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1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(3): 201-213, sept 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1516064

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los embutidos crudos se componen de carne fragmentada y otros ingredientes no cárnicos (sal, especias, fosfatos, nitritos) pero cuya formulación varía según el país; son productos altamente perecederos y podrían representar un riesgo para el consumidor. Objetivo. Los embutidos frescos son de alto consumo en varios países de Latinoamérica, por ello, el objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es compilar la información disponible sobre la calidad microbiológica de este tipo de productos en la región. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura (desde el 2006 a la fecha) en las principales bases de datos. Resultados. Se determinó que la calidad microbiológica de los embutidos crudos latinoamericanos no es adecuada según la reglamentación. Las bacterias más estudiadas son los microorganismos totales aerobios mesófilos (MTAM), y las bacterias ácido-lácticas (BAL); estos dos grupos son los referentes para determinar la vida útil. Los patógenos más analizados son Salmonella spp. y Listeria monocytogenes y llama la atención que Staphyloccoccus aureus no se utiliza como indicador de malas prácticas de higiene o de inocuidad. Conclusiones. En general se confirma que los embutidos frescos podrían ser un riesgo para la salud pública ya que presentan recuentos microbiológicos altos, en ocasiones no regulados. Algunos agentes antimicrobianos como los compuestos etanólicos de propóleos (EEP), compuestos fenólicos y bacteriófagos han sido estudiados. Sin embargo, no está claro si a nivel artesanal este tipo de ingredientes son utilizados del todo. Finalmente, destaca la necesidad de armonizar las metodologías de estudio y la normativa vigente en los distintos países(AU)


Introduction. Raw sausages are products composed of comminuted meat and other non- meat ingredients (salt, spices, phosphates, nitrites) but the formulation varies in each country. Given this nature, raw sausages are highly perishable and may represent an important risk for consumers. Aim. As raw sausages are highly consumed in many Latin-American countries, the objective of this literature review was to compile the available information about studies of the microbial quality of these products in the region. Materials and methods. For that purpose, a literature search was performed on main data bases to compile studies from 2006 to nowadays. Results. In general, it was found that microbiological quality of Latin-American raw sausages is not adequate according to current regulation. Total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms (TAMM) and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) were the most studied indicators; these two groups are the main reference to establish shelf life. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were the most studied pathogens, and it is noticeable that Staphyloccoccus aureus is not used as an indicator for safety or manipulation. Conclusions. It is perceived that raw sausages in the region could represent a public health risk as they frequently present high microbiological counts, not regulated in many cases. For conservation, antimicrobial agents as propolic ethanoplic extracts (PEE), phenolyc compounds, and bacteriophages have been studied. However, it is not clear if these ingredients are used at the artisanal level, even though it can be assumed that they are not given the high microbial numbers that are reported. Finally, it stands out the need of harmonization of methodologies and current regulation in the countries(AU)


Subject(s)
Food, Preserved , Food, Processed , Meat , Meat Products/analysis , Food Contamination , Food Inspection , Food Safety
2.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz (Online) ; 82: e39184, maio 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1523906

ABSTRACT

Identificar irregularidades em restaurantes pode auxiliar a minimizar riscos de contaminação. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar as irregularidades registradas em inspeções sanitárias de restaurantes e similares em Curitiba, Brasil, entre 2005 a 2017. A descrição das irregularidades foi organizada seguindo as categorias e os itens da legislação de Boas Práticas (BP) para serviços de alimentação do Brasil e as cinco chaves para uma alimentação mais segura, definidas pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Do total de 4.098 registros, houve a descrição de 8.327 irregularidades. Em relação às BP, houve a prevalência da descrição de irregularidades nos anos de 2005, 2006 e 2013, e das categorias: edificações, instalações, equipamentos, móveis e utensílios (42,80%); preparação do alimento (11,54%); documentação e registro (9,92%) e matéria-prima, ingredientes e embalagens (9,06%). Em relação às cinco chaves para uma alimentação mais segura, apenas 3.209 (38,53%) descrições correspondiam a esse tema, com destaque a: manter a limpeza (40,70%) e usar água e matérias-primas seguras (34,71%). Houve uma tendência decrescente na descrição das irregularidades no período estudado, porém ainda é um desafio implementar as BP em restaurantes e similares no Brasil, o que pode favorecer a ocorrência de doenças e aumentar o risco à saúde da população.


Identifying irregularities in restaurants can help minimize contamination risks. The objective of this study was to analyze the irregularities recorded in sanitary inspections of restaurants and similar establishments in Curitiba, Brazil, between 2005 and 2017. The description of the irregularities was categorized following the items and criteria outlined in the Good Practices (GP) legislation for food services of Brazil and the Five Keys to Safer Food, defined by the World Health Organization. Out of the total of 4,098 records, 8,327 irregularities were documented. Concerning GP, there was a prevalence of irregularities described in the years 2005, 2006 and 2013, mainly in the following categories: buildings, installations, equipment, furniture and utensils (42.80%); food preparation (11.54%); documentation and registration (9.92%) and raw materials, ingredients and packaging (9.06%). Regarding the Five Keys to Safer Food, only 3,209 (38.53%) corresponded to this theme, with particular emphasis on maintaining cleanliness (40.70%) and using safe water and raw materials (34.71 %). The study observed a declining trend in the description of irregularities over the study period. However, the successful implementation of GP in restaurants and similar establishments in Brazil remains a challenge, potentially favoring the occurrence of foodborne diseases and increasing the risk to public health.


Subject(s)
Restaurants , Food Hygiene/methods , Sanitary Inspection , Good Manufacturing Practices , Food Safety , Brazil
3.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(1): 42-59, mar. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1427726

ABSTRACT

La leche materna donada es un recurso de alto valor que puede ser utilizado para la alimentación de neonatos hospitalizados y a término, por tanto, garantizar su inocuidad es imperativo. Esta revisión de literatura reúne los principales peligros de naturaleza física, química y microbiológica identificados en leche materna, con la intención de proveer una referencia que los consolide de tal forma que la información pueda ser utilizada por bancos de leche humana, gobiernos y agencias regulatorias para establecer mecanismos para su prevención y control. Se realizó una revisión de literatura entre agosto del 2021 y octubre del 2022, utilizando buscadores y descriptores específicos para peligros de transmisión alimentaria en leche materna. Se incluyeron estudios publicados en español o en inglés. Se identificaron 31 agentes biológicos patógenos incluyendo bacterias, virus y parásitos. Como peligros químicos se reportaron medicamentos, drogas, cafeína, infusiones herbales, micotoxinas, alérgenos, especias, suplementos nutricionales, contaminantes ambientales y desinfectantes. Se alerta sobre la presencia potencial de plástico y vidrio de tamaño menor a 7 mm proveniente del ambiente de extracción y recipientes. La presencia de peligros microbiológicos y químicos en leche materna puede darse por transmisión vertical, temperaturas inadecuadas durante el almacenamiento y contaminación en el proceso. La presencia de peligros físicos se relaciona con la manipulación de los implementos en etapas posteriores a la extracción. Se requiere prestar atención a los hábitos de la madre para prevenir peligros químicos, así como más investigación relacionada con micotoxinas en leche materna(AU)


Donated breast milk is a highvalue resource which can be used to feed hospitalized neonates and full-term infants, therefore, ensuring its safety is imperative. This literature review presents the main hazards of physical, chemical and microbiological nature identified in human milk, with the intention of providing a reference that consolidates the reported hazards reported, so the information can be used by human milk banks, governments and regulatory agencies to establish prevention and control mechanisms. A literature review was carried out between August 2021 and October 2022, using search engines and specific descriptors for foodborne hazards in breast milk. Studies published in Spanish and English were considered. 31 pathogenic biological agents including bacteria, viruses and parasites were identified. Medications, drugs, caffeine, herbal infusions, mycotoxins, allergens, spices, nutritional supplements, contaminants of environmental origin and disinfectants were reported as chemical hazards. No physical hazards were identified, however the potential presence of plastic and glass smaller than 7 mm from the extraction environment or containers is alerted. Presence of microbiological and chemical hazards can be due to vertical transmission, inadequate temperature of storing, contamination during extraction, packaging, and infant feeding. Whereas presence of physical hazards is related to implements handling after extraction. Attention to hygiene and habits of the mother to prevent chemical hazards and further research related to mycotoxins in human milk is required(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Biological Factors , Hygiene , Environmental Pollutants , Milk, Human , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Milk Banks , Dietary Supplements , Food Safety
4.
Rev. cient. cienc. salud ; 5(1): 1-7, 26-01-2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1425184

ABSTRACT

Introducción:la comida callejera es preparada por vendedores ambulantes enlas calles, constituyendo un segmento importante del mercado informal. Objetivo:caracterizar el consumo de alimentos expendidos en la vía pública en Paraguay. Metodología:trabajo transversal descriptivo y analítico, realizado con 397 participantescon muestreopor convenienciaentremayo a noviembre del 2020. Se utilizó el formulario Google, difundido a través de plataformas digitales y redes sociales. Se contó con la aprobación del Comité de Ética de la Facultad de Ciencias Químicas. Resultados:Participaron 397 personas, 79,1% (314) fueron del sexo femenino, 58,7% (233) contaba entre 18 a 40 años, 54,7% (217) residía en el Área Metropolitana, 47,6% (189) estaban solteros, 62,3% (134) eran universitarios. El 40,6% (161) consume estos alimentos porque era"rápido y fácil". El lomito fue consumido con mayor frecuencia43,5% (70). El 14,35 (23) tuvo una experiencia negativa por"sabores extraños"7,5% (12), 1,9% (3) tuvo que faltar a sutrabajo o estudio debido a estos malestares, presentando vomito el 0,6%(1).Ser menor de 40 años (OR=2,5 IC95% 1,6 ­3,8 p=0,00001), ser del sexo masculino (OR=1,8 IC95% 1,1 ­2,9 p=0,001), ser estudiante (OR=2,2 IC95% 1,4 ­3,5 p=0,0004) y estar sin pareja (OR=1,5 IC95% 1 ­1,2 p=0,03) constituyeron factores de riesgo para el consumo de alimentos en la vía pública. Conclusión:Una alta proporción de personas consumen alimentos en la vía pública, siendo el lomito el más preferido. Más delamitad refirió haber tenido una experiencia negativa, sobre todo que los alimentos tenían sabores extraños.Palabras clave: alimentos; alimentos vendidos en la vía pública; inocuidad de alimentos.


Introduction:street food is prepared by street vendors, constituting an important segment of the informal market. Objective:to characterize the consumption of street food expended in Paraguay during the year 2020. Methodology:cross-sectional, descriptiveand analyticalstudycarried out from May to November 2020, with 397 participantsby convenience sampling. The Google form was used and disseminated through digital platforms and social networks. It was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Chemical Sciences. Results:397 people participated, 79.1% (314) were female, 58.7% (233) were between 18 and 40 years old, 54.7% (217) resided in the Metropolitan Area, 47.6% (189) they were single, 62.3% (134) were university students. 40.6% (161) consume these foods because it was "quick and easy". The tenderloin was consumed more frequently 43.5% (70). 14.35 (23) had a negative experience due to "strange tastes" 7.5% (12), 1.9% (3) had to miss work or study due to these discomforts, 0.6 presenting vomiting 0,6 % (1). Being under 40 years of age (OR=2.5 IC95% 1.6 ­3.8 p=0.00001), being male (OR=1.8 IC95% 1.1 ­2.9 p=0.001), being a student (OR=2.2 IC95% 1.4 ­3.5 p=0.0004) and being without a partner (OR=1.5 IC95% 1 ­1.2 p=0.03) were factors of risk for the consumption of food on public roads. Conclusion:A high proportion of people consume food on public roads, with tenderloin being the most preferred. More than a half reported having had a negative experience, especially since the food had strange flavours. Key words:food; street food; food safety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Street Food , Food , Food Safety
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468894

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus is an important foodborne pathogen associated to food intoxication and other multiple infections in human being. Its presence in salted food is a serious issue due to its salt tolerance potential. A study was conducted to analyze the presence of enterotoxins producing drug resistance S. aureus in salted sea fish from Gwadar. Freshly persevered samples (n=50) of salted fish were subjected to analyze the presence of S. aureus using 16S rRNA and Nuc genes primers. The isolates were then evaluated for drug resistance and enterotoxins producing potential using specific primers for MecA (methicillin resistance gene), (SEA) staphylococcal enterotoxin A and (SEB) staphylococcal enterotoxin B genes. Total 13/50 (26%) of the samples were found positive for the presence of S. aureus, preliminary confirmed with biochemical profiling and finally with the help of target genes presence. The isolates were found showing 100% resistant to methicillin, which were molecularly confirmed by the presence of MecA gene present in genome. The isolates 5/13 (38%) were positive for SEA and 3/13 (23%) for SEB genes, whereas 2/13 (15%) were confirmed having both SEA and SEB genes in its genome. It was also confirmed that all the isolates were capable to form biofilm over the glass surfaces. It was concluded that the study confirmed the presence of enterotoxigenic methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aurous (MRSA) in salted fish product, that poses gross food safety concern. Preventive and control measures are necessary to handle this serious food safety concern.


Staphylococcus aureus é um importante patógeno de origem alimentar associado à intoxicação alimentar e outras infecções múltiplas em seres humanos. Sua presença em alimentos salgados é um problema sério devido ao seu potencial de tolerância ao sal. Um estudo foi realizado para analisar a presença de enterotoxinas produtoras de resistência a drogas S. aureus em peixes salgados do mar de Gwadar. Amostras recém-perseveradas (n = 50) de peixes salgados foram submetidas à análise da presença de S. aureus usando os primers dos genes 16S rRNA e Nuc. Os isolados foram então avaliados quanto à resistência a drogas e potencial de produção de enterotoxinas usando primers específicos para os genes MecA (gene de resistência à meticilina), (SEA) enterotoxina A estafilocócica e (SEB) enterotoxina B estafilocócica genes. Um total de 13/50 (26%) das amostras foi considerado positivas para a presença de S. aureus, confirmadas preliminarmente com perfis bioquímicos e finalmente com a ajuda da presença de genes-alvo. Os isolados foram encontrados com 100% de resistência à meticilina, os quais foram confirmados molecularmente pela presença do gene MecA no genoma. Os isolados 5/13 (38%) foram positivos para SEA e 3/13 (23%) para genes SEB, enquanto 2/13 (15%) foram confirmados tendo os genes SEA e SEB em seu genoma. Também foi verificado que todos os isolados foram capazes de formar biofilme sobre as superfícies de vidro. Concluiu-se que o estudo confirmou a presença de Staphylococcus aurous resistente à meticilina enterotoxigênica (MRSA) em produtos de peixe salgado, o que representa uma grande preocupação para a segurança alimentar. Medidas preventivas e de controle são necessárias para lidar com essa grave preocupação com a segurança alimentar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Foodborne Diseases/prevention & control , Food Safety , Fishes/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity
6.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 749-754, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010567

ABSTRACT

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a major pathogen frequently found in seafood. Rapid and accurate detection of this pathogen is important for the control of bacterial foodborne diseases and to ensure food safety. In this study, we established a one-pot system that combines uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 12b (Cas12b) for detecting V. parahaemolyticus in seafood. This detection system can effectively perform identification using a single tube and avoid the risk of carry-over contamination.


Subject(s)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genetics , Uracil-DNA Glycosidase/genetics , Hot Temperature , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Food Safety
7.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(3): 218-230, sept. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1399301

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This article addresses the legal regulations for Foods for Specified Health Uses (FOSHU) in the main trade associations of Latin America (LATAM), based on the Codex Alimentarius system. Objective: The objective is to determine regulatory progress in the trade of FOSHU products. Material and methods: This study includes a review of the literature emanating from the databases from 2018 to 2022, according to the framework of three general food marketing regulations: food safety claims; inspection regulations, and food manufacturing and labeling. Results: The results reveal the absence of a specific legislation for FOSHU foods, as these are only mentioned in the area of nutrition. Conclusions: The legal framework in the trade of these products is based on jus cogens. Registration of industrial patents in the main member countries of LATAM trade associations can be facilitated through the Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH)(AU)


Introducción: El artículo aborda las regulaciones jurídicas en Alimentos para Uso Específico de Salud "FOSHU" en las principales asociaciones comerciales de América Latina (LATAM), basados en el sistema Codex Alimentarius. Objetivo: Determinar el avance regulatorio en la comercialización de productos FOSHU. Materiales y métodos: Se revisa la literatura emanada de las bases de datos desde el año 2018 al 2022, según el marco de tres regulaciones generales de comercialización de alimentos: las declaraciones de seguridad alimentaria; las regulaciones de inspecciones, las de manufacturas de alimentos y etiquetado. Resultados: Los resultados revelaron la ausencia de una legislación específica para alimentos FOSHU, siendo solo mencionados en el área de la nutrición. Conclusiones: El revestimiento jurídico en la comercialización de estos productos; se cimienta en el ius cogens. Las inscripciones de patentes industriales en los principales países miembros de las asociaciones comerciales en LATAM pueden facilitarse por la vía del Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH)(AU)


Subject(s)
Patents as Topic , International Law , Functional Food , Products Commerce , Legislation, Food , Food Safety , Food Labeling/legislation & jurisprudence , Food Technology/legislation & jurisprudence , Food Supply/legislation & jurisprudence , Latin America
8.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(3): 148-156, jul./set. 2022. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1411236

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify potentially pathogenic microorganisms (Listeria innocua, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii, L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and several virulence genes) in unpasteurized cheese production in the northeastern region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Listeria species were detected in 68 (64.14%) out of 106 samples of bovine feces, swabs from milkers' and cheese handlers' hands, milking buckets, raw milk, whey, water, cheese processing surface,s and utensils. All the samples collected at one farm were contaminated with Listeria spp. L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii, or L. monocytogenes were not detected in the samples collected in this study. A set of 391 Staphylococcus spp. isolates were obtained in these samples, from which 60 (15.31%) were identified as S. aureus using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). S. aureus carrying virulence genes (eta, hlg, seg, seh, sei) were detected in milk, in swabs from cheese handler's hands, whey, milk, sieves, buckets, and cheese. The hlg gene (encodes gamma hemolysin) was detected in all the S. aureus isolates. These findings show that poor hygienic practice is associated with a higher risk of pathogenic bacteria in milk or cheese, providing useful information for public health authorities to increase food safety surveillance and prevent the dissemination of pathogens.


O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar microrganismos potencialmente patogênicos (Listeria innocua, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii, L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus e diversos genes de virulência) na produção de queijos de leite cru na região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Listeria foram detectadas em 68 (64,14%) das 106 amostras obtidas de fezes bovinas, suabes das mãos de ordenhadores e queijeiros, baldes, leite cru, soro, água, superfícies e utensílios da produção de queijos. Todas as amostras coletadas em uma fazenda estavam contaminadas com Listeria spp. L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii, e L. monocytogenes não foram detectadas nas amostras coletadas nesse estudo. Um conjunto de 391 isolados de Staphylococcus spp. foram obtidos das amostras, e desses 60 (15,31%) foram identificados como S. aureus pela PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). S. aureus contendo genes de virulência (eta, hlg, seg, seh, sei) foram detectados em leite, mãos dos ordenhadores, soro, utensílios e queijos. O gene hlg (gama-hemolisina)foi detectado em todos os isolados de S. aureus.Esses resultados demonstram que práticas inadequadas de higiene estão associadas com um maior risco da presença de bactérias patogênicas no leite e queijos crus, fornecendo informações para as autoridades de saúde pública para incrementarem a vigilância e prevenirem a disseminação de patógenos.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus , Food Contamination/analysis , Food Hygiene , Cheese/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Food Safety/methods , Food Microbiology , Listeria
9.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 56(2): 171-180, abr. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1402954

ABSTRACT

Resumen Escherichia coli shigatoxigénica (STEC) está involucrada en el desarrollo del síndrome urémico hemolítico, entre otras enfermedades que son de gran importancia para la salud pública e inocuidad alimentaria a nivel mundial. La capacidad de STEC de formar biofilms en los alimentos y en diferentes superficies podría conducir a la contaminación cruzada por el desprendimiento de las células bacterianas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue detectar la presencia de genes que codifican factores de adherencia mediante la técnica de PCR y determinar la capacidad de formación de biofilms por medio de cultivo en microplacas de poliestireno de 96 pocillos y la técnica de cristal violeta, en cepas de STEC aisladas de muestras clínicas humanas en la ciudad de Mar del Plata, Argentina. El perfil de genes de adherencia más frecuente fue efa1, iha, fimCD, ehaA, lpfA1-3, lpfA2-2, cah (43,9%). Todas las cepas de STEC formaron biofilms con valores de densidad óptica entre 0,209 y 3,251 y el 54,4% (31/57) de las mismas fueron clasificadas como fuertes formadoras de biofilms. La capacidad de formación de biofilms de STEC constituye un riesgo evidente en la transmisión de este patógeno al ser humano a tener en cuenta para su vigilancia y control.


Abstract Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) is involved in the development of hemolytic uremic syndrome, among other diseases that are relevant to public health and food safety worldwide. The ability of STEC to form biofilms in food and on different surfaces could lead to cross-contamination by shedding bacterial cells. The aim of this work was to detect the presence of genes encoding adherence factors by the PCR technique and to determine the biofilm formation ability by culture in 96-well polystyrene microplates and the crystal violet technique, in STEC strains isolated from human clinical samples in Mar del Plata city, Argentina. The most frequent adherence gene profile was efa1, iha, fimCD, ehaA, lpfA1-3, lpfA2-2, cah (43.9%). All STEC strains formed biofilms with optical density values between 0.209 and 3.251. Also, the 54.4% (31/57) of STEC strains were classified as strong biofilm formers. The ability of STEC to form biofilms constitutes an evident risk in the transmission of this pathogen to humans, which must be taken into account for its surveillance and control.


Resumo A Escherichia coli shigatoxigênica (STEC) está envolvida no desenvolvimento da síndrome hemolítica urêmica, entre outras doenças relevantes para a saúde pública e segurança alimentar em todo o mundo. A capacidade do STEC de formar biofilmes nos alimentos e em diferentes superfícies poderia levar à contaminação cruzada através do desprendimento de células bacterianas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi detectar a presença de genes que codificam fatores de aderência através da técnica PCR e determinar a capacidade de formação de biofilme por cultura em microplacas de poliestireno de 96 poços e da técnica de cristal violeta, em cepas STEC isoladas de amostras clínicas humanas na cidade de Mar del Plata, Argentina. O perfil de genes de aderência mais frequente foi efa1, iha, fimCD, ehaA, lpfA1-3, lpfA2-2, cah (43,9%). Todas as cepas de STEC formaram biofilmes com valores de densidade ótica entre 0,209 e 3,251. Também, os 54,4% (31/57) das estirpes STEC foram classificados como fortes formadores de biofilmes. A habilidade de formação de biofilmes de STEC constitui um risco evidente na transmissão deste patógeno ao humano, que deve ser levado em consideração para sua vigilância e controle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Escherichia coli , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli , Sprains and Strains , Cells , Disease , Biofilms , Growth and Development , Environmental Pollution , Food Safety , Food , Genes , Methods
10.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2022. 171 p. tab, fig.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-RJ, BIGG | ID: biblio-1396965

ABSTRACT

A Categorização dos serviços de alimentação com foco no risco sanitário de Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos no Brasil foi uma experiência pontual e exitosa com o Projeto de Categorização da Copa do Mundo FIFA® de 2014. Devido a Lei Federal de liberdade econômica nº13.874 de 20 de setembro de 2019, que classifica os serviços de alimentação como atividades de baixo risco, as Vigilâncias Sanitárias devem rever o planejamento de suas ações. O objetivo geral desse trabalho foi formular uma proposta para implantar o sistema de Categorização dos serviços de alimentação no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para isso foi realizada uma pesquisa aplicada com análise documental que derivou o desenvolvimento de produtos tecnológicos e inovadores. Elaborou-se um roteiro para auxiliar na escrita do ato normativo da Categorização de serviços de alimentação; uma planilha para facilitar o cálculo do risco sanitário; um guia e um vídeo orientativo para auxiliar o processo de implantação da Categorização dos serviços de alimentação. Os produtos desenvolvidos podem ser utilizados para a autoavaliação do serviço de alimentação e pelas Vigilâncias Sanitárias nas inspeções com foco no risco de Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos. O resultado da Categorização será comunicado ao público consumidor informando a qualidade sanitária dos serviços de alimentação categorizados. A elaboração dessa proposta subsidia os estados e municípios para o processo de implantação da Categorização, bem como auxilia na mensuração do risco sanitário dos serviços de alimentação, planejamento das ações de Vigilância Sanitária com base no risco, valorização dos serviços de alimentação que investem nas Boas Práticas de Manipulação de Alimentos e comunicação da categoria ao consumidor para que faça uma escolha consciente.


Categorization of food services with a focus on the health risk of Foodborne Diseases was a sharp and successful experience during the 2014 FIFA® World Cup in Brazil. Due to the Federal Economic Freedom Act nº 13.874 of September 20, 2019, which classifies food actions by the Health Public Surveillance. The main idea of this project was to formulate a proposal to install The Categorization of food services in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Technological research was carried out with an analysis that resulted in the development of technological and innovative products. A script was created for the surveillance inspector to assist in the writing of the normative act of The Categorization for food services; a spreadsheet to make the calculation of Foodborne Diseases health risks easier; a guide and an orientation video were made on the process of installing The Categorization for food services and establishing the inspection score parameters. The developed products can be used for the self-evaluation of food services and by the Health Surveillance agents in their inspections, always focusing on the risk of Foodborne Diseases. The score of the Sanitary Inspection will be communicated to the consumer audience, informing the sanitary quality of the food service. This proposal sponsors the states and counties for the implementation process of The Categorization, as well as in the measurement of the sanitary risks of food services. The Sanitary Surveillance plan is based on health risks from Foodborne Diseases and the appreciation of food services that invest in Proper Food Handling Practices and the communication from the grade received on the sanitary inspection to the consumer so that they make an informed and smart decision about where they eat.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Surveillance , Food Safety , Foodborne Diseases , Food Services/standards , Risk Evaluation and Mitigation , Brazil
11.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 545-548, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935323

ABSTRACT

Food safety in China has been significantly improved since the melamine crisis in 2008 and the promulgation of the first Food Safety Law in 2009. However, food safety is a long standing issue in China due to the backward productive structure of agriculture and food business. In order to further improve the food safety in China, it is critical to reach a consensus on the leading edge concept of food safety and the identification of priority areas based on the concept. The leading edge concept of food safety aims to prevent potential issues and deal with current issues based on the risk, i.e. risk-based approach, as opposed to the concept based on the hazard, i.e. hazard-based approach. Practice is to determine the key problems that need to be solved first according to the concept. This paper expounds the different food safety management strategies and measures caused by the two concepts, and lists several key food safety problems (importance and solutions) determined according to the concept of "risk-based". These examples include foodborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms, antimicrobial resistance, food allergen control, risk assessment of multiple chemical hazards exposure and alternative methods in food toxicology.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Food , Food Safety/methods , Foodborne Diseases , Risk Assessment
12.
Journal of Medicine University of Santo Tomas ; (2): 898-905, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-974185

ABSTRACT

@#<p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objective:</strong> The project aims to develop a community kitchen manual for public health emergencies.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Participants:</strong> The officers and members of the Samahan ng Nagkakaisang Kababaihan ng BASECO served as community respondents for this project. These eight women were in charge of the community kitchen operations, particularly the feeding program during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Implementation:</strong> The whole project comes in three phases. The design stage was executed in phase one of this project. The phase one also focused on the development of manual content based on available literatures and considered the interviews conducted with respondents.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Discussion:</strong> The manual contains guidelines on food safety and meal preparations. Based on the interview, the proponents identified specific contents that must be included in the guidelines, as compared with the need to improve current operations of the group's community kitchen. Looking at the activities of the community, the proponents indicated the food flow guidelines to ensure a safe, nourishing and accessible community kitchen (S.N.A.C.K).</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The designed community kitchen manual may be of use to lay groups putting up community kitchens, since there is no existing manual in the Philippines. However, phases two and three must be conducted to validate its usefulness and accuracy in the field.</p>


Subject(s)
Food Supply , Food Safety
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 781-790, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285278

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to Standardize a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) protocol for the authentication of bovine and buffalo milk, and to detect the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. For this, the target DNA was extracted, mixed, and subjected to a PCR assay. Milk samples were defrauded and experimentally contaminated with microorganisms to assess the detection of target DNA at different times of cultivation, bacterial titers, and concentration of genetic material. In addition, the protocol was tested with DNA extracted directly from food, without a pre-enrichment step. The proposed quadruplex PCR showed good accuracy in identifying target DNA sequences. It was possible to simultaneously identify all DNA sequences at the time of inoculation (0h), when the samples were contaminated with 2 CFU/250mL and with 6h of culture when the initial inoculum was 1 CFU/250mL. It was also possible to directly detect DNA sequences from the food when it was inoculated with 3 CFU/mL bacteria. Thus, the proposed methodology showed satisfactory performance, optimization of the analysis time, and a potential for the detection of microorganisms at low titers, which can be used for the detection of fraud and contamination.


O objetivo do presente estudo foi padronizar um protocolo de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para a autenticação de leite bovino e bubalino e a detecção da presença de Salmonella spp. e Listeria monocytogenes. Para isso, o DNA-alvo foi extraído, misturado e submetido ao ensaio de PCR. Amostras de leite foram fraudadas e contaminadas experimentalmente com os micro-organismos, para se avaliar a detecção do DNA-alvo em diferentes tempos de cultivo, os títulos bacterianos e a concentração de material genético. Além disso, o protocolo foi testado com DNA extraído diretamente do alimento, sem a etapa de pré-enriquecimento. A PCR quadriplex proposta mostrou boa precisão na identificação de sequências de DNA-alvo. Foi possível identificar simultaneamente todas as sequências de DNA no momento da inoculação (0h), quando as amostras estavam contaminadas com 2 UFC/250mL, e com seis horas de cultura, quando o inóculo inicial foi de 1 UFC/250mL. Também foi possível detectar diretamente as sequências de DNA do alimento quando este foi inoculado com 3 UFC/mL de bactérias. Dessa forma, a metodologia proposta apresentou desempenho satisfatório, otimização do tempo de análise e potencial para detecção de micro-organismos em baixos títulos, podendo ser utilizada para detecção de fraude e contaminação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Buffaloes , Milk/microbiology , Fraud/prevention & control , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Food Safety/methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 487-494, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248939

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different periods of pre-slaughter fasting (F1: 2 to 24 hours and F2: 48 to 72 hours) on the counts of hygiene indicator microorganisms and the presence of Salmonella spp. in carcasses of bullfrogs. Two different stages of the slaughter process were analyzed: after bleeding (A) and after the final carcasses cleaning (B). Samples from each fasting period were analyzed to count hygiene indicator microorganisms (n=30) and Salmonella spp. (n=140). For aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, the variation in fasting periods caused a reduction of 0.69 log10 CFU / g (P<0.05) in F2 when compared to F1 at point B of the slaughter. Coliforms at 35º C and Escherichia coli showed no differences (P >0.05) between the fasting analyzed periods. Considering the presence of E. coli, it was observed that F2 resulted in a reduction of 30% (P<0.05) positivity on point B. For Salmonella spp., the results showed that F2 contributed to an 11.5% reduction in the presence of this bacteria at point B. (P<0.05). Therefore, it is concluded that 48 to 72 hours of pre-slaughter fasting resulted in a positive impact on the microbiological quality of bullfrog carcasses.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de diferentes períodos de jejum pré-abate (F1: duas a 24 horas e F2: 48 a 72 horas) nas contagens de micro-organismos indicadores de higiene e na presença de Salmonella spp. em carcaças de rãs-touro. Foram analisadas duas etapas do processo de abate: após a sangria (A) e após a toalete final da carcaça (B). As amostras de cada período de jejum foram utilizadas para contagem de indicadores de higiene (n = 30) e Salmonella spp. (n = 140). Para aeróbios mesófilos, a variação no tempo de jejum causou uma redução de 0,69 log10 UFC/g (P<0,05) em F2 quando comparado a F1 na etapa B do abate. Os coliformes a 35ºC e Escherichia coli não apresentaram diferenças (P>0,05) entre os dois períodos de jejum analisados. Considerando a presença de E. coli, F2 resultou em uma redução de 30% (P<0,05) de positividade na etapa B. Para Salmonella spp., os resultados mostraram que F2 contribuiu para uma redução de 11,5% na presença desse micro-organismo na etapa B. Portanto, conclui-se que 48 a 72 horas de jejum pré-abate tiveram um impacto positivo na qualidade microbiológica das carcaças de rã-touro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rana catesbeiana/microbiology , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Food Hygiene , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Food Safety , Fasting , Animal Culling
15.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-7, 5/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, ARGMSAL, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1342308

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La manipulación de alimentos dentro del ámbito hospitalario juega un papel crucial en la cadena causal de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos. Actualmente no existe información sobre conocimientos, prácticas y valoraciones de los manipuladores de alimentos a nivel local. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar a los manipuladores de alimentos de hospitales públicos de la provincia de Buenos Aires y su asociación con características sociodemográficas, laborales y de capacitación. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico. Se envió una encuesta virtual a los hospitales públicos de la provincia para que fuera distribuida a todos los manipuladores de alimentos. Se relevaron datos sociodemográficos, laborales y de capacitación. Se evaluaron conocimientos y prácticas mediante preguntas de opción múltiple y se indagaron valoraciones personales sobre su trabajo. RESULTADOS: La encuesta fue completada por 561 manipuladores de 56 hospitales. Más del 80% había recibido algún tipo de capacitación. El 22,9% presentó conocimientos suficientes y el 15,3%, prácticas adecuadas. La valoración de prácticas adecuadas se asoció a mayor antigüedad, servicios tercerizados y a la realización de 5 o más capacitaciones en servicio. La escasez de elementos de trabajo y la infraestructura inadecuada fueron las principales barreras. DISCUSIÓN: La realización de capacitaciones en servicio y la presencia de personal con mayor antigüedad podrían mejorar la manipulación de alimento.


Subject(s)
Food Safety , Foodborne Diseases , Food Services
16.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-11, 5/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, ARGMSAL, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1248160

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El arsénico (As) se encuentra ampliamente distribuido en la naturaleza. Los compuestos de As inorgánico (iAs) son los más tóxicos y están clasificados como agentes cancerígenos, que ocasionan múltiples efectos negativos sobre la salud. El objetivo fue describir el problema de inocuidad debido a la presencia de As en alimentos, que reviste interés para las decisiones de gestión de riesgos. MÉTODOS: Se realizó el Perfil de Riesgo de As en agua y alimentos mediante la revisión de más de 100 documentos científicos y normativa relacionada. RESULTADOS: La exposición humana al As se da principalmente por la ingesta de agua y alimentos. Argentina presenta vastas zonas con aguas con altas concentraciones de As, superiores al límite recomendado de 0,01 mg/L. En alimentos, pescados y mariscos, arroz y algas marinas tienen naturalmente los niveles más altos de As. Además, durante su procesamiento, habría interconversión entre especies arsenicales y variaciones en sus concentraciones. DISCUSIÓN: La ingesta de As en Argentina suscita una preocupación de Salud Pública. Es crucial continuar ampliando y profundizando las investigaciones para tener un conocimiento certero del contenido de As en diferentes matrices alimenticias y del efecto del procesamiento tecnológico y culinario sobre la especiación y concentración. Se podrán elaborar así informes fehacientes, que permitan a los organismos pertinentes tomar medidas preventivas y decisiones de mejora con visión a futuro


Subject(s)
Water Quality , Risk Assessment , Food Safety
17.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00152020, 2021. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348969

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis of reproductive nature that is transmitted to humans mainly by ingestion of undercooked meat or drinking oocyte-contaminated water. The slaughter of small ruminants in clandestine slaughterhouses and the presence of companion animals in these locations may be epidemiologically important for the dissemination of the disease. The objective of the present study was to determine toxoplasmosis prevalence by researching anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in meat sheep herds from farms in Teresina microregion, Piauí, Brazil. A total of 450 blood samples were collected from sheep of both sexes, belonging to 28 herds from the 14 municipalities that comprise the microregion. The samples were analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was observed in 62% (279/450) of the animals in all the municipalities and on at least one farm in each municipality. The high occurrence of positive animals is an indication of reproductive problems in these herds, characterizing a problem for both sheep rearing and public health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Sheep , Zoonoses , Toxoplasmosis , Communicable Diseases/parasitology , Ruminants , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cross-Sectional Studies , Abattoirs , Food Safety , Animals, Domestic
18.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00212020, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349023

ABSTRACT

The consumption of meat and meat products can pose consumers into risk due to the presence of biological hazards that can cause foodborne diseases. Thus, this study aimed to compare the microbiological quality of illegal and inspected salami sold in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. For this purpose, 80 salami samples (40 illegal and 40 inspected) were purchased and their microbiological quality was assessed according to the protocol established by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. All samples were considered as acceptable for consumption according to the Brazilian law. However, the samples of illegal salami were significantly higher contaminated with bacteria belonging to the genus Staphylococcus (p = 0.002) and had a higher trend to be contaminated with total coliforms (p = 0.08) and thermotolerant ones (p = 0.07) compared to inspected salami. Salmonella spp. and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus were not detected. In conclusion, although all samples were considered as safe for consumption, illegal salami had a worse microbiological quality when compared to inspected ones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Staphylococcus/pathogenicity , Meat/microbiology , Meat Products , Salmonella , Bacteria , Health Surveillance , Food Quality , Public Health , Commerce , Food Safety , Foodborne Diseases
19.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1835, 2021. mapa, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363707

ABSTRACT

The artisanal goat coalho cheese is one of the products obtained that stand out in the dairy goat farming of the Northeast of Brazil. Despite its importance, goat cheese is often made under inadequate hygienic-sanitary conditions and usually uses raw goat's milk, increasing the risk of product contamination. Among the pathogens carried by goat coalho cheese, Staphylococcus aureus stands out, being responsible for cases of food poisoning and persistent infections that are difficult to treat. This study aimed to evaluate the contamination, genotypic and phenotypic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from artisanal coalho cheese made with goat milk produced in the Northeast region of Brazil. This study analyzed only artisanal coalho cheeses made with raw goat's milk and purchased directly from farms. Twelve samples of artisanal coalho cheeses made with raw goat's milk were collected (1 sample per property) in 8 municipalities in the state of Pernambuco, Northeast region of Brazil. For microbiological analysis of enumeration of Colony Forming Units (CFU/g) of Staphylococcus spp. the methodology recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (2019) and recognized by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply was used. After enumeration, 5 colonies were selected per enumerated plate, a total of 180 Staphylococcus spp. was obtained. These were subjected to thermal extraction of genetic material to search for the nuc gene by Polymerase Chain Reaction, the isolates carrying the nuc gene were subjected to genotypic and phenotypic evaluation of antimicrobial resistance. After the phenotypic analysis, the Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance Index was evaluated. In all samples, Staphylococcus spp. and were considered unfit for consumption, with the lowest count being 9.4x103 CFU/g and the highest 6.4x106 CFU /g. Of the 180 isolates, 28.34% (51/180) were positive for the detection of the nuc gene. All resistance genes except mecA, mecC, and norB were detected. Of the 51 S. aureus isolates, 31.37% (16/51) were considered multi-resistant and presented a Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance Index above 0.2. After microbiological analysis it was found that all samples of coalho cheese were out of standards and unfit for human consumption in accordance with Ordinance no 146/1996 of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply of Brazil. Furthermore, the contamination of goat coalho cheeses is a risk to public health. During sample collection were found inadequate hygiene conditions in the environment used for cheese production. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus can be attributed to hygienic-sanitary failures in cheese production. From a health point of view, it is even more alarming when it comes to S. aureus carrying resistance genes. Although the 51 S. aureus isolates did not carry the mecA, mecC, norB genes and did not show phenotypic resistance to cefoxitin and oxacillin, all other genes were detected, indicating the circulation of S. aureus carrying the tet(L) genes, tet(M), tet-38, msrA, norA, and norC, which so far had not been reported in the production chain of goat coalho cheese in Brazil. Furthermore, the evaluation of the Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance Index identified the occurrence of multiple resistance to antimicrobials in 31.37% (16/51) of S. aureus at high risk to human health. The results obtained are quite worrying and serve as a warning to the scientific community and the Food Safety and Hygiene Inspection Services.(AU)


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Cheese/microbiology , Identity and Quality Standard for Products and Services , Food Safety , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology
20.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 54-54, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Food safety and hygiene are currently a global health apprehension especially in unindustrialized countries as a result of increasing food-borne diseases (FBDs) and accompanying deaths. This study aimed at assessing knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practices (KAP) of food safety among street-cooked food handlers (SCFHs) in North Dayi District, Ghana.@*METHODS@#This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted on 407 SCFHs in North Dayi District, Ghana. The World Health Organization's Five Keys to Safer Food for food handlers and a pretested structured questionnaire were adapted for data collection among stationary SCFHs along principal streets. Significant parameters such as educational status, average monthly income, registered SCFHs, and food safety training course were used in bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models to calculate the power of the relationships observed.@*RESULTS@#The majority 84.3% of SCFHs were female and 56.0% had not attended a food safety training course. This study showed that 67.3%, 58.2%, and 62.9% of SCFHs had good levels of KAP of food safety, respectively. About 87.2% showed a good attitude of separating uncooked and prepared meal before storage. Good knowledge of food safety was 2 times higher among registered SCFHs compared to unregistered [cOR=1.64, p=0.032]. SCFHs with secondary education were 4 times good at hygiene practices of food safety likened to no education [aOR=4.06, p=0.003]. Above GHc1500 average monthly income earners were 5 times good at hygiene practices of food safety compared to below GHc500 [aOR=4.89, p=0.006]. Registered SCFHs were 8 times good at hygiene practice of food safety compared to unregistered [aOR=7.50, p<0.001]. The odd for good hygiene practice of food safety was 6 times found among SCFHs who had training on food safety courses likened to those who had not [aOR=5.97, p<0.001].@*CONCLUSIONS@#Over half of the SCFHs had good levels of KAP of food safety. Registering as SCFH was significantly associated with good knowledge and hygiene practices of food safety. Therefore, our results may present an imperative foundation for design to increase food safety and hygiene practice in the district, region, and beyond.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Attitude , Cooking/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Safety , Ghana , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hygiene , Socioeconomic Factors
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