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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248946, 2024. tab, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364502

ABSTRACT

Environmental pollutants may often alter the genetic components of natural populations. In this study, heavy metals and genetic diversity in land snail (Achatina achatina) from three populations of south-western Nigeria were investigated, using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and DNA Sequencing technology respectively. Metal analysis revealed that the snails accumulated lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in high concentrations in two of the three states, while cadmium (Cd) was the least detected. Editing and alignment of the sequences of all snail accessions generated a range of 384bp to 419 bp. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) in all 18 accessions was low at only 16%. The query coverage (QC) ranged between 96% and 100%, with 14 (77.8%) of the 18 accessions showing 100% identity. Pairwise comparison of the accessions studied also showed a high genetic similarity. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) generated two main clusters. Cluster I was unique and contain one sample (AaOy06) while the other cluster are very closely related and can be further sub-divided into sub-clusters. The similarity index of between the clusters is 0.5357. The close similarity among the accessions may be due to the geographical proximity of the three states. The uniqueness of accession AaOy06 in comparison to other accessions might be due to the negative influence of heavy metal, particularly lead. The determination of evolutionary relationships among snail populations may be useful towards the breeding efforts of the species in Nigeria.


Os poluentes ambientais podem frequentemente alterar os componentes genéticos das populações naturais. Neste estudo, metais pesados e diversidade genética em caramujos terrestres (Achatina achatina) de três populações do sudoeste da Nigéria foram investigados, usando a tecnologia de espectrometria de absorção atômica e sequenciamento de DNA, respectivamente. A análise dos metais revelou que os caramujos acumularam chumbo (Pb) e níquel (Ni) em altas concentrações em dois dos três estados, enquanto o cádmio (Cd) foi o menos detectado. A edição e o alinhamento das sequências de todos os acessos de caramujos geraram uma faixa de 384pb a 419pb. A análise de variância molecular (AMOVA) em todos os 18 acessos foi baixa em apenas 16%. A cobertura da consulta (QC) variou entre 96% e 100%, com 14 (77,8%) dos 18 acessos apresentando 100% de identidade. A comparação pareada dos acessos estudados também mostrou alta similaridade genética. O método de grupo de pares não ponderados com média aritmética (UPGMA) gerou dois clusters principais. O cluster I era único e contém uma amostra (AaOy06), enquanto o outro cluster está intimamente relacionado e pode ser subdividido em subclusters. O índice de similaridade entre os clusters é 0,5357. A grande semelhança entre os acessos pode ser devido à proximidade geográfica dos três estados. A singularidade do acesso AaOy06 em comparação com outros acessos pode ser devido à influência negativa de metais pesados, particularmente chumbo. A determinação das relações evolutivas entre as populações de caramujos pode ser útil para os esforços de reprodução da espécie na Nigéria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails , Genetic Variation , Metals, Heavy , Environmental Pollutants
2.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(1): 42-59, mar. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1427726

ABSTRACT

La leche materna donada es un recurso de alto valor que puede ser utilizado para la alimentación de neonatos hospitalizados y a término, por tanto, garantizar su inocuidad es imperativo. Esta revisión de literatura reúne los principales peligros de naturaleza física, química y microbiológica identificados en leche materna, con la intención de proveer una referencia que los consolide de tal forma que la información pueda ser utilizada por bancos de leche humana, gobiernos y agencias regulatorias para establecer mecanismos para su prevención y control. Se realizó una revisión de literatura entre agosto del 2021 y octubre del 2022, utilizando buscadores y descriptores específicos para peligros de transmisión alimentaria en leche materna. Se incluyeron estudios publicados en español o en inglés. Se identificaron 31 agentes biológicos patógenos incluyendo bacterias, virus y parásitos. Como peligros químicos se reportaron medicamentos, drogas, cafeína, infusiones herbales, micotoxinas, alérgenos, especias, suplementos nutricionales, contaminantes ambientales y desinfectantes. Se alerta sobre la presencia potencial de plástico y vidrio de tamaño menor a 7 mm proveniente del ambiente de extracción y recipientes. La presencia de peligros microbiológicos y químicos en leche materna puede darse por transmisión vertical, temperaturas inadecuadas durante el almacenamiento y contaminación en el proceso. La presencia de peligros físicos se relaciona con la manipulación de los implementos en etapas posteriores a la extracción. Se requiere prestar atención a los hábitos de la madre para prevenir peligros químicos, así como más investigación relacionada con micotoxinas en leche materna(AU)


Donated breast milk is a highvalue resource which can be used to feed hospitalized neonates and full-term infants, therefore, ensuring its safety is imperative. This literature review presents the main hazards of physical, chemical and microbiological nature identified in human milk, with the intention of providing a reference that consolidates the reported hazards reported, so the information can be used by human milk banks, governments and regulatory agencies to establish prevention and control mechanisms. A literature review was carried out between August 2021 and October 2022, using search engines and specific descriptors for foodborne hazards in breast milk. Studies published in Spanish and English were considered. 31 pathogenic biological agents including bacteria, viruses and parasites were identified. Medications, drugs, caffeine, herbal infusions, mycotoxins, allergens, spices, nutritional supplements, contaminants of environmental origin and disinfectants were reported as chemical hazards. No physical hazards were identified, however the potential presence of plastic and glass smaller than 7 mm from the extraction environment or containers is alerted. Presence of microbiological and chemical hazards can be due to vertical transmission, inadequate temperature of storing, contamination during extraction, packaging, and infant feeding. Whereas presence of physical hazards is related to implements handling after extraction. Attention to hygiene and habits of the mother to prevent chemical hazards and further research related to mycotoxins in human milk is required(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Biological Factors , Hygiene , Environmental Pollutants , Milk, Human , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Milk Banks , Dietary Supplements , Food Safety
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248910, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339342

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study determines the associations among serum lipid profiles, risk of cardiovascular disease, and persistent organic pollutants. Using Gas chromatography technique, the intensity of toxic pollutant residues in serum samples of Hypertensive patients were measured. Based on statistical analysis, the effects of different covariates namely pesticides, age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and lipid profile duration was checked using the logistic regression model. Statistical computation was performed on SPSS 22.0. The P-values of F-Statistic for each lipid profile class are greater than 0.01 (1%), therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis for all cases. The estimated coefficients, their standard errors, Wald Statistic, and odds ratio of the binary logistic regression model for different lipid profile parameters indicate if pesticides increase then the logit value of different lipid profile parameters changes from -0.46 to -0.246 except LDL which increases by 0.135. The study reports a significantly increased threat of cardiovascular disease with increased concentrations of toxic pollutants.


Resumo Este estudo determina as associações entre o perfil lipídico sérico, o risco de doença cardiovascular e os poluentes orgânicos persistentes. Por meio da técnica de cromatografia gasosa, mediu-se a intensidade dos resíduos de poluentes tóxicos em amostras de soro de pacientes hipertensos. Com base na análise estatística, os efeitos de diferentes covariáveis ​​- ou seja, pesticidas, idade, pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica e duração do perfil lipídico - foram verificados usando o modelo de regressão logística. O cálculo estatístico foi realizado no SPSS 22.0. Os valores P da estatística F para cada classe de perfil lipídico são maiores que 0,01 (1%), portanto não podemos rejeitar a hipótese nula para todos os casos. Os coeficientes estimados, seus erros padrão, estatística de Wald e odds ratio do modelo de regressão logística binária para diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico indicam se os pesticidas aumentam, então o valor logit de diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico muda de -0,46 para -0,246, exceto LDL, que aumenta em 0,135. O estudo relata um aumento significativo da ameaça de doença cardiovascular com aumento das concentrações de poluentes tóxicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticides , Environmental Pollutants , Persistent Organic Pollutants , Lipids , Lipoproteins
4.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 488-494, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the association between short-term exposure to indoor total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) among young female adults.@*METHODS@#This panel study recruited 50 young females from one university in Beijing, China from December 2021 to April 2022. All the participants underwent two sequential visits. During each visit, real time indoor TVOC concentration was monitored using an indoor air quality detector. The real time levels of indoor temperature, relative humidity, noise, carbon dioxide and fine particulate matter were monitored using a temperature and humidity meter, a noise meter, a carbon dioxide meter and a particulate counter, respectively. HRV parameters were measured using a 12-lead Holter. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the association between the TVOC and HRV parameters and establish the exposure-response relationships, and two-pollutant models were applied to examine the robustness of the results.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of the 50 female subjects was (22.5±2.3) years, and the mean body mass index was (20.4±1.9) kg/m2. During this study, the median (interquartile range) of indoor TVOC concentrations was 0.069 (0.046) mg/m3, the median (interquartile range) of indoor temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, noise level and fine particulate matter concentration were 24.3 (2.7) ℃, 38.5% (15.0%), 0.1% (0.1%), 52.7 (5.8) dB(A) and 10.3 (21.5) μg/m3, respectively. Short-term exposure to indoor TVOC was associated with significant changes in time-domain and frequency-domain HRV parameters, and the exposure metric for most HRV parameters with the most significant changes was 1 h-moving average. Along with a 0.01 mg/m3 increment in 1 h-moving average concentration of indoor TVOC, this study observed decreases of 1.89% (95%CI: -2.28%, -1.50%) in standard deviation of all normal to normal intervals (SDNN), 1.92% (95%CI: -2.32%, -1.51%) in standard deviation of average normal to normal intervals (SDANN), 0.64% (95%CI: -1.13%, -0.14%) in percentage of adjacent NN intervals differing by more than 50 ms (pNN50), 3.52% (95%CI: -4.30%, -2.74%) in total power (TP), 5.01% (95%CI: -6.21%, -3.79%) in very low frequency (VLF) power, and 4.36% (95%CI: -5.16%, -3.55%) in low frequency (LF) power. The exposure-response curves showed that indoor TVOC was negatively correlated with SDNN, SDANN, TP, and VLF when the concentration exceeded 0.1 mg/m3. The two-pollutant models indicated that the results were generally robust after controlling indoor noise and fine particulate matter.@*CONCLUSION@#Short-term exposure to indoor TVOC was associated with significant negative changes in nocturnal HRV of young women. This study provides an important scientific basis for relevant prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Air Pollutants/analysis , Heart Rate/physiology , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Carbon Dioxide , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants
5.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 705-712, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985551

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and healthy life expectancy loss, ranking first in causing the global burden of disease. In addition to the traditional CVD risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes, environmental chemical pollutants may also play a role in the development of CVD. This paper summarizes the evidence regarding the relation of exposures to metal or metalloid and persistent organic pollutants with risk for CVD and introduces the research progress in the relation between the exposures to two environmental chemical pollutants and CVD risk. The study aims to provide scientific evidence for the effective prevention of CVD through the management of chemical pollutants in environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases , Persistent Organic Pollutants , Metalloids , Hypertension , Environmental Pollutants
6.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 835-838, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985483

ABSTRACT

The usage of vinyl chloride and trichloroethylene in China has been increasing year by year, and they have been detected in both drinking water and environmental water, making them important environmental pollutants. Based on the latest research results on the health effects of vinyl chloride and trichloroethylene, the newly issued, "Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB5749-2022)" in China has adjusted the standard limit of vinyl chloride from 0.005 mg/L to 0.001 mg/L and the standard limit of trichloroethylene from 0.07 mg/L to 0.02 mg/L. This article analyzed and discussed the relevant technical contents for determining the above standard limits, including the levels and exposure conditions of vinyl chloride and trichloroethylene in the water environment, health effects, derivation of safety reference values, and determination of hygiene standard limits. Suggestions were also made for the implementation of this standard.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vinyl Chloride/analysis , Trichloroethylene/analysis , Drinking Water , Environmental Pollutants , China , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
7.
Philippine Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; : 3-10, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984450

ABSTRACT

Context@#Exposure to environmental pollutants (EP) and Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is associated with several general negative health effects which compromise women's reproductive health, maternal, and neonatal outcomes. Unfortunately, many nonpregnant and pregnant women are unaware of their active exposure to these potentially slow-acting toxic substances, EPs, and EDCs. At any stage of life, and in the long-term minute exposures, there is no established safe level of exposure to these substances. Due to the potentially harmful effects on women in general, and to the pregnant and her unborn child in particular, it is important to establish the prevalence of their exposure. @*Aims@#The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude (prevalence) of exposure among nonpregnant and pregnant women aged 18–49 years to common EPs/EDCs such as bisphenol A, pesticides, phthalates, and perfluorinated compounds among others.@*Settings and Design @#This study was conducted at the Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines Manila.@*Subjects and Methods @#The study participants were nonpregnant and pregnant women, with low-risk singleton pregnancy, and had a prenatal checkup and eventual delivery at the Philippine General Hospital. After consent, women were asked to answer a survey focused on their sociodemographics and frequency of exposure to EP- and EDC-containing items.@*Satatistical Analysis Used@#Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. Null hypotheses were rejected at 0.05 α-level of significance. The computer software STATA 13.1 was used for data analysis.@*Results@#One hundred and fifty-nine survey responses by women were analyzed. Possible EDC-containing household items (carpets, linoleum, upholstered, and stain-resistant furniture) are more prevalent in the homes of pregnant women compared to nonpregnant women. Pregnant women are also exposed to wallpapers compared to nonpregnant individuals. Nonpregnant women were 1.5 times more exposed to lotions. Unexposure to hand sanitizers is 1.3 times higher among pregnant individuals.@*Conclusions@#There are differences in the prevalence of exposure to household EDC-containing items between pregnant and nonpregnant women, with pregnant women having a higher prevalence of exposure.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Environmental Pollutants
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 740-766, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007788

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive impairment. The main hypotheses about the pathogenesis of AD include the hypothesis of β-amyloid protein, the hypothesis of abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein, and the hypothesis of neuroinflammation. In recent years, environmental pollutants have been considered as an important factor in causing neurological dysfunction. Common environmental pollutants include heavy metals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, microplastics, and air pollutants, all of which have been proven to have neurotoxicity. In this review, we not only discussed epidemiological and animal experimental studies that link environmental pollution with AD, but also summarized the mechanisms of action of relevant toxins, providing insights for studying the interrelationships between environmental pollutants and AD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alzheimer Disease/chemically induced , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Plastics , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism
9.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 362-370, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969899

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the correlation between the prenatal exposure of per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and the neonatal outcome. Methods: A total of 506 maternal infant cohort samples were collected in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province from 2020 to 2021. The exposure levels of seven PFASs in maternal serum before delivery were detected by solid-phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression model was used to analyze the influence of prenatal exposure of PFASs on birth weight, birth length and Apgar score. Results: The maternal age, prenatal body mass index and gestation age were (31.3±4.3) years old, (26.7±3.2) kg/m2 and (265.0±28.3) days, respectively. The birth weight, birth length and scores of Apgar-1 and Apgar-5 were (3.1±0.8) kg, (49.3±2.9) cm, (9.88±0.47) points and (9.99±0.13) points, respectively. PFASs were widely distributed in maternal serum, with the highest concentration of (18.453±19.557) ng/ml, (6.756±9.379) ng/ml and (5.057±8.555) ng/ml for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and 6∶2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (Cl-PFESA), respectively. Maternal age, parity and delivery mode were associated with the exposure level of PFASs (P<0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that PFOS had negative effects on birth weight (β=-0.958), birth length (β=-0.073) and Apgar-5 score (β=-0.288) for neonates in the low birth weight (LBW) group. 6∶2 Cl-PFESA and 8∶2 Cl-PFESA inhibited the birth weight (β=-0.926; β=-0.552) and length (β=-0.074; β=-0.045) of newborn in the LBW group. In addition, 4∶2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FTS) was associated with increased birth weight (β=0.111) and decreased Apgar-5 score (β=-0.030) in the normal weight group. Conclusion: Prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with birth weight, birth length and Apgar-5 score. It is necessary to continue to pay attention to the impact of PFASs on fetal growth and development through maternal-fetal transmission.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Adult , Birth Weight , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Alkanesulfonic Acids/analysis , Alkanesulfonates/analysis , Fluorocarbons/analysis , Ethers/analysis , Ethyl Ethers/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Maternal Exposure
10.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 166-171, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969862

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM)is one of the common complications during pregnancy. It is associated with many adverse pregnancy outcomes, threatening maternal and child health seriously. The exact pathogenesis of GDM remains unclear. Long term exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is considered to be one of the risk factors for GDM. More and more studies are concerned about the relationship between them. Based on the literature published at home and abroad, this article summarizes the correlation and possibly related mechanism of POPs and GDM, and explores the correlation between pops and GDM, so as to provide a new idea for the prevention of gestational diabetes.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Child , Humans , Diabetes, Gestational , Persistent Organic Pollutants , Pregnancy Outcome , Environmental Pollutants , Risk Factors
11.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 47: e29, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424258

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las crisis humanitarias pueden presentarse en sitios afectados por amenazas químicas, físicas, biológicas y sociales, sobre todo cuando estas amenazas interaccionan entre sí y causan una sindemia. A fin de evitar las crisis, en estos sitios se hace necesario introducir medidas de mitigación que hemos enmarcado bajo el término de "escenarios humanitarios". Debido a su naturaleza, la implementación de dichas acciones de intervención requiere de la conformación de grupos operativos multidisciplinarios y de una estrategia de trabajo que permita integrarlos con la comunidad afectada. En el caso de la población infantil, el grupo operativo recibió el nombre de unidad de riesgos infantiles en sitios contaminados (RISC), es decir, en localidades impactadas por amenazas químicas, físicas o biológicas. La estrategia consta de las siguientes seis fases: i) planificación para el estudio y la visita al sitio; ii) participación de la comunidad para identificar amenazas, vulnerabilidades y rutas de exposición (el camino que deben seguir los contaminantes desde su fuente hasta la población receptora), así como para el trabajo conjunto en las siguientes fases; iii) priorización de riesgos identificados mediante el monitoreo ambiental y uso de biomarcadores de exposición y efectos; iv) prevención de riesgos a través de la creación de diversas capacidades y alternativas para la prevención ante amenazas sindémicas (CAPAS); v) promoción para implementar las CAPAS mediante la comunicación de riesgos y la capacitación local; y vi) protección con medidas que incluyen propuestas de telesalud, progreso social e innovación para mejorar la cobertura sanitaria. La estrategia ha sido aplicada en diferentes contextos, en algunos de los cuales, ha sido enriquecida con el análisis del respeto de los derechos humanos.


ABSTRACT Humanitarian crises can occur in places affected by chemical, physical, biological, and social threats, especially when these threats interact with each other and cause a syndemic. In order to avoid crises in these places, it is necessary to introduce mitigation measures that we have framed as "humanitarian scenarios". Due to their nature, implementation of these interventions requires the creation of multidisciplinary operational groups with a work strategy that integrates them into the affected community. In the case of the child population, the operational group was called the 'childhood risks in contaminated places' (CRCP) unit; contaminated places meaning localities impacted by chemical, physical, or biological threats. The strategy has six phases: (i) planning the survey and site visit; (ii) community involvement in identifying threats, vulnerabilities, and routes of exposure (the path of pollutants from their source to the receiving population), and in preparing joint work for the subsequent phases; iii) prioritization of risks identified through environmental monitoring and use of biomarkers of exposure and effects; iv) risk prevention through the creation of various 'capacities and alternatives for the prevention of syndemic threats'; (v) advocacy to implement these capacities and alternatives through risk communication and local training; and (vi) protection through measures that include telehealth, social progress, and innovation to improve health coverage. The strategy has been implemented in different contexts, and in some of them it has been enriched by analysis of respect for human rights.


RESUMO Crises humanitárias podem ocorrer em locais afetados por ameaças químicas, físicas, biológicas e sociais, principalmente quando essas ameaças interagem entre si e causam uma sindemia. Para evitar as crises, é necessário introduzir nesses locais medidas de mitigação que enquadramos no termo "cenários humanitários". Por sua natureza, a implementação de tais ações de intervenção exige a formação de grupos operacionais multidisciplinares e de uma estratégia de trabalho que permita integrá-los à comunidade afetada. No caso da população infantil, o grupo operacional recebeu o nome de Unidade de Riscos Infantis em Áreas Contaminadas (na sigla em espanhol, RISC), ou seja, em locais impactados por ameaças químicas, físicas ou biológicas. A estratégia consiste nas seis fases a seguir: i) planejamento para o estudo e visita ao local; ii) participação da comunidade para identificar ameaças, vulnerabilidades e rotas de exposição (caminho que os contaminantes devem seguir desde a sua fonte até a população receptora), bem como para o trabalho conjunto nas fases seguintes; iii) priorização dos riscos identificados por meio do monitoramento ambiental e uso de biomarcadores de exposição e efeitos; iv) prevenção de riscos por meio da criação de diversas capacidades e alternativas para a prevenção diante de ameaças sindêmicas (CAPAS); v) promoção da implantação das CAPAS por meio da comunicação de riscos e capacitação local; e vi) proteção com medidas que incluem propostas de telessaúde, progresso social e inovação para melhorar a cobertura de saúde. A estratégia foi aplicada em diferentes contextos, em alguns dos quais foi enriquecida com uma análise do respeito pelos direitos humanos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Relief Work , Child Welfare , Disaster Vulnerability , Environmental Pollutants , Syndemic , Right to Health
12.
Rev. colomb. neumol ; 34(2): 47-58, July-Dec. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1412777

ABSTRACT

Mediante la disminución de los niveles de contaminación del aire los países pueden reducir la carga en morbilidad derivada de accidentes cerebrovasculares, cáncer de pulmón y neumopatías crónicas y agudas. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar los efectos a corto y largo plazo que tiene la contaminación ambiental sobre la salud de la población por medio de una revisión narrativa de tipo cualitativo y descriptivo. El método de búsqueda e identificación de los estudios se realizó por medio de las siguientes bases de datos electrónicas: Medline, Pubmed, Science Direct, entre otras; con un estado del arte de máximo 5 años posteriores a su fecha de publicación. De acuerdo con la búsqueda realizada en las bases de datos, se seleccionaron un total de 10 artículos en los cuales se encontraron diferentes efectos de la contaminación ambiental en la salud humana a nivel respiratorio, cardiovascular, hepático, neurológico, gestacional, inmunológico, entre otros sistemas a causa del material particulado encontrado en el ambiente como los son del PM 2.5, PM10 Y otros gases relacionados con la contaminación y los efectos sobre la salud. Los resultados de esta revisión narrativa confirman los efectos asociados a la contaminación ambiental a corto plazo y largo plazo del aumento de las concentraciones de las partículas contaminantes encontradas en el ambiente. Palabras claves: contaminación ambiental, partículas contaminantes, efectos corto plazo, efectos largo plazo, material particulado.


By lowering air pollution levels, countries can reduce the burden of disease from strokes, lung cancer, and chronic and acute lung diseases. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the short and long-term effects of environmental pollution on the health of the population through a qualitative and descriptive narrative review. The search and identification method of the studies was carried out through the following electronic databases: Medline, Pubmed, Science Direct, among others; with a state of the art of a maximum of 5 years after its publication date. According to the search carried out in the databases, a total of 10 were selected in which different effects of environmental pollution on human health were found at the respiratory, cardiovascular, liver, neurological, gestational, and immune levels, among other systems. due to particulate matter found in the environment such as PM 2.5, PM10 and other gases related to pollution and health effects. The results of this narrative review confirm the short-term and long-term effects associated with environmental pollution of increased concentrations of polluting particles found in the environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Pollutants , Environmental Pollution , Particulate Matter , Lung Diseases , Morbidity , Stroke , Lung Neoplasms
13.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(1): 91-99, jan.mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400112

ABSTRACT

O aumento da prevalência de doenças respiratórias crônicas coincide com o da exposição aos poluentes atmosféricos pelo crescente processo de industrialização, aumento do tráfego veicular e migração da população para áreas urbanas. A poluição do ar é uma mistura complexa de poluentes e outros compostos químicos tóxicos e não tóxicos, e o efeito na saúde pode derivar dessa mistura e da interação com parâmetros meteorológicos. Apesar disso, busca-se estabelecer o papel de um poluente específico em separado e consideram-se os parâmetros meteorológicos como fatores de confusão. Há evidências de que a exposição aos poluentes contribui para maior morbidade e mortalidade por doenças respiratórias, especialmente nas crianças, mesmo em concentrações dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação. Identificar os efeitos dos poluentes no sistema respiratório, isoladamente e em associação, é um desafio, e os estudos têm limitações devido à variabilidade de resposta individual, a presença de doenças pré-existentes, aos fatores socioeconômicos, às exposições a poluentes intradomiciliares, ocupacionais e ao tabaco. A maioria das evidências sobre o efeito dos poluentes no sistema respiratório de crianças deriva de estudos que incluem desfechos de função pulmonar. Entretanto, esses estudos têm diferenças quanto ao desenho, ao método de avaliação de exposição aos poluentes, às medidas de função pulmonar, às covariáveis consideradas como capazes de alterar a resposta aos poluentes e aos tipos de modelos utilizados na análise dos dados. Considerar todas essas diferenças é fundamental na interpretação e comparação dos resultados dessas pesquisas com os dados já existentes na literatura.


The increase in the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases coincides with that of exposure to air pollutants due to the growing industrialization process, increased vehicular traffic and population migration to urban areas. Air pollution is a complex mixture of pollutants and other toxic and non-toxic chemical compounds and its effect on health can derive from this mixture and the interaction with meteorological parameters. Despite this, it seeks to establish the role of a specific pollutant separately and considers the meteorological parameters as confounding factors. There is evidence that exposure to pollutants contributes to greater morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases, especially in children, even at concentrations within the standards established by legislation. Identifying the effects of pollutants on the respiratory system, alone and in association, is a challenge and studies have limitations due to the variability of individual response, the presence of pre-existing diseases, socioeconomic factors, exposure to indoor, occupational and environmental pollutants as well tobacco. Most of the evidence on the effect of pollutants on the respiratory system of children comes from studies that include lung function outcomes. However, these studies differ in terms of design, method of assessing exposure to pollutants, measures of lung function, covariates considered capable of altering the response to pollutants, and types of models used in data analysis. Considering all these differences is fundamental in interpreting and comparing the results of these researches with data already existing in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Nicotiana , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Environmental Pollutants , Respiratory System , Prevalence , Toxic Substances , Lung
14.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Dirección General de Intervenciones Estratégicas en Salud Pública, Dirección de Prevención y Control de Enfermedades No Transmisibles, Raras y Huérfanas. Unidad Funcional de Atención a Personas Expuestas a Metales Pesados y Otras Sustancias Químicas; 1 ed; 2022. 18 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1370225

ABSTRACT

La publicación describe la información actualizada de las atenciones integrales de salud realizadas a las personas expuestas a metales pesados, metaloides y otras sustancias químicas, por curso de vida. El Perú es un país de gran diversidad geográfica, geológica, étnica y cultural, con una variedad de actividades productivas, extractoras y de servicios (formales e informales) que generan, aparte de sus beneficios, agentes contaminantes y desechos, pasivos ambientales y otros focos de contaminación que vierten al ambiente elementos tóxicos tales como el plomo, mercurio, cadmio, arsénico, aluminio, bario, cromo, cobre, hierro, que se dispersan en el ambiente y llegan a los cuerpos de agua superficiales y subterráneas directa o indirectamente; los cuales pueden alterar procesos bioquímicos y/o fisiológicos en el organismo, por lo que brindar de manera oportuna atención integral de salud a personas expuestas a metales pesados, metaloides y otras sustancias químicas y el registro en el HIS de toda acción y/o actividad realizada desde un tamizaje clínico, apoyo al diagnóstico con laboratorio por medio de un dosaje, entrega y evaluación de resultados, diagnóstico, tratamiento, y seguimiento, contribuirá a obtener información valiosa y exacta de la atención clínica


Subject(s)
Biochemical Phenomena , Hazardous Substances , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Comprehensive Health Care , Toxic Substances , Environmental Pollutants , Environmental Pollution , Clinical Coding
15.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 156-160, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935767

ABSTRACT

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) an exogenous agent that interferes with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or can mimic the occurrence of natural hormones that damage for the balance of homeostasis. Exposure to EDCs results in damage to human health that may persist in the long term. In recent years, accumulative evidence has demonstrated that EDCs also play a pivotal role in the onset and development of myocardial fibrosis, including heart failure, hypertension and vascular stiffening. Studies indicate that EDCs plays the negative effects of the cardiovascular system, however, EDCs-induced toxicity on heart remains unclear. This review summarized EDCs-induced myocardial fibrosis, and discuss the possible mechanisms of myocardial fibrosis induced by EDCs. This paper could provide further understandings for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of myocardial fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants , Fibrosis
16.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 25-28, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935245

ABSTRACT

The ex vivo biosensor assay is developed to assess the health effects and toxicological mechanism of environmental pollutants with internal environment homeostasis changes by integrating the in vivo exposure evaluation, in vitro outcomes analysis, and systematic environment component screening. This toxicology testing model combines the real-world exposure of people in the field and the study of molecular mechanism exploration in lab experiments to overcome the shortcomings of a single toxicology method. It provides a new technique and perspective for toxicity testing and risk assessment in mesoscale between macroscopic population study and microscopic mechanism exploration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biosensing Techniques , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Risk Assessment , Toxicity Tests
17.
Ribeirão Preto; s.n; 2022. 113 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1532314

ABSTRACT

Os disruptores endócrinos apresentam riscos à saúde humana e ambiental mesmo em concentrações a níveis de traços. Os hormônios femininos naturais, estradiol, estriol e estrona, e o sintético etinilestradiol, fazem parte desse grupo de agentes. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura sobre estudos produzidos com o intuito de detectar e quantificar a presença dessas substâncias em matrizes aquáticas. Para tanto, foi realizada uma busca sistemática de evidências científicas em três bases de dados: Scopus, Web of Science e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS). A busca foi realizada no período de janeiro de 2015 a janeiro de 2021, utilizando a string "(estrone OR estriol OR estradiol OR ethinylestradiol) AND (wastewater OR sewage OR river OR surface water OR drinking water OR potable water) AND (LC-MS/MS OR GC-MS/MS OR UPLC OR HPLC)". A busca resultou em 380 estudos, sendo: 61 da Scopus, 124 da Web of Science e 195 da BVS. Após a aplicação dos testes de relevância, 91 estudos foram definitivamente selecionados para extração de dados. A maioria dos artigos se dedicou à busca de estrogênios em águas superficiais, provavelmente pela importância dessa matriz. Os países asiáticos, como China e Índia, foram os que apresentaram as maiores concentrações de estrogênios naturais (E1, E2 e E3), em água potável. Altas concentrações de E1, E2 e EE2 foram verificadas em águas residuais do Brasil, Espanha e Irã; além de E1, E2 e E3 em águas superficiais da China e da África do Sul, mais precisamente da Cidade do Cabo. Nos últimos anos, os países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento foram os que mais investiram em pesquisas voltadas ao monitoramento dos efeitos desses contaminantes, principalmente no corpo humano. Porém, apenas a União Europeia e os Estados Unidos possuem regulamentação e estudos aprofundados com o propósito de se determinar os limites máximos aceitáveis para esses contaminantes na água. Disso, nota-se a necessidade de adoção de tecnologias de tratamento de efluentes capazes de eliminar os disruptores endócrinos e que sejam economicamente acessíveis para países em desenvolvimento e subdesenvolvidos. O que se propõe é o aprimoramento de uma medida preventiva, cuja implementação, além de promover melhoria na qualidade de vida da população - que é o que mais importa - e do meio ambiente, permita a economia de recursos públicos por minimizar a incidência de diversas doenças como cânceres, obesidade, entre outras


Endocrine disruptors pose risks to human and environmental health even at low concentrations. The natural female hormones, estradiol, estriol and estrone, and the synthetic ethinylestradiol, are part of this group of agents. In this context, the present work aimed to carry out a systematic review of the literature on studies produced with the aim of detecting and quantifying the presence of these substances in aquatic matrices. Therefore, a systematic search for scientific evidence was carried out in three databases: Scopus, Web of Science and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS). The search was carried out from January 2015 to January 2021, using the string "(estrone OR estriol OR estradiol OR ethinylestradiol) AND (wastewater OR sewage OR river OR surface water OR drinking water OR potable water) AND (LC-MS/MS OR GC-MS/MS OR UPLC OR HPLC)". The search resulted in 380 studies, being: 61 from Scopus, 124 from Web of Science and 195 from BVS. After applying the relevance tests, 91 studies were definitively selected for data extraction. Most articles were dedicated to the search for estrogens in surface water, probably due to the importance of this matrix. Asian countries, such as China and India, were the ones with the highest concentrations of natural estrogens (E1, E2 and E3) in drinking water. High concentrations of E1, E2 and EE2 were found in wastewater from Brazil, Spain and Iran; in addition to E1, E2 and E3 in surface waters in China and South Africa, more precisely in Cape Town. In recent years, developed and developing countries have invested the most in research aimed at monitoring the effects of these contaminants, mainly on the human body. However, only the European Union and the United States have regulations and in-depth studies aimed at determining the maximum acceptable limits for these contaminants in water. From this, there is a need to adopt effluent treatment technologies capable of eliminating endocrine disruptors and that are affordable for developing and underdeveloped countries. What is proposed is the improvement of a preventive measure, whose implementation, in addition to promoting an improvement in the quality of life of the population - which is what matters most - and of the environment, allows the economy of public resources by minimizing the incidence of various diseases such as cancer, obesity, among others


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Quality , Environmental Pollutants , Endocrine Disruptors , Hormones
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1209-1218, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405272

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is among the most common plasticizer additives that humans are in contact with daily. DEHP can be released from plastic and enter the human body, whereby it is metabolized and transformed into oxidative hydrophilic molecules. Clinical follow-ups in patients exposed to this phthalate and investigations in cultures of several cell types have provided information on its effects. For example, it is associated with inhibition of diploid human cell development and morphological changes in cultured germ cells. Although skeletal muscle represents around 50 % of the human body mass, knowledge about the effects of DEHP on this tissue is poor. Cultured skeletal muscle cells were exposed to DEHP (1 mM) for 13 days with the aim of exploring and evaluating some of the potential morphological effects. Three culture development parameters and nine cell characteristics were monitored during the bioassay. At 13 days, growth area, cell viability, and concentration of total proteins were lower in DEHP exposed than in control cells. Cell width and area, as well as the diameter of the nucleus and nucleolus, were greater in exposed cells than in control cells. These are interpreted as signs of cytotoxicity and suggest potential adverse effects on the development of skeletal muscle cells from DEHP exposure, as reported for other cell types.


RESUMEN: Diariamente los seres humanos tenemos contacto con aditivos plastificantes, el di-(2-etilhexil) ftalato (DEHP) se encuentra entre los más comunes. El DEHP puede liberarse del plástico e ingresar al cuerpo humano, donde es metabolizado y transformando en moléculas hidrofílicas oxidativas. Seguimientos en pacientes expuestos a este ftalato e investigaciones en cultivos de varios tipos celulares han aportado información sobre sus efectos. El DEHP es asociado con la inhibición del desarrollo de células humanas diploides y cambios morfológicos en células germinales en cultivo. Sin embargo, aún es poco lo que se sabe sobre los efectos en el músculo esquelético, a pesar de que este tejido representa alrededor del 50 % de la masa corporal del humano. Para explorar y evaluar algunos efectos morfológicos en células de músculo esquelético, cultivos primarios fueron expuestos a DEHP (1 mM) durante 13 días. Se dio seguimiento a tres parámetros de desarrollo del cultivo y nueve características celulares. Al término de 13 días de exposición, los valores del área de crecimiento, viabilidad celular y concentración de proteínas totales fueron inferiores con respecto a los cultivos control. Se observaron cambios morfométricos en las células expuestas. Particularmente, el ancho y área celular, así como los diámetros del núcleo y nucleolos, fueron mayores a los registros en las células control. Estos resultados se interpretan como signos de citotoxicidad y sugieren efectos potencialmente adversos en el desarrollo de las células del músculo esquelético ante una exposición al DEHP, como se ha registrado para otros tipos celulares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasticizers/toxicity , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Diethylhexyl Phthalate/toxicity , Biological Assay , Muscle, Skeletal/cytology , Environmental Pollutants , Primary Cell Culture
19.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1-9, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377219

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between ambient air pollutants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in relatively low-polluted areas in China. METHODS Atmospheric pollutants levels and meteorological data were obtained from January 2016 to December 2020. The medical database including daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD10: J44) was derived from the First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University. The generalized additive model was used to analyze the percentage change with 95% confidence interval in daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in atmospheric pollutants levels. RESULTS In total, occurred 4,980 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions (not including emergency department visits) during 2016-2020. The mean concentrations of daily PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO were 37.5 μg/m3, 60.1 μg/m3, 18.7 μg/m3, 23.5 μg/m3, 70.0 μg/m3, and 1.2 mg/m3 in Ganzhou. Each 10 µg/m3 increment of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 were significantly associated with 2.8% (95%CI: 1.0-4.7), 1.3% (95%CI: 0.3-2.4), 2.8% (95%CI: 0.4-5.4), and 1.5% (95%CI: 0.2-2.7) elevation in daily chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions. The estimates of delayed effects of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 were observed at lag6, lag6, lag8, lag1, respectively. The health effects of particulate pollutants (PM2.5 and PM10) may be independent of other pollutants. The adverse effects of air pollutants were more evident in the warm season (May-Oct) than in the cold season (Nov-Apr). CONCLUSION Our study demonstrated that elevated concentrations of atmospheric pollutant (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3), especially particulate pollutants, can be associated with increased daily count of hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , which may promote further understanding of the potential hazards of relatively low levels of air pollution on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other respiratory disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/chemically induced , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Pollutants , Brazil , China/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitals , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects
20.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1398811

ABSTRACT

El material particulado (PM) es uno de los contaminantes más importantes presentes en el aire, representando un riesgo medioambiental para la salud. Las partículas con un diámetro de 10 micrones o menos (PM10), al ser inhalables, pueden penetrar y alojarse profundamente en los pulmones, contribuyendo al riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades cardiovasculares y respiratorias, así como cáncer de pulmón, enfermedades mentales, dermatitis, daño ocular e incluso al aumento en las tasas de mortalidad. Se estableció como objetivo determinar la calidad del aire interior asociada a la inmisión de material particulado (PM10) en la zona este 2, un sector industrial ubicado en los distritos san juan de Lurigancho y Lurigancho-Chosica, Perú. Para tal fin, se propone el uso de indicadores duales: ecológicos y sociales. De acuerdo a los indicadores ecológicos explorados, la concentración media de PM10 en el aire exterior (CME) superó el límite de 100 µg/m3 establecido por MINAM. Aunque la mediana de CME (93,7µg/m3; IC 95%=89,07-98,33) estuvo por debajo de este límite, el cuartil superior lo superó, entendido por elevaciones puntuales de hasta 131 µg/m3 (Figura 2), potencialmente dañinos para la salud humana. El coeficiente de correlación de Spearman de 0,921, obtenido del análisis bivariado entre los valores de concentración media diaria de PM10 exterior e interior, previo a la instalación de filtros en los sistemas de ventilación, es sugerente del efecto que puede tener la inmisión de aire ambiental con material particulado como vector de la contaminación del aire interior. al considerar los valores de la concentración media diaria, obtenidos en los 15 días posteriores a la instalación de los filtros (CMIFI), se observa que la concentración media de PM10 en el interior disminuyó en relación a la quincena anterior. El coeficiente de correlación de Spearman de 0,869 entre los indicadores CMIFI y CME, permite proponer que, en esta segunda fase, la calidad del aire interior fue influenciada en menor proporción por la contaminación de material particulado del aire ambiental, es decir que se presentó menos inmisión de PM10, gracias al proceso de filtrado, lo que disminuye el riesgo para la salud de los trabajadores(AU)


Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most important pollutants present in the air, representing an environmental risk to health. Particles with a diameter of 10 microns or less (PM10), being inhalable, can penetrate and lodge deep in the lungs, contributing to the risk of developing cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, as well as lung cancer, mental illness, dermatitis, eye damage and even increased mortality rates. The objective was to determine the indoor air quality associated with the immission of particulate matter (PM10) in East Zone 2, an industrial sector located in the districts of San Juan de Lurigancho and Lurigancho-Chosica, Peru. To this end, the use of dual indicators is proposed: ecological and social. According to the ecological indicators explored, the average concentration of PM10 in outdoor air (CME) exceeded the limit of 100 µg/m3 established by MINAM. Although the CME median (93.7µg/m3; 95% CI=89.07-98.33) was below this limit, the upper quartile exceeded it, understood as point elevations of up to 131µg/m3 (Figure 2 ), potentially harmful to human health. Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.921, obtained from the bivariate analysis between the daily average concentration values of outdoor and indoor PM10, prior to the installation of filters in the ventilation systems, is suggestive of the effect that the immission of ambient air can have with particulate matter as a vector of indoor air pollution. When considering the values of the average daily concentration, obtained in the 15 days after the installation of the filters (CMIFI), it is observed that the average concentration of PM10 in the interior decreased in relation to the previous fortnight. Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.869 between the CMIFI and CME indicators allows us to propose that, in this second phase, indoor air quality was influenced to a lesser extent by particulate matter contamination in the ambient air, that is, there was less PM10 immission, thanks to the filtering process, which reduces the risk to the health of workers(AU)


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Occupational Health , Air Pollution, Indoor , Environmental Hazards , Environmental Pollutants , Sodium , Sulfates , Cardiovascular Diseases , Filters , Chlorides , Ammonia , Nitrates
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