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1.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39004, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415866

ABSTRACT

Lysine is an essential amino acid that is not biologically manufactured in the body. Different chemical methods for lysine production are expensive and give low yields. The present study was conducted with the purpose to evaluate the biochemical production of lysine by different carbon sources using bacterial isolates. Three carbon sources namely glucose, sucrose, and fructose were used to evaluate the biochemical production of lysine by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates. Optimum incubation periods were between 48-96 hours. An extensive amount of lysine was produced by all of these isolates in L6 fermentation medium. Maximum lysine was produced by Klebsiella isolate K1 6.48 g/L after 96 hours of incubation by using glucose as carbon source followed by 6.0 g/L by Klebsiella isolates K3 after 72 hours of incubation when sucrose was used as a carbon source at 37 °C. Highest amount of lysine was produced at 96 hours by Klebsiella isolates in addition to E. coli. From all three carbon sources using Klebsiella isolates and E. coli, glucose showed better lysine production.


Subject(s)
Biochemical Phenomena , Fermentation , Lysine
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e253009, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339373

ABSTRACT

Abstract Today, global focus of research is to explore the solution of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Like other agricultural countries, bulk quantities of watermelon peels (WMP) are disposed-off in environment as waste in Pakistan and appropriate management of this waste is the need of hour to save environment from pollution. The work emphasizes the role of ethanologenic yeasts to utilize significant sugars present in WMP for low-cost bioethanol fermentation. Dilute hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of WMP was carried out on optimized conditions employing RSM (response surface methodology) following central composite design (CCD). This experimental design is based on optimization of ethanologenesis involving some key independent parameters such as WMP hydrolysate and synthetic media ratio (X1), incubation temperature (X2) and incubation temperature (X3) for maximal ethanol yield exploiting standard (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) as well as experimental (Metchnikowia cibodasensisY34) yeasts. The results revealed that maximal ethanol yields obtained from S. cerevisiae K7 was 0.36±0.02 g/g of reducing sugars whereas M. cibodasensisY34, yielded 0.40±0.01 g ethanol/g of reducing sugars. The yeast isolate M. cibodasensisY34 appeared as promising ethanologen and embodies prospective potential for fermentative valorization of WMP-to-bioethanol.


Resumo Hoje, o foco global da pesquisa é explorar a solução da crise energética e da poluição ambiental. Como em outros países agrícolas, grandes quantidades de cascas de melancia (WMP) são descartadas como resíduos no meio ambiente no Paquistão, mas a gestão adequada desses resíduos é a mais recente solução para salvar o meio ambiente da poluição. O trabalho enfatiza o papel das leveduras etanologênicas para utilizar açúcares significativos presentes no WMP para fermentação de bioetanol de baixo custo. A hidrólise de ácido clorídrico diluído de WMP foi realizada em condições otimizadas empregando RSM (metodologia de superfície de resposta) e seguindo o projeto de composto central (CCD). Este projeto experimental é baseado na otimização da etanologenesis envolvendo alguns parâmetros independentes importantes, como hidrolisado de WMP e razão de meio sintético (X1), temperatura de incubação (X2) e temperatura de incubação (X3) para rendimento máximo de etanol explorando o padrão (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) também como leveduras experimentais (Metchnikowia cibodasensis Y34). Os resultados revelaram que os rendimentos máximos de etanol obtidos a partir de S. cerevisiae K7 foi de 0,36 ± 0,02 g / g de açúcares redutores, enquanto M. cibodasensis Y34 rendeu 0,40 ± 0,01 g de etanol / g de açúcares redutores. O isolado de levedura M. cibodasensis Y34 apareceu como um etanologeno promissor e incorpora um potencial prospectivo para a valorização fermentativa de WMP em bioetanol.


Subject(s)
Cucurbitaceae , Ethanol , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Water , Biotransformation , Prospective Studies , Fermentation
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250550, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345536

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vanillin is the major component which is responsible for flavor and aroma of vanilla extract and is produced by 3 ways: natural extraction from vanilla plant, chemical synthesis and from microbial transformation. Current research was aimed to study bacterial production of vanillin from native natural sources including sewage and soil from industrial areas. The main objective was vanillin bio-production by isolating bacteria from these native sources. Also to adapt methodologies to improve vanillin production by optimized fermentation media and growth conditions. 47 soil and 13 sewage samples were collected from different industrial regions of Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Kasur. 67.7% bacterial isolates produced vanillin and 32.3% were non-producers. From these 279 producers, 4 bacterial isolates selected as significant producers were; A3, A4, A7 and A10. These isolates were identified by ribotyping as A3 Pseudomonas fluorescence (KF408302), A4 Enterococcus faecium (KT356807), A7 Alcaligenes faecalis (MW422815) and A10 Bacillus subtilis (KT962919). Vanillin producers were further tested for improved production of vanillin and were grown in different fermentation media under optimized growth conditions for enhanced production of vanillin. The fermentation media (FM) were; clove oil based, rice bran waste (residues oil) based, wheat bran based and modified isoeugenol based. In FM5, FM21, FM22, FM23, FM24, FM30, FM31, FM32, FM34, FM35, FM36, and FM37, the selected 4 bacterial strains produced significant amounts of vanillin. A10 B. subtilis produced maximum amount of vanillin. This strain produced 17.3 g/L vanillin in FM36. Cost of this fermentation medium 36 was 131.5 rupees/L. This fermentation medium was modified isoeugenol based medium with 1% of isoeugenol and 2.5 g/L soybean meal. ech gene was amplified in A3 P. fluorescence using ech specific primers. As vanillin use as flavor has increased tremendously, the bioproduction of vanillin must be focused.


Resumo A vanilina é o principal componente responsável pelo sabor e aroma do extrato de baunilha e é produzida de três formas: extração natural da planta da baunilha, síntese química e transformação microbiana. A pesquisa atual teve como objetivo estudar a produção bacteriana de vanilina a partir de fontes naturais nativas, incluindo esgoto e solo de áreas industriais. O objetivo principal era a bioprodução de vanilina por meio do isolamento de bactérias dessas fontes nativas. Também para adaptar metodologias para melhorar a produção de vanilina por meio de fermentação otimizada e condições de crescimento. Foram coletadas 47 amostras de solo e 13 de esgoto de diferentes regiões industriais de Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad e Kasur; 67,7% dos isolados bacterianos produziram vanilina e 32,3% eram não produtores. Desses 279 produtores, 4 isolados bacterianos selecionados como produtores significativos foram: A3, A4, A7 e A10. Esses isolados foram identificados por ribotipagem como fluorescência A3 Pseudomonas (KF408302), A4 Enterococcus faecium (KT356807), A7 Alcaligenes faecalis (MW422815) e A10 Bacillus subtilis (KT962919). Os produtores de vanilina foram posteriormente testados para produção aprimorada de vanilina e foram cultivados em diferentes meios de fermentação sob condições de crescimento otimizadas para produção aprimorada de vanilina. Os meios de fermentação (FM) foram: à base de óleo de cravo, à base de resíduos de farelo de arroz (resíduos de óleo), à base de farelo de trigo e à base de isoeugenol modificado. Em FM5, FM21, FM22, FM23, FM24, FM30, FM31, FM32, FM34, FM35, FM36 e FM37, as 4 cepas bacterianas selecionadas produziram quantidades significativas de vanilina. A10 B. subtilis produziu quantidade máxima de vanilina. Essa cepa produziu 17,3 g / L de vanilina em FM36. O custo desse meio de fermentação 36 foi de 131,5 rúpias / L. Esse meio de fermentação foi um meio à base de isoeugenol modificado com 1% de isoeugenol e 2,5 g / L de farelo de soja. O gene ech foi amplificado em A3 P. fluorescence usando primers específicos para ech. Como o uso da vanilina como sabor aumentou tremendamente, a bioprodução da vanilina deve ser focada.


Subject(s)
Benzaldehydes/metabolism , Flavoring Agents/metabolism , Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Industrial Microbiology , Pseudomonas fluorescens/metabolism , Enterococcus faecium/metabolism , Culture Media , Alcaligenes faecalis/metabolism , Fermentation
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 596-607, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970528

ABSTRACT

The tight relationships between microbiome and traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)have been widely recognized. New technologies, results, and theories are emerging in the field of microbiomics in recent years with the advances in high-throughput sequencing and multi-omics technologies. Based on the previous research, the present study has proposed the concept of TCM microbiomics(TCMM), which is an interdisciplinary subject aiming at elucidating the functions and applications of microbiome in the areas of herb resources, herb processing, herb storage, and clinical effects by using modern technology of biology, ecology, and informatics. This subject essentially contains the structures, functions, interactions, molecular mechanisms, and application strategies of the microbiome associated with the quality, safety, and efficacy of TCM. Firstly, the development of the TCMM concept was summarized, with the profound understanding of TCMM on the complexity and entirety of microbiome being emphasized. Then, the research contents and applications of TCMM in promoting the sustainable development of herb resources, improving the standardization and diversification of herb fermentation, strengthening the safety of herb storage, and resolving the scientific connotation of theories and clinical efficacy of TCM are reviewed. Finally, the research strategies and methods of TCM microbiomics were elaborated from basic research, application research, and system research. TCMM is expected to promote the integrative development of TCM with frontier science and technology, thereby expanding the depth and scope of TCM study and facilitating TCM modernization.


Subject(s)
Ecology , Fermentation , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Research Design
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1119-1130, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970427

ABSTRACT

Heme, which exists widely in living organisms, is a porphyrin compound with a variety of physiological functions. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is an important industrial strain with the characteristics of easy cultivation and strong ability for expression and secretion of proteins. In order to screen the optimal starting strain for heme synthesis, the laboratory preserved strains were screened with and without addition of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). There was no significant difference in the heme production of strains BA, BAΔ6 and BAΔ6ΔsigF. However, upon addition of ALA, the heme titer and specific heme production of strain BAΔ6ΔsigF were the highest, reaching 200.77 μmol/L and 615.70 μmol/(L·g DCW), respectively. Subsequently, the hemX gene (encoding the cytochrome assembly protein HemX) of strain BAΔ6ΔsigF was knocked out to explore its role in heme synthesis. It was found that the fermentation broth of the knockout strain turned red, while the growth was not significantly affected. The highest ALA concentration in flask fermentation reached 82.13 mg/L at 12 h, which was slightly higher than that of the control 75.11 mg/L. When ALA was not added, the heme titer and specific heme production were 1.99 times and 1.45 times that of the control, respectively. After adding ALA, the heme titer and specific heme production were 2.08 times and 1.72 times higher than that of the control, respectively. Real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR showed that the expressions of hemA, hemL, hemB, hemC, hemD, and hemQ genes at transcription level were up-regulated. We demonstrated that deletion of hemX gene can improve the production of heme, which may facilitate future development of heme-producing strain.


Subject(s)
Gene Deletion , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolism , Aminolevulinic Acid/metabolism , Heme/metabolism , Fermentation
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1083-1095, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970424

ABSTRACT

Biorefinery of chemicals from straw is an effective approach to alleviate the environmental pollution caused by straw burning. In this paper, we prepared gellan gum immobilized Lactobacillus bulgaricus T15 gel beads (LA-GAGR-T15 gel beads), characterized their properties, and established a continuous cell recycle fermentation process for D-lactate (D-LA) production using the LA-GAGR-T15 gel beads. The fracture stress of LA-GAGR-T15 gel beads was (91.68±0.11) kPa, which was 125.12% higher than that of the calcium alginate immobilized T15 gel beads (calcium alginate-T15 gel beads). This indicated that the strength of LA-GAGR-T15 gel beads was stronger, and the strain was less likely to leak out. The average D-LA production was (72.90±2.79) g/L after fermentation for ten recycles (720 h) using LA-GAGR-T15 gel beads as the starting strain and glucose as the substrate, which was 33.85% higher than that of calcium alginate-T15 gel beads and 37.70% higher than that of free T15. Subsequently, glucose was replaced by enzymatically hydrolyzed corn straw and fermented for ten recycles (240 h) using LA-GAGR-T15 gel beads. The yield of D-LA reached (1.74±0.79) g/(L·h), which was much higher than that of using free bacteria. The wear rate of gel beads was less than 5% after ten recycles, which indicated that LA-GAGR is a good carrier for cell immobilization and can be widely used in industrial fermentation. This study provides basic data for the industrial production of D-LA using cell-recycled fermentation, and provides a new way for the biorefinery of D-LA from corn straw.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Lactobacillus delbrueckii , Zea mays , Lactic Acid , Alginates/chemistry , Glucose
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1070-1082, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970423

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to develop a technical system for high-efficient production of fucoxanthin by photo-fermentation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum. In a 5 L photo-fermentation tank, the effects of initial light intensity, nitrogen source and concentration as well as light quality on biomass concentration and fucoxanthin accumulation in P. tricornutum were investigated systematically under mixotrophic condition. The results showed that the biomass concentration, fucoxanthin content and productivity reached the highest level of 3.80 g/L, 13.44 mg/g and 4.70 mg/(L·d) under the optimal conditions of initial light intensity of 100 μmol/(m2·s), 0.02 mol TN/L of tryptone: urea (1:1, N mol/N mol) as mixed nitrogen source, and a mixed red/blue (R: B=6:1) light, 1.41, 1.33 and 2.05-fold higher than that before optimization, respectively. This study developed a key technology for enhancing the production of fucoxanthin by photo-fermentation of P. tricornutum, facilitating the development of marine natural products.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Xanthophylls , Light , Diatoms , Nitrogen
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 842-857, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970409

ABSTRACT

The modern bio-fermentation industry requires design and creation of efficient microbial cell factories for directed conversion of raw materials to target products. The main criteria for assessing the performance of microbial cell factories are their product synthesis capacity and stability. Due to the deficiencies of plasmids in gene expression such as instability and being easy to lose, integration of genes into chromosome is often a better choice for stable expression in microbial hosts. To this end, chromosomal gene integration technology has received much attention and has developed rapidly. In this review, we summarize the recent research progresses of chromosomal integration of large DNA fragments in microorganisms, illustrate the principles and features of various technologies, highlight the opportunity brought by the CRISPR-associated transposon systems, and prospect future research direction of this technology.


Subject(s)
Chromosomes , Plasmids , DNA , Cloning, Molecular , Fermentation
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2699-2712, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981373

ABSTRACT

Fermented Chinese medicine has long been used. Amid the advance for preservation of experience, the connotation of fermented Chinese medicine has been enriched and improved. However, fermented Chinese medicine prescriptions generally contain a lot of medicinals. The fermentation process is complicated and the conventional fermentation conditions fail to be strictly controlled. In addition, the judgment of the fermentation end point is highly subjective. As a result, quality of fermented Chinese medicine is of great difference among regions and unstable. At the moment, the quality standards of fermented Chinese medicine are generally outdated and different among regions, with simple quality control methods and lacking objective safe fermentation-specific evaluation indictors. It is difficult to comprehensively evaluate and control the quality of fermented medicine. These problems have aroused concern in the industry and also affected the clinical application of fermented Chinese medicine. This article summarized and analyzed the application, quality standards, and the modernization of fermentation technology and quality control methods of fermented Chinese medicine and proposed suggestions for improving the quality standards of the medicine, with a view to improving the overall quality of it.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards , Quality Control , Fermentation
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2146-2159, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981346

ABSTRACT

On the basis of establishing the prescription of Xinjianqu and clarifying the increase of the lipid-lowering active ingredients of Xinjianqu by fermentation, this paper further compared the differences in the lipid-lowering effects of Xinjianqu before and after fermentation, and studied the mechanism of Xinjianqu in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Seventy SD rats were randomly divided into seven groups, including normal group, model group, positive drug simvastatin group(0.02 g·kg~(-1)), and low-dose and high-dose Xinjianqu groups before and after fermentation(1.6 g·kg~(-1) and 8 g·kg~(-1)), with ten rats in each group. Rats in each group were given high-fat diet continuously for six weeks to establish the model of hyperlipidemia(HLP). After successful modeling, the rats were given high-fat diet and gavaged by the corresponding drugs for six weeks, once a day, to compare the effects of Xinjianqu on the body mass, liver coefficient, and small intestine propulsion rate of rats with HLP before and after fermentation. The effects of Xinjianqu before and after fermentation on total cholesterol(TC), triacylglyceride(TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), blood urea nitrogen(BUN), creatinine(Cr), motilin(MTL), gastrin(GAS), and the Na~+-K~+-ATPase levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The effects of Xinjianqu on liver morphology of rats with HLP were investigated by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and oil red O fat staining. The effects of Xinjianqu on the protein expression of adenosine 5'-monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase(AMPK), phosphorylated AMPK(p-AMPK), liver kinase B1(LKB1), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate monoacyl coenzyme A reductase(HMGCR) in liver tissues were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The effects of Xinjianqu on the regulation of intestinal flora structure of rats with HLP were studied based on 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that compared with those in the normal group, rats in the model group had significantly higher body mass and liver coefficient(P<0.01), significantly lower small intestine propulsion rate(P<0.01), significantly higher serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, ALT, AST, BUN, Cr, and AQP2(P<0.01), and significantly lower serum levels of HDL-C, MTL, GAS, Na~+-K~+-ATP levels(P<0.01). The protein expression of AMPK, p-AMPK, and LKB1 in the livers of rats in the model group was significantly decreased(P<0.01), and that of HMGCR was significantly increased(P<0.01). In addition, the observed_otus, Shannon, and Chao1 indices were significantly decreased(P<0.05 or P<0.01) in rat fecal flora in the model group. Besides, in the model group, the relative abundance of Firmicutes was reduced, while that of Verrucomicrobia and Proteobacteria was increased, and the relative abundance of beneficial genera such as Ligilactobacillus and Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group was reduced. Compared with the model group, all Xinjianqu groups regulated the body mass, liver coefficient, and small intestine index of rats with HLP(P<0.05 or P<0.01), reduced the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, ALT, AST, BUN, Cr, and AQP2, increased the serum levels of HDL-C, MTL, GAS, and Na~+-K~+-ATP, improved the liver morphology, and increased the protein expression gray value of AMPK, p-AMPK, and LKB1 in the liver of rats with HLP and decreased that of LKB1. Xinjianqu groups could regulate the intestinal flora structure of rats with HLP, increased observed_otus, Shannon, Chao1 indices, and increased the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Ligilactobacillus(genus), Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group(genus). Besides, the high-dose Xinjianqu-fermented group had significant effects on body mass, liver coefficient, small intestine propulsion rate, and serum index levels of rats with HLP(P<0.01), and the effects were better than those of Xinjianqu groups before fermentation. The above results show that Xinjianqu can improve the blood lipid level, liver and kidney function, and gastrointestinal motility of rats with HLP, and the improvement effect of Xinjianqu on hyperlipidemia is significantly enhanced by fermentation. The mechanism may be related to AMPK, p-AMPK, LKB1, and HMGCR protein in the LKB1-AMPK pathway and the regulation of intestinal flora structure.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cholesterol, LDL , Fermentation , Aquaporin 2/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Liver , Lipids , Hyperlipidemias/genetics , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2410-2429, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981209

ABSTRACT

The current linear economy model relies on fossil energy and increases CO2 emissions, which contributes to global warming and environmental pollution. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop and deploy technologies for carbon capture and utilization to establish a circular economy. The use of acetogens for C1-gas (CO and CO2) conversion is a promising technology due to high metabolic flexibility, product selectivity, and diversity of the products including chemicals and fuels. This review focuses on the physiological and metabolic mechanisms, genetic and metabolic engineering modifications, fermentation process optimization, and carbon atom economy in the process of C1-gas conversion by acetogens, with the aim to facilitate the industrial scale-up and carbon negative production through acetogen gas fermentation.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Gases/metabolism , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Carbon/metabolism
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2375-2389, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981207

ABSTRACT

Adipic acid is a high-value-added dicarboxylic acid which is primarily used in the production of nylon-66 for manufacturing polyurethane foam and polyester resins. At present, the biosynthesis of adipic acid is hampered by its low production efficiency. By introducing the key enzymes of adipic acid reverse degradation pathway into a succinic acid overproducing strain Escherichia coli FMME N-2, an engineered E. coli JL00 capable of producing 0.34 g/L adipic acid was constructed. Subsequently, the expression level of the rate-limiting enzyme was optimized and the adipic acid titer in shake-flask fermentation increased to 0.87 g/L. Moreover, the supply of precursors was balanced by a combinatorial strategy consisting of deletion of sucD, over-expression of acs, and mutation of lpd, and the adipic acid titer of the resulting E. coli JL12 increased to 1.51 g/L. Finally, the fermentation process was optimized in a 5 L fermenter. After 72 h fed-batch fermentation, adipic acid titer reached 22.3 g/L with a yield of 0.25 g/g and a productivity of 0.31 g/(L·h). This work may serve as a technical reference for the biosynthesis of various dicarboxylic acids.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Bioreactors , Fermentation , Adipates/metabolism
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2248-2264, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981201

ABSTRACT

S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) is ubiquitous in living organisms and plays important roles in transmethylation, transsulfuration and transamination in organisms. Due to its important physiological functions, production of SAM has attracted increasing attentions. Currently, researches on SAM production mainly focus on microbial fermentation, which is more cost-effective than that of the chemical synthesis and the enzyme catalysis, thus easier to achieve commercial production. With the rapid growth in SAM demand, interests in improving SAM production by developing SAM hyper-producing microorganisms aroused. The main strategies for improving SAM productivity of microorganisms include conventional breeding and metabolic engineering. This review summarizes the recent research progress in improving microbial SAM productivity to facilitate further improving SAM productivity. The bottlenecks in SAM biosynthesis and the solutions were also addressed.


Subject(s)
S-Adenosylmethionine/metabolism , Plant Breeding , Fermentation , Metabolic Engineering
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2231-2247, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981200

ABSTRACT

Organic acids are organic compounds that can be synthesized using biological systems. They often contain one or more low molecular weight acidic groups, such as carboxyl group and sulphonic group. Organic acids are widely used in food, agriculture, medicine, bio-based materials industry and other fields. Yeast has unique advantages of biosafety, strong stress resistance, wide substrate spectrum, convenient genetic transformation, and mature large-scale culture technology. Therefore, it is appealing to produce organic acids by yeast. However, challenges such as low concentration, many by-products and low fermentation efficiency still exist. With the development of yeast metabolic engineering and synthetic biology technology, rapid progress has been made in this field recently. Here we summarize the progress of biosynthesis of 11 organic acids by yeast. These organic acids include bulk carboxylic acids and high-value organic acids that can be produced naturally or heterologously. Finally, future prospects in this field were proposed.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Organic Chemicals , Carboxylic Acids/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Fermentation , Acids
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2070-2080, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981190

ABSTRACT

5-aminovalanoic acid (5AVA) can be used as the precursor of new plastics nylon 5 and nylon 56, and is a promising platform compound for the synthesis of polyimides. At present, the biosynthesis of 5-aminovalanoic acid generally is of low yield, complex synthesis process and high cost, which hampers large-scale industrial production. In order to achieve efficient biosynthesis of 5AVA, we developed a new pathway mediated by 2-keto-6-aminohexanoate. By combinatory expression of L-lysine α-oxidase from Scomber japonicus, α-ketoacid decarcarboxylase from Lactococcus lactis and aldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli, the synthesis of 5AVA from L-lysine in Escherichia coli was achieved. Under the initial conditions of glucose concentration of 55 g/L and lysine hydrochloride of 40 g/L, the final consumption of 158 g/L glucose and 144 g/L lysine hydrochloride, feeding batch fermentation to produce 57.52 g/L of 5AVA, and the molar yield is 0.62 mol/mol. The new 5AVA biosynthetic pathway does not require ethanol and H2O2, and achieved a higher production efficiency as compared to the previously reported Bio-Chem hybrid pathway mediated by 2-keto-6-aminohexanoate.


Subject(s)
Nylons , Lysine/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Plastics/metabolism , Fermentation , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Aminocaproates/metabolism
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468916

ABSTRACT

Today, global focus of research is to explore the solution of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Like other agricultural countries, bulk quantities of watermelon peels (WMP) are disposed-off in environment as waste in Pakistan and appropriate management of this waste is the need of hour to save environment from pollution. The work emphasizes the role of ethanologenic yeasts to utilize significant sugars present in WMP for low-cost bioethanol fermentation. Dilute hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of WMP was carried out on optimized conditions employing RSM (response surface methodology) following central composite design (CCD). This experimental design is based on optimization of ethanologenesis involving some key independent parameters such as WMP hydrolysate and synthetic media ratio (X1), incubation temperature (X2) and incubation temperature (X3) for maximal ethanol yield exploiting standard (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) as well as experimental (Metchnikowia cibodasensisY34) yeasts. The results revealed that maximal ethanol yields obtained from S. cerevisiae K7 was 0.36±0.02 g/g of reducing sugars whereas M. cibodasensisY34, yielded 0.40±0.01 g ethanol/g of reducing sugars. The yeast isolate M. cibodasensisY34 appeared as promising ethanologen and embodies prospective potential for fermentative valorization of WMP-to-bioethanol.


Hoje, o foco global da pesquisa é explorar a solução da crise energética e da poluição ambiental. Como em outros países agrícolas, grandes quantidades de cascas de melancia (WMP) são descartadas como resíduos no meio ambiente no Paquistão, mas a gestão adequada desses resíduos é a mais recente solução para salvar o meio ambiente da poluição. O trabalho enfatiza o papel das leveduras etanologênicas para utilizar açúcares significativos presentes no WMP para fermentação de bioetanol de baixo custo. A hidrólise de ácido clorídrico diluído de WMP foi realizada em condições otimizadas empregando RSM (metodologia de superfície de resposta) e seguindo o projeto de composto central (CCD). Este projeto experimental é baseado na otimização da etanologenesis envolvendo alguns parâmetros independentes importantes, como hidrolisado de WMP e razão de meio sintético (X1), temperatura de incubação (X2) e temperatura de incubação (X3) para rendimento máximo de etanol explorando o padrão (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) também como leveduras experimentais (Metchnikowia cibodasensis Y34). Os resultados revelaram que os rendimentos máximos de etanol obtidos a partir de S. cerevisiae K7 foi de 0,36 ± 0,02 g / g de açúcares redutores, enquanto M. cibodasensis Y34 rendeu 0,40 ± 0,01 g de etanol / g de açúcares redutores. O isolado de levedura M. cibodasensis Y34 apareceu como um etanologeno promissor e incorpora um potencial prospectivo para a valorização fermentativa de WMP em bioetanol.


Subject(s)
Citrullus/chemistry , Fermentation , Bioreactors , Garbage
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243874, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285606

ABSTRACT

Abstract In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Resumo Nos últimos dias, a fonte alternativa de carbono mais barata para fins de fermentação é desejável para minimizar o custo de produção. As xilanases têm se tornado enzimas atraentes como seu potencial no biobranqueamento da indústria de papel e celulose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a capacidade potencial na produção de xilanase por Bacillus pumilus BS131 isolado localmente usando lodo de fibra residual e farelo de trigo em meio de fermentação submersa. As condições de crescimento da cultura foram otimizadas para obter uma quantidade significativa de xilanase. A produção máxima de xilanase foi registrada após 72 horas de incubação a 30 °C e pH 7 com concentração de substrato de 4,0%. Resumindo, a produção de xilanase usando lodo de fibra residual de baixo custo e farelo de trigo como uma alternativa no lugar do substrato de xilano caro foi mais econômica e ecológica.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/metabolism , Bacillus pumilus/metabolism , Sewage , Temperature , Dietary Fiber , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/metabolism , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285638

ABSTRACT

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Feathers , Fermentation , Fungi , Industrial Waste , Keratins/metabolism
19.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-8, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393172

ABSTRACT

Background: Lactic fermentations are a catabolic process in which biochemical transformations of different organic products occur. Sugars are mainly converted into organic acids, increasing viscosity, acid taste, aroma, and flavor. Lactic acid bacteria provide probiotic characteristics if they reach counts of 106 CFU*g-1 (Colony Forming Units) in the final product, which can generate wellness for consumers. Objective: This research aimed to compare the lactic fermentation process in three substrates using two commercial cultures. Methods: Whole milk (control), aqueous extract of oats flakes, and an aqueous extract of a mixture of oats flakes with mashua pulp were used. The whole milk was heated, and the aqueous extracts were prepared. All samples were divided into two parts, keeping the temperature at 42°C, and then inoculated with Yomix y Choozit. Each the fermentation lasted 6 hours at 42°C. Fermentation samples were taken each hour, and pH, titratable acidity. and Brix degrees were determined. Results: Total lactic acid bacteria were counted at the end of each fermentation. The final product was evaluated with sensory analysis. As expected, there was an increase in titratable acidity, and a decreased pH and Brix degrees. It was observed that the dairy product showed the most significant changes. Fermentations performed with Yomix presented a higher count of lactic bacteria. Conclusion: It is possible to carry out lactic fermentation using substrates that do not contain milk, requiring higher initial soluble solids and a longer incubation time


Antecedentes: Las fermentaciones lácticas son un proceso catabólico en el que ocurren transformaciones bioquímicas de diferentes productos orgánicos. En ellas, los azúcares son convertidos principalmente en ácidos orgánicos, generando adicionalmente el aumento de viscosidad, sabor ácido, aromas y sabores en los productos finales. Adicionalmente, aportan características probióticas, ya que son realizadas por bacterias lácticas, que, si alcanzan recuentos de 106 UFC*g-1 (Unidades formadoras de colonias) en el producto final, generan bienestar para los consumidores. Objetivo: Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo comparar el proceso de fermentación láctica en tres sustratos utilizando dos cultivos comerciales. Métodos: Se utilizó leche entera (control), extracto acuoso de hojuelas de avena y un extracto acuoso de mezcla de hojuelas de avena con pulpa de cubios. Se llevó a cabo el calentamiento de la leche entera, y la preparación de los sustratos de avena y cubios. Dichas muestras se dividieron en dos partes, manteniendo la temperatura a 42°C. Cada una de las muestras fue inoculada con Yomix y Choozit. Cada fermentación duró 6 horas manteniendo una temperatura de 42°C. Durante cada hora se tomaron muestras, a las cuales se evaluó el pH, acidez titulable y grados brix. En los productos finales se realizó el recuento de bacterias lácticas y se realizó una evaluación sensorial. Resultados: A lo largo de la fermentación se presentó el aumento de la acidez titulable, y disminución del pH y los grados Brix. Se observó que el producto a base de leche mostró los cambios más significativos. En el caso de los productos obtenidos usando Yomix, presentaron mayor recuento de bacterias lácticas al ser comparados con aquellos en los que se usó el cultivo 1. Conclusión: Es posible realizar la fermentación láctica usando sustratos que no contengan leche, los cuales requieren mayores sólidos solubles iníciales y un mayor tiempo de incubación


Subject(s)
Avena , Milk , Fermentation , Food Technology/methods , Taste , Viscosity
20.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 18-18, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396574

ABSTRACT

Studies have shownthat homeopathy modulates the activity of both single-and multi-celled organisms;therefore, we propose a study into the action of Arnica Montanaand S. cerevisiae fungus nosode on growth "in vitro", and on the fermentation of S. cerevisiaeon brewer's wort. Methods:250 µL of medication in 30% alcohol were placed in 5 mL of Sabouraud Broth (SB) or wort, with 20 µL of fungus ata McFarland standard of 0.5 and in a dilution of 1:100. Fungal growth was evaluated via spectrophotometry at 600 nm or a cell count in a Neubauer chamber in a kinetic of 1 to 5 days' incubation at 25ºC. The production of alcohol by the fungus was evaluated using the BRIX index in the samekinetic. 1x107fungi/mL were previously incubated with medication for 5 days and, afterwards, placed in 20 mL of fresh wort, incubated at 25ºC for 7 days and evaluated for growth and sugar consumption. Resultsand Discussion: The SB results revealed that after 2days incubation with Arnica30CH, an increase in fungal growth was observed (p<0.0001), whilewith nosode 6 and 30CH there was a reduction in growth after 2 and 5 days incubation (p<0.001). The fungi incubated with Arnica30CH exhibited increased sugar consumption after 2 and5 days incubation (p<0.05), while the nosode 30CH resulted in lower sugar consumption after 2 and 3 days incubation (p<0.05). The results for fungal growth and sugar consumption with the wort were similar to those using SB.The fungalcultures previously incubated with homeopathic medication and subsequent incubation with fresh wortindicated a loss of distinction, bothin terms of fungal growth and sugar consumption. This piece of data may suggest action by the homeopathic medication only when in contact with the cells. Conclusion: The treatment of the S. cerevisiae fungus using Arnica and the S. cerevisiae nosode produced a significant modulation in fungal growth and sugar consumption.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Fermentation , Homeopathy
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