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1.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(supl.1): e878, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289478

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La anemia drepanocítica es una anomalía genética hereditaria de la hemoglobina, que se caracteriza por la presencia de glóbulos rojos que pierden su forma redonda característica y adquieren forma de hoz. Aunque aún no tiene cura definitiva, se desarrollan varias acciones con el propósito de mejorar la calidad de vida y la atención médica a los pacientes. Objetivos: Conocer los aspectos referidos al análisis automatizado de formas en eritrocitos en los últimos años y proporcionar una visión en el caso de la drepanocitosis, que permita determinar las limitaciones actuales, principalmente para el empleo de herramientas automatizadas en el seguimiento clínico de pacientes con esta enfermedad. Método: Se realizó la revisión sistemática de la literatura de los años 2018, 2019 y dos aportes del 2020, en tres bases de datos electrónicas de amplio alcance: IEEEXplore, Google Scholar y SCOPUS. Los documentos se analizaron teniendo en cuenta preguntas específicas para obtener criterios generales sobre la situación de interés. Conclusiones: Los análisis realizados revelan un volumen creciente de investigaciones en este campo, con resultados de varios países. El examen detallado de las investigaciones permitió identificar problemas referidos a las métricas de evaluación empleadas, a los algoritmos para el análisis y procesamiento de imágenes, empleo del criterio médico, bases de datos empleadas y, herramientas para el análisis automático de formas de eritrocitos(AU)


Introduction: Sickle-cell anemia is a genetic hereditary anomaly of hemoglobin characterized by red blood cells that lose their normal round morphology and acquire a sickle shape. Although no cure is so far available, several actions are in progress to improve the quality of life and medical care of patients. Objective: Become acquainted with aspects related to the automated morphological analysis of erythrocytes in recent years, particularly in the context of sickle-cell anemia, allowing to determine the current limitations, mainly in the use of automated tools for the clinical follow-up of sickle-cell anemia patients. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of the literature published in the years 2018, 2019, and two contributions from 2020, in three broad scope electronic databases: IEEEXplore, Google Scholar and SCOPUS. The documents were analyzed on the basis of specific questions to obtain general criteria about the situation of interest. Conclusions: The analysis conducted revealed a growing volume of research in this field, with results in several countries. Detailed examination of the studies led to identification of problems related to the evaluation metrics used, the algorithms for the analysis and processing of images, the use of medical criteria, the databases used and tools for the automated morphological analysis of erythrocytes(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sickle Cell Trait/genetics , Algorithms , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Genetics , Anemia
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878317

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In the present study, the ABCA1 was used as a label to capture specific exosomes, the level of ABCA1-labeled exosomal microRNA-135a (miR-135a) was evaluated for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially in patients with early stages of AD.@*Methods@#This is a preliminary research focused on the levels of ABCA1 in WBCs, RBCs, HT-22 cells, and neuron cells. The diagnostic value of ABCA1-labeled exosomal miR-135a was examined using the CSF and serum of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice, and 152 patients with SCD, 131 patients with MCI, 198 patients with DAT, and 30 control subjects.@*Results@#The level of ABCA1 exosomes harvested from HT-22 cells and neuron culture medium was significantly higher compared to that of RBCs and WBCs ( @*Conclusion@#This study outlines a method to capture specific exosomes and detect them using immunological methods, which is more efficient for early diagnosis of AD.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1/cerebrospinal fluid , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/cerebrospinal fluid , Animals , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Cell Line , Cognitive Dysfunction/cerebrospinal fluid , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Exosomes , Female , Humans , Leukocytes/metabolism , Male , Mice, Transgenic , MicroRNAs/blood , Neurons/metabolism
3.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(3): 228-234, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011164

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Hyperthyroidism causes many injuries in its target organs and the consequences are reflected systemically. As systemic alterations in hyperthyroidism at earlier stages have received partial attention, this study aimed to investigate systemic redox and inflammatory status at an early stage of T4-induced hyperthyroidism. Materials and methods Male Wistar rats were assigned to control and hyperthyroid groups (n = 7/group). The hyperthyroid group received L-thyroxine (12 mg/L) in their drinking water for 14 days whereas control group received only the vehicle. Body weight was measured on the 1st and 14th day of the protocol. On the 14th day, animals were anaesthetized. Blood was then collected from the retro-orbital venous plexus and then the animals were euthanised. The blood was separated into plasma and erythrocytes. Plasma was used to measure ROS levels, sulfhydryl compounds, IL-10, TNF-α and LDH levels; erythrocytes were used for the analysis of thioredoxin reductase activity, glutaredoxin content, and pentose cycle enzymes (total G6PD, G6PD and 6PGD). Results Hyperthyroid animals presented body weight gain and final body weight reduction, which was associated with increased ROS levels and decreased sulfhydryl content in plasma. Thioredoxin reductase activity, glutaredoxin content, and pentose cycle enzymes levels in erythrocytes, as well as IL-10, TNF-α and LDH plasma levels were unaltered. Conclusion Taken together, our results suggest an impairment in corporal mass associated with systemic oxidative stress at this stage of hyperthyroidism. Meanwhile, the pentose cycle was not influenced and systemic inflammation and tissue damage seem to be absent at this stage of hyperthyroidism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Hyperthyroidism/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Pentoses , Thyroxine , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Hyperthyroidism/blood , Antioxidants/metabolism
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(1): 19-26, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839186

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Sepsis is an illness with a high morbidity for which no effective treatment exists. Its treatment has a high cost because it usually requires an intensive care unit and expensive antibiotics. The present study focus in the production of reactive oxygen species in the early stages of sepsis. This study aimed at investigating the production of reactive oxygen specie during the inflammatory response in patients with sepsis. Methods: Reactive oxygen specie production and insoluble myeloperoxidase obtained from fresh whole blood were measured by photon counting chemiluminescence in the blood of 18 septic patients and 12 healthy individuals. Modified red blood cells were evaluated by staining of blood smears. The production of reactive oxygen species by macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes put into contact with modified red blood cells were also assessed by photon counting chemiluminescence. Results: The appearance of oxidatively modified erythrocytes, which is an evidence of oxidative stress, was supported by the detection of reactive oxygen species and insoluble myeloperoxidase in the whole blood of all septic patients. Peroxynitrite was the main reactive oxygen species found in the whole blood. Oxidatively modified erythrocytes activated phagocytic cells in vitro, leading to the considerable production of free radicals. Conclusion: It was found that sepsis led to a high oxidative stress and to extensive modification of erythrocytes. It is proposed that a positive feedback mechanism, involving the activation of circulating leukocytes by these modified erythrocytes would maintain the pro-oxidative state even after the disappearance of bacteria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Sepsis/blood , Oxidative Stress , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Phagocytosis , Reference Values , Time Factors , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Case-Control Studies , Peroxidase/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Luminescence , Leukocyte Count , Macrophages/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism
5.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2017; 67 (2): 528-535
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-188436

ABSTRACT

Background: in Diabetes, the increase in the oxidative stress and decrease in the antioxidant defense may elevate he susceptibility of diabetic patients to many pathological complications, oxidative induced cell damage has been proposed to play an important role in the etiology of numerous pathological conditions. So, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant potential of Alcoholic Leaves extract of Balanites aegyptiacea [Heglig] due to the presence of phenolic and flavonoids compounds on uptake of glucose in vitro by erythrocytes of diabetic patients


Results: in hyperglycemic patients, erythrocytes malondialdehyde level was highly significantly increased [P<0.0001] than that of control. However, the erythrocytes glutathione content was highly significantly decreased [P< 0.0001] when compared to that of corresponding control values. The glucose uptake by erythrocytes of diabetic patients was highly significantly decreased [P < 0.0001] with increasing hyperglycemia [Fasting Blood glucose], while it was highly significantly elevated [P< 0.0001] after addition of Balanites aegyptiacae leaves extract to the incubation medium. On the other hand, the malondialdehyde concentration was highly significantly reduced [P < 0.0001] on adding the extract. So, it could be concluded that, an appreciate support for enhancing Antioxidant supply from natural sources such Balanites aegyptiace leaves extract may help control blood glucose levels and prevent pathological complications of diabetes


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Plant Extracts , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antioxidants , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Blood Glucose , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Leaves/chemistry
6.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 41: 1-10, Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-880415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Improvements in the iron status of a population as result of food fortification are expected at the long term. In Brazil, the effectiveness of mandatory flour fortification with iron has been evidenced mostly from surveys on gestational anemia after 1 or 2 years from its implementation, in 2004. Our aim was to assess hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and the prevalences of anemia and linked erythrocyte morphology patterns among pregnant women in 2006 and 2008.METHODS: The study design was retrospective and cross-sectional. The analysis was based on secondary data in 546medical records from women at the times of their first prenatal attendance in 13 public primary healthcare units of the Butantan Administrative Region from São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Anemia was evaluated from Hb concentration (cut-off <11.0 g/dL) and erythrocyte morphology patterns from mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MHC), and red cell distribution widths (RDW). Recorded sociodemographic and obstetric data included maternal age, gestational age, ethnoracial self-classification, and residence type. Student's t tests, analysis of variance, Chi-squared tests, and multiple linear and logistic regressions were employed in the statistical analysis using a significance level of 5 %.RESULTS:The prevalence of anemia was 9.7 % in 2006 and 9.4 % in 2008 (P= 0.922), with no significant difference in mean Hb concentrations (P= 0.159). Normocytosis (normal MVC), normochromia (normal MHC), and anisocytosis (high RDW) were found in most anemia cases, suggesting that the low Hb concentrations resulted from mixed causes. In multiple regression analysis, gestational age at the first prenatal attendance was an independent predictor of low Hb and of having anemia. Moreover, black ethnoracial self-classification was associated with lower Hb. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of gestational anemia was low among women in both of the studied periods, representing a mild public health problem. Our results highlight the importance of early prenatal care as a means of reducing gestation-associated risks. The erythrocyte morphology pattern found in most cases of low Hb levels suggests that, besides iron deficiency, hemoglobin pathies and nutritional deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 are common complicating factors of gestational anemia in our setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/prevention & control , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Erythrocytes/physiology , Prenatal Care , Primary Health Care
7.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 92(4): 394-399, July-Aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792577

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To determine eight parameters of oxidative stress markers in erythrocytes from children with sickle cell disease and compare with the same parameters in erythrocytes from healthy children, since oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease and because this disease is a serious public health problem in many countries. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 45 children with sickle cell disease (21 males and 24 females with a mean age of 9 years; range: 3–13 years) and 280 blood samples were obtained from children without hemoglobinopathies (137 males and 143 females with a mean age of 10 years; range: 8–11 years), as a control group. All blood samples were analyzed for methemoglobin, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, percentage of hemolysis, reactive oxygen species, and activity of the enzymes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results Significant differences were observed between children with sickle cell disease and the control group for the parameters methemoglobin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hemolysis, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and reactive oxygen species, with higher levels in the patients than in the controls. Conclusions Oxidative stress parameters in children's erythrocytes were determined using simple laboratory methods with small volumes of blood; these biomarkers can be useful to evaluate disease progression and outcomes in patients.


Resumo Objetivo Determinar parâmetros de estresse oxidativo em eritrócitos de crianças com doença falciforme e compará-los com os mesmos parâmetros em eritrócitos de crianças saudáveis, pois o estresse oxidativo desempenha um importante papel na fisiopatologia da doença falciforme, considerada um sério problema de saúde pública em muitos países. Métodos Foram obtidas amostras de sangue de 45 crianças com doença falciforme (21 meninos e 24 meninas com média de 9 anos, variação de 3 a 13) e 280 amostras de sangue de crianças sem hemoglobinopatias (137 meninos e 143 meninas com média de 10 anos, variação de 8 a 11), como grupo controle. Em todas as amostras foram determinados meta-hemoglobina, glutationa reduzida, substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico, porcentagem de hemólise, espécies reativas de oxigênio e atividade das enzimas glucose6-fosfato desidrogenase, superóxido dismutase e catalase. Os dados foram analisados com o teste t de Student e foram expressos como média ± desvio padrão. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados Foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as crianças com doença falciforme e o grupo controle para os parâmetros meta-hemoglobina, substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico, porcentagem de hemólise, espécies reativas de oxigênio e atividade da enzima glucose6-fosfato desidrogenase, com níveis aumentados nos pacientes. Conclusões Foi possível determinar parâmetros de estresse oxidativo em eritrócitos de crianças, com técnicas laboratoriais simples e pequenos volumes de sangue. Esses biomarcadores podem ser úteis na avaliação da progressão e dos resultados de tratamentos da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood , Reference Values , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Methemoglobin/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Catalase/blood , Case-Control Studies , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/blood , Glutathione/blood , Hemolysis/physiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/physiopathology
8.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 91(5): 478-484, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766167

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To compare the biochemical and immunological profiles of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with healthy children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which 21 therapy-naïve patients with AML were compared with a group of 24 healthy individuals. The following data were analyzed: serum proteins, leucocytes and subgroups, erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelets, cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures under spontaneous and BCG- or PHA-stimulated conditions, immunoglobulin A, and erythrocytic glutathione. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, considering as significant p-values < 0.05. RESULTS: Serum albumin levels were higher (p < 0.0001) in the control group, as well as all the parameters related to red blood cells (p < 0.0001). For leucocytes and subgroups, no statistical difference was found between the AML and the control groups. For cytokines, the concentrations were significantly higher under spontaneous and BCG-stimulated conditions for TNF-a, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-? in the control group. Under PHA-stimulated conditions, the concentration was higher (p = 0.002) only for IL-6. No difference was found between the two groups for the other cytokines and for IgA in the saliva. Erythrocytic glutathione was higher (p < 0.0001) in AML patients. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to characterize the biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with AML, as well as highlight some significant differences in these parameters when comparing with healthy children and adolescents.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Comparar o perfil bioquímico e imunológico de pacientes pediátricos portadores de leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) em relação a um grupo de crianças e adolescentes saudáveis. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal, em que foram avaliados 21 pacientes com LMA virgens de terapia e 24 indivíduos saudáveis. Foram analisados: proteínas séricas, leucócitos e subgrupos, eritrócitos, hematócrito, hemoglobina e plaquetas, citocinas em cultura de células mononucleares do sangue periférico sob condição espontânea e estimulada por BCG ou PHA, imunoglobulina A e glutationa eritrocitária. Análise estatística foi feita com o software SPSS considerando p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Albumina sérica foi superior (p < 0,0001) no grupo de controle, bem como todos os parâmetros relacionados com os glóbulos vermelhos (p < 0,0001). Para os leucócitos e subgrupos não houve diferença estatística entre os pacientes com LMA e o grupo controle. As concentrações foram significativamente mais elevadas sob condições espontânea e estimulada por BCG para as citocinas TNF-a, IL-6, IL-10 e IFN-? no grupo controle. Sob condição estimulada com PHA a concentração foi superior (p = 0,002) apenas para a IL-6. Não houve diferença estatística para as demais citocinas e para IgA salivar entre os dois grupos. Glutationa eritrocitária foi superior (p < 0,0001) nos pacientes LMA. CONCLUSÕES: Diante do exposto, foi possível caracterizar o perfil bioquímico e imunológico de pacientes pediátricos com LMA, bem como evidenciar diferenças significativas em alguns desses parâmetros ao se compararem os indivíduos doentes e o grupo de crianças e adolescentes saudáveis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Young Adult , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/immunology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Glutathione/blood , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Leukocytes/metabolism , Prealbumin/analysis , Saliva/immunology , Serum Albumin/analysis
9.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 111-114, 02/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741171

ABSTRACT

Objective Adapt the 6 minutes walking test (6MWT) to artificial gait in complete spinal cord injured (SCI) patients aided by neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Method Nine male individuals with paraplegia (AIS A) participated in this study. Lesion levels varied between T4 and T12 and time post injured from 4 to 13 years. Patients performed 6MWT 1 and 6MWT 2. They used neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and were aided by a walker. The differences between two 6MWT were assessed by using a paired t test. Multiple r-squared was also calculated. Results The 6MWT 1 and 6MWT 2 were not statistically different for heart rate, distance, mean speed and blood pressure. Multiple r-squared (r2 = 0.96) explained 96% of the variation in the distance walked. Conclusion The use of 6MWT in artificial gait towards assessing exercise walking capacity is reproducible and easy to apply. It can be used to assess SCI artificial gait clinical performance. .


Objetivo Adaptar o teste de caminhada dos 6 minutos (TC6) para marcha artificial de pacientes com lesão medular completa associado a eletroestimulação neuromuscular. Método Nove participantes do sexo masculino com paraplegia (AIS A) participaram do estudo. O nível de lesão variou entre T4 e T12 , tempo de lesão variou entre 4 e 13 anos. Os pacientes realizaram dois TC6 (TC6-1 e TC6-2). Os participantes usaram eletroestimulação neuromuscular e foram auxiliados por andador. As diferenças entre os dois TC6 foram avaliadas pelo teste t pareado e calculado o r2. Resultados Não foi encontrada diferença estatística entre TC6-1 e TC6-2 para frequência cardíaca, distância, velocidade média e pressão arterial. O r2 = 0,96 explica 96% da variação na distância caminhada. Conclusão O uso do TC6 em marcha artificial para avaliação da capacidade de exercício de caminhada é reprodutível e fácil de aplicar. Esse teste pode ser utilizado para avaliar o desempenho clínico da marcha artificial de indivíduos com lesão medular. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Animals, Newborn/metabolism , Arachidonic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Brain/metabolism , Phosphatidylcholines/pharmacokinetics , Triglycerides/pharmacokinetics , Carbon Isotopes , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Organ Size , Papio , Pigment Epithelium of Eye/metabolism , Retina/metabolism , Tissue Distribution
11.
Biol. Res ; 46(2): 207-213, 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683999

ABSTRACT

Oxidant/antioxidant imbalance has been reported in some infectious diseases, including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim was to assess the antioxidant status in adults with CAP and its relationship with clinical severity at admission. Fifty-nine patients with CAP were enrolled and categorized at admission by the FINE score, from July 2010 to October 2012. In the same period 61 controls were enrolled. Plasma samples were obtained at admission for determination of the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and lipid peroxidation (8-isoprostane). Erythrocyte reduced (GSH)/oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme activity were assessed. Antioxidant status in adults with CAP represented by FRAP and the GSH/GSSG ratio were 16.8% (p=0.03) and 39.7% (p=0.04) lower than control values, respectively. In addition, FRAP values showed a positive correlation with GSH/GSSG ratio (r=0.852; p<0.02; n=59). The CAP group showed greater lipid peroxidation in both plasma and erythrocytes. The FINE score correlated negatively with FRAP (r= -0.718; p<0.05; n=59) and positively with MDA and F2 isoprostane levels (r=0.673; p<0.05; n=59; r=0.892; p<0.01; n=59, respectively). Antioxidant status alterations correlated with clinical severity. The FRAP assay and lipid peroxidation biomarkers may provide a useful parameter for estimating the severity and the clinical outcome of patients with CAP.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Glutathione/blood , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Pneumonia/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Catalase/blood , Catalase/metabolism , Community-Acquired Infections/metabolism , /blood , Glutathione Peroxidase/blood , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
12.
Biol. Res ; 46(1): 33-38, 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676818

ABSTRACT

Organophosphate (OP) pesticides such as dichlorvos (DDVP) intoxication has been shown to produce oxidative stress due to the generation of free radicals, which alter the antioxidant defense system in erythrocytes. In this study, the effects of DDVP (1, 10, 100 µM) or DDVP + vitamin C (VC; 10 µM) or vitamin E (VE; 30 µM), on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in human erythrocytes were examined in vitro. There were no statistical differences between all groups for 1 µM concentration of DDVP. Treatment with DDVP alone produced an increase in the level of MDA and decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes (P < 0.05). Groups treated with vitamins and DDVP showed protective effects of vitamins against DDVP-induced changes in antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) (10 µM). At 100 µM concentration of DDVP vitamins had no effect on DDVP-induced toxicity. The results show that administration of DDVP resulted in the induction of erythrocyte LPO and alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be involved in the toxic effects of DDVP. Also the data show that the plasma level of VC and VE may ameliorate OP-induced oxidative stress by decreasing LPO in erythrocytes at certain doses of OP pesicides.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Dichlorvos/toxicity , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Insecticides/toxicity , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/blood , Catalase/analysis , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Free Radicals/chemistry , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Vitamin E/blood
13.
IPMJ-Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2013; 12 (3): 372-375
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142900

ABSTRACT

Magnesium [Mg] is a mineral that is involved in over 300 reactions in the body. Magnesium is a potent vasodilation, and plays an important role in muscle contraction. It has been early documented that Mg deficiency can precipitate ventricular arrhythmias and treatment with Mg has some anti arrythmic effect. Moreover there is an ample evidence that a significant percentage of patients with IHD suffer from Mg deficiency. The objective of the present study is to measure Mg levels in serum and RBCs of patients with some forms of IHD. The study was conducted in Baghdad hospital and Ibn - Al-Bitar Hospital. The 180 patients with IHD were divided into Two groups. Group one, 80 patients with Ischemic Heart Failure [IHF] [EF<30] aged 65.75 +/- 5.97 year [50 males and 30 females], group two, 100 patients with Muocardial Infarction [MI][EF<50] aged 50.34 +/- 6.36 year [58 males and 42 females]. Serum Mg and RBCs Mg were measured in all patient groups by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The [mean +/- SD] value of serum and RBCs Mg in patients with both groups Ischemic Heart Disease [IHD] was significantly lower when compared with that of controls [p<0.05].The serum Mg levels [0.81 +/- SD mmol/L] are significantly lower in the IHF group and in MI group [0.96 +/- 0.18 mmol/L] when compared with that of controls [1.00 +/- 0.17 mmol/L] [p<0.001]. The data obtained in present study revealed the decrease of Mg level in serum and RBCs in both patients groups, which affect the contractility of heart muscle and cardiac performance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Magnesium/blood , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Intracellular Fluid , Muscle Contraction , Heart Failure/blood
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Flow cytometry (FC) HLA-B27 typing is still used extensively for the diagnosis of spondyloarthropathies. If patient blood samples are stored for a prolonged duration, this testing can be performed in a batch manner, and in-house cellular controls could easily be procured. In this study, we investigated various methods of storing patient blood samples. METHODS: We compared four storage methods: three methods of analyzing lymphocytes (whole blood stored at room temperature, frozen mononuclear cells, and frozen white blood cells [WBCs] after lysing red blood cells [RBCs]), and one method using frozen platelets (FPLT). We used three ratios associated with mean fluorescence intensities (MFI) for HLAB27 assignment: the B27 MFI ratio (sample/control) for HLA-B27 fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC); the B7 MFI ratio for HLA-B7 phycoerythrin (PE); and the ratio of these two ratios, B7/B27 ratio. RESULTS: Comparing the B27 MFI ratios of each storage method for the HLA-B27+ samples and the B7/B27 ratios for the HLA-B7+ samples revealed that FPLT was the best of the four methods. FPLT had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99.3% for HLA-B27 assignment in DNA-typed samples (N=164) when the two criteria, namely, B27 MFI ratio >4.0 and B7/B27 ratio <1.5, were used. CONCLUSIONS: The FPLT method was found to offer a simple, economical, and accurate method of FC HLA-B27 typing by using stored patient samples. If stored samples are used, this method has the potential to replace the standard FC typing method when used in combination with a complementary DNA-based method.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Freezing , HLA-B27 Antigen/blood , HLA-B7 Antigen/blood , Histocompatibility Testing , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spondylarthropathies/diagnosis , Temperature
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Flow cytometry (FC) HLA-B27 typing is still used extensively for the diagnosis of spondyloarthropathies. If patient blood samples are stored for a prolonged duration, this testing can be performed in a batch manner, and in-house cellular controls could easily be procured. In this study, we investigated various methods of storing patient blood samples. METHODS: We compared four storage methods: three methods of analyzing lymphocytes (whole blood stored at room temperature, frozen mononuclear cells, and frozen white blood cells [WBCs] after lysing red blood cells [RBCs]), and one method using frozen platelets (FPLT). We used three ratios associated with mean fluorescence intensities (MFI) for HLAB27 assignment: the B27 MFI ratio (sample/control) for HLA-B27 fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC); the B7 MFI ratio for HLA-B7 phycoerythrin (PE); and the ratio of these two ratios, B7/B27 ratio. RESULTS: Comparing the B27 MFI ratios of each storage method for the HLA-B27+ samples and the B7/B27 ratios for the HLA-B7+ samples revealed that FPLT was the best of the four methods. FPLT had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99.3% for HLA-B27 assignment in DNA-typed samples (N=164) when the two criteria, namely, B27 MFI ratio >4.0 and B7/B27 ratio <1.5, were used. CONCLUSIONS: The FPLT method was found to offer a simple, economical, and accurate method of FC HLA-B27 typing by using stored patient samples. If stored samples are used, this method has the potential to replace the standard FC typing method when used in combination with a complementary DNA-based method.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Freezing , HLA-B27 Antigen/blood , HLA-B7 Antigen/blood , Histocompatibility Testing , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spondylarthropathies/diagnosis , Temperature
16.
Clinics ; 67(12): 1447-1454, Dec. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660474

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. METHOD: One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old (18 months old). Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil) and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight), tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg), and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg). The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. RESULTS: Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. CONCLUSION: We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes activity during aging.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Chlorella vulgaris/chemistry , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Piper betle/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tocotrienols/pharmacology , Age Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Catalase/blood , Erythrocytes/enzymology , Glutathione Peroxidase/blood , Lipid Peroxidation , Models, Animal , Malondialdehyde/blood , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Random Allocation , Superoxide Dismutase/blood
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Validation of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays is important for evaluating antibody responses to influenza virus, and selection of erythrocytes for use in these assays is important. This study aimed to determine the correlation between receptor binding specificity and effectiveness of the HI assay for detecting antibody response to pandemic influenza H1N1 (pH1N1) virus. METHODS: Hemagglutination (HA) tests were performed using erythrocytes from 6 species. Subsequently, 8 hemagglutinating units of pH1N1 from each species were titrated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. To investigate the effect of erythrocyte binding preference on HI antibody titers, comparisons of HI with microneutralization (MN) assays were performed. RESULTS: Goose erythrocytes showed most specific binding with pH1N1, while HA titers using human erythrocytes were comparable to those using turkey erythrocytes. The erythrocyte binding efficiency was shown to have an impact on antibody detection. Comparing MN titers, HI titers using turkey erythrocytes yielded the most accurate results, while those using goose erythrocytes produced the highest geometric mean titer. Human blood group O erythrocytes lacking a specific antibody yielded results most comparable to those obtained using turkey erythrocytes. Further, pre-existing antibody to pH1N1 and different erythrocyte species can distort HI assay results. CONCLUSIONS: HI assay, using turkey and human erythrocytes, yielded the most comparable and applicable results for pH1N1 than those by MN assay, and using goose erythrocytes may lead to overestimated titers. Selection of appropriate erythrocyte species for HI assay allows construction of a more reliable database, which is essential for further investigations and control of virus epidemics.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Chickens , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Female , Geese , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Horses , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Swine , Turkeys
18.
Acta cir. bras ; 26(6): 503-507, Nov.-Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604201

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of partial colectomy associated with hepatectomy on the biodistribution of the 99mTc-phytate, on metabolic parameters, as well as labeling and morphology of red blood cells. METHODS: Wistar rats were distributed into three groups (each with six), nominated as colectomy, colectomy+hepatectomy and sham. In the 30th postoperative day all rats were injected with 99mTc-phytate 0.1mL i.v. (radioactivity 0.66 MBq). After 15 minutes, liver sample was harvested and weighed. Percentage radioactivity per gram of tissue ( percentATI/g) was determined using an automatic gamma-counter. Serum AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and red blood cells labeling were determined. RESULTS: The liver percentATI/g and red blood cells labeling were lower in colectomy and colectomy+hepatectomy rats than in sham rats (p <0.05), and no difference was detected comparing the colectomy and colectomy+hepatectomy groups. Red blood cells morphology did not differ among groups. Serum levels of AST, ALT and alkaline fosfatase were significantly higher in colectomy+hepatectomy than in colectomy rats (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Hepatectomy associated with colectomy lowered the uptake of radiopharmaceutical in liver and in red blood cells in rats, coinciding with changes in liver enzymatic activity.


OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência da colectomia associada à hepatectomia parcial, na biodistribuição do fitato-99mTcO4, na marcação e morfologia de hemácias e em parâmetros metabólicos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar foram distribuídos em três grupos (seis animais cada), denominados: colectomia, colectomia+hepatectomia e sham. No 30º dia pós-operatório, em todos eles foi feita injeção de 0,1 mL i.v. de fitato-99mTcO4 (radioatividade 0,66 MBq). Após 15 minutos, uma amostra de fígado foi colhida e pesada. O percentual de radioatividade por grama de tecido ( por centoATI/g) foi determinado no fígado e hemácias usando-se um contador gama automático. Dosagem sérica de AST, ALT, fosfatase alcalina, morfologia e marcação de hemácias com pertecnetato foram determinadas. RESULTADOS: O por centoATI/g no fígado e nas hemácias foi menor nos animais dos grupos colectomia e colectomia+hepatectomia do que no grupo sham (p<0,05; teste de Tukey). Nenhuma diferença foi detectada comparando os grupos colectomia e colectomia+hepatectomia. A morfologia das hemácias não diferiu entre os três grupos. Os níveis séricos de AST, ALT e fosfatase alcalina foram significativamente maiores no grupo colectomia+hepatectomia do que no grupo colectomia (p<0,001). CONCLUSÃO: A colectomia associada a hepatectomia contribuiu para reduzir a captação de radiofármaco no fígado e hemácias de ratos, coincidindo com alterações na atividade enzimática do fígado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Colectomy , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Hepatectomy , Liver/metabolism , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , /pharmacokinetics , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Tissue Distribution
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136354

ABSTRACT

The first coherent pathophysiological scheme for sickle cell disease (SCD) emerged in the sixties-seventies based on an extremely detailed description of the molecular mechanism by which HbS in its deoxy-form polymerises and forms long fibres within the red blood cell that deform it and make it fragile. This scheme explains the haemolytic anaemia, and the mechanistic aspects of the vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs), but, even though it constitutes the basic mechanism of the disease, it does not account for the processes that actually trigger VOCs. This paper reviews recent data which imply: red blood cell dehydration, its abnormal adhesion properties to the endothelium, the participation of inflammatory phenomenon and of a global activation of all the cells present in the vessel, and finally, abnormalities of the vascular tone and of nitric oxide metabolism. These data altogether have shed a new light on the pathophysiology of the first molecular disease i.e. sickle cell disease.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood , Anemia, Sickle Cell/metabolism , Cell Adhesion , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Erythrocytes/pathology , Hemoglobin, Sickle/genetics , Hemoglobin, Sickle/metabolism , Hemolysis , Humans , Ion Channels/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136340

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: There is no published literature on the extent of vitamin B12 deficiency in elderly Indians as determined by plasma vitamin B12 levels and methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels. Vitamin B12 deficiency is expected to be higher in elderly Indians due to vegetarianism, varied socio-economic strata and high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. We therefore, studied the dietary habits of south Indian urban elderly population and measured vitamin B12, MMA red cell folate and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: Healthy elderly urban subjects (175, >60 yr) were recruited. Detailed history, physical examination and neurological assessment were carried out. Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary analysis for daily intake of calories, vitamin B12, folate and detailed psychological assessment for cognitive functions was carried out. Blood samples were analyzed for routine haematology and biochemistry, vitamin B12, red cell folate, MMA and Hcy. Results: The mean age of the study population was 66.3 yr. Median values for daily dietary intake of vitamin B12 and folate were 2.4 and 349.2 μg/day respectively. Sixty two (35%) participants consumed multivitamin supplements. Plasma vitamin B12 level and the dietary intake of vitamin B12 was significantly correlated (P=0.157). Plasma vitamin B12 and Hcy were inversely correlated (P= -0.509). Red cell folate was inversely correlated with Hcy (P= -0.550). Significant negative correlation was observed between plasma vitamin B12 and MMA in the entire study population (P= -0.220). Subjects consuming vitamin supplements (n=62) had significantly higher plasma vitamin B12 levels, lower MMA levels and lower Hcy levels. There was no significant correlation between plasma vitamin B12, MMA, Hcy and red cell folate and any of the 10 cognitive tests including Hindi Mental Status Examination (HMSE). Interpretation & conclusions: Our study is indicative of higher vitamin B12 (2.4 μg/day) intakes in urban south Indian population. Thirty five per cent of the study population consumed multivitamin supplements and therefore, low plasma vitamin B12 levels were seen only in 16 per cent of the study subjects. However, MMA was elevated in 55 per cent and Hcy in 13 per cent of the subjects.


Subject(s)
Aged , Diet, Vegetarian , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Female , Folic Acid/blood , Helicobacter Infections/metabolism , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Homocysteine/blood , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Methylmalonic Acid/blood , Middle Aged , Vitamin B 12/administration & dosage , Vitamin B 12/blood , Vitamin B 12/metabolism , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/blood , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/metabolism
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