Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 498
Filter
1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877550

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effect between electroacupuncture (EA) at Neima point and Neiguan (PC 6) and epidural nerve block for preemptive analgesia in patients undergoing thoracic surgery.@*METHODS@#Sixty patients with elective radical esophagectomy were randomly divided into a group A, a group B and a control group, 20 cases in each group. The patients in the group A were treated with injection of 20 mL 0.375% ropivacaine at epidural space 30 min before anesthesia induction, followed by normal anesthesia during operation; the patients in the group B were treated with 30 min EA at bilateral Neima point and Neiguan (PC 6) before anesthesia induction, followed by normal anesthesia during operation; the patients in the control group were treated with general anesthesia alone. Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia was applied for all the patients. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded at the following time points: before acupuncture/epidural puncture (T@*RESULTS@#The MAP at T@*CONCLUSION@#The preemptive analgesia of EA at Neima point and Neiguan (PC 6) and epidural nerve block could both provide effective perioperative analgesia for thoracic surgery. The EA could better maintain intraoperative hemodynamics and has less physiological disturbance.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Electroacupuncture , Epidural Space , Humans , Nerve Block , Thoracic Surgery
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922043

ABSTRACT

This article aims to study the factors affecting the flexibility of the tip of an epidural anesthesia catheter. The flexibility of the tip of the epidural anesthesia catheter was tested with a softness tester from four aspects:raw materials, tip structure, tip processing technology, and the outer diameter of the catheter. Highly flexible and malleable polymer material with a smooth tip, the tip softening process and the proper outer diameter can effectively improve the tip flexibility of the epidural anesthesia catheter.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Epidural , Catheterization , Catheters , Epidural Space
3.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(4): e204, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1144315

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia has become a standard technique to improve nerve block accuracy and reduce associated complications. The literature reports a good correlation between the distance from the skin to the dura mater or the ligamentum flavum measured on ultrasound and the conventional technique of "loss of resistance". Latin American populations have not been included in the studies conducted so far but, because of differences in physical build, it is important to determine whether this correlation is maintained in the various populations. This paper offers new information about the role of ultrasound in determining the distance to the ligamentum flavum and recognizing the proximity of the dura mater to avoid accidental puncture of this structure in Latin American populations. Objective: To determine correlation and concordance in estimating the distance from the skin to the epidural space between the loss of resistance technique and ultrasound measurement. Methodology: Observational study conducted in 52 pediatric patients who received general anesthesia plus epidural analgesia for acute perioperative pain management between July 2014 and November 2015 to assess correlation and concordance between loss of resistance and ultrasound measurement of distance to the epidural space. Results: There is a correlation between distances measured using the two techniques, which appears to be higher as patient age increases. As for concordance, the study found that 0.43 cm should be added to the ultrasound measurement to achieve agreement with the distance obtained using the loss of resistance technique; however, the interval between the two measurements is 1.15 cm. Conclusions: A correlation was found between the measurement taken from the skin to the epidural space using ultrasound and the measurement obtained with the traditional needle puncture and loss of resistance technique. Although concordance was not as expected and the distance measured with ultrasound may be smaller than the real measurement with the needle, ultrasound offers good guidance regarding proximity to the epidural space.


Resumen Introducción: El uso del ultrasonido en la anestesia regional se ha convertido en una técnica estándar para mejorar la precisión de los bloqueos nerviosos y disminuir las complicaciones relacionadas con dicha anestesia. La literatura informa que hay una buena correlación entre la distancia entre la duramadre o el ligamento amarillo y la piel según el ultrasonido y la técnica convencional de "pérdida de resistencia". Los estudios realizados hasta ahora no han incluido población latinoamericana y, debido a las diferencias en la contextura física, es importante determinar si esta correlación se mantiene en varias poblaciones. Con este trabajo se aporta nueva información sobre la utilidad del ultrasonido para determinar la distancia al ligamento amarillo y advertir la cercanía de la duramadre con el fin de evitar la punción accidental de esta estructura en población latina. Objetivo: Determinar la correlación y concordancia en la estimación de la distancia de la piel al espacio epidural entre la técnica de pérdida de resistencia y la medición por ultrasonido. Metodología: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional en 52 pacientes pediátricos, que recibieron anestesia general más analgesia epidural para manejo del dolor agudo perioperatorio entre julio de 2014 y noviembre de 2015. Se evaluó la correlación y la concordancia de la distancia medida al espacio epidural entre la técnica de pérdida de resistencia y la distancia por ultrasonido. Resultados: Existe una correlación entre la distancia obtenida mediante las dos técnicas de medición que parece aumentar a medida que aumenta la edad de los pacientes. En cuanto a la concordancia se encontró que a la medida tomada por ultrasonido se le debería sumar 0,43 cm para que concuerde con la distancia tomada por pérdida de resistencia; no obstante, el intervalo entre ambas medidas es de 1,15 cm. Conclusiones: Encontramos una correlación entre la medida tomada desde la piel hasta el espacio epidural por ultrasonido y la tomada por la técnica tradicional de punción con aguja y pérdida de resistencia. Aunque la concordancia que hallamos no fue la esperada, y la medición del ultrasonido puede ser menor a la medición real encontrada con la aguja, es una buena guía para advertir la cercanía del espacio epidural.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Analgesia, Epidural , Pediatrics , Skin , Ultrasonics , Ultrasonography , Epidural Space , Anesthesia, General , Nerve Block
4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(3): 202-208, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137174

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: The lumbar plexus block (LPB) is a key technique for lower limb surgery. All approaches to the LPB involve a number of complications. We hypothesized that Chayen's approach, which involves a more caudal and more lateral needle entry point than the major techniques described in the literature, would be associated with a lower rate of epidural spread. Method: We reviewed the electronic medical records and chart of all adult patients who underwent orthopedic surgery for Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) and hip hemiarthroplasty due to osteoarthritis and femoral neck fracture with LPB and Sciatic Nerve Block (SNB) between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2017, in our institute. The LPB was performed according to Chayen's technique using a mixture of mepivacaine and levobupivacaine (total volume, 25 mL) and a SNB by the parasacral approach. The sensory and motor block was evaluated bilaterally during intraoperative and postoperative period. Results: A total number of 700 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I to IV who underwent LPB met the inclusion criteria. The LPB and SNB was successfully performed in all patients. Epidural spread was reported in a single patient (0.14%;p < 0.05), accounting for an 8.30% reduction compared with the other approaches described in the literature. No other complications were recorded. Conclusions: This retrospective study indicates that more caudal and more lateral approach to the LPB, such as the Chayen's approach, is characterized by a lower epidural spread than the other approach to the LPB.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O bloqueio do plexo lombar (BPL) é uma técnica fundamental para a cirurgia de membros inferiores. Todas as abordagens do BPL são associadas a uma série de complicações. Nossa hipótese foi de que a abordagem de Chayen, que envolve um ponto de entrada da agulha mais caudal e mais lateral do que as principais técnicas descritas na literatura, estaria associada a menor incidência de dispersão peridural. Método: Revisamos os prontuários médicos eletrônicos e em papel de todos os pacientes adultos submetidos à artroplastia total do quadril (ATQ) e hemiartroplastia do quadril devido a osteoartrite ou fratura do colo do fêmur empregando-se BPL associado ao bloqueio do nervo ciático (BNC), entre 1 de janeiro de 2002 e 31 de dezembro de 2017 em nossa instituição. Realizamos o BPL usando a técnica de Chayen e uma mistura de mepivacaína e levobupivacaína (volume total de 25 mL) e o BNC pela abordagem parassacral. Testes sensorial e motor bilaterais foram realizados no intra e pós-operatório. Resultados: Os critérios de inclusão foram obedecidos pelo total de 700 pacientes classe ASA I a IV submetidos ao BPL. Os BPL e BNC foram realizados com sucesso em todos os pacientes. A dispersão peridural foi relatada em um único paciente (0,14%; p < 0,05), representando uma redução de 8,30% quando comparada às outras abordagens descritas na literatura. Nenhuma outra complicação foi registrada. Conclusões: Este estudo retrospectivo indica que a abordagem mais caudal e mais lateral do BPL, como a técnica de Chayen, é caracterizada por menor dispersão peridural do que outras abordagens do BPL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sciatic Nerve , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Hemiarthroplasty , Hip Joint/surgery , Lumbosacral Plexus , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Nerve Block/methods , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Epidural Space , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(3): 248-255, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137175

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: To assess the agreement between the epidural depth measured from the surgical site with the epidural depths estimated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound scanning. Methods: Fifty patients of either sex, scheduled for L4‒5 lumbar disc surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this prospective observational study, and the results of 49 patients were analyzed. The actual epidural depth was measured from the surgical site with a sterile surgical scale. The MRI-derived epidural depth was measured from the MRI scan. The ultrasound estimated epidural depth was measured from the ultrasound image obtained just before surgery. Results: The mean epidural depth measured from the surgical site was 53.80 ± 7.67 mm, the mean MRI-derived epidural depth was 54.06 ± 7.36 mm, and the ultrasound-estimated epidural depth was 53.77 ± 7.94 mm. The correlation between the epidural depth measured from the surgical site and MRI-derived epidural depth was 0.989 (r2 = 0.979, p < 0.001), and the corresponding correlation with the ultrasound-estimated epidural depth was 0.990 (r2 = 0.980, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Both ultrasound-estimated epidural depth and MRI-derived epidural depth have a strong correlation with the epidural depth measured from the surgical site. Preprocedural MRI-derived estimates of epidural depth are slightly deeper than the epidural depth measured from the surgical site, and the ultrasound estimated epidural depths are somewhat shallower. Although both radiologic imaging techniques provided reliable preprocedural estimates of the actual epidural depth, the loss of resistance technique cannot be discarded while inserting epidural needles.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Avaliar a concordância entre a profundidade peridural medida no campo cirúrgico com a profundidade peridural estimada pela Ressonância Magnética (RM) e ultrassonografia. Métodos: Cinquenta pacientes de ambos os sexos agendados para cirurgia de disco lombar L4-5 sob anestesia geral foram incluídos neste estudo observacional prospectivo, e os resultados de 49 pacientes foram analisados. A profundidade peridural real foi medida no campo cirúrgico com uma régua cirúrgica estéril. A profundidade peridural obtida pela Ressonância Magnética (RM) foi medida a partir das imagens do exame de RM. A profundidade peridural estimada pelo ultrassom foi medida a partir da imagem do ultrassom obtida imediatamente antes da cirurgia. Resultados: A profundidade peridural média medida no campo cirúrgico foi de 53,80 ± 7,67 mm; a profundidade peridural média da RM foi de 54,06 ± 7,36 mm; e a profundidade peridural estimada por ultrassom foi de 53,77 ± 7,94 mm. A correlação entre a profundidade peridural medida no campo cirúrgico e a profundidade peridural derivada da RM foi de 0,989 (r2 = 0,979; p < 0,001); e a correlação correspondente com a profundidade peridural estimada por ultrassom foi de 0,990 (r2 = 0,980; p < 0,001). Conclusões: Tanto a profundidade peridural estimada por ultrassom quanto a profundidade peridural derivada da RM mostram forte correlação com a profundidade peridural medida no campo cirúrgico. As estimativas pré-operatórias da profundidade peridural derivadas da RM são um pouco mais profundas do que a profundidade peridural medida no campo cirúrgico, e as profundidades peridurais estimadas por ultrassom são um pouco mais rasas. Embora ambas as técnicas de imagem radiológica tenham fornecido estimativas pré-operatórias confiáveis da profundidade peridural real, a técnica de perda de resistência não pode ser descartada durante a inserção da agulha peridural.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Epidural Space/anatomy & histology , Epidural Space/diagnostic imaging , Intervertebral Disc Displacement/surgery , Lumbar Vertebrae , Organ Size , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Correlation of Data , Intraoperative Period , Middle Aged
6.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(2): 97-103, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137158

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Surgery generates a neuroendocrine stress response, resulting in undesirable hemodynamic instability, alterations in metabolic response and malfunctioning of the immune system. Objectives: The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of caudal blocks in intra- and postoperative pain management and in reducing the stress response in children during the same periods. Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial included 60 patients scheduled for elective herniorrhaphy. One group (n = 30) received general anesthesia and the other (n = 30) received general anesthesia with a caudal block. Hemodynamic parameters, drug consumption and pain intensity were measured. Blood samples for serum glucose and cortisol level were taken before anesthesia induction and after awakening the patient. Results: Children who received a caudal block had significantly lower serum glucose (p < 0.01), cortisol concentrations (p < 0.01) and pain scores 3 h (p = 0.002) and 6 h (p = 0.003) after the operation, greater hemodynamic stability and lower drug consumption. Also, there were no side effects or complications identified in that group. Conclusions: The combination of caudal block with general anesthesia is a safe method that leads to less stress, greater hemodynamic stability, lower pain scores and lower consumption of medication.


Resumo Justificativa: O estresse cirúrgico causa resposta neuroendócrina, resultando em instabilidade hemodinâmica indesejável, modificações na resposta metabólica e disfunção no sistema imune. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, em pacientes pediátricos, a eficácia do bloqueio peridural caudal no controle da dor intra e pós-operatória e na redução da resposta ao estresse nesses períodos. Métodos: Estudo clínico prospectivo randomizado que incluiu 60 pacientes submetidos à herniorrafia eletiva. Um grupo (n = 30) recebeu anestesia geral e o outro (n = 30), anestesia geral combinada a bloqueio caudal. Foram medidos os parâmetros hemodinâmicos, o consumo de medicamentos e a intensidade da dor. Amostras de sangue para medir glicemia e cortisol plasmático foram obtidas antes da indução e após o despertar dos pacientes. Resultados: As crianças que receberam bloqueio peridural caudal apresentaram valores significantemente mais baixos para glicemia (p < 0,01), concentração de cortisol (p < 0,01) e escores de dor de 3 horas (p = 0,002) e 6 horas (p = 0,003) após a cirurgia, maior estabilidade hemodinâmica e menor consumo de medicamentos. Além disso, não foram observados efeitos colaterais ou complicações nesse grupo. Conclusões: O bloqueio peridural caudal combinado à anestesia geral é uma técnica segura e que se associa a menor estresse, maior estabilidade hemodinâmica, redução nos escores de dor e baixo consumo de medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Stress, Physiological , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Herniorrhaphy , Hemodynamics , Nerve Block/methods , Sacrum , Prospective Studies , Epidural Space , Anesthesia, General
7.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(1): 63-65, Jan.-Feb. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137139

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Inadvertent epidural drug administration is associated with morbidity and mortality. Several drugs have been administered accidentally through the epidural catheter and most of our knowledge is based on case reports. Case report: A 33 year-old woman presented for delivery. Placement of epidural catheter was requested for labor analgesia and priming dose was administered. Five minutes later, ampicillin 1 g was given through the catheter inadvertently without hemodynamic or neurological changes. Ropivacaine administration was repeated, always with symptomatic relief until delivery. At hospital discharge, she remained without neurological or hemodynamic alterations. Conclusions: The majority of errors are due to syringe and drug exchanges and inadvertent route administration. Erroneous administration into the epidural space can have immediate and late effects and there is no definitive and effective treatment. There are several preventive measures to reduce the potential complications; some opt for watchful waiting, others opt for administering other drugs as a dilution attempted.


Resumo Justificativa: A administração inadvertida peridural de drogas está associada à morbidade e mortalidade. Várias drogas foram administradas acidentalmente pelo cateter peridural e a maior parte do que sabemos se baseia em relatos de caso. Relato de caso: Uma gestante de 33 anos chegou em trabalho de parto. Foi solicitada colocação de cateter peridural para analgesia de parto e a dose inicial foi administrada. Cinco minutos depois, 1 g de ampicilina foi dado através do cateter inadvertidamente, sem alterações hemodinâmicas ou neurológicas. A administração de ropivacaína foi repetida, sempre com alívio dos sintomas até o parto. Na alta hospitalar, a paciente continuava sem alterações neurológicas ou hemodinâmicas. Conclusões: A maioria dos erros é por troca de seringa ou drogas, ou administração de rota inadvertida. A administração errônea no espaço peridural pode apresentar efeitos imediatos e tardios e não há tratamento definitivo ou efetivo. Existem várias medidas preventivas para reduzir complicações potenciais; alguns escolhem observação cuidadosa, outros a administração de outras drogas para tentar a diluição.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Labor, Obstetric , Analgesia, Epidural , Medical Errors , Ampicillin/administration & dosage , Epidural Space
8.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 178-186, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidural steroid injections (ESIs) have been widely used in managing spinal pain. Dexamethasone has recently emerged as a useful drug in this setting, relative to particulate steroids, although the associated systemic effects have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the incidences and types of systemic effects after fluoroscopically guided ESI with dexamethasone. METHODS: This retrospective study included 888 ESIs with dexamethasone (fluoroscopically guided at the cervical and lumbosacral levels) performed on 825 patients during January to June 2017. Data regarding systemic effects were collected via telephone interviews using a standardized questionnaire at 2 weeks after the procedure. Data on patient demographic, clinical, and procedural characteristics were collected and analyzed to identify factors that were associated with systemic effects. All statistical analyses were performed using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: Among the 825 patients, 40 patients (4.8%) experienced systemic effects during the 2-week follow-up period. The most common systemic effect was facial flushing (12 patients, 1.5%), which was followed by urticaria (7 patients, 0.8%) and insomnia (7 patients, 0.8%). A history of spine surgery was significantly associated with the occurrence of systemic effects (P = 0.036). Systemic effects were significantly more common for injections at the cervical level than at the lumbar level (P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 4.8% of the patients who underwent ESI with dexamethasone experienced minor and transient systemic effects. These effects were more common in patients who had undergone a previous spine surgery or received a cervical ESI.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Epidural Space , Fluoroscopy , Flushing , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Interviews as Topic , Low Back Pain , Retrospective Studies , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Spine , Steroids , Urticaria
9.
Singapore medical journal ; : 136-139, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777552

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Paediatric epidurals can present technical challenges due to wide variations in age and weight among children, ranging from neonates to teenagers. This study evaluated the skin-to-epidural distance in the thoracic and lumbar regions to determine the relationship between age, weight and ethnicity and depth to the epidural space in our Singapore paediatric population.@*METHODS@#Data from the Acute Pain Service was prospectively collected over 16 years. Details included patient demographics, level of epidural performed and distance from skin to epidural space. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to determine the association of weight, age, ethnicity and gender with the depths to the thoracic and lumbar epidural spaces. A simple linear regression was calculated to predict the depth to both thoracic and lumbar epidural spaces based on body weight. Equations were formulated to describe the relationship between weight and depth of epidural space.@*RESULTS@#A total of 616 midline epidurals were studied. Regression analysis was performed for 225 thoracic epidurals and 363 lumbar epidurals. Our study revealed a clear correlation between skin-to-lumbar epidural distance and weight in children. The best correlation was demonstrated between skin-to-lumbar epidural distance and body weight (R = 0.729). This relationship was described by the formula: depth (mm) = (0.63 × weight [kg]) + 9.2.@*CONCLUSION@#Skin-to-lumbar epidural distance correlated with weight in children. Our results highlighted the clinical significance of differences between Southeast Asian paediatric populations when compared to other populations.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anesthesia, Epidural , Methods , Body Weight , Child , Child, Preschool , Epidural Space , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lumbar Vertebrae , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pain Management , Methods , Pediatrics , Methods , Regression Analysis , Singapore , Skin , Thoracic Vertebrae
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765628

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of using an epidural steroid sponge for postoperative pain control in lumbar discectomy. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: There are many methods to control postoperative pain after lumbar discectomy, including opioid analgesics, epidural catheters, and epidural steroid Gelfoam sponges. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 72 patients who underwent surgery between March 2011 and February 2014 were enrolled. Their average age was 54 years (range, 24–82 years). In group A (35 patients), Gelfoam was inserted after being soaked with a solution of 2% lidocaine (400 mg/20 mL; 1 vial) and dexamethasone (5 mg/mL; 1 ampoule). In group B (37 patients), it was inserted after soaking with normal saline. Postoperative pain was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. Pain above 5 points was controlled by a narcotic analgesic agent, and the duration and number of postoperative interventions, the period of time before walking after the operation, and the period until the date of discharge after surgery were assessed and compared. The Mann-Whitney U test was used as a nonparametric method. P-values less than 0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. RESULTS: In group A, 15 patients did not require analgesics on the day of surgery. In 20 patients, no analgesics were needed on postoperative day (POD) 1. In group B, 8 patients on the day of surgery and 13 patients on POD 1 did not require analgesics. In group A, 26 patients were able to walk on the day of surgery, and all patients were able to walk on POD 1. In group B, 19 patients was able to walk on the day of surgery and all patients were able to walk on POD 1. The mean number of hospital days before discharge was 6.3 in group A and 8.2 in group B. CONCLUSIONS: By continuously releasing low doses of steroids into the epidural space, this technique provided satisfactory results for postoperative pain control.


Subject(s)
Analgesia, Epidural , Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Catheters , Dexamethasone , Diskectomy , Epidural Space , Gelatin Sponge, Absorbable , Humans , Lidocaine , Methods , Pain, Postoperative , Porifera , Retrospective Studies , Steroids , Walking
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762790

ABSTRACT

Cellulitis, one of most common diseases of everyday life, is often overlooked for its significance. Although cellulitis does not cause or lead to serious problems usually, its possibility to cause life-threatening problem should be known. In present case, a patient who had received acupuncture treatment a week earlier presented to the clinic with symptoms of facial cellulitis. The disease resolved within few weeks under empirical antibiotic treatment but recurred after 3 months. Under close history review of the patient, we found out that the patient had received craniectomy 20 years ago. The patient had blunt headache with no other neurological symptoms that could suspect cranial infection, but considering the risk originating from the patient’s surgical history, brain computed tomography (CT) was taken. CT images revealed abscess formation in the subgaleal and epidural spaces. Craniotomy with abscess evacuation was done promptly. With additional antibiotic treatment postoperatively, the disease resolved, and the 1-month postoperative follow-up brain CT showed no signs of abscess formation.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Acupuncture , Brain , Cellulitis , Craniotomy , Empyema , Epidural Abscess , Epidural Space , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Humans
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762662

ABSTRACT

It is difficult to distinguish Hirayama disease (HD) from other mimicking disorders in adolescent patients with distal upper limb weakness. The prevailing theory of HD postulates that the lower cervical cord is susceptible to compression during neck flexion because of insufficient growth of the dura relative to the spinal column. Confirmation of a dynamic change in the dorsal epidural space on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during neck flexion is essential for diagnosing HD. However, neck flexion MRI has not been routinely performed in juvenile patients with distal upper limb weakness in the absence of suspected HD. We report two cases of HD that were initially confused with other diseases because of insufficient or absent cervical flexion during MRI. Full-flexion MRI showed typical findings of HD in both cases. Our cases suggest that dynamic cervical MRI in the fully flexed position is necessary for evaluating suspected HD.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Cervical Cord , Diagnosis , Epidural Space , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Spinal Cord Diseases , Spine , Upper Extremity
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(2): e201900202, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989055

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the hyaluronic acid (HA) inflammatory reaction, fibroblasts, fibrosis and duration of effect in the dorsal region of tobacco-exposed rats. Methods: Ten Wistar rats were divided into two groups: tobacco-exposed-group (TEG;n=5) and air-control-group (CG;n=5). The TEG animals were tobacco-exposed twice a day, 30-minutes/session, during 60 days. After this period, all animals received 0.1 mL HA subcutaneous injection in the dorsal area. The volume of HA was measured immediately after HA injection and weekly using a hand-caliper in nine weeks. After this period, all the animals were euthanized, and a specimen of was collected to evaluate inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and fibrosis by HE. Results: This study showed a higher inflammatory reaction in TEG than CG: inflammatory cell-count (CG: 1.07±0.9; TEG: 8.61±0.36, p<0.001); fibroblast count (CG: 2.92±0.17; TEG: 19.14±0.62, p<0.001), and fibrosis quantification (CG: 2.0; TEG: 3.75, p<0.001). The analysis of the HA volume in nine weeks in the dorsal region did not show a difference between groups (p=0.39). Conclusions: This study suggested that the HA injection in the TEG caused an increase in inflammatory cell count, fibroblast, and fibrosis quantification when compared to the CG. There was no difference in the duration of effect of HA between the groups.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Tobacco/adverse effects , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Viscosupplements/adverse effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Hyaluronic Acid/adverse effects , Inflammation/pathology , Time Factors , Fibrosis , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Epidural Space/drug effects , Epidural Space/pathology , Fibroblasts/pathology , Inflammation/chemically induced
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713920

ABSTRACT

In patients with tumors and spinal cord lesions, inflammation and tissue infection can result in mass effect detection on imaging. As a result, surgical biopsy procedures are often performed on the lesions. We report a rare case in which the thickening ligamentum flavum (LF) appeared to be a tumor in the epidural space of the cervical spine based on imaging findings. A 52-year-old man visited our outpatient clinic with severe shoulder pain and radicular pain in his right arm that had developed gradually after a traffic accident two months earlier. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed an extradural mass at the cervicothoracic junction level. Suspecting a tumor, spinal decompression surgery was performed and a biopsy of the mass was obtained. At the time of surgery, the LF was thick and compressed the spinal cord. After successful removal of the LF, the spinal cord appeared normal. Histopathological examination confirmed the mass as the LF. The patient was discharged without pain or weakness two weeks postoperatively. This case demonstrated that when the LF of the cervicothoracic junction is thickened, it may be misdiagnosed as a cervical spine tumor compressing the spinal cord.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Arm , Biopsy , Cervical Vertebrae , Decompression , Epidural Space , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Ligamentum Flavum , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Radiculopathy , Shoulder Pain , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Compression , Spine
15.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 296-304, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742195

ABSTRACT

Epiduroscopy is defined as a percutaneous, minimally invasive endoscopic investigation of the epidural space. Periduroscopy is currently used mainly as a diagnostic tool to directly visualize epidural adhesions in patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), and as a therapeutic action in patients with low back pain by accurately administering drugs, releasing inflammation, washing the epidural space, and mechanically releasing the scars displayed. Considering epiduroscopy a minimally invasive technique should not lead to underestimating its potential complications. The purpose of this review is to summarize and explain the mechanisms of the side effects strictly related to the technique itself, leaving aside complications considered typical for any kind of extradural procedure (e.g. adverse reactions due to the administration of drugs or bleeding) and not fitting the usual concept of epiduroscopy for which the data on its real usefulness are still lacking. The most frequent complications and side effects of epiduroscopy can be summarized as non-persistent post-procedural low back and/or leg discomfort/pain, transient neurological symptoms (headache, hearing impairment, paresthesia), dural puncture with or without post dural puncture headache (PDPH), post-procedural visual impairment with retinal hemorrhage, encephalopathy resulting in rhabdomyolysis due to a dural tear, intradural cyst, as well as neurogenic bladder and seizures. We also report for first time, to our knowledge, a case of symptomatic pneumocephalus after epiduroscopy, and try to explain the reason for this event and the precautions to avoid this complication.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Cicatrix , Epidural Space , Failed Back Surgery Syndrome , Hearing Loss , Humans , Inflammation , Leg , Low Back Pain , Paresthesia , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pneumocephalus , Post-Dural Puncture Headache , Punctures , Retinal Hemorrhage , Rhabdomyolysis , Seizures , Tears , Tissue Adhesions , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic , Vision Disorders
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An epidural steroid injection (ESI) is a commonly administered procedure in pain clinics. An unintentional lumbar facet joint injection during interlaminar ESI was reported in a previous study, but there has not been much research on the characteristics of an unintentional lumbar facet joint injection. This study illustrated the imaging features of an unintentional lumbar facet joint injection during an interlaminar ESI and analyzed characteristics of patients who underwent this injection. METHODS: From December 2015 to May 2017, we performed 662 lumbar ESIs and we identified 24 cases (21 patients) that underwent a lumbar facet joint injection. We gathered data contrast pattern, needle approach levels and directions, injected facet joint levels and directions, presence of lumbar spine disease as seen on magnetic resonance images (MRI), and histories of lumbar spine surgeries. RESULTS: The contrast pattern in the facet joint has a sigmoid or ovoid contrast pattern confined to the vicinity of the facet joint. The incidence of unintentional lumbar facet joint injection was 3.6%. The mean age was 68.47 years. Among these 21 patients, 14 (66.7%) were injected in the facet joint ipsilaterally to the needle approach. Among the 20 patients who received MRI, all (100%) had central stenosis and 15 patients (75%) had severe stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: When the operator performs an interlaminar ESI on patients with central spinal stenosis, the contrast pattern on the fluoroscopy during interlaminar ESI should be carefully examined to distinguish between the epidural space and facet joint.


Subject(s)
Colon, Sigmoid , Constriction, Pathologic , Epidural Space , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Incidence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Needles , Pain Clinics , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Stenosis , Spine , Zygapophyseal Joint
17.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 109-115, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with lumbar disc herniation are treated with physiotherapy/medication and some with surgery. However, even after technically successful surgery some develop a failed back syndrome with persistent pain. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of epiduroscopy in patients who suffer chronic low back pain and/or radicular pain with or without surgery and the gender difference in outcome. METHODS: A total of 88 patients were included with a mean age of 52 years (27-82), 54 women and 34 men. 66 of them were operated previously and 22 were non-operated. They all had persistent chronic back pain and radicular pain despite of medication and physical rehabilitation. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were evaluated preoperatively, after one month, six months and one-year after the epiduroscopy. RESULTS: All patients, and also the subgroups (gender and operated/non-operated) improved significantly in pain (VAS) and disability (ODI) at one month. A significant improvement was also seen at one year. No differences were found between men and woman at the different follow-up times. A slight worsening in VAS and ODI was noticed over time except for the non-operated group. CONCLUSIONS: Epiduroscopy helps to improve the back and leg pain due to lumbar disc herniation in the early stage. At one year an improvement still exists, and the non-operated group seems to benefit most of the procedure.


Subject(s)
Back Pain , Disability Evaluation , Endoscopy , Epidural Space , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intervertebral Disc Displacement , Leg , Low Back Pain , Male , Pain Measurement , Rehabilitation , Retrospective Studies , Visual Analog Scale
18.
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765596

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Case report OBJECTIVES: We report a case of surgically proven tophaceous gout of the lumbar spine at the L5-S1 level in a 43-year-old man that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess on magnetic resonance (MR) images. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: Some patients have chronic back pain with an epidural mass. Among the many causes of epidural masses, tophaceous gout of the lumbar spine is very rare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 43-year-old man presented with fever and chronic back pain with radiating pain. In an MR image of L4-5, an abnormal subcutaneous mass was found in the posterior epidural space. The subcutaneous mass was isointense on T1-weighted images compared with the intervertebral disc, and focally and strongly hyperintense and heterogeneous on T2-weighted images. After the intravenous administration of gadolinium contrast, the mass was fairly homogenous, with a low signal intensity and without enhancement. With the diagnosis of infective spondylitis with epidural abscess, we performed a decompressive mass resection. RESULTS: The pathologic examination revealed multinuclear giant cells and amorphous crystalline fibrous tissue. The lesion was diagnosed as tophaceous gout. CONCLUSIONS: This case underscores the importance of considering tophaceous gout in the differential diagnosis of an epidural mass in a patient with chronic back pain.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Back Pain , Crystallins , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Discitis , Epidural Abscess , Epidural Space , Fever , Gadolinium , Giant Cells , Gout , Humans , Intervertebral Disc , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spine , Spondylitis
20.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 1-5, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786705

ABSTRACT

The percutaneous epidural neuroplasty is recently accepted as a useful interventional tool for management of chronic low back pain and radicular pain, which is refractory to other conservative treatments. The epidural adhesion is thought to be a cause of the refractory spinal pain because it could be a barrier preventing drug from reaching target lesion. It has been known that the adhesion is a result of post-operative scar change, fibrosis and chronic inflammatory response around the intervertebral disc and nerve root. The epidural neuroplasty is a catheterization technique for injecting therapeutic drug accurately into lesions of epidural space. Although the exact mechanisms of action of the procedure are unknown, the adhesiolysis could be induced by two postulated mechanisms, mechanical lysis by hydraulic pressure and catheterization, and chemical lysis by injected drugs. Normal saline, local anesthetics, and steroid are injected via the catheter. The large volume of injectant could wash out the pain substances and the pharmacologic effects of the injectant could relieve the pain. some possible adverse reactions of the procedure are known, but they could be prevented by exact technique and careful monitoring.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics, Local , Catheterization , Catheters , Cicatrix , Epidural Space , Fibrosis , Intervertebral Disc , Low Back Pain
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL