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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21248, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429972


Abstract Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the main causes of acute kidney injury. The pathological mechanisms underlying renal I/R injury are complex and remain uncertain. The protective effects of antioxidant properties of geraniol against renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) damage were investigated in our study. 28 Wistar albino male rats were randomly selected and 4 groups of n = 7 were created. A right kidney nephrectomy surgery was conducted to all groups under anesthesia. 2 ml SF was given to Groups I and II, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/ kg geraniol were administered intraperitoneally an hour before ischemia to Groups III and IV, respectively. Except for Group I, 45 minutes of ischemia and 4 hours of reperfusion were applied to the groups. At the end of the experiment, parameters related to oxidative stress and inflammation were determined by comparing kidney function, antioxidant enzyme activities and histological changes. Following comparison of BUN and CRE values with CAT and SOD values in tissue samples of Group I and Group II, an increase in Group II was observed and as a result I/R damage formation occurred. Values of geraniol-treated Group III and Group IV approximated to that of Group I, and that the 50 mg/kg geraniol dose proved more effective than 100 mg/kg geraniol.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Free Radicals , Anesthesia/classification , Kidney/abnormalities
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 34: e3420, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440405


ABSTRACT People living with HIV (PLH), who use antiretroviral therapy (ART), are more susceptible to changes in the inflammatory profile and oxidative stress, and women have greater access to ART. Although physical exercise is a complementary strategy to treatment due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, it is not clear whether acute responses to exercise can be harmful to PLH. The aim of the study was to investigate the acute effect of resistance exercise (RE) on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in PLH. Ten women, using ART, performed RE session consisting of seven exercises for the whole body. For biochemical evaluation, blood samples were collected before (pre), 1 hour (1h) and 2 hours (2h) after the RE session. One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test was used to compare results between time points. There was an increase only in markers, GSSG of 160% (pre: 0.40 ± 0.11; 1h: 1.18 ± 0.36; 2h: 1.04 ± 0.25 mmol/g), TNF-α of 98 % (pre: 4.60 ± 0.55; 1h: 6.95 ± 0.77; 2h: 9.10 ± 1.03 pg/ml) and 52% IL-6 (pre: 2.47 ± 0 .67; 1h: 3.63 ± 1.26; 2h: 5.38 ± 2.15 pg/ml). The other variables remained unchanged (P > 0.05). It is concluded that a RE session increased the levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in PLH in a non-exacerbated way.

RESUMO Pessoas vivendo com HIV (PVH), que utilizam a terapia antirretroviral (TARV), são mais suscetíveis a alterações no perfil inflamatório e estresse oxidativo, sendo que as mulheres possuem maior acesso à TARV. Embora o exercício físico seja uma estratégia complementar ao tratamento devido aos seus efeitos antioxidantes e anti-inflamatórios, não está claro se as respostas agudas ao exercício podem ser prejudiciais às PVH. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar o efeito agudo de exercícios com pesos (EP) sobre marcadores inflamatórios e de estresse oxidativo em PVH. Dez mulheres, em uso da TARV, realizaram uma sessão de EP constituída por sete exercícios para o corpo todo. Para avaliação bioquímica, amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes (pré), 1 hora (1h) e 2 horas (2h) após a sessão de EP. A ANOVA one-way seguida do teste post hoc de Bonferroni foi utilizada para comparação dos resultados entre os momentos. Houve aumento apenas nos marcadores, GSSG de 160% (pré: 0,40 ± 0,11; 1h: 1,18 ± 0,36; 2h:1,04 ± 0,25 mmol/g), TNF-α de 98% (pré: 4,60 ± 0,55; 1h: 6,95 ± 0,77; 2h: 9,10 ± 1,03 pg/ml) e IL-6 de 52% (pré: 2,47 ± 0,67; 1h: 3,63 ± 1,26; 2h: 5,38 ± 2,15 pg/ml). As demais variáveis permaneceram sem alterações (P > 0,05). Conclui-se que uma sessão de EP aumentou os níveis de marcadores inflamatórios e estresse oxidativo em PVH de forma não exacerbada.

Humans , Female , Adult , Women , Exercise/physiology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Oxidative Stress , Cytokines , Free Radicals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 51-65, ene. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372343


Epidemiological evidence indicates that plant antioxidants activity can treat or help to prevent the development of various diseases. One species with great potential as an antioxidant is Curcuma longa. However, different extraction techniquescan influence isolated chemical compounds. This study investigated chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two rhizome extracts of C. longa: hydroethanolic, obtained by exhaustion (HECLex); and dried by a spray dryer (HECLsd). The phytochemical composition was evaluated by GC/MS. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH and FRAP assays. Total phenolic compounds and soil analyses were performed. The main components of HECLex were ar-turmerone, γ-curcumene, α-turmerone, and ß-sesquiphellandrene. The main components of HECLsd were 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, 2, 3-bis([trimethylsilyl]oxy) propyl ester, verrucarol, and 1-monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. HECLsd had significantly higher levels of phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant capacity compared with HECLex. In conclusion, processes of the preparation of C. longarhizomes alter the chemical components and consequently their biological activity.

La evidencia epidemiológica indica que la actividad de los antioxidantes de las plantas pueden tratar o ayudar a prevenir el desarrollo de diversas enfermedades. Una especie con gran potencial como antioxidante es Curcuma longa. Sin embargo, diferentes técnicas de extracción pueden influir en los compuestos químicos aislados. Este estudio investigó la composición química y la actividad antioxidante de dos extractos de rizoma de C. longa: hidroetanólico, obtenido por agotamiento (HECLex); y se seca con un secador por pulverización (HECLsd). La composición fitoquímica se evaluó mediante GC/MS. La actividad antioxidante se evaluó mediante ensayos DPPH y FRAP. Se realizaron análisis de suelos y compuestos fenólicos totales. Los componentes principales de HECLex fueron ar-turmerona, γ-curcumene, α-turmerone y ß-sesquiphellandrene. Los componentes principales de HECLsd fueron ácido 9,12,15-octadecatrienoico, éster 2,3-bis ([trimetilsilil] oxi) propílico, verrucarol y éter 1-monolinoleoilglicerol trimetilsilil. HECLsd tenía niveles significativamente más altos de compuestos fenólicos y mayor capacidad antioxidante en comparación con HECLex. En conclusión, los procesos de preparación de los rizomas de C. longa alteran los componentes químicos y consecuentemente su actividad biológica.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Curcuma/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Dietary Supplements , Diarylheptanoids/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Free Radicals , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Phytotherapy , Antioxidants/chemistry
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 125-132, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401123


Background: Tobacco smoking is a source of many toxins such as free radicals, mutagenic substances as well as cause for developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD), particularly atherosclerosis. This study aims to assess the impact of smoking on antioxidants in Sudanese male smokers. Methods: Cases were 85 and 48 men who smoke cigarettes (CS) and water pipe (WPS) respectively and they were compared with matching 50 non-smoking controls. Blood samples were collected and following parameters: Glutathione peroxidase, Superoxide dismutase, Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL, HDL, Paraoxinase, and Malondialdehyde were measured. Results: There were no significant differences in biochemical parameters between light CS and WPS compared to controls. In heavy smokers of both WPS and CS, the TC, TG, LDL, and MDA were higher than controls (p>0.05), GPx, SOD, HDL, and PON were lower in smokers than controls (p>0.05). In both groups of smokers, HDL, GPx, SOD, and PON were inversely correlated with duration of smoking (p>0.05), also, HDL was positively correlated with SOD and GPx (p>0.05). Moreover, GPx and SOD were correlated with each other in both groups of smokers (p>0.05). Conclusion: In Sudanese male smokers' biochemical profile disturbances suggest that heavy smoking was leading to developing CVD, particularly WPS

Bacterial Toxins , Smoking , Water Pipe Smoking , Tobacco Smoking , Cigarette Smoking , Free Radicals , Sudan , Cardiovascular Diseases
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 95-98, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280079


ABSTRACT Fatigue is a comprehensive process that involves many physiological and biochemical factors. It is a normal physiological reaction when human physical or mental activities reach a certain level. In recent years, it has been verified that free radicals are closely related to exercise-induced fatigue. Cardamine bursa purified selenoprotein has good oxygen-free radical scavenging ability and anti-lipid peroxide. It could protect mitochondria, liver, and red blood cells from peroxide injury. Therefore, it was speculated that the purification of selenoprotein Cardamine may play an active role in attenuating exercise-induced fatigue by scavenging free radicals. This study cleared the selenite protein Capsella bursa (SPC) as a research object, and evaluated its structural characteristics in relieving exercise-induced fatigue. The selenoprotein index system for exercise-induced fatigue was constructed by combining two AHP methods, principal component analysis and factor analysis. Purity, subunit composition, amino acid composition and RCM content were evaluated. The corresponding RCM protein was preliminarily predicted. The results showed that SPCH could significantly prolong the swimming time (P <0.01), improve the lactate clearance capacity (P <0.01), increase the glycogen content of the liver (P <0.01), and reduce the level of the BUN (P <0.05). SPCH has a good effect in relieving exercise-induced fatigue in mice, so it can be considered for development as a nutritional supplement to alleviate exercise-induced fatigue.

RESUMO Fadiga é um processo abrangente envolvendo muitos fatores fisiológicos e bioquímicos. É uma reação fisiológica normal quando as atividades físicas ou mentais humanas atingem um certo nível. Nos últimos anos, verificou-se que os radicais livres estão intimamente relacionados com a fadiga induzida pelo exercício. A selenoproteina purificada de Cardamina bursa tem boa capacidade de depuração de radicais sem oxigénio e de peróxido anti-lípido. Poderia proteger as mitocôndrias, fígado e glóbulos vermelhos de lesões por peróxido. Por conseguinte, especulou-se que a purificação da selenoproteina de Cardamina pode desempenhar um papel activo na atenuação da fadiga induzida pelo exercício por meio de radicais livres de scavenging. Este estudo depurou a proteína selenita Capsella bursa (SPC) como objeto de pesquisa, e avaliou as suas características estruturais no alívio da fadiga induzida pelo exercício. O sistema de índice de selenoproteinas para a fadiga induzida pelo exercício foi construído por meio da combinação dos métodos de AHP, análise principal de componentes e a análise de fatores. Foram avaliados a pureza, a composição sub-unitária, a composição de aminoácidos e o conteúdo do RCM. A proteína correspondente do RCM foi prevista preliminarmente. Os resultados mostraram que o SPCH poderia prolongar significativamente o tempo de natação (P < 0.01), melhorar a capacidade de depuração do lactato (P< 0.01), aumentar o conteúdo do glicogênio do fígado (P < 0.01), e reduzir o nível do BUN (P< 0.05). o SPCH tem um bom efeito em aliviar a fadiga induzida pelo exercício em ratos, de modo que pode ser considerado para desenvolvê-lo como um suplemento nutricional para aliviar a fadiga induzida pelo exercício.

RESUMEN La fatiga es un proceso abarcador que envuelve muchos factores fisiológicos y bioquímicos. Es una reacción fisiológica normal cuando las actividades físicas o mentales humanas alcanzan un cierto nivel. En los últimos anos, se verificó que los radicales libres están íntimamente relacionados con la fatiga inducida por el ejercicio. La selenoproteína purificada de Cardamina bursa tiene buena capacidad de depuración de radicales sin oxígeno y de peróxido antilipídico. Podría proteger las mitocondrias, el hígado y los glóbulos rojos de lesiones por peróxido. Por consiguiente, se especuló que la purificación de la selenoproteína de Cardamina puede desempeñar un papel activo en la atenuación de la fatiga inducida por el ejercicio por medio de radicales libres de scavenging. Este estudio depuró la proteína selenita Capsella bursa (SPC) como objeto de investigación, y evaluó sus características estructurales en el alivio de la fatiga inducida por el ejercicio. El sistema de índice de selenoproteínas para a fatiga inducida por el ejercicio fue construido por medio de la combinación dos métodos de AHP, el análisis principal de componentes y el análisis de factores. Fueron evaluados la pureza, la composición sub-unitaria, la composición de aminoácidos y el contenido del RCM. La proteína correspondiente del RCM fue prevista preliminarmente. Los resultados mostraron que el SPCH podría prolongar significativamente el tiempo de natación (P < 0.01), mejorar la capacidad de depuración del lactato (P< 0.01), aumentar el contenido del glicógeno del hígado (P < 0.01), y reducir el nivel del BUN (P< 0.05). el SPCH tiene un buen efecto en aliviar la fatiga inducida por el ejercicio en ratones, de modo que puede ser considerado para desarrollarlo como un suplemento nutricional para aliviar la fatiga inducida por el ejercicio.

Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Muscle Fatigue/drug effects , Cardamine/chemistry , Selenoproteins/pharmacology , Fatigue/prevention & control , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Swimming , Free Radicals , Lipid Peroxides
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e181084, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350225


Some antioxidant compounds have a pro-oxidant effect in the presence of transition metal ions, due to the reduction of Mn+ to M(n-1)+ with simultaneous formation of free radicals, which then promote DNA damage. In the present study, we evaluated the pUC19 DNA damage in a solution containing Cu(II) and ascorbic acid (AA) or S(IV) saturated with air by agarose gel electrophoresis. Our results showed that this damage decreases if AA and S(IV) are simultaneously added. This study also illustrates the importance of Cu(II) in this process, as no DNA damage was observed when AA or S(IV) were present in the absence of this metallic ion. Our data showed that DNA preservation depends on the concentration of AA and S(IV) and occurs when the [S(IV)]:[AA] ratio ranges from 1:1 to 20:1. Absorbance measurements and thermodynamic data show that no reaction occurs between AA and S(IV) when this mixture (pH 5.5) is added to pUC-19 DNA. The presence of dissolved oxygen may be the cause of AA consumption in the mixture of these two antioxidants, which subsequently decreases DNA damage.

Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Sulfites , DNA Damage , Copper/pharmacology , Ions/adverse effects , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel/instrumentation , Free Radicals/pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06742, 2021. tab
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1287511


The result of the reaction of free radicals with biomolecules is the formation of substances with the potential of inducing oxidative damage, a condition known as oxidative stress. There are voluminous literature data reporting the association, both as a cause and as a consequence, between different diseases and oxidative stress. In this study, 144 female dogs with mammary neoplasia were analyzed. The animals were submitted to clinical evaluation for disease staging, hematological evaluation, serum biochemistry (renal and hepatic function tests), and dosage of the oxidative damage biomarker, malondialdehyde (MDA), at the time of its approach and 30 days after treatment. A control group of 100 healthy animals was also submitted to determination of serum MDA levels. The mean age of the animals affected by mammary neoplasms was 9.88±2.95 (4 to 14) years, while in healthy animals it was 2.31±1.90 years (1 to 6). Of the 144 animals, 113 (78.9%) had malignant neoplasms, and 15, 21, 46, 17 and 14 animals were in clinical stage I, II, III, IV and V respectively and the carcinoma in a mixed tumor was the most frequent histological pattern in this group (26%). Thirty-one animals were diagnosed with benign neoplasms and mammary adenoma was the most frequent histological pattern in 15 animals (51.61%). Hematological changes in the preoperative period were observed in 44 (38.9%) and 12 (38.7%) animals with malignant and benign neoplasias, respectively, and there was a positive correlation between anemia and higher levels of MDA (P=0.0008) for animals with malignant tumors. Regarding serum biochemical parameters, the most frequent alterations in animals with malignant neoplasms were elevated ALT levels in 12 animals (10.6%), creatinine in 10 animals (8.84%) and urea in eight animals (7.07%). Females with benign neoplasms presented less occurrence of changes in these parameters. In the group of healthy animals (control), the mean serum MDA values were 12.08±4.18, whereas in the pre-treatment group, mean MDA was 24.80±5.74 for bitches with benign neoplasms and 32.27±10.24 for bitches with malignant tumors. A significant increase (P<0.001) in MDA levels was observed in animals with malignant mammary neoplasms when compared to healthy animals and with benign tumors. In addition, a significant reduction (P<0.001) was observed 30 days after treatment in MDA levels (27.37±7.86) in animals with malignant tumors. In conclusion, our results indicate an association between MDA seric levels and mammary neoplasms in dogs. The results suggest that this factor can be used as a biomarker of oxidative stress with a potential impact in the prognostic of mammary tumors, since significantly higher levels of MDA were detected especially in dogs carrying malignant tumors and presenting anemia.(AU)

O resultado da reação de radicais livres com biomoléculas é a formação de substâncias que podem ser utilizadas como marcadores de dano oxidativo, condição mais conhecida como estresse oxidativo. Evidências científicas comprovam a relação, quer como causa, quer como consequência, entre muitas doenças e o estresse oxidativo. Neste estudo, 144 cadelas portadoras de neoplasia de mama, foram submetidas à avaliação clínica para estadiamento da doença, avaliação hematológica, testes de função renal e hepática e dosagem do biomarcador de dano oxidativo, malondialdeído (MDA), no momento de sua abordagem e 30 dias após realização de tratamento. Um grupo controle de 100 cadelas saudáveis foi submetido também à determinação dos níveis séricos de MDA. A idade média dos animais acometidos por neoplasias mamárias foi de 9,88±2,95 (4 a 14) anos, enquanto que nos animais saudáveis foi de 2,31±1,90 anos (1 a 6). Dos 144 animais, 113 (78, 9%) apresentavam neoplasias malignas, sendo que 15, 21, 46, 17 e 14 animais encontravam-se em estadiamento clínico I, II, III, IV e V respectivamente, e o carcinoma em tumor misto foi o padrão histológico mais frequente neste grupo (26%). Trinta e um animais tiveram diagnóstico de neoplasias benignas, sendo que 7 estavam no estádio I, 16 no estádio II e 8 no estádio III e o adenoma mamário foi o padrão histológico mais frequente em 15 animais (51,61%). Alterações hematológicas no período pré-operatório foram observadas em 44 (38,9%) e 12 (38,7%) animais portadores de neoplasias malignas e benignas, respectivamente, sendo que houve correlação positiva entre anemia e níveis mais elevados de MDA (P=0,0008), para os animais com tumores malignos. Em relação aos parâmetros bioquímicos séricos, as alterações mais frequentes nos animais com neoplasias malignas foram a elevação dos níveis de ALT em 12 animais (10,6%), de creatinina em 10 animais (8,84%) e de ureia em oito animais (7,07%) Cadelas portadoras de neoplasias benignas apresentaram menor ocorrência de alterações nesses parâmetros. No grupo controle, a média dos valores séricos de MDA foi 12,08±4,18, enquanto que no grupo pré-tratamento, a média de MDA foi de 24,80±5,74 para as cadelas com neoplasia benigna e 32,27±10,24 para as neoplasias malignas. Verificou-se aumento significativo do valor sérico de MDA em cadelas portadoras de neoplasias malignas em comparação com os animais hígidos ou com neoplasias benignas (P<0,001). Ainda, 30 dias após o tratamento observou-se uma diminuição significativa (P<0,001) no valor médio de MDA (27,37±7,86) nos animais com neoplasias malignas. Em conclusão, os resultados deste estudo evidenciam uma associação entre níveis séricos aumentados de MDA e presença de neoplasias mamárias em cadelas. Os resultados sugerem que este fator pode ser utilizado como biomarcador de estresse oxidativo em cães, com provável impacto no prognóstico dos tumores mamários, uma vez que níveis significativamente mais altos de MDA foram detectados especialmente nas cadelas portadoras de tumores malignos e apresentando anemia.(AU)

Animals , Female , Dogs , Biochemistry , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal , Oxidative Stress , Dogs , Free Radicals , Malondialdehyde
Rev. Asoc. Med. Bahía Blanca ; 30(1): 20-27, 20 de junio de 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1099865


Se evaluó la actividad gastroprotectora de la infusión proveniente de las hojas de Aloysia gratissima (Verbenaceae), especie nativa de interés medicinal que se desarrolla en el sudoeste bonaerense, utilizando un modelo de inducción de úlceras gástricas con etanol en ratones. Se realizó un tamizaje fitoquímico para detectar la presencia de compuestos que podrían ser responsables de la actividad gastroprotectora de la planta. Se determinó el contenido de fenoles totales y la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres mediante el método del Folin-Ciocalteu y del 2,2'-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH), respectivamente. Los ensayos demostraron que la infusión de la planta, administrada por vía oral en dosis de 100, 500 y 1000 mg/kg, ejerció una gastroprotección significativa frente a la inducción de úlceras. Se detectó una actividad atrapadora de radicales libres de 47,5%, similar a la sustancia de referencia (BHT). El estudio fitoquímico detectó la presencia de flavonoides y otros polifenoles, sustancias con reconocida capacidad antioxidante. Estos metabolitos ejercen efectos protectores en diferentes modelos experimentales de inducción de úlceras mediante mecanismos que pueden involucrar la neutralización de radicales libres, lo que podría explicar la actividad gastroprotectora de la planta. Estos hallazgos requieren estudios adicionales de A. gratissima como una posible terapia frente a la úlcera gástrica. (AU)

The gastroprotective activity of the infusion from the leaves of Aloysia gratissima (Verbenaceae), a native species of medicinal interest growing in South West Buenos Aires, was evaluated in an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in mice. Phytochemical screening was carried out in order to determine the presence of compounds that could be responsible for the pharmacological effects of the plant. Total phenolic content and the free radical scavenging activity of the plant were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu and the 2,2'-diphenyl1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, respectively. Assays demonstrated that the infusion, orally administered at 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg doses, exerted a significant gastroprotection effect against ulcer induction (P<0,05). A free radical scavenging activity of 47.5% -similar to the reference substance (BHT)- was detected. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. These compounds exert protective effects in different experimental models of ulcer induction that could involve free radical neutralization, which could explain the gastroprotective activity of the plant. These promising results support additional studies of A. gratissima as a potential therapy against gastric ulcer. (AU)

Animals , Mice , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Verbenaceae/drug effects , Research , Free Radicals/pharmacology
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 47-52, Jan.-Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090559


Abstract Introduction Cisplatin damages the auditory system and is related to the generation of free radicals. Glutathione peroxidase is an endogenous free radicals remover. Objective To investigate the mechanisms involved in otoprotection by N-acetylcys- teine through the expression of glutathione peroxidase in outer hair cells from rats treated with cisplatin. Methods Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin (8 mg/Kg) and/or received oral administration by gavage of N-acetylcysteine (300 mg/Kg) for 3 consecutive days. On the 4th day, the animals were euthanized and beheaded. The tympanic bullae were removed and prepared for scanning electron microscopy and Results Among the groups exposed to ototoxic doses of cisplatin, there was an increase in glutathione peroxidase immunostaining in two groups, the one exposed to cisplatin alone, and the group exposed to both cisplatin and N-acetylcysteine. Conclusion The expression of glutathione peroxidase in the outer hair cells of rats exposed to cisplatin showed the synthesis of this enzyme under cellular toxicity conditions.

Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Cisplatin/toxicity , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Acetylcysteine/metabolism , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Cochlea/drug effects , Free Radicals , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/prevention & control
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 33: e190097, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101407


ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activities and neuroprotective effects of powdered coffee sample of a commercial coffee brand originated from Sivas, Turkey. Methods Total phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant contents, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative activities based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating potential, reducing power, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity tests and lipid peroxidation inhibition potentials of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the coffee sample were assayed using the commonly preferred spectrophotometric methods. Furthermore the extracts' cholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibition potentials were evaluated. Phenolic profiles of the coffee sample were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Results Catechin was the most frequently detected phenolic acid. In addition, it was demonstrated that the water extract has a significant impact when compared with standard antioxidants. While the SC50 (sufficient concentration to obtain 50% of a maximum scavenging capacity) value for the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical was calculated as being 0.08mg/mL for water extract, the amount of chelating agents with half Fe2+ ions in the medium was found to be 0.271mg/mL. Additionally, it was shown that 0.1mg/mL concentration of both extracts prevents lipid peroxidation by 8%. Compared with standard drugs, inhibition potentials of cholinesterase and tyrosinase enzymes were considered as moderately acceptable in these samples. Conclusion Besides the extracts' enzymatic antioxidant activity, their inhibition potential on cholinesterase and tyrosinase enzymes - which are important clinical enzymes - reveal that this natural source can be used as a valuable resource in different fields, especially in medicine.

RESUMO Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo é determinar o conteúdo fenólico e flavonoide, bem como as atividades antioxidantes e os efeitos neuroprotetores de uma amostra de café em pó de uma promissora marca comercial proveniente de Sivas, Turquia. Métodos A partir dos métodos espectrofotométricos comumente utilizados, foram analisados os seguintes aspectos da amostra de café: teores de fenólicos totais, flavonoides e antioxidantes; atividades antioxidantes enzimáticas e não enzimáticas, baseadas na atividade de eliminação de radicais livres de 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila potencial quelante de metais; poder redutor; testes de atividade de superóxido dismutase e catalase; e potenciais de inibição da peroxidação lipídica dos extratos etanólicos e aquosos. Além disso, foram avaliados os potenciais de inibição da colinesterase e da tirosinase dos extratos. Os perfis fenólicos da amostra de café foram investigados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Resultados Entre os ácidos fenólicos estudados, o mais detectado foi a catequina. Especialmente, foi demonstrado que o extrato de água tem um impacto significativo quando comparado com os antioxidantes padrão. Determinou--se que o valor de SC50 (a concentração suficiente para obter 50% da capacidade máxima de eliminação) da atividade de eliminação do radical 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilab/para extrato de água era de 0,08mg/mL, enquanto a quantidade de agentes quelantes com metade de Fe2+ íons na média foi encontrada como 0,271mg/mL. Também foi demonstrado que a concentração de 0,1mg/mL de ambos os extratos inibe a peroxidação lipídica em cerca de 8%. Comparado com drogas padrão, os potenciais de inibição das amostras nas enzimas e tirosinase foram aceitáveis como moderados. Conclusão Os resultados mostram que, além de terem atividade antioxidante enzimática, os extratos apresentam potencial de inibição das enzimas colinesterase e tirosinase, que são importantes enzimas clínicas, o que revela que essa fonte natural pode ser usada como um recurso valioso em vários campos, principalmente na medicina.

Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Lipid Peroxidation , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Coffee , Phenolic Compounds , Free Radicals , Antioxidants
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1): 1-11, 20200129.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095406


Introdução: O fator nuclear eritroide 2 relacionado ao fator 2 (Nrf2) desempenha papel fundamental na expressão de genes mediados por elemento de resposta antioxidante (ERA); sendo assim, é uma via importante para proteger as células de substâncias carcinogênicas. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão integrativa da literatura acerca da ação quimiopreventiva dos fitoquímicos por meio da regulação do fator de transcrição Nrf2. Método: O levantamento de artigos para a revisão integrativa da literatura sobre essa temática foi realizado nos periódicos indexados nas bases de dados: Google Acadêmico, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect e SpringerLink, utilizando-se os descritores advindos do MeSH: fitoquímicos, radicais livres, estresse oxidativo, carcinogênese, quimioprevenção e Nrf2. Os critérios de seleção foram artigos publicados de 2000 a 2019, relacionados, ou que investiguem diretamente a atuação de fitoquímicos no fator de transcrição Nrf2, e a prevenção do desenvolvimento de câncer. Resultados: Foram selecionados 58 artigos que estavam relacionados com o objetivo da revisão. Os estudos revisados apontaram que fitoquímicos, tais como resveratrol, curcumina, isotiocianato, luteolina, entre outros, atuam na ativação da via Nrf2, utilizando diferentes mecanismos, sendo eles dependentes ou independentes da proteína repressora Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusão: Diante disso, conclui-se que a modulação do fator de transcrição Nrf2 é um mecanismo que se configura como um importante mediador no que concerne compostos nocivos ao organismo humano, e que a atuação dos fitoquímicos nessa via contribui para a redução do risco de câncer. No entanto, ainda não são completamente elucidados todos os mecanismos utilizados pelos fitoquímicos, sendo necessários ulteriores estudos na área

Introduction: The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays a fundamental role in the expression of genes mediated by antioxidant response element (ARE), thus it is an important pathway to protect the cells from carcinogenic substances. Objective: To perform an integrative literature review on the quimiopreventive action of phytochemicals through regulation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Method: Search of papers for the integrative literature review about this theme conducted in journals indexed in the databases: Academic Google, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect and Springer Link, using the MeSH descriptors: phytochemicals, free radicals, oxidative stress, carcinogenesis, chemoprevention and Nrf2. The selection criteria were articles published from 2000 to 2019, related to or that directly investigate the role of phytochemicals in the transcription factor Nrf2, and the prevention of cancer development. Results: 58 articles were selected, all related to the objective of the review. The reviewed studies showed that phytochemicals, such as resveratrol, curcumin, isothiocyanate, luteolin, among others, act on the activation of the Nrf2 pathway, using different mechanisms, which are dependent or independent of the repressor protein Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusion: Therefore, the conclusion is that the modulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 is a mechanism that configures itself as an important mediator for harmful compounds to the human organism, and that the action of phytochemicals, in this pathway, contributes to the reduction of cancer risk. However, all the mechanisms used by phytochemicals, are not completely elucidated, and further studies are needed in the area

Introducción: El factor nuclear eritroide 2 relacionado con el factor 2 (Nrf2) desenvuelve un papel fundamental en la expresión de los genes mediados por él elemento de respuesta antioxidante (ERA), por lo tanto, es una vía importante para proteger las células de las sustancias carcinógenas. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión integradora de la literatura sobre la acción quimiopreventiva de los fitoquímicos mediante la regulación del factor de transcripción Nrf2. Método: El levantamiento de artículos para la revisión integral de la literatura sobre este tema se realizó en revistas indexadas en las bases de datos: Google Académico, PubMed, Scielo, ScienceDirect y SpringerLink, usando los descriptores MeSH: fitoquímicos, radicales libres, estrés oxidativo, carcinogénesis, quimioprevención y Nrf2. Los criterios de selección fueron artículos publicados entre 2000 y 2019, relacionados o que investigan directamente el papel de los fitoquímicos en el factor de transcripción Nrf2 y la prevención del desarrollo del câncer. Resultados: 58 artículos relacionados con el objetivo de la revisión fueron seleccionados. Los estudios revisados mostraron que los fitoquímicos, como el resveratrol, la curcumina, el isotiocito, la luteolina, entre otros, actúan sobre la activación de la vía Nrf2, utilizando diferentes mecanismos, que son dependientes o independientes de la proteína represora Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusión: Por lo tanto, se concluí que la modulación del factor de transcripción Nrf2 es un mecanismo que se configura como un importante mediador en relación con los compuestos nocivos para el cuerpo humano, y que la acción de los fitoquímicos en esta vía contribuye a reducir el riesgo de cáncer. Sin embargo, todos los mecanismos utilizados por los fitoquímicos aún no se han dilucidado por completo, por lo que se necesitan más estudios en esta área

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress , Diet , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/therapeutic use , Antioxidant Response Elements , Free Radicals , Antioxidants
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 27(4): 241-251, out.-dez. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053482


Cronicamente, o exercício aeróbio promove inúmeros benefícios sobre o desempenho físico e a saúde. No entanto, sessões agudas de exercício aeróbio induzem a produção de Radicais Livres, cujo acúmulo está associado a diversos efeitos prejudiciais sobre a célula, e em última instância, sobre a saúde. Apesar da existência de defesas antioxidantes nas células musculares, e da sugestão de que a presença dos Radicais Livres funcionaria como um importante gatilho para algumas adaptações ao treinamento físico, é crescente o número de trabalhos investigando se a suplementação com antioxidantes, tais como as Vitaminas C e E, pode atenuar o surgimento dos Radicais Livres produzidos durante o exercício e treinamento aeróbio. É igualmente crescente o número de estudos averiguando se a suplementação com antioxidantes poderia interferir com certas adaptações ao treinamento aeróbio. Logo, o objetivo deste Ponto de Vista foi examinar se as evidências literárias permitem concluir se a suplementação com antioxidantes inibe a adaptação das defesas antioxidantes endógenas, de fatores relacionados ao conteúdo e função mitocondriais, e do consumo máximo de oxigênio. Observou-se escassez e controvérsia entre os diferentes estudos, onde fatores relacionados ao baixo número amostral, ao curto período de exposição aos protocolos de treinamento, e à ausência de padronização nas medidas fisiológicas sendo mensuradas bem como da caracterização do estado antioxidante basal ainda causam dificuldade no estabelecimento de conclusões definitivas. Entretanto, as poucas evidências oriundas de estudos bem controlados sugerem que algumas adaptações, em especial aquelas relacionadas à biogênese e atividade mitocondrial, podem ser inibidas com a adição das Vitaminas C e/ou E ao treinamento aeróbio...(AU)

Chronically, aerobic exercise promotes several benefits on exercise performance and health. However, acute sessions of aerobic exercise induce the production of Free Radicals, which accumulation is associated with several harmful effects on the cell, and ultimately on health. Despite the existence of antioxidant defenses within muscle cells, and the suggestion that the presence of Free Radicals would act as an important trigger for some adaptations to exercise training, there is a growing number of studies investigating whether supplementation with antioxidants, such as Vitamins C and E, can attenuate the occurrence of Free Radicals produced during exercise and aerobic training. The number of studies investigating whether antioxidant supplementation could interfere with certain adaptations to aerobic training is also increasing. Therefore, the aim of this Point of View was to examine whether evidence allow us to conclude if antioxidant supplementation inhibits the adaptation of endogenous antioxidant defenses, factors related to mitochondrial content and function, and maximal oxygen uptake. It was observed scarcity and controversy among the different studies, where factors related to the low sample size, the short period of exposure to the training protocols, and the lack of standardization in the physiological measures being measured as well as of the characterization of the basal antioxidant status still cause difficulty in establishing definitive conclusions. However, the few evidence from well-controlled studies suggest that some adaptations, especially those related to mitochondrial biogenesis and activity, may be inhibited with the addition of Vitamins C and/or E to aerobic training...(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Exercise , Dietary Supplements , Endurance Training , Antioxidants , Physical Education and Training , Ascorbic Acid , Vitamin E , Organelle Biogenesis , Free Radicals , Physical Functional Performance
Acta cir. bras ; 34(10): e201901002, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054669


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of garlic on formation of postoperative adhesions in rats. Methods: Twenty-four Sprague dawley rats were divided into three groups. In Group 1 (sham), laparotomy was performed and stitched up. In Group 2 (control), after laparotomy was performed, punctate hemorrhage was induced by cecal abrasion in the cecum and 2 cc of saline was intraperitoneally administered to each rat. In Group 3 (experimental), after laparotomy was performed, punctate hemorrhage was induced by cecal abrasion in the cecum and each rat was intraperitoneally administered a sterile Allium sativum derivative. The rats in all groups were re-laparotomized on postoperative day 7; samples were obtained from the peritoneal tissue surrounding the cecum Results: In Group 3, there was a statistically significant difference in terms of inflammation, lymph node size, and free oxygen radicals; these parameters tended to increase. In terms of fibrosis evaluated using H&E and MT, there was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3. Conclusions: No positive outcomes indicating that Allium sativum reduces intra-abdominal adhesions were obtained. However, it caused severe inflammation in the tissue. Additionally, in immunohistochemical analyses conducted to detect oxidative stress, allium sativum increased the production of free oxygen radicals in the tissue.

Animals , Peritoneal Diseases/prevention & control , Garlic/chemistry , Peritoneal Diseases/pathology , Postoperative Complications/pathology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Fibrosis , Immunohistochemistry , Tissue Adhesions/pathology , Tissue Adhesions/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Free Radicals/analysis , Laparotomy , Lymph Nodes/drug effects , Lymph Nodes/pathology
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(4): 237-244, ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1054927


Objetivos: Al ser un antioxidante, el licopeno protege a las células contra el daño causado por los radicales libres, fortalece los enlaces intercelulares y mejora el metabolismo celular. Este estudio analiza los efectos del licopeno sobre los trastornos neurodegenerativos por hiperoxia en ratas recién nacidas a término. Métodos: Estas ratas se dividieron en cuatro grupos: grupo 1 de referencia con normoxia, grupo 2 con normoxia + licopeno, grupo 3 de referencia con hiperoxia y grupo 4 con hiperoxia + licopeno. Los grupos 1 y 2 se supervisaron en condiciones de aire ambiental, y los grupos 3 y 4 se supervisaron con un nivel de oxígeno > 85 % O2. Los grupos 2 y 4 recibieron inyecciones intraperitoneales de licopeno de 50 mg/kg/día; los otros grupos recibieron inyecciones intraperitoneales de aceite de maíz con el mismo volumen. Las ratas se sacrificaron en el día 11, después de 10 días con hiperoxia. Se extrajeron los cerebros, y se evaluaron los parámetros del sistema oxidativo. Resultados: Se detectaron lesiones cerebrales por hiperoxia en sustancia blanca, regiones corticales y tálamo. Aumentó la cantidad de células apoptóticas y disminuyó la cantidad de células PCNA positivas en los grupos 3 y 4, comparados con el grupo 1. No se observó una mejora significativa en la cantidad de células apoptóticas y células PCNA positivas en los grupos 3 y 4; además, aumentó la apoptosis. Conclusión: Se halló que el licopeno no mostró efectos terapéuticos para el daño cerebral en ratas recién nacidas. Además, se demostró que el licopeno podría causar efectos tóxicos.

Objectives. In addition to protecting cells against free radical harm thanks to its anti-oxidant nature, lycopene strengthens the bonds among cells and improves cell metabolism. This study focuses on analyzing therapeutic effects of lycopene in hyperoxia-induced neurodegenerative disorders in newborn rats. Methods. Term newborn rats were divided into four groups as the normoxia control group (group-1), normoxia+lycopene group (group-2), hyperoxia control group (group-3) and hyperoxia+lycopene group (group-4). Group-1 and group-2 were monitored in room air while the group-3 and group-4 were monitored at > 85% O2. The group-2 and group-4 were injected with lycopene intrapertioneally (i.p. ) at 50mg/kg/day while the other groups were injected with corn oil i.p. at the same volume. The rats we sacrificed on the 11th day following the 10-day hyperoxia. The brains were removed and oxidant system parameters were assessed. Results. Injury resulting from hyperoxia was detected in the white matter, cortical regions, and thalamus of the brains. It was observed that the number of apoptotic cells increased and the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells decreased in the groups-3 and 4 compared to the group-1. No significant improvement in the number of apoptotic cells and PCNA positive cells was observed in the groups-3 and 4, and apoptosis increased as well. Conclusion. This study found that lycopene, did not show any therapeutic effects for brain damage treatment in newborn rats. In addition, this study demonstrated that lycopene might lead to toxic effects.

Animals , Rats , Hyperoxia , Lycopene , Rats , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Free Radicals
Acta amaz ; 49(1): 41-47, jan. - mar. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119222


Copaifera multijuga, commonly known as copaiba, is popularly used in the form of tea for various conditions due to the presence of antioxidant substances in its composition, which protect cells against damage caused by free radicals. Its oleoresin is also used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumoral agent. The present study investigated the antioxidant effect of the ethanolic extract of copaiba stem bark on Swiss mice inoculated with solid Ehrlich tumors. Mice were inoculated subcutaneously with 1x106 Ehrlich's tumor cells and treated via gavage with ethanolic extract of copaiba for thirty days, with doses varying between 100 and 200 mg kg-1. Biochemical analyses of enzymatic antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], non-enzymatic antioxidants [reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA)], substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) and protein carbonylation (carbonyl) in different tissues were significantly affected. The extract administered at 200 mg kg-1 presented higher antioxidant capacity in the liver, increased CAT, GST, GSH and decreased TBARS, as well as increased CAT activity and protein carbonylation in brain tissue. The results showed that the copaiba extract was able to reverse the oxidative stress caused by solid Ehrlich tumor, probably due to the presence of antioxidant compounds, and had potential antineoplasic effect after a 30-day treatment. (AU)

Oxidative Stress , Free Radicals , Fabaceae , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 36(1): 91-100, ene.-mar. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002562


Resumen Las especies reactivas del oxígeno (ROS) son producidas como una consecuencia del metabolismo aeróbico fisiológico normal. La cadena de transporte de electrones de la mitocondria, los peroxisomas, la NADPH oxidasa, la óxido nítrico sintetasa desacoplada y el sistema del citocromo P450 son las fuentes más importantes de producción de los ROS. El desbalance entre la producción de los ROS y el sistema de defensa antioxidante en los sistemas vivos ocasiona una ruptura de la función celular y daño. Este desbalance ocurre por una sobreproducción de ROS y una reducción del mecanismo de defensa antioxidante. Las acciones protectoras contra los ROS son llevadas a cabo por varias enzimas (superóxido dismutasa, catalasa y glutatión peroxidasa) y también por compuestos no enzimáticos (vitamina E, ascorbato, glutatión, transferrina, ceruloplasmina, etc.). Los ROS son moduladores cruciales de las funciones celulares. A bajas concentraciones, los ROS son participantes esenciales en la señalización celular, la inducción de la respuesta mitogénica, la defensa contra agentes infecciosos, mientras que el exceso de los ROS puede alterar la función celular normal y promover el daño irreversible a lípidos, ácidos nucleicos y a proteínas celulares. Los ROS, especialmente el H2O2, sirven como moléculas mensajeras por medio de la modificación oxidativa de proteínas de señalización. Entonces, un balance entre la producción de los ROS y su remoción permite una función celular normal, mientras que un desequilibrio causa estrés oxidativo con consecuencias patológicas.

Abstract Reactive oxigen species (ROS) are produced as the consequence of the normal aerobic physiological metabolism. The electron transport chain in mitochondrial, peroxisomes, NADPH oxidases, uncoupled nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cytochrome P450 system are the most important sources of ROS production. The imbalance of the ROS production and antioxidants defense system in the living systems causes oxidative stress brings to cellular function disruption and damage. This imbalance occurs due to over production of ROS and reduction of the antioxidant defense mechanism. Protective actions against ROS are performed by several enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutation peroxidase) as well as nonenzimatic compounds (vitamin E, ascorbate, glutathione, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, etc). ROS are crucial modulators of cellular functions. At low concentrations, ROS are essential participants in cell signaling, induction of mitogenic response, involvement in defense against infectious agents, whereas excess ROS can disrupt normal cellular function and promote irreversible damage to cellular lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. ROS, especially H2O2, serve as a signal molecule through oxidative modification of signaling proteins. Thus, a balance between ROS production and their removal allows for normal cellular function, whereas an imbalance causes oxidative stress with pathological consequences.

Humans , Oxidation-Reduction , Reactive Oxygen Species , Oxidative Stress , Free Radicals , Antioxidants
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4897, 01 Fevereiro 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998261


Objective: To analyze the total antioxidant capacity (TAoC) of saliva in smokers based on type of cigarette, duration and frequency of smoking. Material and Methods: 51 male smokers, aged 20-55 years were enrolled. Information regarding cigarette type and smoking duration and frequency was collected using a questionnaire. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected in the morning following fasting for 2 h, and TAoC was measured using a commercial kit. The data were evaluated through the independent t-test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Mean TAoC for the consumption of Kretek cigarettes was 0.29 (±0.15) and for that of non-Kretek cigarettes was 0.36 (±0.10). Mean TAoC based on smoking duration was 0.31 (±0.14) for 5-10 years and 0.27 (±0.15) for >10 years. Median TAoC based on smoking frequency was 0.23 (0.11-0.44), 0.31 (0.06-0.64), and 0.27 (0.06-0.68) for 1-5, 6-10, and 11-20 cigarettes/day. Mean TAoC of the saliva from participants who consumed Kretek cigarettes was lower than that of the saliva from those who consumed non-Kretek cigarettes (p=0.3). Mean TAoC for a duration >10 years was lower than that for a duration of 5-10 years, although the difference between these two groups was not significant (p=0.4). Conclusion: There were tendencies of lower total antioxidant capacity on smokers with kretek type cigarettes, smoking duration >10 years and frequency of 1-5 cigarettes/day. This study indicates that the type, duration, and frequency of smoking may affect the salivary total antioxidant capacity.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Saliva/microbiology , Tobacco Use Disorder , Smokers/psychology , Free Radicals , Antioxidants/chemistry , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Indonesia
In. Boggia de Izaguirre, José Gabriel; Hurtado Bredda, Francisco Javier; López Gómez, Alejandra; Malacrida Rodríguez, Leonel Sebastián; Angulo Nin, Martín; Seija Alves, Mariana; Luzardo Domenichelli, Leonella; Gadola Bergara, Liliana; Grignola Rial, Juan Carlos. Fisiopatología: mecanismos de las disfunciones orgánicas. Montevideo, BiblioMédica, 2 ed; c2019. p.17-30, ilus, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1436947
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 279-285, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760621


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl (·OH), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is reported to induce oxidative stress. ROS generated by oxidative stress can potentially damage glial cells in the nervous system. Cordyceps militaris (CM), a kind of natural herb widely found in East Asia. In this study, we investigated the free radical scavenging activity of the CM extract and its neuroprotective effects in H2O2-induced C6 glial cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: The ethanol extract of CM (100–1,000 µg/mL) was used to measure DPPH, ·OH, and NO radical scavenging activities. In addition, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced C6 glial cells were treated with CM at 0.5–2.5 µg/mL for measurement of cell viability, ROS production, and protein expression resulting from oxidative stress. RESULTS: The CM extract showed high scavenging activities against DPPH, ·OH, and NO radicals at concentration of 1,000 µg/mL. Treatment of CM with H2O2-induced oxidative stress in C6 glial cells significantly increased cell viability, and decreased ROS production. Cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression was down-regulated in CM-treated groups. In addition, the protein expression level of phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK), phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and phospho-extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK) in H2O2-induced C6 glial cells was down-regulated upon CM administration. CONCLUSION: CM exhibited radical scavenging activity and protective effect against H2O2 as indicated by the increased cell viability, decreased ROS production, down-regulation of inflammation-related proteins as well as p-p38, p-JNK, and p-ERK protein levels. Therefore, we suggest that CM could play the protective role from oxidative stress in glial cells.

Cell Survival , Cordyceps , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Down-Regulation , Ethanol , Asia, Eastern , Free Radicals , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , In Vitro Techniques , Nervous System , Neuroglia , Neuroprotective Agents , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Oxidative Stress , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Reactive Oxygen Species
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 302-309, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760618


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vascular inflammation is an important feature in the atherosclerotic process. Recent studies report that leaves and branches of Carpinus turczaninowii (C. turczaninowii) have antioxidant capacity and exert anti-inflammatory effects. However, no study has reported the regulatory effect of C. turczaninowii extract on the arterial inflammatory response. This study therefore investigated modulation of the arterial inflammatory response after exposure to C. turczaninowii extract, using human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs). MATERIALS/METHODS: Scavenging activity of free radicals, total phenolic content (TPC), cell viability, mRNA expressions, and secreted levels of cytokines were measured in LPS-stimulated (10 ng/mL) HAoSMCs treated with the C. turczaninowii extract. RESULTS: C. turczaninowii extract contains high amounts of TPC (225.6 ± 21.0 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of the extract), as well as exerts time-and dose-dependent increases in strongly scavenged free radicals (average 14.8 ± 1.97 µg/mL IC50 at 40 min). Cell viabilities after exposure to the extracts (1 and 10 µg/mL) were similar to the viability of non-treated cells. Cytokine mRNA expressions were significantly suppressed by the extracts (1 and 10 µg/mL) at 6 hours (h) after exposure. Interleukin-6 secretion was dose-dependently suppressed 2 h after incubation with the extract, at 1–10 µg/mL in non-stimulated cells, and at 5 and 10 µg/mL in LPS-stimulated cells. Similar patterns were also observed at 24 h after incubation with the extract (at 1–10 µg/mL in non-stimulated cells, and at 10 µg/mL in the LPS-stimulated cells). Soluble intracellular vascular adhesion molecules (sICAM-1) secreted from non-stimulated cells and LPS-stimulated cells were similarly suppressed in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h exposure to the extracts, but not after 2 h. In addition, sICAM-1 concentration after 24 h treatment was positively related to IL-6 levels after 2 h and 24 h exposure (r = 0.418, P = 0.003, and r = 0.524, P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that C. turczaninowii modulates the arterial inflammatory response, and indicates the potential to be applied as a therapeutic use for atherosclerosis.

Humans , Antioxidants , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Betulaceae , Cell Survival , Cytokines , Free Radicals , Gallic Acid , Inflammation , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Interleukin-6 , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Phenol , RNA, Messenger