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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4394-4401, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008693

ABSTRACT

This study focused on the separation, characterization, content determination, and antiviral efficacy research on colloidal particles with different sizes in Maxing Shigan Decoction(MXSG). The mixed colloidal phase of MXSG was initially separated into small colloidal particle segment(S), medium colloidal particle segment(M), and big colloidal particle segment(B) using ultrafiltration. Further fine separation was performed using size-exclusion chromatography. Dynamic light scattering(DLS) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) were employed to characterize the size and morphology of the separated colloidal particles. UPLC-MS/MS was used to determine the content of ephedrine, amygdalin, glycyrrhizic acid, and the EDTA complexometric titration was used to measure the calcium(Ca~(2+)) content in different colloidal phases. Finally, a respiratory syncytial virus(RSV) infection mouse model was established using intranasal administration. The experimental groups included a blank group, a model group, a ribavirin group, an MXSG group, an S group, an M group, and a B group. Oral administration was given for treatment, and pathological changes in mouse lung tissue and organ indices were evaluated. The results of the study showed that the distribution of ephedrine, amygdalin, glycyrrhizic acid, and Ca~(2+) content was not uniform among different colloidal segments. Among them, the B segment had the highest proportions of the three components, except for Ca~(2+), accounting for 46.35%, 53.72%, and 92.36%, respectively. Size-exclusion chromatography separated colloidal particles with uniform morphology in the size range of 100-500 nm. Compared to the S and M segments, the B segment showed an increased lung index inhibition rate(38.31%), spleen index, and thymus index in RSV-infected mice, and it improved the infiltration of inflammatory cells and lung injury in the lung tissue of mice. The complex components in MXSG form colloidal particles of various sizes and morphologies through heating, and small-molecule active components such as ephedrine, amygdalin, glycyrrhizic acid, and Ca~(2+) participate in the assembly to varying degrees. The main material basis for the antiviral effect of MXSG is the colloidal particles with certain particle sizes formed by the assembly of active components during the heating process.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Amygdalin/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Glycyrrhizic Acid/analysis , Ephedrine/analysis , Chromatography, Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e381523, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1439109

ABSTRACT

Purpose: It was aimed to investigate the biochemical and immunohistochemical effects of ephedrine (EPH) in bilateral ovariectomized rats. Methods: Twenty-four Sprague Dawley female rats were divided into three groups: control group: The abdomen was opened and closed without any treatment; ischemia-reperfusion (IR) group: 2 h of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion were allowed to cause IR injury; IR+EPH group: oral EPH solution (5 mg/kg) was administered for 28 days. Results: Biochemical parameters were statistically significant in group comparisons. Increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression, degenerative preantral and antral follicle cells and inflammatory cells around blood vessels were seen in IR group. Negative IL-6 expression was observed in seminal epithelial cells, preantral and antral follicle cells in IR+EPH group. While caspase-3 activity increased in granulosa cells and stromal cells in IR group, caspase-3 expression was negative in preantral and antral follicle cells in the germinal epithelium and cortex in IR+EPH group. Conclusion: The effect of apoptosis, which occurs with the signaling that starts in the cell nucleus, caused the cessation of the stimulating effect at the nuclear level after EPH administration, and a decrease in the antioxidative effect in IR damage and inflammation in the apoptotic process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Ovary/cytology , Interleukin-6/physiology , Ephedrine/analysis , Caspase 3/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis
3.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(6): 702-710, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420625

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives The Beach Chair Position (BCP) has many advantages such as less neurovascular injury and better intra-articular visualization, but it has also negative consequences, including hemodynamic instability. Although maintaining normal Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) is important, fluid management is also a crucial concept for hemodynamic stability. The main objective of this study is whether preloading before positioning would be effective for less hemodynamic instability. Methods This randomized, controlled study was conducted in a single center in the Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine. Forty-nine patients undergoing elective arthroscopic surgery in the BCP were recruited. In the study group, crystalloid fluid at 10 mL.kg-1 of ideal body weight was administered intravenously 30 min before the BCP for preloading. The primary outcome measures were differences of hemodynamic variables as MAP, Stroke Volume (SV), Heart Rate (HR), and Cardiac Output (CO). The secondary outcome measures were Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) rates in postoperative first day, surgical satisfaction scale, total ephedrine dose used during surgery, and total amount of fluid. Results The MAP, CO, and SV measurements of the study group were higher than those of the control group in the 5th minute after the BCP (respectively, p= 0.001, p= 0.016, p= 0.01). The total amount of crystalloid and surgical satisfaction scales were higher in the study group (respectively, p= 0.016, p= 0.001). Total amount of colloid and ephedrine dose used in the intraoperative period, and PONV rates were lower in the study group (p= 0.003, p= 0.018, p= 0.019, respectively). Conclusion Consequently, preloading can be favorable approach to preserve hemodynamic stability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthroscopy , Shoulder , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Ephedrine , Patient Positioning , Crystalloid Solutions
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19836, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394041

ABSTRACT

Abstract A capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the first time and optimized for the determination of paracetamol, pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan, chlorpheniramine, 4-aminophenol and ephedrine in tablet formulation. Optimum electrophoretic conditions were achieved by using a background electrolyte of 75 mmol L-1 sodium borate buffer at pH 8.0, a capillary temperature of 30°C, a separation voltage of 30 kV and a pressure injection of the sample at 50 mbar for 10 s. Calibration graphs showed a good linearity with a coefficient of determination (R2) of at least 0.999 for all compounds. Intraday and interday precision (expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) %) were lower than 1.39% for capillary electrophoresis method. The developed method was demonstrated to be simple and rapid for the determination of paracetamol, pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan, chlorpheniramine, 4-aminophenol and ephedrine in tablet formulation providing recoveries in the range between 99.62 and 100.57% for all analytes.


Subject(s)
Chlorpheniramine/antagonists & inhibitors , Electrophoresis, Capillary/methods , Dextromethorphan/antagonists & inhibitors , Ephedrine/antagonists & inhibitors , Pseudoephedrine/antagonists & inhibitors , Aminophenols/antagonists & inhibitors , Acetaminophen/agonists , Buffers , Diagnosis , Methods
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 500-507, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143955

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Limited data are present on safety and efficiency of epinephrine for the prophylaxis and treatment of spinal-hypotension. This study was conducted to compare the effect of epinephrine with norepinephrine and phenylephrine on the treatment of spinal-hypotension and ephedrine requirement during cesarean delivery. Methods: One hundred and sixty parturients with uncomplicated pregnancies undergoing elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were recruited. They were allocated randomly to receive norepinephrine 5 µg.mL−1 (n = 40), epinephrine 5 µg.mL−1 (n = 40), phenylephrine 100 µg.mL−1 (n = 40) or 0.9% saline infusions (n = 40) immediately after induction of spinal anesthesia. Whenever systolic blood pressure drops to less than 80% of baseline, 5 mg of intravenous ephedrine was administered as rescue vasopressor. The incidence of hypotension, total number of hypotension episodes, the number of patients requiring ephedrine, the mean amount of ephedrine consumption and side effects were recorded. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in incidence of maternal hypotension between groups. The number of patients requiring ephedrine was significantly greater in group saline than in group phenylephrine (p< 0.001). However, it was similar between phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine groups. The mean ephedrine consumption was significantly higher in group saline than in norepinephrine, epinephrine, phenylephrine groups (p= 0.001). Conclusion: There is no statistically significant difference in incidence of hypotension and ephedrine consumption during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery with the use of epinephrine when compared to norepinephrine or phenylephrine. Epinephrine can be considered an alternative agent for management of spinal hypotension.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Existem dados limitados sobre segurança e eficiência da epinefrina na profilaxia e tratamento da hipotensão arterial associada à raquianestesia. O presente estudo foi realizado para comparar o efeito da epinefrina com norepinefrina e fenilefrina no tratamento da hipotensão após raquianestesia e necessidade de efedrina durante o parto cesáreo. Método: Foram recrutadas 160 parturientes com gestações não complicadas, submetidas a cesariana eletiva sob raquianestesia. Elas foram alocadas aleatoriamente para receber norepinefrina 5 µg.mL-1 (n = 40), epinefrina 5 µg.mL-1 (n = 40), fenilefrina 100 µg.mL-1 (n = 40) ou infusão de solução fisiológica NaCl a 0,9% (n = 40) imediatamente após a indução da raquianestesia. Sempre que houvesse redução da pressão arterial sistólica para valor inferior a 80% da linha de base, 5 mg de efedrina iv eram administrados como vasopressor de resgate. A incidência de hipotensão, o número total de episódios de hipotensão, o número de pacientes que necessitaram de efedrina, o consumo médio de efedrina e os efeitos colaterais foram registrados. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na incidência de hipotensão materna entre os grupos. O número de pacientes que necessitaram de efedrina foi significantemente maior no grupo solução fisiológica do que no grupo fenilefrina (p< 0,001). No entanto, foi semelhante entre os grupos fenilefrina, norepinefrina e epinefrina. O consumo médio de efedrina foi significantemente maior no grupo solução fisiológica do que nos grupos norepinefrina, epinefrina e fenilefrina (p = 0,001). Conclusão: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na incidência de hipotensão e consumo de efedrina durante raquianestesia para parto cesáreo com uso de epinefrina quando comparada à norepinefrina ou fenilefrina. A epinefrina pode ser considerada como agente alternativo para o tratamento da hipotensão após raquianestesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Phenylephrine/administration & dosage , Norepinephrine/administration & dosage , Ephedrine/administration & dosage , Hypotension/prevention & control , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/methods , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Hypotension/etiology , Hypotension/epidemiology , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3883-3889, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008300

ABSTRACT

Ephedra is a classic herb in traditional Chinese medicine( TCM). The new effects of ephedra were gradually found,and the contraindications of the drug were broken in later ages. Because the principles of expanded application were not well elucidated,it is difficult to use in the clinical flexibility. Based on the characteristics of ephedra and its classic clinical application,the authors summarized the possible principles of clinical application of ephedra and the drug property and pharmacological characteristics of ephedra.Studies showed that ephedrine substances are an important material basis for the efficacy of ephedra,and its adrenergic action is the pharmacological basis of its efficacy. It is the key to grasp the autonomic function and the interaction between sympathetic/adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex for the clinical application of ephedra. The authors discussed the principles of clinical application of ephedra and the effects of processing of ephedra. Finally,the authors put forward the basic research process of clinical application of drugs,and provide ideas for the inheritance and further development of TCM experience.


Subject(s)
Ephedra/chemistry , Ephedrine/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Extracts , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
7.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 299-304, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New complications associated with sugammadex have been increased since its widespread use. We report a case of an 80-year-old male who experienced profound bradycardia and sustained hypotension after administration of sugammadex. CASE: Following administration of 200 mg sugammadex after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, sudden bradycardia (29 beats/min) developed for 10 seconds and his train-of-four (TOF) ratio remained at 0.2 for 5 min. An additional 200 mg sugammadex was administered and profound bradycardia (21–30 beats/min) and hypotension (60/40 mmHg) developed. Atropine at 0.5 mg was administered, but the effect lasted only 30 s. Profound bradycardia occurred four more times at 30 s intervals, and ephedrine and phenylephrine were injected intermittently to increase the patient's heart rate and blood pressure. The TOF ratio became 0.9 about 10 min after administration of additional sugammadex. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness must be heightened regarding the possibility of sugammadexinduced bradycardia and hypotension, and more attention should be paid to patients with slow recovery times following muscle relaxation, despite the use of sugammadex.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Atropine , Blood Pressure , Bradycardia , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Ephedrine , Heart Rate , Hypotension , Muscle Relaxation , Neuromuscular Blockade , Phenylephrine , Postoperative Complications
8.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 150-155, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that sequential intrathecal injection of fentanyl and hyperbaric bupivacaine for cesarean section (CS) anesthesia provides a superior anesthetic effect than use of bupivacaine alone, and prolongs postoperative analgesia. Herein, we investigated whether rapid intrathecal injection of fentanyl followed by slow injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine affects the duration of postoperative analgesia, the effectiveness of anesthesia, and hemodynamic status. METHODS: Fifty-six parturients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, aged 18–40 years, and scheduled to undergo elective CS were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 28 patients each. The normal sequential group received sequential intrathecal injections of fentanyl and hyperbaric bupivacaine at the same rate, each with a 5 ml syringe. The rapid sequential group received a rapid intrathecal injection of fentanyl with an insulin syringe, followed by a slow injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine with a 5 ml syringe. The onset of sensory block, the timing of the first rescue analgesia, the doses of rescue analgesics, the degree of postoperative pain, the onset and duration of motor block, the incidence and duration of hypotension, and spinal anesthesia-related complications were recorded. RESULTS: While both approaches had comparable spinal anesthesia-related complications, incidence and duration of hypotension, and doses of ephedrine, the rapid sequential group exhibited a more rapid onset of sensory block, a higher sensory level, and more prolonged postoperative analgesia. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid sequential injection of fentanyl and hyperbaric bupivacaine produced superior anesthesia and more prolonged postoperative analgesia than sequential injections of both at the same rate.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Analgesia , Analgesics , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Spinal , Anesthetics , Bupivacaine , Cesarean Section , Ephedrine , Fentanyl , Hemodynamics , Hypotension , Incidence , Injections, Spinal , Insulin , Pain, Postoperative , Syringes
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(1): 69-74, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897807

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Propofol and Ephedrine are commonly used during anesthesia maintenance, the former as a hypnotic agent and the later as a vasopressor. The addition of propofol to ephedrine or administration of ephedrine before propofol injection is useful for decreasing or preventing propofol related hemodynamic changes and vascular pain. This in vitro study evaluated the antibacterial effect on common hospital-acquired infection pathogens of ephedrine alone or combined with propofol. Material and method The study was performed in two stages. In the first, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of propofol and ephedrine alone and combined was calculated for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter spp. at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h, using the microdilution method. In the second stage, the same drugs and combination were used to determine their effect on bacterial growth. Bacterial solutions were prepared at 0.5 MacFarland in sterile 0.9% physiological saline and diluted at 1/100 concentration. Colony numbers were measured as colony forming units.mL-1 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12th hours. Results Ephedrine either alone or combined with propofol did not have an antimicrobial effect on Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa and this was similar to propofol. However, ephedrine alone and combined with propofol was found to have an antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter species at 512 mcg.mL-1 concentration and significantly decreased bacterial growth rate. Conclusion Ephedrine has an antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter species which were frequently encountered pathogens as a cause of nosocomial infections.


Resumo Introdução Propofol e efedrina são fármacos comumente usados durante a manutenção da anestesia, o primeiro como agente hipnótico e o segundo como vasopressor. A adição de propofol à efedrina ou a administração de efedrina antes da injeção de propofol é útil para diminuir ou prevenir alterações hemodinâmicas e dor vascular relacionadas ao propofol. Este estudo in vitro avaliou o efeito antibacteriano de efedrina, isolada ou em combinação com propofol, em patógenos comuns implicados em infecção hospitalar. Material e método O estudo foi feito em duas etapas. Na primeira, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de propofol e de efedrina isolada e em combinação foi calculada para Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e um isolado clínico de Acinetobacter spp às 0, 6, 12 e 24 horas, com o método de microdiluição. Na segunda etapa, o mesmo fármaco e sua combinação foram usados para determinar seus efeitos no crescimento bacteriano. As soluções bacterianas foram preparadas em soro fisiológico a 0,9% em 0,5 McFarland e diluídas a uma concentração de 1/100. Os números das colônias foram medidos como ufc.mL-1 às 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 e 12 horas. Resultados Efedrina isolada ou em combinação com propofol não apresentou efeito antimicrobiano sobre E. coli, E. faecium ou P. aeruginosa, um resultado semelhante ao de propofol. Porém, efedrina isolada e em combinação com propofol apresentou efeito antimicrobiano sobre Staphylococcus aureus e Acinetobacter spp, em concentração de 512 mcg.mL-1, e redução significativa da taxa de crescimento bacteriano. Conclusão Efedrina tem atividade antimicrobiana em S. aureus e Acinetobacter spp, patógenos frequentemente identificados como causa de infecções nosocomiais.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Acinetobacter/drug effects , Propofol/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Ephedrine/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Propofol/administration & dosage , Ephedrine/administration & dosage , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4433-4438, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775324

ABSTRACT

Based on the nanofiltration mass transfer model, the enhanced separation behavior of ephedrine in organic solution was studied. In the experiment, the sensitive region of ethanol concentration and pH on the rejection of ephedrine was screened out by Box-Behnken central composite experiment design. Furthermore, to analyze the separation regularity of ephedrine and organic solution, the correlation between mass transfer coefficient and concentration of organic solvent was fitted with the changed organic solution by nanofiltration mass transfer mathematical model. Experiments showed the enhanced separation behavior, the decrease in the mass transfer coefficient while the increase in ethanol concentration from 20% to 40%, MWCO at 450 and pH 6.0. Under the same conditions, the enhanced separation behavior was appeared as the solvent changed into methanol and acetonitrile, the enhanced effect was positively correlated with the concentration of the three common organic solvents, and the effect order was acetonitrile>ethanol>methanol. This study took ephedrine as an example, and explored the mechanism of nanofiltration separation in the environment of organic solution, so as to provide references for nanofiltration separation for heat-sensitive traditional Chinese medicine of alkaloid.


Subject(s)
Ephedrine , Chemistry , Ethanol , Methanol , Molecular Weight , Solvents
11.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 22-29, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759489

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Propofol is used for supraglottic airway device insertion, often with the i-gel. However, the propofol requirement for i-gel insertion has not been explored in paralyzed patients. This study was performed to explore hemodynamic changes and sedation level with different propofol doses in healthy paralyzed patients when the i-gel was inserted. METHODS: A total of 141 patients undergoing a urologic operation were randomly allocated to three groups depending on the propofol dose (1.5, 2, and 2.5 mg/kg; Groups P1.5, P2, and P2.5, respectively). After patients had been administered each propofol dose and rocuronium, the i-gel was inserted and changes in hemodynamic parameters and bispectral index were evaluated. RESULTS: Group P2 showed a lower incidence of complications (17%) such as hemodynamic instability and inadequate sedation than Group P1.5 (55.3%, P < 0.001) or Group P2.5 (40.4%, P = 0.012). The incidence and dose of additional propofol increased in Group P1.5 (51%, median [range]; 20 [0–50]) compared with those in the other groups (0%, 0 [0–0] in Group P2 and 8.5%, 0 [0–50] in Group P2.5, all P < 0.001), and the incidence and dose of additional ephedrine were significantly higher in Group P2.5 (31.9%; 0 [0–20]) than in Group P1.5 (10.6%, P = 0.012; 0 [0–5], P = 0.007, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: For the stable maintenance of hemodynamic parameters and proper sedation level during i-gel insertion, 2 mg/kg propofol has an advantage over 1.5 mg/kg or 2.5 mg/kg propofol in healthy paralyzed patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ephedrine , Hemodynamics , Incidence , Propofol
12.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 82(3): 298-303, jun. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899908

ABSTRACT

Afortunadamente, las arritmias malignas en un embarazo de curso normal son raras y la mayoría de las quejas por palpitaciones se deben a arritmias benignas. Dentro de ellas las taquicardias supraventriculares paroxísticas (TSP) se describen en la literatura con relativa frecuencia y pueden ocurrir sólo, o incluso exacerbarse, durante el embarazo, debido a un efecto pro-arritmogénico de la gestación. Así en pacientes gestantes la carga hemodinámica y los cambios del tono autonómico facilitan la aparición de arritmias, más frecuentemente en mujeres con limitada reserva cardíaca y pueden llegar a comprometer la supervivencia del feto y de la madre debido a las consecuencias hemodinámicas o los efectos adversos de los tratamientos farmacológicos y no farmacológicos. Presentamos el caso de una gestante a término que durante el trabajo de parto, posterior a la administración de analgesia epidural con ropivacaína y fentanilo, sufre un cuadro de hipotensión materna y bradicardia materna/fetal mantenida que requiere ser medicada con efedrina y atropina intravenosa. Inmediatamente presenta palpitaciones y dolor torácico sostenido, diagnosticándosele TSP que cede con la administración de adenosina intravenosa, no repitiendo nuevos episodios durante el trabajo de parto ni puerperio. En nuestro caso la arritmia ocurrió como efecto adverso de la efedrina y administradas para recuperar el cuadro de hipotensión causada por la analgesia epidural.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/chemically induced , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/drug therapy , Adenosine/therapeutic use , Obstetric Labor Complications/chemically induced , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Ephedrine/adverse effects , Obstetric Labor Complications/drug therapy
13.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (4): 1305-1308
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189697

ABSTRACT

In the present research work novel ephedrine based thiourea derivative, 3-benzothioyl-l-[3-hydroxy-3-phenyl -3-propyl]-l-methylthiourea 4is synthesized and then characterized elemental analyzed via various techniques i.e., Proton NMR, carbon13 NMR and fatherly confirmed via X-ray crystallography. Compound 4 was then screened for their possible antioxidant and cytotoxic potentials. Benzoyl chloride was treated with an equimolar potassium thiocyanate in acetone to achieve benzoyl isothiocyantes. It was then treated with an equimolar [1R, 2*S]-[-]-Ephedrine to obtain the 3-benzothioyl-l-[3-hydroxy-3-phenyl-3-propyl]-l-methyl thiourea4. It was then screened for antioxidant and cytotoxic potentials. The compound 4 showed excellent antioxidant activity almost comparable to ascorbic acid [standard] and have significant cytotoxic activity with LC[50] value 05+/-0.58 ppm


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Ephedrine , Thiourea/analogs & derivatives
14.
The Ewha Medical Journal ; : 143-148, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18837

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Liver transplantation (LT) is the only treatment for end stage of liver failure. In Korea, annually it has been performed 1,300 cases. Most of LTs are performed in large volumes centers. More than half of centers performing LT in Korea are low volume hospital and started a LT program recently. We present our four-year experiences and outcomes of anesthesia for LT since 2013. METHODS: Anesthetic and surgical outcomes of 49 consecutive patients who received LT (living donor LT, 21 cases; deceased donor LT, 28 cases) between April 2013 and April 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: All patients were adult, with the mean age of 53.5±9.2 years. The most common cause of original liver diseases was hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis (40.8%). The mean MELD (Model for End-stage Liver Disease) score was 18.8±10.7. Postreperfusion syndrome was observed in 34.7%, which were all controlled by calcium, norepinephrine, ephedrine and epinephrine. The mean postoperative intensive care unit stay of deceased donor LT recipients (13.6±9.0 days) was significantly longer than that of living donor LT recipients (8.0±3.3 days). There was no intraoperative mortality in patients receiving LT. Thirty-day post-transplant survival rate was 93.8% and 3-year survival rate was 88.6 %. The most common postoperative complication was pneumonia. CONCLUSION: We have started LT successfully with multidisciplinary team's steady effort. Adaptation and setting up LT protocol, adequate equipment, proper training at established transplant centers are essential to begin a successful LT program.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Anesthesia , Calcium , Ephedrine , Epinephrine , Hepatitis B , Hospitals, Low-Volume , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Liver Failure , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Living Donors , Mortality , Norepinephrine , Pneumonia , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Tissue Donors
15.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 97-102, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28781

ABSTRACT

Spinal anesthesia is widely used for parturients undergoing scheduled elective caesarean section. Hypotension associated with spinal anesthesia is a major concern in obstetrics. Preventive methods for post-spinal hypotension include intravenous fluid preloading, bolus or continuous injection of vasopressors. Intravenous fluid preloading reduces the incidence and severity of maternal hypotension during spinal anesthesia administered for cesarean section. Although fluid preloading prevents maternal hypotension, it is not advisable to delay spinal anesthesia for preloading a fixed volume of intravenous fluid. Ephedrine, the drug of choice to prevent maternal hypotension during spinal anesthesia for caesarean delivery, acts by maintaining the uteroplacental blood flow. Phenylephrine is also effective in reducing maternal hypotension during this procedure. Both the vasopressors are acceptable for preventing hypotension. However, in the absence of maternal bradycardia, phenylephrine is the preferred drug for the management of hypotension during regional anesthesia for caesarean section, because of its improved fetal acid-base status.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Anesthesia, Conduction , Anesthesia, Spinal , Bradycardia , Cesarean Section , Ephedrine , Hypotension , Incidence , Obstetrics , Phenylephrine
16.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 92-95, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189579

ABSTRACT

Palonosetron is a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT-3) receptor antagonist used for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Compared with ondansetron and granisetron, it is a better drug because of prolonged action and minimal side effects. Some adverse effects of palonosetron have been reported. In this report, we describe a 37-year-old male who developed severe hypersensitivity reactions to palonosetron during surgery for kidney donation. His medical history was unremarkable, except for inguinal hernia with herniorrhaphy 8 years ago. The surgery was uneventful until 2 hours 20 minutes. After palonosetron injection, his blood pressure dropped to 80/50 mm Hg, and facial edema, rash, conjunctival swelling, and wheezing developed. The patient was resuscitated by administration of ephedrine, hydrocortisone, and peniramine. Following the surgery, the patient was monitored for 3 days, and there were no subsequent anaphylactic reactions or other complications. The skin test on postoperative day 54 was positive for hypersensitivity to palonosetron. Although palonosetron is known for its safety, other hypersensitivity events have been reported. Ondansetron is another widely used 5-HT-3 antagonist, which has been reported to cause anaphylaxis. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of patients experiencing severe adverse reactions to palonosetron.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Anaphylaxis , Anesthesia, General , Blood Pressure , Drug Hypersensitivity , Edema , Ephedrine , Exanthema , Granisetron , Hernia, Inguinal , Herniorrhaphy , Hydrocortisone , Hypersensitivity , Kidney , Ondansetron , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Respiratory Sounds , Skin Tests
17.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(1): 59-68, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789072

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The association of p-synephrine, ephedrine, salicin, and caffeine in dietary supplements and weight loss products is very common worldwide, even though ephedrine has been prohibited in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate a 28-day oral exposure toxicity profile of p-synephrine, ephedrine, salicin, and caffeine mixture (10:4:6:80 w/w respectively) in male and female Wistar rats. Body weight and signs of toxicity, morbidity, and mortality were observed daily. After 28 days, animals were euthanized and blood collected for hematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress evaluation. No clinical signs of toxicity, significant weight loss or deaths occurred, nor were there any significant alterations in hematological parameters. Biochemical and oxidative stress biomarkers showed lipid peroxidation, and hepatic and renal damage (p < 0.05; ANOVA/Bonferroni) in male rats (100 and 150 mg/kg) and a reduction (p < 0.05; ANOVA/Bonferroni) in glutathione (GSH) levels in all male groups. Female groups displayed no indications of oxidative stress or biochemical alterations. The different toxicity profile displayed by male and female rats suggests a hormonal influence on mixture effects. Results demonstrated that the tested mixture can alter oxidative status and promote renal and hepatic damages.


RESUMO A associação de p-sinefrina, efedrina, salicina, e cafeína em suplementos alimentares e produtos para perda de peso é muito utilizada em todo o mundo, embora a efedrina tenha sido proibida em muitos países. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o perfil de toxicidade à exposição oral de 28 dias à associação de p-sinefrina, efedrina, salicina e cafeína (na proporção de 10:4:6:80 m/m respectivamente) em ratos Wistar machos e fêmeas. Diariamente, os animais foram observados quanto ao peso corporal, sinais de toxicidade, morbidade e mortalidade. Após 28 dias, os animais foram sacrificados e o sangue coletado para avaliações hematológicas, bioquímicas e de estresse oxidativo. Não se observaram sinais clínicos de toxicidade, tampouco perda significativa de peso, mortes, ou quaisquer alterações significativas nos parâmetros hematológicos. Biomarcadores do estresse oxidativo e bioquímicos mostraram peroxidação lipídica, danos renais e hepáticos (p < 0,05; ANOVA/Bonferroni) em ratos machos (100 e 150 mg/kg) e a redução (p < 0,05; ANOVA/Bonferroni) nos níveis de glutationa reduzida (GSH) em todos os grupos de machos tratados. Nas fêmeas, não houve indícios de estresse oxidativo, nem alterações bioquímicas. O diferente perfil de toxicidade entre os gêneros sugere influência hormonal nos efeitos de mistura administrada. A associação testada pode alterar o estado oxidativo e promover danos renais e hepáticos.


Subject(s)
Rats , Caffeine/toxicity , Biomarkers/analysis , Synephrine/toxicity , Salicinum/toxicity , Oxidative Stress , Ephedrine/toxicity , Weight Loss/drug effects , Dietary Supplements/analysis
18.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 195-200, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 5-Hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists have been reported to attenuate spinal anesthesia-induced hemodynamic changes. This study was conducted to determine whether the second generation 5-HT3, antagonist palonosetron attenuates hypotension and bradycardia during spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Sixty adult patients scheduled for lower limb surgery were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either normal saline (Control group, N = 30) or palonosetron (0.075 mg, i.v.) (Palonosetron group, N = 30) prior to spinal anesthesia. Hemodynamic variables were recorded during anesthesia. RESULTS: The mean blood pressure (MBP) were 89.2 ± 11.4 mmHg in the control group and 87.6 ± 12.1 mmHg in the palonosetron group at 10 min after intrathecal injection (P = 0.609). The median blocked levels of the control group and the palonosetron group were T10 (interquartile range, 9-10) and T10 (8-10) at 20 min after intrathecal injection (P = 0.939). Requirements for ephedrine, phenylephrine, and atropine were similar (P = 0.652, 0.533 and 0.417, respectively). The incidences of hypotension (40% vs. 41%) and bradycardia (7% vs. 17%) were comparable (P = 0.562, P = 0.198, respectively) between the control and the palonosetron group. There were no significances in the changes of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, MBP and heart rate by the group (P = 0.632, 0.287, 0.556, 0.733, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous palonosetron (0.075 mg) prior to spinal anesthesia might not attenuate spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension during low level of neuroaxial block for lower limb surgery.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Spinal , Atropine , Blood Pressure , Bradycardia , Ephedrine , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics , Hypotension , Incidence , Injections, Spinal , Lower Extremity , Orthopedics , Phenylephrine
19.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 96-100, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157506

ABSTRACT

Urinary incontinence, although rarely reported, is one of the most important adverse effects of antipsychotic medication. It can be an embarrassing, distressing, and potentially treatment-limiting. Several antipsychotics, including both typical and atypical varieties, are known to induce urinary incontinence. Many antipsychotic drugs target the neural pathways controlling continence by binding to receptors of some neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, and adrenaline. Pharmacological management of incontinence should be considered if there is a risk of cessation of the antipsychotic therapy or any decline in patients' compliance. Amitriptyline, desmopressin, ephedrine, and anticholinergics such as oxybutynin and trihexyphenidyl are the most frequently used agents to treat incontinence. We think that the frequency of incontinence is higher than reported in the literature, and that follow-up routines should include a form of standardized screening for all possible adverse effects, including incontinence, of any given antipsychotic. In this article, we report a case of urinary incontinence as an adverse effect of paliperidone palmitate use during maintenance therapy in a patient with schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetylcholine , Amitriptyline , Antipsychotic Agents , Cholinergic Antagonists , Compliance , Deamino Arginine Vasopressin , Dopamine , Ephedrine , Epinephrine , Follow-Up Studies , Mass Screening , Neural Pathways , Neurotransmitter Agents , Schizophrenia , Serotonin , Trihexyphenidyl , Urinary Incontinence , Paliperidone Palmitate
20.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 143-148, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine, typically used for elective and emergency cesarean section, is associated with a significant incidence of hypotension resulting from sympathetic blockade. A variety of dosing regimens have been used to administer spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of hypotension following two different fixed dosing regimens. METHODS: This was a randomized double-blind clinical trial with a two-sided design, 5% significance level and 80% power. After approval of the hospital ethics review committee, 60 patients were divided randomly into two groups. In one group, the local anesthetic dose was adjusted according to height and weight, and in the other, the dose was adjusted according to height only. RESULTS: Sixty women with a singleton pregnancy were included. Of the factors that could affect dose and blood pressure, including age, weight, height, and dose, only height differed between the groups. Mean heart rate was similar between the groups. Hypotension was significantly more frequent with dosage based on height alone than with two-factor dose calculation (56.7% vs. 26.7%; P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Adjusting the dose of isobaric bupivacaine to a patient's height and weight provides adequate anesthesia for elective cesarean section and is associated with a decreased incidence and severity of maternal hypotension and less use of ephedrine.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Advisory Committees , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Spinal , Anesthetics, Local , Blood Pressure , Body Height , Body Weight , Bupivacaine , Cesarean Section , Emergencies , Ephedrine , Ethics, Institutional , Heart Rate , Hypotension , Incidence
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