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Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1284-1291, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009058


OBJECTIVE@#To review the clinical research progress of spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL).@*METHODS@#The clinical studies on SEL at home and abroad in recent years were extensively reviewed, and the pathogenesis, clinical and imaging manifestations, and treatment status of SEL were summarized and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#SEL is a disease characterized by compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots due to abnormal accumulation of epidural adipose tissue in the spinal canal. Its prevalence and diagnosis rate are low and the pathogenesis is not fully understood. MRI is the most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for SEL. Surgical decompression and removal of excess adipose tissue are the only options for patients with acute SEL or those who have failed conservative management, and conservative management should be considered for other patients.@*CONCLUSION@#SEL is a rare disease and related research still needs to be improved. In the future, high-quality, multi-center and large-sample studies will be of great significance for evaluating the choice of treatment methods and effectiveness of SEL patients.

Humans , Decompression, Surgical/methods , Epidural Space/surgery , Lipomatosis/surgery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spinal Cord Diseases/surgery
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 38(2)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386294


Resumen La fibrosis epidural es un hallazgo clínico y radiológico el cual se encuentra relacionado directamente en su génesis con los procedimientos quirúrgicos realizados en la columna vertebral. Esta patología es la causa más frecuente del síndrome de cirugía fallida de columna, manifestada clínicamente como un dolor equiparable en severidad al presentado previo a la intervención quirúrgica realizada. La fibrosis epidural es parte del proceso de cicatrización usual de los tejidos circundantes de la columna vertebral, en otras palabras, es esperable que esta suceda, sin embargo, solo una mínima cantidad de las personas intervenidas desarrollan clínicamente la sintomatología. La importancia del análisis de esta patología radica en que estas valoraciones son ingresadas al Departamento de Medicina Legal por asunto de reagravación de alguna secuela ocasionada por algún evento traumático. Es imprescindible conocer a profundidad los diferentes aspectos etiológicos, fisiopatológicos, clínicos, radiológicos y terapéuticos que involucran esta patología vertebral, así como, el respectivo análisis médico legal en este tipo de casos, tomando en consideración todos los elementos de juicio que permitan relacionar este hallazgo con algún hecho denunciado. En el presente artículo se realizará un análisis médico legal de un caso de reagravación por fibrosis epidural valorado en el Departamento de Medicina Legal de Costa Rica, donde el peritado interpone una denuncia contra el ente asegurador al ser rechazada la posibilidad de reapertura del riesgo laboral presentado.

Abstract The epidural fibrosis is a clinical and radiological finding that is related with the surgical procedures performed on the spine. This pathology is the most frequent cause of failed back syndrome or post laminectomy syndrome, that is clinically manifested by an acute pain comparable in severity with the surgical intervention. Epidural fibrosis is part of the usual healing process of the surrounding tissues of the spine, in other words, it's to be expected as a result of this procedures, nevertheless, only a small number of people who have been intervened, actually develop the symptoms clinically. The importance of this pathology lies in the fact that these assessments are attended in the Legal Medicine Department due to the aggravation issues of any sequel caused by a traumatic event. It is essential to know such things as the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, radiological findings, and the therapeutic aspects that involve this vertebral disease, as well as, the respective forensic analysis, in order to use all the elements of judgment that allows to relate what is documented with the denounced findings.

Humans , Male , Adult , Fibrosis , Epidural Space , Costa Rica
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 59-64, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877550


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effect between electroacupuncture (EA) at Neima point and Neiguan (PC 6) and epidural nerve block for preemptive analgesia in patients undergoing thoracic surgery.@*METHODS@#Sixty patients with elective radical esophagectomy were randomly divided into a group A, a group B and a control group, 20 cases in each group. The patients in the group A were treated with injection of 20 mL 0.375% ropivacaine at epidural space 30 min before anesthesia induction, followed by normal anesthesia during operation; the patients in the group B were treated with 30 min EA at bilateral Neima point and Neiguan (PC 6) before anesthesia induction, followed by normal anesthesia during operation; the patients in the control group were treated with general anesthesia alone. Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia was applied for all the patients. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded at the following time points: before acupuncture/epidural puncture (T@*RESULTS@#The MAP at T@*CONCLUSION@#The preemptive analgesia of EA at Neima point and Neiguan (PC 6) and epidural nerve block could both provide effective perioperative analgesia for thoracic surgery. The EA could better maintain intraoperative hemodynamics and has less physiological disturbance.

Humans , Anesthesia, General , Electroacupuncture , Epidural Space , Nerve Block , Thoracic Surgery
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 483-486, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922043


This article aims to study the factors affecting the flexibility of the tip of an epidural anesthesia catheter. The flexibility of the tip of the epidural anesthesia catheter was tested with a softness tester from four aspects:raw materials, tip structure, tip processing technology, and the outer diameter of the catheter. Highly flexible and malleable polymer material with a smooth tip, the tip softening process and the proper outer diameter can effectively improve the tip flexibility of the epidural anesthesia catheter.

Anesthesia, Epidural , Catheterization , Catheters , Epidural Space
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 586-589, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942221


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the minimally invasive surgical method for cervical1-2 epidural neurilemmoma.@*METHODS@#The clinical features, imaging characteristics and surgical methods of 63 cases of cervical1-2 epidural neurilemmoma from July 2010 to December 2018 were reviewed and analyzed. Pain and numbness in occipitocervical region were the common clinical symptoms. There were 58 cases with pain, 30 cases with numbness, 3 cases with limb weakness and 2 cases with asymptomatic mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the tumors located in the cervical1-2 epidural space with diameter of 1-3 cm. The equal or slightly lower T1 and equal or slightly higher T2 signals were found on MRI. The tumors had obvious enhancement. Individualized laminotomy was performed according to the location and size of the tumors, and axis spinous processes were preserved as far as possible. Resection of tumor was performed strictly within the capsule.@*RESULTS@#Total and subtotal resection of tumor were achieved in 60 and 3 cases respectively, and no vertebral artery injury was found. The operation time ranged from 60 to 180 minutes, with an average of 92.83 minutes. The hospitalization time ranged from 3 to 9 days, with an average of 5.97 days. All tumors were confirmed as neurilemmoma by pathology. There was no postoperative infection or cerebrospinal fluid leakage. There was no new-onset dysfunction except 9 cases of numbness in the nerve innervation area. The period of follow-up ranged from 6 months to 8 years (median: 3 years). All the new-onset dysfunction recovered completely. Pain disappeared in all of the 58 patients with pain. Numbness recovered completely in 27 patients while slight numbness remained in another 3 patients. Three patients with muscle weakness recovered completely. The spinal function of all the patients restored to McCormick grade Ⅰ. No recurrence was found on MRI. No cervical spine instability or deformity was found on X-rays.@*CONCLUSION@#It is feasible to resect cervical1-2 epidural neurilemmoma by full use of the anatomical space between atlas and axis and individual laminotomy. It is helpful to prevent cervical instability or deformity by minimizing the destruction of cervical2 bone and preserving normal muscle attachment to cervical2 spinous process. Strict intracapsular resection can effectively prevent vertebral artery injury.

Humans , Epidural Space/surgery , Laminectomy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neurilemmoma/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(4): e204, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1144315


Abstract Introduction: The use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia has become a standard technique to improve nerve block accuracy and reduce associated complications. The literature reports a good correlation between the distance from the skin to the dura mater or the ligamentum flavum measured on ultrasound and the conventional technique of "loss of resistance". Latin American populations have not been included in the studies conducted so far but, because of differences in physical build, it is important to determine whether this correlation is maintained in the various populations. This paper offers new information about the role of ultrasound in determining the distance to the ligamentum flavum and recognizing the proximity of the dura mater to avoid accidental puncture of this structure in Latin American populations. Objective: To determine correlation and concordance in estimating the distance from the skin to the epidural space between the loss of resistance technique and ultrasound measurement. Methodology: Observational study conducted in 52 pediatric patients who received general anesthesia plus epidural analgesia for acute perioperative pain management between July 2014 and November 2015 to assess correlation and concordance between loss of resistance and ultrasound measurement of distance to the epidural space. Results: There is a correlation between distances measured using the two techniques, which appears to be higher as patient age increases. As for concordance, the study found that 0.43 cm should be added to the ultrasound measurement to achieve agreement with the distance obtained using the loss of resistance technique; however, the interval between the two measurements is 1.15 cm. Conclusions: A correlation was found between the measurement taken from the skin to the epidural space using ultrasound and the measurement obtained with the traditional needle puncture and loss of resistance technique. Although concordance was not as expected and the distance measured with ultrasound may be smaller than the real measurement with the needle, ultrasound offers good guidance regarding proximity to the epidural space.

Resumen Introducción: El uso del ultrasonido en la anestesia regional se ha convertido en una técnica estándar para mejorar la precisión de los bloqueos nerviosos y disminuir las complicaciones relacionadas con dicha anestesia. La literatura informa que hay una buena correlación entre la distancia entre la duramadre o el ligamento amarillo y la piel según el ultrasonido y la técnica convencional de "pérdida de resistencia". Los estudios realizados hasta ahora no han incluido población latinoamericana y, debido a las diferencias en la contextura física, es importante determinar si esta correlación se mantiene en varias poblaciones. Con este trabajo se aporta nueva información sobre la utilidad del ultrasonido para determinar la distancia al ligamento amarillo y advertir la cercanía de la duramadre con el fin de evitar la punción accidental de esta estructura en población latina. Objetivo: Determinar la correlación y concordancia en la estimación de la distancia de la piel al espacio epidural entre la técnica de pérdida de resistencia y la medición por ultrasonido. Metodología: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional en 52 pacientes pediátricos, que recibieron anestesia general más analgesia epidural para manejo del dolor agudo perioperatorio entre julio de 2014 y noviembre de 2015. Se evaluó la correlación y la concordancia de la distancia medida al espacio epidural entre la técnica de pérdida de resistencia y la distancia por ultrasonido. Resultados: Existe una correlación entre la distancia obtenida mediante las dos técnicas de medición que parece aumentar a medida que aumenta la edad de los pacientes. En cuanto a la concordancia se encontró que a la medida tomada por ultrasonido se le debería sumar 0,43 cm para que concuerde con la distancia tomada por pérdida de resistencia; no obstante, el intervalo entre ambas medidas es de 1,15 cm. Conclusiones: Encontramos una correlación entre la medida tomada desde la piel hasta el espacio epidural por ultrasonido y la tomada por la técnica tradicional de punción con aguja y pérdida de resistencia. Aunque la concordancia que hallamos no fue la esperada, y la medición del ultrasonido puede ser menor a la medición real encontrada con la aguja, es una buena guía para advertir la cercanía del espacio epidural.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Analgesia, Epidural , Pediatrics , Skin , Ultrasonics , Ultrasonography , Epidural Space , Anesthesia, General , Nerve Block
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(3): 202-208, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137174


Abstract Background and objectives: The lumbar plexus block (LPB) is a key technique for lower limb surgery. All approaches to the LPB involve a number of complications. We hypothesized that Chayen's approach, which involves a more caudal and more lateral needle entry point than the major techniques described in the literature, would be associated with a lower rate of epidural spread. Method: We reviewed the electronic medical records and chart of all adult patients who underwent orthopedic surgery for Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) and hip hemiarthroplasty due to osteoarthritis and femoral neck fracture with LPB and Sciatic Nerve Block (SNB) between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2017, in our institute. The LPB was performed according to Chayen's technique using a mixture of mepivacaine and levobupivacaine (total volume, 25 mL) and a SNB by the parasacral approach. The sensory and motor block was evaluated bilaterally during intraoperative and postoperative period. Results: A total number of 700 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I to IV who underwent LPB met the inclusion criteria. The LPB and SNB was successfully performed in all patients. Epidural spread was reported in a single patient (0.14%;p < 0.05), accounting for an 8.30% reduction compared with the other approaches described in the literature. No other complications were recorded. Conclusions: This retrospective study indicates that more caudal and more lateral approach to the LPB, such as the Chayen's approach, is characterized by a lower epidural spread than the other approach to the LPB.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O bloqueio do plexo lombar (BPL) é uma técnica fundamental para a cirurgia de membros inferiores. Todas as abordagens do BPL são associadas a uma série de complicações. Nossa hipótese foi de que a abordagem de Chayen, que envolve um ponto de entrada da agulha mais caudal e mais lateral do que as principais técnicas descritas na literatura, estaria associada a menor incidência de dispersão peridural. Método: Revisamos os prontuários médicos eletrônicos e em papel de todos os pacientes adultos submetidos à artroplastia total do quadril (ATQ) e hemiartroplastia do quadril devido a osteoartrite ou fratura do colo do fêmur empregando-se BPL associado ao bloqueio do nervo ciático (BNC), entre 1 de janeiro de 2002 e 31 de dezembro de 2017 em nossa instituição. Realizamos o BPL usando a técnica de Chayen e uma mistura de mepivacaína e levobupivacaína (volume total de 25 mL) e o BNC pela abordagem parassacral. Testes sensorial e motor bilaterais foram realizados no intra e pós-operatório. Resultados: Os critérios de inclusão foram obedecidos pelo total de 700 pacientes classe ASA I a IV submetidos ao BPL. Os BPL e BNC foram realizados com sucesso em todos os pacientes. A dispersão peridural foi relatada em um único paciente (0,14%; p < 0,05), representando uma redução de 8,30% quando comparada às outras abordagens descritas na literatura. Nenhuma outra complicação foi registrada. Conclusões: Este estudo retrospectivo indica que a abordagem mais caudal e mais lateral do BPL, como a técnica de Chayen, é caracterizada por menor dispersão peridural do que outras abordagens do BPL.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sciatic Nerve , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Hemiarthroplasty , Hip Joint/surgery , Lumbosacral Plexus , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Nerve Block/methods , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Epidural Space , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(3): 248-255, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137175


Abstract Background and objectives: To assess the agreement between the epidural depth measured from the surgical site with the epidural depths estimated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound scanning. Methods: Fifty patients of either sex, scheduled for L4‒5 lumbar disc surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this prospective observational study, and the results of 49 patients were analyzed. The actual epidural depth was measured from the surgical site with a sterile surgical scale. The MRI-derived epidural depth was measured from the MRI scan. The ultrasound estimated epidural depth was measured from the ultrasound image obtained just before surgery. Results: The mean epidural depth measured from the surgical site was 53.80 ± 7.67 mm, the mean MRI-derived epidural depth was 54.06 ± 7.36 mm, and the ultrasound-estimated epidural depth was 53.77 ± 7.94 mm. The correlation between the epidural depth measured from the surgical site and MRI-derived epidural depth was 0.989 (r2 = 0.979, p < 0.001), and the corresponding correlation with the ultrasound-estimated epidural depth was 0.990 (r2 = 0.980, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Both ultrasound-estimated epidural depth and MRI-derived epidural depth have a strong correlation with the epidural depth measured from the surgical site. Preprocedural MRI-derived estimates of epidural depth are slightly deeper than the epidural depth measured from the surgical site, and the ultrasound estimated epidural depths are somewhat shallower. Although both radiologic imaging techniques provided reliable preprocedural estimates of the actual epidural depth, the loss of resistance technique cannot be discarded while inserting epidural needles.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Avaliar a concordância entre a profundidade peridural medida no campo cirúrgico com a profundidade peridural estimada pela Ressonância Magnética (RM) e ultrassonografia. Métodos: Cinquenta pacientes de ambos os sexos agendados para cirurgia de disco lombar L4-5 sob anestesia geral foram incluídos neste estudo observacional prospectivo, e os resultados de 49 pacientes foram analisados. A profundidade peridural real foi medida no campo cirúrgico com uma régua cirúrgica estéril. A profundidade peridural obtida pela Ressonância Magnética (RM) foi medida a partir das imagens do exame de RM. A profundidade peridural estimada pelo ultrassom foi medida a partir da imagem do ultrassom obtida imediatamente antes da cirurgia. Resultados: A profundidade peridural média medida no campo cirúrgico foi de 53,80 ± 7,67 mm; a profundidade peridural média da RM foi de 54,06 ± 7,36 mm; e a profundidade peridural estimada por ultrassom foi de 53,77 ± 7,94 mm. A correlação entre a profundidade peridural medida no campo cirúrgico e a profundidade peridural derivada da RM foi de 0,989 (r2 = 0,979; p < 0,001); e a correlação correspondente com a profundidade peridural estimada por ultrassom foi de 0,990 (r2 = 0,980; p < 0,001). Conclusões: Tanto a profundidade peridural estimada por ultrassom quanto a profundidade peridural derivada da RM mostram forte correlação com a profundidade peridural medida no campo cirúrgico. As estimativas pré-operatórias da profundidade peridural derivadas da RM são um pouco mais profundas do que a profundidade peridural medida no campo cirúrgico, e as profundidades peridurais estimadas por ultrassom são um pouco mais rasas. Embora ambas as técnicas de imagem radiológica tenham fornecido estimativas pré-operatórias confiáveis da profundidade peridural real, a técnica de perda de resistência não pode ser descartada durante a inserção da agulha peridural.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Epidural Space/anatomy & histology , Epidural Space/diagnostic imaging , Intervertebral Disc Displacement/surgery , Lumbar Vertebrae , Organ Size , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Correlation of Data , Intraoperative Period , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(2): 97-103, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137158


Abstract Background: Surgery generates a neuroendocrine stress response, resulting in undesirable hemodynamic instability, alterations in metabolic response and malfunctioning of the immune system. Objectives: The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of caudal blocks in intra- and postoperative pain management and in reducing the stress response in children during the same periods. Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial included 60 patients scheduled for elective herniorrhaphy. One group (n = 30) received general anesthesia and the other (n = 30) received general anesthesia with a caudal block. Hemodynamic parameters, drug consumption and pain intensity were measured. Blood samples for serum glucose and cortisol level were taken before anesthesia induction and after awakening the patient. Results: Children who received a caudal block had significantly lower serum glucose (p < 0.01), cortisol concentrations (p < 0.01) and pain scores 3 h (p = 0.002) and 6 h (p = 0.003) after the operation, greater hemodynamic stability and lower drug consumption. Also, there were no side effects or complications identified in that group. Conclusions: The combination of caudal block with general anesthesia is a safe method that leads to less stress, greater hemodynamic stability, lower pain scores and lower consumption of medication.

Resumo Justificativa: O estresse cirúrgico causa resposta neuroendócrina, resultando em instabilidade hemodinâmica indesejável, modificações na resposta metabólica e disfunção no sistema imune. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, em pacientes pediátricos, a eficácia do bloqueio peridural caudal no controle da dor intra e pós-operatória e na redução da resposta ao estresse nesses períodos. Métodos: Estudo clínico prospectivo randomizado que incluiu 60 pacientes submetidos à herniorrafia eletiva. Um grupo (n = 30) recebeu anestesia geral e o outro (n = 30), anestesia geral combinada a bloqueio caudal. Foram medidos os parâmetros hemodinâmicos, o consumo de medicamentos e a intensidade da dor. Amostras de sangue para medir glicemia e cortisol plasmático foram obtidas antes da indução e após o despertar dos pacientes. Resultados: As crianças que receberam bloqueio peridural caudal apresentaram valores significantemente mais baixos para glicemia (p < 0,01), concentração de cortisol (p < 0,01) e escores de dor de 3 horas (p = 0,002) e 6 horas (p = 0,003) após a cirurgia, maior estabilidade hemodinâmica e menor consumo de medicamentos. Além disso, não foram observados efeitos colaterais ou complicações nesse grupo. Conclusões: O bloqueio peridural caudal combinado à anestesia geral é uma técnica segura e que se associa a menor estresse, maior estabilidade hemodinâmica, redução nos escores de dor e baixo consumo de medicamentos.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Stress, Physiological , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Herniorrhaphy , Hemodynamics , Nerve Block/methods , Sacrum , Prospective Studies , Epidural Space , Anesthesia, General
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(1): 63-65, Jan.-Feb. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137139


Abstract Background: Inadvertent epidural drug administration is associated with morbidity and mortality. Several drugs have been administered accidentally through the epidural catheter and most of our knowledge is based on case reports. Case report: A 33 year-old woman presented for delivery. Placement of epidural catheter was requested for labor analgesia and priming dose was administered. Five minutes later, ampicillin 1 g was given through the catheter inadvertently without hemodynamic or neurological changes. Ropivacaine administration was repeated, always with symptomatic relief until delivery. At hospital discharge, she remained without neurological or hemodynamic alterations. Conclusions: The majority of errors are due to syringe and drug exchanges and inadvertent route administration. Erroneous administration into the epidural space can have immediate and late effects and there is no definitive and effective treatment. There are several preventive measures to reduce the potential complications; some opt for watchful waiting, others opt for administering other drugs as a dilution attempted.

Resumo Justificativa: A administração inadvertida peridural de drogas está associada à morbidade e mortalidade. Várias drogas foram administradas acidentalmente pelo cateter peridural e a maior parte do que sabemos se baseia em relatos de caso. Relato de caso: Uma gestante de 33 anos chegou em trabalho de parto. Foi solicitada colocação de cateter peridural para analgesia de parto e a dose inicial foi administrada. Cinco minutos depois, 1 g de ampicilina foi dado através do cateter inadvertidamente, sem alterações hemodinâmicas ou neurológicas. A administração de ropivacaína foi repetida, sempre com alívio dos sintomas até o parto. Na alta hospitalar, a paciente continuava sem alterações neurológicas ou hemodinâmicas. Conclusões: A maioria dos erros é por troca de seringa ou drogas, ou administração de rota inadvertida. A administração errônea no espaço peridural pode apresentar efeitos imediatos e tardios e não há tratamento definitivo ou efetivo. Existem várias medidas preventivas para reduzir complicações potenciais; alguns escolhem observação cuidadosa, outros a administração de outras drogas para tentar a diluição.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Labor, Obstetric , Analgesia, Epidural , Medical Errors , Ampicillin/administration & dosage , Epidural Space
Acta cir. bras ; 35(6): e202000608, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130653


Abstract Purpose To develop a 3D anatomical model for teaching canine epidural anesthesia (3DMEA) and to assess its efficacy for teaching and learning prior to the use of live animals. Methods The creation of 3DMEA was based on 3D optical scanning and 3D printing of canine bone pieces of the fifth to the seventh lumbar vertebrae, sacrum and pelvis. A total of 20 male dogs were scheduled for castration. 20 veterinary students watched a video showing epidural anesthesia in dogs before the clinical attempt and were assigned to control or 3DMEA groups. Students in the 3DMEA group trained in the model after the video. For the clinical trial, the epidural procedure was performed by students under the veterinary supervision. When observed the absence of response to nociceptive stimuli, the epidural was considered successful. Then, all students answered a questionnaire evaluating the main difficulty founded in the technique and its degree of difficulty. Results The 3DMEA group reported a lower degree of difficulty to perform the epidural anesthesia technique when compared with the control group (p=0.0037). The 3DMEA reproduced the anatomical structures, allowing the perception of the distance of needle in relation to the iliac prominences during epidural anesthesia. Its mobility allowed simulation of the animal in standing position and sternal recumbency. Conclusion The use of 3DMEA demonstrated greater efficacy in the execution of the technique, being effective in the teaching and learning process before the epidural anesthesia in live animals.

Animals , Male , Dogs , Anesthesia, Epidural , Epidural Space , Models, Anatomic , Needles
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 615-620, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762662


It is difficult to distinguish Hirayama disease (HD) from other mimicking disorders in adolescent patients with distal upper limb weakness. The prevailing theory of HD postulates that the lower cervical cord is susceptible to compression during neck flexion because of insufficient growth of the dura relative to the spinal column. Confirmation of a dynamic change in the dorsal epidural space on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during neck flexion is essential for diagnosing HD. However, neck flexion MRI has not been routinely performed in juvenile patients with distal upper limb weakness in the absence of suspected HD. We report two cases of HD that were initially confused with other diseases because of insufficient or absent cervical flexion during MRI. Full-flexion MRI showed typical findings of HD in both cases. Our cases suggest that dynamic cervical MRI in the fully flexed position is necessary for evaluating suspected HD.

Adolescent , Humans , Cervical Cord , Diagnosis , Epidural Space , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Spinal Cord Diseases , Spine , Upper Extremity
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 178-186, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761700


BACKGROUND: Epidural steroid injections (ESIs) have been widely used in managing spinal pain. Dexamethasone has recently emerged as a useful drug in this setting, relative to particulate steroids, although the associated systemic effects have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the incidences and types of systemic effects after fluoroscopically guided ESI with dexamethasone. METHODS: This retrospective study included 888 ESIs with dexamethasone (fluoroscopically guided at the cervical and lumbosacral levels) performed on 825 patients during January to June 2017. Data regarding systemic effects were collected via telephone interviews using a standardized questionnaire at 2 weeks after the procedure. Data on patient demographic, clinical, and procedural characteristics were collected and analyzed to identify factors that were associated with systemic effects. All statistical analyses were performed using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: Among the 825 patients, 40 patients (4.8%) experienced systemic effects during the 2-week follow-up period. The most common systemic effect was facial flushing (12 patients, 1.5%), which was followed by urticaria (7 patients, 0.8%) and insomnia (7 patients, 0.8%). A history of spine surgery was significantly associated with the occurrence of systemic effects (P = 0.036). Systemic effects were significantly more common for injections at the cervical level than at the lumbar level (P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 4.8% of the patients who underwent ESI with dexamethasone experienced minor and transient systemic effects. These effects were more common in patients who had undergone a previous spine surgery or received a cervical ESI.

Humans , Dexamethasone , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Epidural Space , Fluoroscopy , Flushing , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Interviews as Topic , Low Back Pain , Retrospective Studies , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Spine , Steroids , Urticaria
Journal of Korean Society of Spine Surgery ; : 50-55, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765628


STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of using an epidural steroid sponge for postoperative pain control in lumbar discectomy. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: There are many methods to control postoperative pain after lumbar discectomy, including opioid analgesics, epidural catheters, and epidural steroid Gelfoam sponges. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 72 patients who underwent surgery between March 2011 and February 2014 were enrolled. Their average age was 54 years (range, 24–82 years). In group A (35 patients), Gelfoam was inserted after being soaked with a solution of 2% lidocaine (400 mg/20 mL; 1 vial) and dexamethasone (5 mg/mL; 1 ampoule). In group B (37 patients), it was inserted after soaking with normal saline. Postoperative pain was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. Pain above 5 points was controlled by a narcotic analgesic agent, and the duration and number of postoperative interventions, the period of time before walking after the operation, and the period until the date of discharge after surgery were assessed and compared. The Mann-Whitney U test was used as a nonparametric method. P-values less than 0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. RESULTS: In group A, 15 patients did not require analgesics on the day of surgery. In 20 patients, no analgesics were needed on postoperative day (POD) 1. In group B, 8 patients on the day of surgery and 13 patients on POD 1 did not require analgesics. In group A, 26 patients were able to walk on the day of surgery, and all patients were able to walk on POD 1. In group B, 19 patients was able to walk on the day of surgery and all patients were able to walk on POD 1. The mean number of hospital days before discharge was 6.3 in group A and 8.2 in group B. CONCLUSIONS: By continuously releasing low doses of steroids into the epidural space, this technique provided satisfactory results for postoperative pain control.

Humans , Analgesia, Epidural , Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Catheters , Dexamethasone , Diskectomy , Epidural Space , Gelatin Sponge, Absorbable , Lidocaine , Methods , Pain, Postoperative , Porifera , Retrospective Studies , Steroids , Walking
Singapore medical journal ; : 136-139, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777552


INTRODUCTION@#Paediatric epidurals can present technical challenges due to wide variations in age and weight among children, ranging from neonates to teenagers. This study evaluated the skin-to-epidural distance in the thoracic and lumbar regions to determine the relationship between age, weight and ethnicity and depth to the epidural space in our Singapore paediatric population.@*METHODS@#Data from the Acute Pain Service was prospectively collected over 16 years. Details included patient demographics, level of epidural performed and distance from skin to epidural space. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to determine the association of weight, age, ethnicity and gender with the depths to the thoracic and lumbar epidural spaces. A simple linear regression was calculated to predict the depth to both thoracic and lumbar epidural spaces based on body weight. Equations were formulated to describe the relationship between weight and depth of epidural space.@*RESULTS@#A total of 616 midline epidurals were studied. Regression analysis was performed for 225 thoracic epidurals and 363 lumbar epidurals. Our study revealed a clear correlation between skin-to-lumbar epidural distance and weight in children. The best correlation was demonstrated between skin-to-lumbar epidural distance and body weight (R = 0.729). This relationship was described by the formula: depth (mm) = (0.63 × weight [kg]) + 9.2.@*CONCLUSION@#Skin-to-lumbar epidural distance correlated with weight in children. Our results highlighted the clinical significance of differences between Southeast Asian paediatric populations when compared to other populations.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Anesthesia, Epidural , Methods , Body Weight , Epidural Space , Lumbar Vertebrae , Multivariate Analysis , Pain Management , Methods , Pediatrics , Methods , Regression Analysis , Singapore , Skin , Thoracic Vertebrae
Archives of Craniofacial Surgery ; : 332-335, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762790


Cellulitis, one of most common diseases of everyday life, is often overlooked for its significance. Although cellulitis does not cause or lead to serious problems usually, its possibility to cause life-threatening problem should be known. In present case, a patient who had received acupuncture treatment a week earlier presented to the clinic with symptoms of facial cellulitis. The disease resolved within few weeks under empirical antibiotic treatment but recurred after 3 months. Under close history review of the patient, we found out that the patient had received craniectomy 20 years ago. The patient had blunt headache with no other neurological symptoms that could suspect cranial infection, but considering the risk originating from the patient’s surgical history, brain computed tomography (CT) was taken. CT images revealed abscess formation in the subgaleal and epidural spaces. Craniotomy with abscess evacuation was done promptly. With additional antibiotic treatment postoperatively, the disease resolved, and the 1-month postoperative follow-up brain CT showed no signs of abscess formation.

Humans , Abscess , Acupuncture , Brain , Cellulitis , Craniotomy , Empyema , Epidural Abscess , Epidural Space , Follow-Up Studies , Headache
Acta cir. bras ; 34(2): e201900202, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989055


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the hyaluronic acid (HA) inflammatory reaction, fibroblasts, fibrosis and duration of effect in the dorsal region of tobacco-exposed rats. Methods: Ten Wistar rats were divided into two groups: tobacco-exposed-group (TEG;n=5) and air-control-group (CG;n=5). The TEG animals were tobacco-exposed twice a day, 30-minutes/session, during 60 days. After this period, all animals received 0.1 mL HA subcutaneous injection in the dorsal area. The volume of HA was measured immediately after HA injection and weekly using a hand-caliper in nine weeks. After this period, all the animals were euthanized, and a specimen of was collected to evaluate inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and fibrosis by HE. Results: This study showed a higher inflammatory reaction in TEG than CG: inflammatory cell-count (CG: 1.07±0.9; TEG: 8.61±0.36, p<0.001); fibroblast count (CG: 2.92±0.17; TEG: 19.14±0.62, p<0.001), and fibrosis quantification (CG: 2.0; TEG: 3.75, p<0.001). The analysis of the HA volume in nine weeks in the dorsal region did not show a difference between groups (p=0.39). Conclusions: This study suggested that the HA injection in the TEG caused an increase in inflammatory cell count, fibroblast, and fibrosis quantification when compared to the CG. There was no difference in the duration of effect of HA between the groups.

Animals , Male , Rats , Nicotiana/adverse effects , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Viscosupplements/adverse effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Hyaluronic Acid/adverse effects , Inflammation/pathology , Time Factors , Fibrosis , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Epidural Space/drug effects , Epidural Space/pathology , Fibroblasts/pathology , Inflammation/chemically induced
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 268-273, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722321


Emphysematous osteomyelitis, characterized by intraosseous gas, is a rare but potentially fatal condition that requires prompt diagnosis and aggressive therapy. Causative organisms are members of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae or anaerobes in most cases and significant comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and malignancy, may predispose an individual to the development of emphysematous osteomyelitis. We report a case of extensive emphysematous osteomyelitis via hematogenous spread from Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess, complicated by gas-containing abscesses in adjacent soft tissues and epidural space, and multiple systemic septic emboli in a diabetic patient.

Humans , Abscess , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Enterobacteriaceae , Epidural Space , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella , Liver Abscess , Liver , Osteomyelitis
Korean Journal of Neurotrauma ; : 43-46, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713920


In patients with tumors and spinal cord lesions, inflammation and tissue infection can result in mass effect detection on imaging. As a result, surgical biopsy procedures are often performed on the lesions. We report a rare case in which the thickening ligamentum flavum (LF) appeared to be a tumor in the epidural space of the cervical spine based on imaging findings. A 52-year-old man visited our outpatient clinic with severe shoulder pain and radicular pain in his right arm that had developed gradually after a traffic accident two months earlier. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed an extradural mass at the cervicothoracic junction level. Suspecting a tumor, spinal decompression surgery was performed and a biopsy of the mass was obtained. At the time of surgery, the LF was thick and compressed the spinal cord. After successful removal of the LF, the spinal cord appeared normal. Histopathological examination confirmed the mass as the LF. The patient was discharged without pain or weakness two weeks postoperatively. This case demonstrated that when the LF of the cervicothoracic junction is thickened, it may be misdiagnosed as a cervical spine tumor compressing the spinal cord.

Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Accidents, Traffic , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Arm , Biopsy , Cervical Vertebrae , Decompression , Epidural Space , Inflammation , Ligamentum Flavum , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Radiculopathy , Shoulder Pain , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Compression , Spine
Korean Journal of Neurotrauma ; : 150-154, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717708


Posterior fossa epidural hematoma (EDH) is uncommon, but the related clinical deterioration can occur suddenly. Accompanying venous sinus injury and lacerations are associated with 40% to 80% mortality. The authors present one clinical case of a patient with posterior fossa EDH from transverse sinus bleeding. A 57-year-old male was injured after falling while working. He was taken to the hospital, where computed tomography scans of his brain revealed a right posterior temporal and cerebellar EDH with a right temporo-occipital fracture. He underwent a right parieto-occipital craniotomy, incorporating the fracture line. Longitudinal laceration of the right transverse sinus extending to the sigmoid sinus with profuse bleeding was identified. Four gauzes were inserted in the epidural space for tamponade of the injured sinus. Conventional angiography and coil embolization for the injured sinus were immediately performed. Subsequently, the patient was transferred to the operating room, wherein staff members removed the gauzes and remnant hematoma. Based on this experience, the authors recommend that for posterior fossa EDH from transverse sinus bleeding, bleeding control should be performed by gauze packing and endovascular treatment.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Accidental Falls , Angiography , Brain , Colon, Sigmoid , Cranial Fossa, Posterior , Craniotomy , Embolization, Therapeutic , Epidural Space , Hematoma , Hematoma, Epidural, Cranial , Hemorrhage , Lacerations , Mortality , Operating Rooms