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1.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e181942, fev. 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363107

ABSTRACT

The project is based on a test of a thoracic vibration vest prototype, adapted to equines by the Expector® vest's company, on healthy animals. Ten (10) equines were used in the project, male or female, adults, healthy, belonging to FMVZ-USP or private owners. Each animal went through two phases: A and B. Phase A consisted of the placement of the vest without turning on the vibrators, evaluating the animal's acceptability, facility, adaptation to the animal's body, and discomfort due to the vest's use. Phase B included the placement of the vest and turning on the vibrators, evaluating the animal's acceptability, reaction to the vibrators, and, if present, to which velocity/type of vibration, and the presence of adverse effects. Both phases were done three times on separate days. The behavioral parameters: "placement facility" and "adaptation to the animal's body" were observed. In phase B, the response to the vibration was classified from 0 to 5. The answer was evaluated on low and high intensities for the four vibration types. The heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) were also evaluated at the beginning and end of each repetition. The animals' HR was kept on normal, except for one animal on one day of the test. Concerning the RR, most animals presented moments of tachypnea. On the experiment's first day, 100% of grade Great to "facility of placement" and "adaptation to the animal's body" was obtained, but on days 2 and 3 this value dropped to 90% due to alterations in one animal's responses. Regarding vibration's responses, 77.3% were evaluated as no discomfort (grade 0), 17.1% little discomfort (grade 1), 3.3% medium discomfort (grade 2), 0.4% great discomfort (grade 3), 0.21% extreme discomfort (grade 4), and 1.6% non-acceptance of the vest (grade 5). Some possible changes on the prototype were also verified to be suggested to the manufacturer, such as the change of the buckle and the use of wireless control. Vest use appears promising for equine respiratory physiotherapy, considering the acceptability was good, and its efficiency on the expectoration of diseased animals must be tested.


O projeto consistiu no teste de um protótipo de colete de vibração torácica, adaptado aos equinos pela empresa do colete Expector®, em animais saudáveis. Foram utilizados 10 equinos, machos ou fêmeas, adultos, saudáveis, pertencentes à FMVZ-USP e a proprietários particulares. Cada animal passou por duas fases: A e B. A Fase A consistiu na colocação do colete sem ligar os vibradores, avaliando-se a aceitabilidade do animal; facilidade; adaptação ao corpo do animal e incômodo do mesmo à sua presença. Já a Fase B contava com a colocação do colete e funcionamento dos vibradores, avaliando-se a aceitabilidade do animal; reação aos vibradores e, se presente, a qual velocidade/tipo de vibração; presença de reações ou efeitos adversos. As duas fases foram realizadas em triplicata em dias separados. Foram observados os parâmetros comportamentais "facilidade de colocação" e "adaptação ao corpo do animal". Na fase B, a resposta à vibração foi classificada de 0 a 5. A resposta foi avaliada nas intensidades baixa e alta para os quatro diferentes tipos de vibração. Foram avaliadas também as frequências cardíaca (FC) e respiratória (FR) no início e final de cada repetição. A FC dos animais se manteve dentro do intervalo de normalidade, com exceção de um animal em um dia de avaliação. Em relação à FR, a maioria apresentou momentos de taquipneia. No primeiro dia de experimento obteve-se 100% de avaliação Ótima para "facilidade de colocação" e "adaptação ao corpo do animal", mas nos dias 2 e 3 esse valor caiu para 90% devido à alteração na resposta de um animal. Em relação à resposta à vibração, 77,3% das respostas foram avaliadas como nenhum incômodo (nota 0), 17,1% pouco incômodo (nota 1), 3,3% médio incômodo (nota 2), 0,4% muito incômodo (nota 3), 0,21% incômodo extremo (nota 4) e 1,6% não aceitação do colete (nota 5). Foram também verificadas algumas possíveis mudanças no protótipo a serem sugeridas ao fabricante, como mudança do tipo de fivela e uso de controle sem fio. A utilização do colete parece ser muito promissora para a fisioterapia respiratória em equinos, visto que a aceitabilidade foi muito boa, devendo-se agora realizar a avaliação de sua eficácia na expectoração de animais enfermos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Adaptation, Physiological , Physical Therapy Modalities/veterinary , Equipment Design , Respiratory Rate/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Horses/physiology
2.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(3): 190-199, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251302

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To compare hand-held breast ultrasound (HHBUS) and automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) as screening tool for cancer. Methods A cross-sectional study in patients with mammographically dense breasts was conducted, and both HHBUS and ABUS were performed. Hand-held breast ultrasound was acquired by radiologists and ABUS by mammography technicians and analyzed by breast radiologists. We evaluated the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification of the exam and of the lesion, as well as the amount of time required to perform and read each exam. The statistical analysis employed was measures of central tendency and dispersion, frequencies, Student t test, and a univariate logistic regression, through the odds ratio and its respective 95% confidence interval, and with p<0.05 considered of statistical significance. Results Atotal of 440 patientswere evaluated. Regarding lesions,HHBUS detected 15 (7.7%) BI-RADS 2, 175 (89.3%) BI-RADS 3, and 6 (3%) BI-RADS 4, with 3 being confirmed by biopsy as invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs), and 3 false-positives. Automated breast ultrasound identified 12 (12.9%) BI-RADS 2, 75 (80.7%) BI-RADS 3, and 6 (6.4%) BI-RADS 4, including 3 lesions detected by HHBUS and confirmed as IDCs, in addition to 1 invasive lobular carcinoma and 2 high-risk lesions not detected by HHBUS. The amount of time required for the radiologist to read the ABUS was statistically inferior compared with the time required to read the HHBUS (p<0.001). The overall concordance was 80.9%. A total of 219 lesions were detected, from those 70 lesions by both methods, 126 only by HHBUS (84.9% not suspicious by ABUS) and 23 only by ABUS. Conclusion Compared with HHBUS, ABUS allowed adequate sonographic study in supplemental screening for breast cancer in heterogeneously dense and extremely dense breasts.


Resumo Objetivo Comparar a ultrassonografia convencional das mamas (US) com a ultrassonografia automatizada das mamas (ABUS) no rastreio do câncer. Métodos Realizamos um estudo transversal com pacientes com mamas mamograficamente densas, sendo avaliadas pela US e pela ABUS. A US foi realizada por radiologistas e a ABUS por técnicos de mamografia e analisada por radiologistas especializados em mama. A classificação Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) do exame e das lesões o tempo de leitura e de aquisição foram avaliados. A análise estatística foi realizada através de medidas de tendência central, dispersão e frequências, teste t de Student e regressão logística univariada, através do odds ratio, com intervalo de confiança de 95%, e com p<0,05 sendo considerado estatisticamente significante. Resultados Foram avaliadas 440 pacientes. Em relação às lesões, a US detectou 15 (7,7%) BI-RADS 2, 175 (89,3%) BI-RADS 3 e 6 (3%) BI-RADS 4, das quais 3 foram confirmadas, por biópsia, como carcinomas ductais invasivos e 3 falso-positivos. A ABUS identificou 12 (12,9%) BI-RADS 2, 75 (80,7%) BI-RADS 3 e 6 (6,4%) BI-RADS 4, incluindo 3 lesões detectadas pela US e confirmadas como carcinomas ductais invasivos, além de 1 carcinoma lobular invasivo e 2 lesões de alto risco não detectadas pela US. O tempo de leitura dos exames da ABUS foi estatisticamente inferior ao tempo do radiologista para realizar a US (p<0,001). A concordância foi de 80,9%. Um total de 219 lesões foram detectadas, das quais 70 por ambos os métodos, 126 observadas apenas pela US (84,9% não eram lesões suspeitas no ABUS) e 23 apenas pela ABUS. Conclusão Comparado à US, a ABUS permitiu adequado estudo complementar no rastreio do câncer de mamas heterogeneamente densas e extremamente densas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Mammary/instrumentation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Equipment Design , Middle Aged
4.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 25-29, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279069

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La exploración cardiaca es una competencia clínica fundamental que requiere exposición o entrenamiento continuo. La baja disponibilidad y accesibilidad de pacientes con patología cardiaca constituye una barrera para adquirir esta competencia. Se han documentado inadecuadas habilidades de auscultación cardiaca en estudiantes de medicina, residentes y médicos graduados. Objetivo: Elaborar y validar un simulador de alta fidelidad y bajo costo para exploración cardiaca. Métodos: Se diseñó y elaboró un simulador para exploración cardiaca, realista y de bajo costo capaz de reproducir ruidos cardiacos normales. Posteriormente se realizó la validación del simulador por un grupo de expertos que emitieron su opinión de acuerdo con una escala tipo Likert. Resultados: El 94 % afirmó que el simulador motiva el aprendizaje de la exploración cardiaca y 92 % lo consideró un modelo realista; 91 % consideró que el simulador es una herramienta atractiva para fortalecer el aprendizaje y 98 % recomendó seguir utilizándolo. Conclusiones: El uso del simulador facilita la adquisición de competencias y estimula el aprendizaje en el estudiante, lo cual puede ser atribuido a la práctica deliberada, a un mayor tiempo de exposición y a la interacción cognitiva.


Abstract Introduction: Heart exploration is an essential clinical competence that requires continuous training and exposure. Low availability and accessibility to patients with heart disease constitutes a barrier to acquiring this competence. Inadequate cardiac auscultation skills in medical students, residents, and graduate physicians have been documented. Objective: To develop and validate a low-cost, high-fidelity simulator for heart exploration. Methods: A low-cost, high-fidelity heart examination simulator capable of reproducing normal cardiac sounds was designed and developed. Subsequently, the simulator was validated by a group of experts who gave their opinion according to a Likert scale. Results: Ninety-four percent agreed that the simulator motivates the learning of heart exploration, and 92 % considered it to be a realistic model; 91 % considered that the simulator is an attractive tool to reinforce learning and 98 % recommended its further use. Conclusions: The use of the simulator facilitates the acquisition of skills and stimulates learning in the student, which can be attributed to repeated practice, longer exposure time and cognitive interaction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phonocardiography/instrumentation , Heart Sounds , Equipment Design/economics , High Fidelity Simulation Training/methods , Phonocardiography/economics , Reproducibility of Results , High Fidelity Simulation Training/economics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880457

ABSTRACT

This study established a rapid ECG screening system through the application of wearable ECG equipment. The closed-loop and self-service process of ECG inspection, data collection, transmission and printing have been realized. The new rapid ECG screening system docking with HIS system in the hospital, forming a new intelligent mode of rapid ECG screening. This paper introduces the design of the intelligent mode of ECG rapid screening from the aspects of hardware, software, wearable ECG examination equipment, and briefly describes its implementation path and technical scheme. With the rapid ECG screening system, human power can be saved, the timeliness of ECG examination can be enhanced. The level of ECG diagnosis in the basic units can be improved through building a multiple medical centers which is rely on the cloud platform.


Subject(s)
Electrocardiography , Equipment Design , Humans , Research , Software , Wearable Electronic Devices
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880443

ABSTRACT

Aiming at the low efficiency and low quality detection level of the manual infusion set, a gas detection system for infusion set based on STM32 single-chip microcomputer was designed. The detection system includes hardware system design and software system design. The hardware system is based on the STM32F103 single-chip microcomputer. It mainly designs the gas pressure sensor acquisition circuit and the multi-way solenoid valve control circuit. The software system uses a C ++ real-time operating system to ensure system monitoring's real-time performance and validity. Test data is transmitted to the upper computer and displayed via USB serial communication. The experiment proves that the infusion set gas detection system can perform gas detection on the infusion set. The system has the characteristics of stability and high accuracy. The relative error of the experimental measurement is within ±5%, and the detection efficiency is better than manual detection.


Subject(s)
Computers , Equipment Design , Microcomputers , Software
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880416

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#In the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the subject was designed to develop a new tracheal intubation device based on magnetic navigation technology to improve the success rate of tracheal intubation and reduce the risk of occupational exposure of medical staff.@*METHODS@#The new tracheal intubation device was designed with the uniqueness of the magnetic field environment and magnetic steering of magnetic navigation technology. And preliminary magnetic navigation tracheal intubation experiments were performed on the tracheal intubation simulator.@*RESULTS@#Magnetic navigation tracheal intubation can successfully implement tracheal intubation, and the time required is lower than that of traditional laryngoscopy.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The tracheal intubation based on magnetic navigation technology is feasible, with high efficiency and easy operation. That is expected to be widely used for tracheal intubation during treatment of patients outside the hospital in the future. At the same time, magnetic navigation endotracheal intubation technology will be the key technology for the development of endotracheal intubation robots.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Equipment Design , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Magnetic Phenomena , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922049

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#A rapid fixation device is developed to solve the problems of emergency fixation and transportation of patients with spinal injury.@*METHODS@#Through the analysis of the function,3D modeling design, finite element analysis and optimization design based on ANSYS Workbench, tensile strength verification experiment, we produced the prototype, and tested it, conducted a simulated rescue experiment.@*RESULTS@#The fixation device designed can meet the demand of spinal injury patients for safe rescue after accidents, and the quality of the rapid fixation device was lighten by about 30% without reducing the intensity.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The method based on optimal design can obviously improve the structure design, and has reference significance for other related rescue equipment design.


Subject(s)
Equipment Design , Finite Element Analysis , Humans , Tensile Strength
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922046

ABSTRACT

In order to reduce the working intensity of medical staff in inspecting patients during traditional infusion, a remote monitoring system for intravenous infusion is designed for solving the problem of delay in handling treatment during infusion process and to reduce the incidence of medical accidents. The system uses Visual Basic.NET language to develop the upper computer platform for infusion monitoring. It uses the Arduino control board and infrared photoelectric sensor to form a monitoring device to detect relevant information. At the same time, it uses Zigbee wireless sensing technology to transmit data and upload it to the software platform. The results show that the system can receive data from multiple monitoring terminal devices in the upper computer platform application interface at the same time. It can display the data in the nurse station in a graphical way, and perform alarm warning and information storage during the infusion process. The infusion monitoring system can observe the monitoring situation in real time, reduce the workload of medical staff, and further improve the operating efficiency and safety of the hospital.


Subject(s)
Computers , Electrocardiography , Equipment Design , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic , Wireless Technology
10.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1003-1009, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921839

ABSTRACT

Bionic untethered micro-nano robots, due to their advantages of small size, low weight, large thrust-to-weight ratio, strong wireless mobility, high flexibility and high sensitivity, have very important application values in the fields of biomedicine, such as disease diagnosis, minimally invasive surgery, targeted therapy, etc. This review article systematically introduced the manufacturing methods and motion control, and discussed the biomedical applications of bionic untethered micro-nano robots. Finally, the article discussed the possible challenges for bionic untethered micro-nano robots in the future. In summary, this review described bionic untethered micro-nano robots and their potential applications in biomedical fields.


Subject(s)
Bionics , Equipment Design , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Motion , Robotics
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888634

ABSTRACT

Ventilator is an indispensable emergency medical equipment in hospitals. The global outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has highlighted the importance of the ventilator, which has attracted the attention and research on ventilators of all countries in the world. This article reviews the development history of the ventilator, briefly introduces the main air circuit structure and working principle of the ventilator, and then deeply analyzes the key technologies of this device. In addition, it compares some major brands of ventilators from several aspects in the market. Finally, the development trend and perspective of ventilators are presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Equipment Design , Home Care Services , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888633

ABSTRACT

Based on ASP.NET framework, The Intelligent Estimated System for Rational Deployment of Medical Equipment (MERDIS) is designed and developed with SQL Server 2012 database and C# language. The system is used to realize the rational deployment suggestions and evaluation of medical equipment in hospitals. The system input the data of hospital medical equipment and clinical pathway into the database, and then feedback the deployment information to users which are calculated by big data information, so as to achieve the purpose of giving rational deployment of hospital medical equipment.


Subject(s)
Databases, Factual , Equipment Design , Hospitals
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888354

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The finite element analysis method was used to compare the biomechanical performance of the individualized interbody fusion cage, the clinically common double bullet type fusion cage and the healthy lumbar spine model under different working conditions.@*METHODS@#According to the CT scan data of the lumbar spine of a real healthy human body, a finite element model of the lumbar spine of a healthy human body was designed using finite element software as a normal control group. On this basis, the individualized lumbar fusion cage model and the clinical standard bullet type fusion cage lumbar spine model were further established. These three finite element models were applied with different loads such as vertical compression, forward flexion, extension, and lateral bending to observethe changes in the stress distribution and stress magnitude of each component of the lumbar spine.@*RESULTS@#The maximum stress values of the vertebral body and the fusion cage under the extension condition in the clinical standard bullet type fusion cage lumbar spine model were 45.81 MPa and 97.07 MPa, respectively. The stress of the vertebral body and the fusion cage in the individualized lumbar fusion cage model was closer to the stress of the vertebral body and the intervertebral disc in the healthy lumbar spine model. From the perspective of displacement, the displacement of each component of the lumbar spine models of the two fusion cages was smaller than that of the healthy lumbar spine model, indicated that the internal fixation of the fusion cage limited the range of motion of the vertebral body. On the other hand, it also confirmed the validity of the finite element model established in the study. The displacement of the fusion cage and the vertebral body in the individualized model under different working conditions was generally smaller thanthat of the standard model fusion cage and the vertebral body.@*CONCLUSION@#The fusion cage can replace the diseased intervertebral disc to a certain extent, so as to reduce the patient's pain and restore the lumbar function. The personalized design of the fusion cage can better meet the needs of individual patients, which has the great significance to the recovery of the patient's lumbar spine function, the service life of the fusion cage and the protection of the contact vertebral body, and provides certain guidance for actual clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Equipment Design , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Range of Motion, Articular , Spinal Fusion
14.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 36(82): 49-55, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291932

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Mensurar los niveles de radiación de fuga y dispersión emanada a través de los blindajes y estructuras plomadas del tubo de rayos X de la unidad dental portátil NOMAD, controlando la retrodispersión con el uso del escudo protector de acrílico plomado adaptado en el extremo final del tubo localizador plomado. Se midieron las tasas de exposición dispersadas mediante un detector tipo Geiger-Müller y una cámara de ionización con respuesta en el rango de energías aportadas en diagnóstico por imágenes para la medición de la exposición directa y determinación posterior de las dosis. Se utilizó un fantomas diseñado para diagnóstico odontológico, sopesando la radiación en diferentes angulaciones de operación del equipo NOMAD, simulando los gestos posturales de odontólogos, radiólogos y sujetos a identificar. Se controlaron las tasas de exposición para determinar los valores de las dosis aportadas en las zonas significativas corporales más radiosensibles del operador del equipo. Se obtuvo como resultado que la retrodispersión en el cristalino del ojo del operador fue significativamente menor cuando el fantomas estaba acostado, mientras que a nivel de gónadas resultó más baja con el cuerpo sentado. La tasa de dosis máxima de radiación dispersa que impactó en los operadores fue de 350.8 micro Sieverts por hora (uSv/h) en la zona de gónadas, por cada radiografía tomada sin el uso del delantal de goma plomada, reduciéndose a 4.38 micro Sieverts por hora (uSv/h) al utilizarlo (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Radiography, Dental/methods , Technology, Dental , Dental Equipment , Forensic Dentistry , Patients , Argentina , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection , Scattering, Radiation , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Victims Identification , Radiation Exposure Control , Equipment Design
15.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e064, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249380

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Sixty moderately curved canals of mandibular molars classified as Vertucci's type IV canal configuration were selected by micro-CT 1174. The teeth were divided into two groups according to the kinematics used, whether reciprocating or rotary motion (n=30, totaling 60 mesial root canals). The instruments used to perform the glide path procedures had identical features (0.15 mm of tip size, 0.04 mm/mm taper, thermal treatment, and square cross-section), but differed in the direction of the cutting blade. The duration of the procedure and the absolute and percentage frequency of the instruments to reach the full working length were recorded. The torsional test (3630-1; 1992) was performed on both used and unused instruments, to evaluate a possible reduction in the torsional resistance when using the glide path procedure. Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired t-test and the chi-square test, and the level of significance was set at 5%. The type of kinematics used affected the duration of glide path procedures, and the reciprocating motion seemed to induce less torsional stress during glide path procedures.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Preparation , Dental Pulp Cavity , Biomechanical Phenomena , Equipment Design , X-Ray Microtomography , Molar/diagnostic imaging
16.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1153624

ABSTRACT

Abstrac The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cyclic fatigue, torsional resistance and surface roughness of Reciproc R25 instruments in four different situations, namely as new instruments and as instruments tested after clinical preparation of one, two or three maxillary molars with four root canals. The total time required to perform each root canal preparation was recorded. Cyclic fatigue resistance was determined by the time to fracture using a customized testing device (n = 10 per group). The torsional test evaluated the torque and angle of rotation to failure according to ISO 3630-1 (n = 10 per group). The roughness of the working parts of new and used instruments was evaluated with a profilometer (n = 5 per group). Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. The level of significance was set at 5%. No fractures or deformations were observed after clinical use. Higher preparation time was needed during the third use of the instruments for all root canals (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences among the groups in regard to either cyclic fatigue or torsional resistance (p > 0.05). Regarding the roughness measurements, groove depth was higher on new and one- versus two- or three-maxillary-molar-prepared instruments (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that the clinical use of Reciproc instruments increased preparation time and decreased surface roughness. However, clinical use did not affect the cyclic fatigue or torsional resistance of the Reciproc instruments.


Subject(s)
Titanium , Root Canal Preparation , Stress, Mechanical , Materials Testing , Torque , Dental Instruments , Equipment Design
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(6): 605-610, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132347

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the efficiency of using a single instrument from three different rotary multi-file systems and compared them with that of a reciprocating single-file for endodontic retreatment by means of micro-CT. Sixty extracted canines were prepared using a size F2 ProTaper Universal file and obturated. After 30 days of storage at 37ºC and 100% humidity, the teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n=15) based on the type of instrument used to retreatment: ProTaper Next (PTN), ProTaper Gold (PTG), TRUShape 3D (TS), and WaveOne (WO). The canals were retreated using only the size 40 instrument from each system according to the manufacturer's recommendations for torque and speed. The time required to remove the filling material was recorded in seconds. The amount of initial and residual filling material and the quantity of dentin removed were assessed by means of micro-CT. Data were statistically analyzed (ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis) at a 5% significance level. TS instruments required the highest (p<0.05) amount of time (mean, 384.80 ±144.92) compared with the WO (229.67±68.16) and PTG (248.67±64.22) and not so different from PTN instruments (327.67±133.3). No differences in the amount of dentin removed, initial and residual filling volume, and percentages of filling material were observed among the groups. The use of a single rotary instrument from the PTG, TS, and PTN systems was as effective as that of the single-file reciprocating WO system. However, none of the instruments was able to remove the filling materials completely.


Resumo Este estudo laboratorial avaliou por meio de micro-CT a eficiência do uso de um único instrumento de três sistemas rotatórios em retratamentos endodônticos, comparados a um instrumento único reciprocante. Sessenta caninos extraídos foram preparados usando o sistema ProTaper Universal (F2) e obturados. Após 30 dias de armazenamento a 37 ºC e 100% de umidade, os dentes foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n = 15), de acordo com o instrumento utilizado para remover as obturações endodônticas: ProTaper NEXT (PTN), ProTaper Gold (PTG), TRUShape 3D (TS) e WaveOne (WO). Os canais foram retratados usando apenas o instrumento tamanho 40 de cada sistema, seguindo as recomendações do fabricante para torque e velocidade. O tempo necessário para remover a obturação foi registrado em segundos. A quantidade de material remanescente e o volume de dentina removida foram avaliadas por meio de micro-CT. Análise estatística foi realizada (ANOVA e Kruskal-Wallis), com nível de significância de 5%. O tempo de trabalho no grupo TS foi significativamente maior (p<0.05) (média, 384,80 ± 144,92) comparado a WO (229,67 ± 68,16) e PTG (248,67 ± 64,22), e similar a PTN (327,67 ± 133,3). Não houve diferenças entre os grupos na quantidade de dentina removida e nas porcentagens de material obturador residual. O uso de apenas um instrumento rotatório dos sistemas PTG, TS e PTN foi tão eficaz quanto o do sistema WO reciprocante na remoção do material obturador. No entanto, nenhum dos instrumentos conseguiu remover completamente os materiais obturadores.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials , Root Canal Obturation , Titanium , Root Canal Preparation , Retreatment , Dental Pulp Cavity , Equipment Design , X-Ray Microtomography , Nickel
18.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 444-457, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138512

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A pandemia por COVID-19 tem deixado os gestores, os profissionais de saúde e a população preocupados com a potencial escassez de ventiladores pulmonares para suporte de pacientes graves. No Brasil, há diversas iniciativas com o intuito de produzir ventiladores alternativos para ajudar a suprir essa demanda. Para auxiliar as equipes que atuam nessas iniciativas, são expostos alguns conceitos básicos sobre fisiologia e mecânica respiratória, os termos comumente utilizados no contexto da ventilação mecânica, as fases do ciclo ventilatório, as diferenças entre disparo e ciclagem, os modos ventilatórios básicos e outros aspectos relevantes, como mecanismos de lesão pulmonar induzida pela ventilação mecânica, pacientes com drive respiratório, necessidade de umidificação de vias aéreas, risco de contaminação cruzada e disseminação de aerossóis. Após a fase de desenvolvimento de protótipo, são necessários testes pré-clínicos de bancada e em modelos animais, a fim de determinar a segurança e o desempenho dos equipamentos, seguindo requisitos técnicos mínimos exigidos. Então, é imprescindível passar pelo processo regulatório exigido pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA). A empresa responsável pela fabricação do equipamento deve estar regularizada junto à ANVISA, que também deve ser notificada da condução dos testes clínicos em humanos, seguindo protocolo de pesquisa aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. O registro do ventilador junto à ANVISA deve ser acompanhado de um dossiê, composto por documentos e informações detalhadas neste artigo, que não tem o propósito de esgotar o assunto, mas de nortear os procedimentos necessários.


ABSTRACT The COVID-19 pandemic has brought concerns to managers, healthcare professionals, and the general population related to the potential mechanical ventilators' shortage for severely ill patients. In Brazil, there are several initiatives aimed at producing alternative ventilators to cover this gap. To assist the teams that work in these initiatives, we provide a discussion of some basic concepts on physiology and respiratory mechanics, commonly used mechanical ventilation terms, the differences between triggering and cycling, the basic ventilation modes and other relevant aspects, such as mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury, respiratory drive, airway heating and humidification, cross-contamination risks, and aerosol dissemination. After the prototype development phase, preclinical bench-tests and animal model trials are needed to determine the safety and performance of the ventilator, following the minimum technical requirements. Next, it is mandatory going through the regulatory procedures as required by the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária - ANVISA). The manufacturing company should be appropriately registered by ANVISA, which also must be notified about the conduction of clinical trials, following the research protocol approval by the Research Ethics Committee. The registration requisition of the ventilator with ANVISA should include a dossier containing the information described in this paper, which is not intended to cover all related matters but to provide guidance on the required procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Ventilators, Mechanical , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Respiratory Mechanics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Equipment Design , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19
19.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(2): 235-243, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138497

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar as unidades de terapia intensiva neonatais, pediátricas e mistas (neonatais e pediátricas) no Brasil que utilizam cânulas traqueais com balonete na prática clínica, e descrever as características relacionadas à utilização de protocolos e monitoração. Métodos: Para identificação das unidades de terapia intensiva no Brasil, foi acessado o Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde do Ministério da Saúde, e foram obtidas informações de 693 unidades de terapia intensiva cadastradas. Trata-se de estudo transversal analítico do tipo survey realizado por questionário eletrônico enviado para 298 unidades de terapia intensiva neonatais, pediátricas e mistas do Brasil. Resultados: Este estudo analisou 146 questionários (49,3% de unidades de terapia intensiva neonatais, 35,6% de unidades de terapia intensiva pediátricas e 15,1% de unidades de terapia intensiva pediátricas mistas). A maioria das unidades participantes (78/146) utilizou cânulas traqueais com balonete, com predomínio de uso nas unidades de terapia intensiva pediátricas (52/78). A maioria das unidades que utilizou cânulas traqueais com balonete aplicou protocolo de monitoração da pressão do balonete (45/78). O uso de protocolos de monitoração do balonete foi observado nas unidades de terapia intensiva com Serviço de Fisioterapia exclusivo da unidade (38/61) e naquelas com tempo de atuação do fisioterapeuta 24 horas/dia (25/45). A causa de falha de extubação mais frequentemente relacionada ao uso de cânulas traqueais com balonete em unidades de terapia intensiva pediátricas foi a obstrução de vias aéreas superiores. Conclusão: Nesta enquete, houve predomínio do uso de cânulas traqueais com balonete e da aplicação de protocolo de monitoração da pressão do balonete em unidades de terapia intensiva pediátricas. A utilização de protocolo de monitoração foi mais frequente em unidades de terapia intensiva com fisioterapeuta exclusivo e com tempo de atuação 24 horas/dia.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the neonatal, pediatric and mixed (neonatal and pediatric) intensive care units in Brazil that use cuffed tracheal tubes in clinical practice and to describe the characteristics related to the use of protocols and monitoring. Methods: To identify the intensive care units in Brazil, the Ministry of Health's National Registry of Health Facilities was accessed, and information was collected on 693 registered intensive care units. This was an analytical cross-sectional survey conducted through electronic questionnaires sent to 298 neonatal, pediatric and mixed intensive care units in Brazil. Results: This study analyzed 146 questionnaires (49.3% from neonatal intensive care units, 35.6% from pediatric intensive care units and 15.1% from mixed pediatric intensive care units). Most of the participating units (78/146) used cuffed tracheal tubes, with a predominance of use in pediatric intensive care units (52/78). Most of the units that used cuffed tracheal tubes applied a cuff pressure monitoring protocol (45/78). The use of cuff monitoring protocols was observed in intensive care units with a physical therapy service exclusive to the unit (38/61) and in those with a physical therapist present 24 hours/day (25/45). The most frequent cause of extubation failure related to the use of cuffed tracheal tubes in pediatric intensive care units was upper airway obstruction. Conclusion: In this survey, the use of cuffed tracheal tubes and the application of a cuff pressure monitoring protocol was predominant in pediatric intensive care units. The use of a monitoring protocol was more common in intensive care units that had a physical therapist who was exclusive to the unit and was present 24 hours/day.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Airway Extubation/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Equipment Design , Physical Therapists/statistics & numerical data
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