health effects of particulate pollutants (PM2.5 and PM10) may be independent of other pollutants. The adverse effects of air pollutants were more evident in the warm season (May-Oct) than in the cold season (Nov-Apr). CONCLUSION Our study demonstrated that elevated concentrations of atmospheric pollutant (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3), especially particulate pollutants, can be associated with increased daily count of hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , which may promote further understanding of the potential hazards of relatively low levels of air pollution on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other respiratory disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/chemically induced , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Pollutants , Brazil , China/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitals , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects
11.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(3): 267-273, jul.set.2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399346

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify possible risks factors of exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP)/outdoor air pollution (OAP) and their relationship with noncommunicable diseases in men and women treated by primary care physicians. Method: In total, 551 patients (382 women) attended three basic health units in Uruguaiana, Brazil, for various complaints, and completed a questionnaire about risk factors for exposure to IAP/OAP. Results: Women were significantly more exposed to wood-burning pollutants (79.6% vs. 52.7%, p < 0.0001) for having more housework-related activities; men had more outdoor activities and spent extended periods in traffic (47.3% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.0001). Arterial hypertension (AH)/ chronic respiratory disease (CRD) were more frequent among women. Patients with AH/CRD were more exposed to OAP because of their work (18.1% vs. 11%, p = 0.02) or for living near a source of air pollution (45.6% vs. 29.6%, p = 0.0002) or on a street with heavy traffic (41.7% vs. 33%, p = 0.04). Passive smoking, active smoking, using wood, charcoal, or firewood for cooking, heating, or drying, or burning charcoal indoors were not associated with a higher prevalence of AH/CRD. Conclusion: Exposure to OAP was associated with AH/CRD. Women were more exposed to IAP from burning firewood, and men were more exposed to fossil fuel burning. Knowledge of these behaviors should be directed to primary care physicians and all health professionals so that preventive and educational measures can be implemented.


Objetivo: Identificar possíveis fatores de risco da exposição à poluição intradomiciliar (PID) e extradomiciliar (PED) e sua relação com doenças não transmissíveis (DNT) em homens e mulheres tratados por médicos de atenção primária. Método: Quinhentos e cinquenta e um pacientes (382 mulheres) atendidos em três unidades básicas de saúde em Uruguaiana, Brasil, por queixas diversas, responderam a um questionário sobre os fatores de risco para exposição à PID/PED. Resultados: As mulheres foram significantemente mais expostas aos poluentes da queima de lenha (79,6% vs. 52,7%, p < 0,0001) por terem mais atividades domésticas; os homens praticaram mais atividades ao ar livre e passaram longos períodos no trânsito (47,3% vs. 18,8%, p < 0,0001). Hipertensão arterial (HA) / Doença respiratória crônica (DRC) foram mais frequentes entre as mulheres. Pacientes com HA/DRC foram mais expostos à PED devido ao trabalho (18,1% vs. 11%, p = 0,02), ou por viver perto de uma fonte de poluição do ar (45,6% vs. 29,6%, p = 0,0002), ou em uma rua com trânsito intenso (41,7% vs. 33%, p = 0,04). O fumo passivo, o fumo ativo, o uso de lenha ou carvão para cozinhar, aquecer ou secar ou queimar carvão em ambientes fechados não foram associados a maior prevalência de HA/DRC. Conclusão: A exposição à PED foi associada a HA/CRD. As mulheres foram mais expostas à PID pela queima de lenha, e os homens foram mais expostos à queima de combustíveis fósseis. O conhecimento destes comportamentos deve ser direcionado aos médicos da atenção básica e a todos os profissionais da saúde, para que medidas preventivas e educacionais possam ser implementadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Air Pollution, Indoor , Air Pollution , Environmental Pollutants , Environmental Pollution , Patients , Primary Health Care , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Tobacco , Wood , Smoking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Health Personnel , Physicians, Primary Care , Fossil Fuels , Hypertension
12.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 24(6): 294-303, 06/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343622

ABSTRACT

Kuhn in 1962 establishes the revolutionary character of science: "new scientific theories are not born by verification or falsification, but by substitution." The objective of this review was to analyze the ideas and paradigms through which studies on obesity and its relationship with environmental pollutants, diet and epigenetics have passed, in order to illustrate the current situation of this object of study. Articles were managed in December 2020 from the Web of Science. The strategy was Obesity AND (pollution OR contamination) in the Title field, AND (epigenetic* OR obesity OR food OR nutrition OR diet) in the Themes field. 654 articles were obtained: 577 original investigations and 77 reviews. The documents were exported in BibTeXformat to be quantitatively analyzed with the Bibliometrix program. For the qualitative analysis, review articles were selected in whose titles, keywords and/or abstract, carried the word paradigm*, identifying 19 who underwent content analysis. From 1980 to 2020, four periods were recognized, the first and third are classified as normal science; the second and the fourth, crisis of knowledge or revolution. The evolution of the studies has been differentiated. First, the central theme was environmental pollution and secondarily, obesity. For the second and third period, the epigenetics related to environmental pollution and that associated with obesity are investigated separately and at present, causal relationships between environmental pollutants and obesity, nutrients and epigenetics are hypothesized.


Kuhn en 1962 establece el carácter revolucionario de la ciencia: "las nuevas teorías científicas no nacen por verificación ni por falsación, sino por sustitución". El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar las ideas y los paradigmas por los que han transitado los estudios sobre obesidad, y su relación con contaminantes ambientales, alimentación y epigenética, con el propósito de ilustrar la situación actual de este objeto de estudio. Se gestionaron artículos en diciembre de 2020 de la Web of Science. La estrategia fue Obesity AND (pollution OR contamination) en el campo Title, AND (epigenetic* OR obesity OR alimentation OR nutrition OR diet) en el campo Themes. Se obtuvieron 654 artículos: 577 investigaciones originales y 77 revisiones. Los documentos se exportaron en formato BibTeX para ser analizados cuantitativamente con el programa Bibliometrix. Para el análisis cualitativo se seleccionaron artículos de revisión en cuyos títulos, palabras clave o resumen llevaran la palabra paradigm*, con lo que se identificaron 19, a los que se les realizó análisis de contenido. De 1980 a 2020 se reconocieron cuatro períodos; el primero y el tercero se clasifican como ciencia normal; el segundo y el cuarto, como crisis de conocimiento o revolución. La evolución de los estudios ha sido diferenciada. Primero, la temática central fue la contaminación ambiental y, de manera secundaria, la obesidad. Para el segundo y el tercer período se investigan por separado la epigenética relacionada con la contaminación ambiental y la asociada con la obesidad, y en la actualidad, se plantean hipótesis de relaciones causales entre contaminantes ambientales y obesidad, nutrientes y epigenética.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollution , Obesity , World Health Organization , Diet , Environmental Pollutants , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Nutritional Sciences , Epigenomics
13.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 37(1): 17-25, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388129

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En Chile, el funcionamiento de las Centrales Termoeléctricas de Carbón (CTEC) representan un problema de salud pública debido a las consecuencias sanitarias que tienen en la población. Se han notificado daños en el sistema respiratorio. Materiales y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio ecológico, para evaluar los egresos hospitalarios de las personas que viven en las ciudades donde operan las CTEC (Tocopilla y Huasco), se comparó con una ciudad de control sin CTEC (Caldera), las comunas evaluadas tienen condiciones sociodemográficas similares. Se calcularon las tasas de morbilidad y tasas de morbilidad estandarizadas (SMR). RESULTADOS: La tasa de morbilidad por enfermedades respiratorias en Tocopilla (2016) fue de 152,5 por 10.000 habitantes (habs) y para Huasco es de 135,2 por 10.000 habs. En la ciudad control, Caldera, la tasa es de 40,9 por 10.000 habs. Además, los habitantes de Tocopilla tienen 2,42 más riesgo de padecer bronquitis o bronquiolitis, 90% más riesgo de presentar enfermedades crónicas de las vías respiratorias bajas y 2,14 veces más riesgo de enfermar por asma. En Huasco, la población tiene 2,49 veces más riesgo de padecer enfermedades de las vías respiratorias inferiores con respecto a la región y 3,19 veces más riesgo de presentar asma. CONCLUSIONES: El asma y la bronquitis, son las patologías que mostraron mayores riesgos en las ciudades de Tocopilla y Huasco. Nuestros hallazgos son similares a otras investigaciones realizadas en comunidades expuestas a centrales termoeléctricas de carbón. Es necesario tomar medidas urgentes para proteger la salud de la población.


INTRODUCTION: In Chile, coal-fired power plants (CTEC) operate represents public health problems due to the health consequences for the population. Damage to the respiratory system is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ecological study to evaluate hospital discharges in people living in cities where CTEC operates (Tocopilla and Huasco) were compared to a control city without CTEC (Caldera), all of them with similar sociodemographic conditions. Morbidity rates and Standardized Morbidity Ratios (SMR) were calculated. RESULTS: The respiratory disease morbidity rate in Tocopilla (2016) was 152.5 per 10,000 inhabitants (habs) and for Huasco it is 135.2 per 10,000 inhabitants. In the control city, Caldera, the rate is 40.9 per 10,000 habs. In addition, the inhabitants of Tocopilla have a 2.42 times increased risk of bronchitis or bronchiolitis, 90% higher risk of chronic lower respiratory diseases and 2.14 times more risk of asthma sickness. In Huasco, the population is 2.49 times more at risk of lower respiratory diseases compared to the region and 3.19 times more at risk of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Asthma and bronchitis are the pathologies that showed the greatest risks in the cities of Tocopilla and Huasco. Our findings are similar to other research conducted in communities exposed to coal-fired power plants. Urgent action is needed to protect the health of the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Power Plants , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Carbon , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Chile/epidemiology , Risk , Age Distribution , Ecological Studies , Particulate Matter/adverse effects
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary objectives are to (1) examine the effects that low-level environmental chemical exposures have on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders, as well as perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco.@*METHODS@#The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the progress of the Hokkaido Study, summarize recent results, and suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the latest details from questionnaire surveys, face-to-face examinations, and a collection of biological specimens from children and measurements of their chemical exposures.@*RESULTS@#The latest findings indicate different risk factors of parental characteristics on birth outcomes and the mediating effect between socioeconomic status and children that are small for the gestational age. Maternal serum folate was not associated with birth defects. Prenatal chemical exposure and smoking were associated with birth size and growth, as well as cord blood biomarkers, such as adiponectin, leptin, thyroid, and reproductive hormones. We also found significant associations between the chemical levels and neuro development, asthma, and allergies.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Chemical exposure to children can occur both before and after birth. Longer follow-up for children is crucial in birth cohort studies to reinforce the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. In contrast, considering shifts in the exposure levels due to regulation is also essential, which may also change the association to health outcomes. This study found that individual susceptibility to adverse health effects depends on the genotype. Epigenome modification of DNA methylation was also discovered, indicating the necessity of examining molecular biology perspectives. International collaborations can add a new dimension to the current knowledge and provide novel discoveries in the future.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Child , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Health , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Female , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Follow-Up Studies , Growth/drug effects , Humans , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Prevalence , Smoking/adverse effects
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Little is known about the effects of environmental cobalt exposure on insulin resistance (IR) in the general adult population. We investigated the association between cobalt concentration and IR.@*METHODS@#A total of 1281 subjects aged more than 20 years with complete blood cobalt data were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2015-2016 cycle. Blood cobalt levels were analyzed for their association with IR among all populations and subgroups by sex. Regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of blood cobalt concentrations in association with fasting glucose, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were estimated using multivariate linear regression after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, education level, and household income. A multivariate generalized linear regression analysis was further carried out to explore the association between cobalt exposure and IR.@*RESULTS@#A negative association between blood cobalt concentration (coefficient = - 0.125, 95% CI - 0.234, - 0.015; P = 0.026) and HOMA-IR in female adults in the age- and sex-adjusted model was observed. However, no associations with HOMA-IR, fasting glucose, or insulin were found in the overall population. In the generalized linear models, participants with the lowest cobalt levels had a 2.74% (95% CI 0.04%, 5.50%) increase in HOMA-IR (P for trend = 0.031) compared with subjects with the highest cobalt levels. Restricted cubic spline regression suggested that a non-linear relationship may exist between blood cobalt and HOMA-IR.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results provide epidemiological evidence that low levels of blood cobalt are negatively associated with HOMA-IR in female adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cobalt/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Pollutants/blood , Female , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin/blood , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Sex Factors , United States , Young Adult
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The majority of studies linking exposure to metals with certain health outcomes focus on known toxic metals. Alternatively, this study assesses the extent to which exposure to a wider range of metals during gestation is associated with childhood morbidity.@*METHODS@#We analyzed the concentrations of 25 metals found in urine samples of 111 pregnant women of Arab-Bedouin origin collected prior to birth. In addition, we collected medical records on their offspring for six years following birth, including every interaction with HMOs, local hospitals, and pharmacies.@*RESULTS@#The main types of morbidities diagnosed and treated during this period were preterm births, malformations, asthma-like morbidity, cardiovascular and behavioral problems, and obesity. Multivariable analysis showed that offspring born before term were more likely to have been exposed to elevated maternal concentrations of zinc, thallium, aluminum, manganese, and uranium, all with adjusted relative risk above 1.40 for an increase by each quintile. Likewise, children with asthma had been exposed to higher levels of magnesium, strontium, and barium at gestation, while behavioral outcomes were associated with elevated biometals, i.e., sodium, magnesium, calcium, selenium, and zinc, as well as higher levels of lithium, cobalt, nickel, strontium, cadmium, vanadium, arsenic, and molybdenum. A heatmap of adjusted relative risk estimates indicates the considerable implications that exposure to metals may have for preterm birth and developmental outcomes.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The current study shows that perinatal exposure to metals is adversely associated with pediatric morbidity. Further such analyses on additional samples are warranted.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arabs/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Environmental Pollutants/urine , Female , Humans , Israel , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Metals/urine , Morbidity , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The industrial revolution has resulted in increased synthesis and the introduction of a variety of compounds into the environment and their potentially hazardous effects have been observed in the biota. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting effects of chronic exposure to the low concentrations of bisphenol S (BPS) in male rats.@*METHODS@#Weaning male Sprague-Dawley rats (22 days old) were either exposed to water containing 0.1% ethanol for control or different concentrations of BPS (0.5, 5, and 50 μg/L) in drinking water for 48 weeks in the chronic exposure study. After completion of the experimental period, animals were dissected and different parameters (hormone concentrations, histology of testis and epididymis, oxidative stress and level of antioxidant enzymes in the testis, daily sperm production (DSP), and sperm parameters) were determined.@*RESULTS@#Results of the present study showed a significant alteration in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and relative reproductive organ weights. Oxidative stress in the testis was significantly elevated while sperm motility, daily sperm production, and the number of sperm in epididymis were reduced. Plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations were reduced and estradiol levels were high in the 50 μg/L-exposed group. Histological observations involved a significant reduction in the epithelial height of the testis along with disrupted spermatogenesis, an empty lumen of the seminiferous tubules, and the caput region of the epididymis.@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggest that exposure to 5 and 50 μg/L of BPS for the chronic duration started from an early age can induce structural changes in testicular tissue architecture and endocrine alterations in the male reproductive system which may lead to infertility in males.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Infertility, Male/physiopathology , Male , Phenols/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sulfones/toxicity , Testis/physiopathology , Toxicity Tests, Chronic
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922202

ABSTRACT

The USA has a high burden of childhood asthma. Previous studies have observed associations between higher blood lead levels and greater hypersensitivity in children. The objective of the present study was to estimate the association between blood lead concentrations during early childhood and an asthma diagnosis between 48 and 72 months of age amongst a cohort with well-characterized blood lead concentrations. Blood lead concentrations were measured at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months of age in 222 children. The presence of an asthma diagnosis between 48 and 72 months was assessed using a questionnaire which asked parents or guardians whether they had been told by a physician, in the past 12 months, that their child had asthma. Crude and adjusted risk ratios (RR) of an asthma diagnosis were estimated for several parameterizations of blood lead exposure including lifetime average (6 to 48 months) and infancy average (6 to 24 months) concentrations. After adjustment for child sex, birthweight, daycare attendance, maternal race, education, parity, breastfeeding, income, and household smoking, age-specific or composite measures of blood lead were not associated with asthma diagnosis by 72 months of age in this cohort.


Subject(s)
Asthma/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Environmental Pollutants/blood , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lead/blood , Male , New York/epidemiology
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 499-507, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153369

ABSTRACT

Increased agricultural production has been increased use of pesticides worldwide, which poses a threat to both human and environmental health. Recent studies suggest that several non-target organisms, from bees to mammals, show a wide variety of toxic effects of pesticides exposure, including impaired behavior, development and reproduction. Among mammals, bats are usually a neglected taxon among ecotoxicological studies, although they play important ecological and economical roles in forest ecosystems and agriculture through to seed dispersal and insect population control. Considering their wide variety of food habits, bats are exposed to environmental pollutants through food or water contamination, or through direct skin contact in their roosting areas. In order to better understand the risk posed by pesticides to bats populations, we compiled studies that investigated the main toxicological effects of pesticides in bats, aiming at contributing to discussion about the environmental risks associated with the use of pesticides.


O aumento da produção agrícola tem levado ao aumento do uso de pesticidas em todo o mundo, o que representa uma ameaça para a saúde humana e ambiental. Estudos recentes sugerem que vários organismos não-alvo, de abelhas a mamíferos, apresentam uma grande variedade de efeitos tóxicos após a exposição aos pesticidas a pesticidas, incluindo alterações de comportamento, no desenvolvimento e na reprodução. Entre os mamíferos, os morcegos geralmente são negligenciados entre os estudos ecotoxicológicos, embora desempenhem importantes papéis ecológicos e econômicos nos ecossistemas florestais e na agricultura por meio do controle de dispersão de sementes e de populações de insetos. Considerando sua ampla variedade de hábitos alimentares, eles estão expostos a poluentes ambientais através da contaminação de alimentos ou água, ou através do contato direto com a pele em suas áreas de descanso. Para entender melhor o risco que os agrotóxicos representam para as populações de morcegos, compilamos estudos que investigaram os principais efeitos toxicológicos de agrotóxicos em morcegos, visando à discussão sobre os riscos ambientais associados ao uso de agrotóxicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pesticides/toxicity , Pyrethrins/analysis , Chiroptera/physiology , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Insecticides, Organochlorine/analysis , Bees , Ecosystem , Agriculture , Bioaccumulation
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