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1.
Singapore medical journal ; : 203-208, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927278

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#This study aimed to evaluate the potential of non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an imaging surveillance tool for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in at-risk patients and to compare the performance of non-contrast MR imaging with ultrasonography (US) as a screening modality for the same.@*METHODS@#In this retrospective study, patients diagnosed with HCC between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2015 were selected from our institution's cancer registry. Patients who underwent MR imaging and had US performed within three months of the MR imaging were included. For each MR imaging, two non-contrast MR imaging sequences - T2-weighted fat-saturated (T2-W FS) sequence and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) - were reviewed for the presence of suspicious lesions. A non-contrast MR image was considered positive if the lesion was seen on both sequences. The performance of non-contrast MR imaging was compared to that of hepatobiliary US for the detection of HCC.@*RESULTS@#A total of 73 patients with 108 HCCs were evaluated. Sensitivity of non-contrast MR imaging for the detection of HCC using T2-W FS and DWI was 93.2%, which was significantly higher than that of US, which was 79.5% (p = 0.02). In a subgroup of 55 patients with imaging features of liver cirrhosis, the sensitivity of non-contrast MR imaging was 90.9%, which was also significantly higher than that of US, which was 74.5% (p = 0.02).@*CONCLUSION@#Our pilot study showed that non-contrast MR imaging, using a combination of T2-W FS and DWI, is a potential alternative to US as a screening tool for surveillance of patients at risk for HCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Contrast Media , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Gadolinium DTPA , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 459-467, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826339

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the correlation between the radiomics signature of hepatobiliary phase imaging of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid(Gd-EOB-DTPA)enhanced magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)and Child-Pugh of liver cirrhosis,establish nomogram prediction model,and assess the predictive value of quantitative assessment of liver reserve function of patients with liver cirrhosis. One hundred patients with liver cirrhosis who met the inclusion criteria were divided into 52 patients with Child-Pugh grade A and 48 patients with Child-Pugh grade B+C according to Child-Pugh classification criteria,and were randomly divided into training set and test set at a proportion of 7∶3.The AK software was used to extract the imaging features of the Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI hepatobiliary images of the patients in the training set,and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator feature selection algorithm was used to reduce the dimension of the data,select the features,and construct the radiomics tags.According to the radiomics label Rad-score,a line chart(nomogram)prediction model was established to predict the Child-Pugh B+C level of liver reserve function.The model was applied to the training set and test set respectively,and the diagnostic efficiency was quantitatively evaluated by receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve. After dimension reduction and screening of 396 texture feature parameters extracted by AK software,7 image feature parameters were obtained.According to the above characteristics,the radiomics tag Rad-score was constructed and the nomogram prediction model was created.The differences of Rad-score scores between Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B+C groups in training set and test set were statistically analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test(=0.000, =0.001).The diagnostic efficacy of nomogram prediction model for predicting Child-Pugh B+C grade of liver reserve function in the ROC curve of training set and test set was 0.88 and 0.86 respectively. The nomogram prediction model created according to the radiomics tag Rad-score of patients with liver cirrhosis with different liver reserve functions can be used as a more accurate and reliable auxiliary detection tool for liver reserve function.It provides a new means for clinicians to evaluate liver reserve function more accurately.


Subject(s)
Humans , Contrast Media , Gadolinium DTPA , Liver Cirrhosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
3.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 362-367, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the changes of extracellular space (ECS) structure and local drug distribution in adult brain and aged brain at different drug delivery rates in minimally invasive treatment of encephalopathy by convection enhanced delivery (CED) via ECS pathway.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six SD male rats were divided into adult rats group (2-8 months, n=18) and aged rats group (18-24 months, n=18) according to the age of the month. According to the drug rates (0.1 μL/min, 0.2 μL/min, and 0.3 μL/min), they were randomly divided into 3 subgroups, 6 in each subgroup. Gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) with a concentration of 10 mmol/L were introduced into the caudate nucleus of each group of rats by stereotactic injection. Tracer-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to dynamically monitor the diffusion and distribution images of the Gd-DTPA in the brain interstitial system (ISS). Using the self-developed MRI image measurement and analysis system software to process and analyze the obtained images, the diffusion coefficient, clearance rate, volume fraction, and half-life of each group of rats in the caudate nucleus ECS could be acquired. The effects and differences of drug clearance and ECS structural function in the brain of aged rats and adult rats were compared and analyzed at different drug delivery rates. Magnetic tracer DECS-mapping technique was used to observe the distribution and drainage of tracer in caudate nucleus.@*RESULTS@#At the injection rate of 0.1 μL/min, the volume fraction in the aged rats was increased compared with that in the adult rats (18.20%±0.04% vs. 17.20%±0.03%, t=3.752, P=0.004), and the degree of tortuosity was decreased (1.63±0.04 vs. 1.78±0.09, t=-3.680, P=0.004), the drug clearance rate was decreased [(1.94±0.68) mm2/s vs. (3.25±0.43) mm2/s, t=-3.971, P=0.003], and the molecular diffusion in ECS was increased [(3.99±0.21)×10-4 mm2/s vs. (3.36±0.37)×10-4 mm2/s, t=3.663, P=0.004]. When the rate of injection increased to 0.2 μL/min, the drug clearance in ECS of the aged rats was slowed down [(2.53±0.45) mmol/L vs. (3.37±0.72) mmol/L, t=-1.828, P=0.021]. However, there were no significant differences in volume fraction, molecular diffusion in ECS and macroscopic drug metabolism parameters. When the rate of injection increased to 0.3 μL/min, the volume fraction in the aged rats was decreased (17.20%±0.03% vs. 18.20%±0.05%, t=-0.869, P=0.045), and the drug clearance rate in ECS was significantly accelerated [(4.04±0.76) mmol/L vs. (3.26±0.55) mmol/L, t=1.786, P=0.014], and there was no significant difference in tortuosity and the rate of molecular diffusion in the ECS.@*CONCLUSION@#The drug clearance and ECS structural parameters of brain ECS in aged brain with CED administration were changed at different rates, and it has the least effect on ECS in the aged brain at the injection rate of 0.2 μL/min. For the application of CED for the treatment of encephalopathy, we should consider the influence of factors such as age and injection rate, and provide reference for the development of individualized clinical treatment plan for minimally invasive treatment of encephalopathy via ECS pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain , Convection , Extracellular Space , Gadolinium DTPA , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
4.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 206-209, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941793

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes of brain interstitial fluid (ISF) induced by movement.@*METHODS@#Twenty mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group and movement group. Electrophysiological neurons in caudate nuclear of additional five rats were recorded and the differences analyzed between under anesthesia and by movement. In the control group, the rats were anesthetized using isoflurane continuously during the experiment process. In the meantime the magnetic tracer was injected into the center of the caudate nucleus and multi-period magnetic resonance scanning was performed at several time points until high signal intensity invisible in the images. In the movement group, the rats were anesthetized for the injection of the tracer, and the first post-injection magnetic resonance scanning was performed. Then the rats were waken and allowed moving voluntarily for 20 minutes. The rats were anesthetized again and multi-period magnetic resonance scanning was performed until the experiment ended. NanoDetect system (Version 1.2, MRI lab, Beijing, China) was used to measure the parameters on ISF, which included the weighed signal intensity (weighed ΔSI) , the term predicting the amount of the tracer, and half-time of the tracer. In movement group, the weighed ΔSI at the time points of pre-movement and 10, 40, 70, 130, and 190 minutes after movement were calculated respectively. In control group, the weighed ΔSI at the same time points also were measured. The weighed ΔSI and half-time were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The electrophysiological recording and data analysis showed significant difference in the local field potential of Caudate Nucleus between under anesthesia and by movement. The weighed ΔSI (unit: ΔSI×mm3) values of the two groups, presented by movement group vs. control group, were as followings, 60 257.1±23 069.2 vs. 61 072.0±19 547.3 at pre-move, 83 624.3±21 475.7 vs. 71 218.1±12 586.5 at 10 min after movement, 57 336.0±36 243.4 vs. 69 756.1±13 306.0 at 40 min after movement, 43 705.9±10 246.3 vs. 55 443.2±20 733.3 at 70 min after movement, 7 734.9±2 645.2 vs. 8 967.6±2 007.3 at 130 min after movement and 2 497.3±987.5 vs. 3 013.2±1 760.8 at 190 min after movement. Moreover, at 40 min after movement, the weighed ΔSI of movement group was significantly reduced compared with control group (P<0.05). The half-time was not significantly different [(104.3±54.1) min vs. (113.4±47.3) min, P>0.05].@*CONCLUSION@#ISF drainage of caudate nuclear can be acclerated temporarily by movement.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Beijing , Brain , China , Drainage , Extracellular Fluid , Gadolinium DTPA , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
5.
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 24-32, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772811

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the ability of texture analysis of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1 mapping images, as well as T1-weighted (T1W), T2-weighted (T2W) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for distinguishing between varying degrees of hepatic fibrosis in an experimental rat model.Methods Liver fibrosis in rats was induced by carbon tetrachloride intraperitoneal injection for 4-12 weeks (n=30). In the control group (n=10) normal saline was applied. The MRI protocol contained T2W, diffusion weighted imaging, pre-and post-contrast image series of T1W and T1 mapping images. METAVIR score was used to grade liver fibrosis as normal (F0), mild fibrosis (F1-2), and advanced fibrosis (F3-4). Texture parameters including mean gray-level intensity (Mean), standard deviation (SD), Entropy, mean of positive pixels (MPP), Skewness, and Kurtosis were obtained. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the average value of each texture parameter in each sequence for assessing the difference between F0 and F≥1 as well as F0-2 and F3-4. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained to assess the diagnosing accuracy of the parameters for differentiating no liver fibrosis from liver fibrosis and rats with liver fibrosis grading F0-2 from those with grading F3-4. The area under ROC curve (AUC) was calculated to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of texture parameters.Results Finally, 20 rats completed MR T1 mapping image scan. The pathologic staging of these 20 rats was no fibrosis (F0, n=6), mild fibrosis (F1-2, n=5) and advanced fibrosis (F3-4, n=9). On pre-contrast T1 mapping image, Entropy was seen to be statistically significant higher in the F≥1 group than that in the F0 group at each spatial scaling factor (SSF) setting (P=0.015, 0.015, 0.015, 0.013, 0.015 and 0.018 respectively to SSF=0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), and Mean of the F≥1 rats was statistically significant higher than that of the F0 rats at SSF 4, 5, 6 (P=0.004, 0.006, and 0.013, respectively). Entropy and Mean showed a moderate diagnostic performance in most SSF settings of T1 mapping pre-contrast images for differentiation of normal liver from liver fibrosis.Conclusions Certain texture features of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR images, especially the Entropy of non-contrast T1 mapping image, was found to be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Contrast Media , Pharmacology , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Disease Models, Animal , Gadolinium DTPA , Pharmacology , Liver Cirrhosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(2): 127-130, abr. 2018. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954962

ABSTRACT

La diabetes insípida central es una enfermedad rara del hipotálamo y de la neurohipófisis, y muy inusualmente se halla en el adulto con diabetes mellitus 2. Se manifiesta por un síndrome poliúrico polidípsico, que debe diferenciarse de la diabetes mellitus mal controlada. Ante la similitud de ambas entidades, y lo infrecuente de su coexistencia, se dificulta su sospecha. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 72 años de edad, con diabetes mellitus 2 y pobre control de la misma (hiperglucemias de ayuno mayores a 180 mg/dl) que cursó un síndrome poliúrico de larga data. La hipernatremia y la osmolalidad plasmática elevadas, junto a una osmolalidad urinaria baja llevaron a la sospecha de diabetes insípida, que posteriormente se confirmó con la prueba de deshidratación y la administración de desmopresina s.c. Con un aumento del 61% de la osmolalidad urinaria calculada una hora post desmopresina s.c. fue diagnosticada como diabetes insípida del tipo central. La resonancia magnética nuclear mostró una mancha brillante con neurohipófisis normal, contribuyendo al diagnóstico de la forma idiopática.


Central diabetes insipidus is a rare disease of the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis. It is very unusually found in the adult with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is manifested by a polydipsic polyuric syndrome, which must be distinguished from the poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Given the similarity of both entities and the unusual nature of their coexistence, their suspicion is difficult. The case of a 72-year-old male with type 2 diabetes mellitus with poor insulin control (fasting hyperglycemia greater than 180 mg/dl) who had a long-standing polyuric syndrome is here presented. Hypernatremia and plasma osmolality elevated together with a low urinary osmolality led to the suspicion of diabetes insipidus, which was subsequently confirmed by the dehydration test and the administration of desmopressin sc. With 61% increase in the calculated urinary osmolarity one hour post desmopressin s.c., diabetes insipidus of central type was diagnosed. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance showed a bright spot with normal neurohypophysis, contributing to the diagnosis of the idiopathic form.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic/complications , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Osmolar Concentration , Pituitary Gland, Posterior , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Gadolinium DTPA , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic/urine , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/urine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood
7.
Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; : 1-9, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740126

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was designed to optimize the flip angle (FA) and scan timing of the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) using the 3D T1-weighted, gradient-echo (GRE) imaging with controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration (CAIPIRINHA) technique on gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3T liver MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3T liver MR imaging were included in this study. Four 3D T1-weighted GRE imaging studies using the CAIPIRINHA technique and FAs of 9° and 13° were acquired during HBP at 15 and 20 min after intravenous injection of gadoxetic acid. Two abdominal radiologists, who were blinded to the FA and the timing of image acquisition, assessed the sharpness of liver edge, hepatic vessel clarity, lesion conspicuity, artifact severity, and overall image quality using a five-point scale. Quantitative analysis was performed by another radiologist to estimate the relative liver enhancement (RLE) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Statistical analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The scores of the HBP with an FA of 13° during the same delayed time were significantly higher than those of the HBP with an FA of 9° in all the assessment items (P < 0.01). In terms of the delay time, images at the same FA obtained with a 20-min-HBP showed better quality than those obtained with a 15-min-HBP. There was no significant difference in qualitative scores between the 20-min-HBP and the 15-min-HBP images in the non-liver cirrhosis (LC) group except for the hepatic vessel clarity score with 9° FA. In the quantitative analysis, a statistically significant difference was found in the degree of RLE in the four HBP images (P = 0.012). However, in the subgroup analysis, no significant difference in RLE was found in the four HBP images in either the LC or the non-LC groups. The SNR did not differ significantly in the four HBP images. In the subgroup analysis, 20-min-HBP imaging with a 13° FA showed the highest SNR value in the LC-group, whereas 15-min-HBP imaging with a 13° FA showed the best value of SNR in the non-LC group. CONCLUSION: The use of a moderately high FA improves the image quality and lesion conspicuity on 3D, T1-weighted GRE imaging using the CAIPIRINHA technique on gadoxetic acid, 3T liver MR imaging. In patients with normal liver function, the 15-min-HBP with a 13° FA represents a feasible option without a significant decrease in image quality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acceleration , Artifacts , Breath Holding , Contrast Media , Fibrosis , Gadolinium DTPA , Injections, Intravenous , Liver , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Signal-To-Noise Ratio
8.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 809-816, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774014

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the value of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic-acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting different stages of liver fibrosis in rats.Methods Rat models of liver fibrosis were induced by carbon tetrachloride intraperitoneal injection for 4 - 12 weeks (n=45). The control group was applied with 0.9% saline (n=15). The MRI protocol contained both dynamic contrast-enhanced sequence (60 continuous scans within 3 minutes,including three pre-contrast measurements) and multiple hepatobiliary-phase acquisitions (every 5 minutes after contrast injection,60 minutes in total). METAVIR score was used to grade liver fibrosis:normal (F0),mild fibrosis (F1 - F2),and advanced fibrosis (F3 - F4). Liver perfusion parameters [transfer constant (K ),extravascular extracellular volume fraction (V),initial area under curve (iAUC),maximum relative enhancement (RE),and time of maximum RE (T)] as well as hepatobiliary-phase parameters [RE at different time point,the decrease of RE (RE=RE - RE),and elimination half-life of RE (T)] were measured and compared with ANOVA analysis and Spearman rank correlation.Results Thirty-one rats completed MRI exams and were then divided into normal (n=10),mild fibrosis (n=10),and advanced fibrosis (n=11) groups. K ,V and iAUC decreased as liver fibrosis progressed (r=-0.631,P=0.002;r=-0.503,P=0.017;r=-0.446,P=0.037). K and V showed significant differences among three groups(F=7.011,P=0.005;F=4.656,P=0.023). K and V were significantly lower in advanced fibrosis group than in normal group (P=0.001,P=0.009). There were statistical significant differences of T,T and RE among groups(F=6.633,P=0.005;F=5.493,P=0.010;F=5.343,P=0.014). Compared to normal and mild fibrosis groups,advanced fibrosis group had significantly longer T and T (P=0.005,P=0.004;P=0.008,P=0.008)and significantly lower RE(P=0.007,P=0.012).Conclusion Perfusion and multi-hepatobiliary-phase parameters such as K ,V,T, T and RE obtained from Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI,may be valuable for detecting and staging liver fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Contrast Media , Chemistry , Gadolinium DTPA , Chemistry , Liver , Diagnostic Imaging , Pathology , Liver Cirrhosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
9.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 221-225, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691486

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the application of the optical magnetic bimodal molecular probe Gd-DO3A-ethylthiouret-fluorescein isothiocyanate (Gd -DO3A-EA-FITC) in brain tissue imaging and brain interstitial space (ISS).@*METHODS@#In the study, 24 male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, including magnetic probe group (n=6), optical probe group (n=6) and optical magnetic bimodal probe group (n=12), then the optical magnetic bimodal probe group was divided equally into magnetic probe subgroup (n=6) and optical probe subgroup (n=6). Referencing the brain stereotaxic atlas, the coronal globus pallidus as center level, the probes including gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and Gd-DO3A-EA-FITC of 2 μL (10 mmol/L) were injected into the caudate nucleus respectively, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in the magnetic probe group and magnetic probe subgroup to image the dynamic diffusion and distribution of the probes in the brain ISS, a self-developed brain ISS image processing system was used to measure the diffusion coefficient, clearance, volume fraction and half-time in these two groups. Laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) was performed in vitro in the optical probe group and optical probe subgroup for fluorescence imaging at the time points 2 hours after the injection of the probe, and the distribution in the oblique sagittal slice was compared with the result of the first two groups.@*RESULTS@#For the magnetic probe group and magnetic probe subgroup, there were the same imaging results between the probes of Gd-DTPA and Gd-DO3A-EA-FITC. The diffusion parameters of Gd-DTPA and Gd-DO3A-EA-FITC were as follows: the average diffusion coefficients [(3.31±0.11)×10-4 mm2/s vs. (3.37±0.15)×10-4 mm2/s, t=0.942, P=0.360], the clearance [(3.04±0.37) mmol/L vs. (2.90±0.51) mmol/L, t=0.640, P=0.531], the volume fractions (17.18%±0.14% vs. 17.31%±0.15%, t=1.961, P=0.068), the half-time [(86.58±3.31) min vs. (84.61±2.38) min, t=1.412, P=0.177], the diffusion areas [(23.25±0.68) mm2 vs. (22.71±1.00) mm2, t=1.100, P=0.297]. The statistical analysis of each brain was made by t test, and the diffusion parameters were not statistically significant. Moreover, for the optical probe group and optical probe subgroup, the diffusion area of Gd-DO3A-EA-FITC [(22.61±1.16) mm2] was slightly larger than that of FITC [(22.10±1.29) mm2], the statistical analysis of each brain was made by t test, and the diffusion parameters were not statistically significant (t=0.713, P=0.492).@*CONCLUSION@#Gd-DO3A-EA-FITC shows the same imaging results as the traditional GD-DTPA, and it can be used in measuring brain ISS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Caudate Nucleus , Contrast Media , Diffusion , Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate , Fluorescence , Gadolinium DTPA , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Microscopy, Confocal , Molecular Probes , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
10.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 203-206, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691483

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the characteristics of the interstitial fluid (ISF) drainage in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tracer gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)spread in the brain extracellular space (ECS) and to discuss the role of aquaporin-4 (Aqp4) in the AD.@*METHODS@#Wild type SD rats (300-350 g) and Aqp4 gene knock out (Aqp4-/-) SD rats (300-350g) were divided into Sham group, AD group, Aqp4-/--Sham group and Aqp4-/--AD group. Sham group and Aqp4-/--Sham group were injected with saline by intraperitoneal each day for 6 weeks, and the AD group and Aqp4-/--AD group were injected with D-galactose by intraperitoneal each day for 6 weeks. MRI tracer Gd-DTPA (10 mmol/L, 2 μL) was injected into the hippocampus of the rats. MRI scan was performed at the end of 0.5 h, 1.5 h, 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h to observe the dynamic distribution of the Gd-DTPA in the hippocampus and the diffusion rate D*, clearance rate k' and half-life t1/2 measured.@*RESULTS@#The diffusion rate D* in Sham group was (2.66±0.36)×10-6 mm2/s, the diffusion rate D* in AD group was (2.72±0.62)×10-6 mm2/s, the diffusion rate D* in Aqp4-/--Sham group was (2.75±0.47)×10-6 mm2/s, the diffusion rate D* in Aqp4-/--AD group was (2.802±0.55)×10-6 mm2/s, and there was no statistically significant difference in the four groups (One-Way ANOVA, P>0.05).The clearance rate k' in Sham group was (4.57±0.14)×10-4/s, the clearance rate k' in AD group was (3.68±0.22)×10-4/s, the clearance rate k' in Aqp4-/--Sham group was (3.17±0.16)×10-4/s, the clearance rate k' in Aqp4-/--AD group was (2.59±0.19)×10-4/s, and there was significant difference in the four groups (One-Way ANOVA, P<0.05). The half-life t1/2 in Sham group was (0.67±0.12) h, the half-life t1/2 in AD group was (0.88±0.08) h, the half-life t1/2 in Aqp4-/--Sham group was (1.12±0.15) h, the half-life t1/2 in Aqp4-/--AD group was (1.58±0.11) h, and there was significance difference in the four groups(one-way ANOVA,P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The ISF drainage is slow after AD and the loss of Aqp4 in the AD makes the ISF drainage obviously slow down, Aqp4 plays an important role in AD to remove the metabolism of waste out of the brain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Aquaporin 4/genetics , Brain/physiopathology , Diffusion , Drainage , Extracellular Fluid , Extracellular Space , Gadolinium DTPA , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 23(1): 2-6, 2017. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844629

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Recently, some studies have reported accumulation of gadolinium in the brain of patients with multiple administrations of gadolinium-based contrast. Patients with multiple sclerosis are subjected to multiple contrasting resonances and could become a population at risk. Objective: To determine whether repeated intravenous exposure to gadolinium is associated with more intensity in the thalamus, dentate nucleus, pons and the globus pallidus. Methods: A retrospective study of 60 patients with MS who had undergone two or more contrasted MRs between 2007 and 2015, was performed. The ratios calculated were: dentate nuclei-to-pons (DNP), thalamus-to-pons (TP), caudate nuclei-to-pons (CNP), globus pallidus-to-thalamus (GPT), globus pallidus-to-pons (GPP), by reviewing simple T1 axial sequences. Relative changes were calculated and compared with the number of contrasted MRs. The concordance between observers and the intraclass correlation coefficient was evaluated. Results: There was no evidence of increased signal intensity in T1 sequences (DNP 0.524, GPT 0.466, GPP 0.684, TP 0.771, CNP 0.352). As there were no differences, the Spearman coefficient showed no correlation between relative changes and the number of resonances performed. Inter-observer agreement was almost perfect (0.982) for all structures. Conclusion: Our study did not find a statistically significant increase in the T1 signal intensity in patients with multiple sclerosis. However, there are factors to consider, such as the type of gadolinium and the time lapse between administrations.


Introducción: Recientemente, algunos estudios han informado acumulación de gadolinio en el cerebro de los pacientes con múltiples administraciones de contraste basado en gadolinio. Los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple son sometidos a múltiples resonancias contrastadas y podrían convertirse en una población de riesgo. Objetivo: Determinar si la exposición repetida por vía intravenosa a gadolino se asocia con mayor intensidad en el tálamo, el dentado, el puente y el globo pálido. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo núcleo de 60 pacientes con EM que habían sido sometidos a dos o más RM contrastadas entre 2007 - 2015. Se calcularon las razones núcleo dentado - puente (DNP), tálamo-puente (TP), núcleo caudado- puente (CNP), globus pallidus - tálamo (GPT), globus pallidos - puente (GPP), revisando secuencias T1 axiales simples. Se calcularon los cambios relativos y se compararon con el número de RM contrastadas. Se evaluó la concordancia entre observadores con el coeficiente de correlación intraclase. Resultados: No hubo evidencia de aumento de la intensidad de la señal en secuencias T1 (DNP 0,524, 0,446 GPT, GPP 0,684, 0,771 PT, CNP 0.352). Al no existir diferencias, el coeficiente de Spearman no mostró correlación entre los cambios relativos y el número de resonancias realizadas. La concordancia interobservador fue casi perfecta (0.982) para todas las estructuras. Conclusión: Nuestro estudio no encontró un aumento estadísticamente significativo en la intensidad de la señal T1 en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple. Sin embargo, hay factores a considerar, tales como el tipo de gadolinio y el lapso de tiempo entre las administraciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Contrast Media/administration & dosage , Gadolinium DTPA/administration & dosage , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Cerebellar Nuclei/pathology , Globus Pallidus/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Thalamus/pathology
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(7): e5403, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951700

ABSTRACT

Solution reflux and edema hamper the convection-enhanced delivery of the standard treatment for glioma. Therefore, a real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method was developed to monitor the dosing process, but a quantitative analysis of local diffusion and clearance parameters has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to compare diffusion into the extracellular space (ECS) at different stages of rat C6 gliomas, and analyze the effects of the extracellular matrix (ECM) on the diffusion process. At 10 and 20 days, after successful glioma modeling, gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was introduced into the ECS of rat C6 gliomas. Diffusion parameters and half-life of the reagent were then detected using MRI, and quantified according to the mathematical model of diffusion. The main ECM components [chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), collagen IV, and tenascin C] were detected by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses. In 20-day gliomas, Gd-DTPA diffused more slowly and derived higher tortuosity, with lower clearance rate and longer half-life compared to 10-day gliomas. The increased glioma ECM was associated with different diffusion and clearance parameters in 20-day rat gliomas compared to 10-day gliomas. ECS parameters were altered with C6 glioma progression from increased ECM content. Our study might help better understand the glioma microenvironment and provide benefits for interstitial drug delivery to treat brain gliomas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Extracellular Space/diagnostic imaging , Glioma/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Progression , Gadolinium DTPA , Diffusion , Glioma/diagnostic imaging
13.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 64-75, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44793

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In order to evaluate the relationship between the dose to the liver parenchyma and focal liver reaction (FLR) after stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR), we suggest a novel method using a three-dimensional dose distribution and change in signal intensity of gadoxetate disodium-gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hepatobiliary phase images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our method, change of the signal intensity between the pretreatment and follow-up hepatobiliary phase images of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI was calculated and then threshold dose (TD) for developing FLR was obtained from correlation of dose with the change of the signal intensity. For validation of the method, TDs for six patients, who had been treated for liver cancer with SABR with 45-60 Gy in 3 fractions, were calculated using the method, and we evaluated concordance between volume enclosed by isodose of TD by the method and volume identified as FLR by a physician. RESULTS: The dose to normal liver was correlated with change in signal intensity between pretreatment and follow-up MRI with a median R2 of 0.935 (range, 0.748 to 0.985). The median TD by the method was 23.5 Gy (range, 18.3 to 39.4 Gy). The median value of concordance was 84.5% (range, 44.7% to 95.9%). CONCLUSION: Our method is capable of providing a quantitative evaluation of the relationship between dose and intensity changes on follow-up MRI, as well as determining individual TD for developing FLR. We expect our method to provide better information about the individual relationship between dose and FLR in radiotherapy for liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Feasibility Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Gadolinium DTPA , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Liver Neoplasms , Liver , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pentetic Acid , Radiation Effects , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy
14.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(2): 326-329, Apr-Jun/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751413

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The hepatobiliary-specific contrast medium (gadoxetic acid – Primovist®) is primarily used to improve detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions, such as in chronic liver disease patients with suspected hepatocellular carcinoma. Since the contrast medium is selectively taken up by functioning hepatocytes in the late hepatobiliary phase, it helps to detect typical hepatocellular carcinoma, which show low signal intensity on this phase. This imaging feature also assists in differentiating regenerative/dysplastic nodules from early hepatocellular carcinomas (with over 90% accuracy), as well as hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas from arterial pseudo-enhancement foci. Future perspectives include its use in quantification of hepatic function and fibrosis.


RESUMO O contraste hepato-específico (ácido gadoxético – Primovist®) tem como utilidade principal melhorar a detecção e a caracterização de lesões hepáticas focais, por exemplo, em hepatopatas crônicos com suspeita de hepatocarcinoma. Por apresentar captação seletiva por hepatócitos funcionantes na fase hepatobiliar tardia, auxilia na detecção de hepatocarcinomas típicos – a maioria dos quais apresentando hipossinal nessa fase. Essa característica de imagem também auxilia na diferenciação entre nódulos regenerativos/ displásicos e hepatocarcinomas precoces (com mais de 90% de acurácia), e entre hepatocarcinomas hipervascularizados e focos de pseudorrealce arterial. Perspectivas futuras promissoras incluem sua utilização na quantificação de função e de fibrose hepáticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Contrast Media , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Gadolinium DTPA , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Chronic Disease , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Contrast Media/pharmacokinetics , Diagnosis, Differential , Gadolinium DTPA/pharmacokinetics , Image Enhancement/methods , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Organ Specificity , Organic Anion Transporters , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(3): 194-198, 03/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741041

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the effectiveness of bacterial cellulose hydrogel as a barrier in preventing postoperative peritoneal adhesion in rat model. METHODS: Experimental study with 45 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) that were divided into three groups for the following treatments: A. Saline, B. Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose (ORC) barrier, and C Bacterial Cellulose Hydrogel (BCH) barrier. After 45 days of the surgery the adhesions were classified and graded according to the qualitative score. The histological parameters were evaluated using a modified semi-quantitative scale to rate the extent of fibrosis, inflammatory reaction and vascular proliferation. RESULTS: Compared with the saline group (A), the treatments with ORC barrier (B) and BHC barrier (C) resulted in a smaller number of adhesions (p=0.019 and p=0.003 on Fisher's exact test, respectively). Data from inflammation and neovascularization showed no statistically significant difference between the groups BHC and ORC (p=0.426 and 0.446 on chi-square test, respectively). CONCLUSION: Bacterial cellulose hydrogel is effective as a bio-re-absorbable barrier for preventing postoperative peritoneal adhesions. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anatomic Landmarks/pathology , Gadolinium DTPA , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Contrast Media , Image Enhancement/methods , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (24): 421-424, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-747805

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the extent of endolymphatic hydrops as shown by three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (3D FLAIR MRI) performed 24 hours after bilateral intratympanic gadolinium administration and discuss the positive rate of endolymphatic hydrops in vestibule and cochlea.@*METHOD@#Twenty-four hours after bilateral intra-tympanic 8 times diluted gadolinium administration, three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI, using a three-Tesla unit, was performed in 48 patients, and then assessed the extent of endolymphatic hydrops in the MRI images.@*RESULT@#Forty-eight patients showed different levels of enhancement of perilymth in the inner ear. In these patients, obvious signs of endolymphatic hydrops were visualized in vestibule,including 8 slight hydrops, 17 mild hydrops and 23 severe hydrops with a diagnostic rate of 83.3%. There were almost no complications in all 48 patients after bilateral intra-tympanic injection except short vertigo in some of them.@*CONCLUSION@#3D FLAIR MRI resonance imaging has a high positive diagnostic rate in assessing endolymphatic hydrops of Ménière's disease and provides direct imaging evidence for diagnosing Ménière's disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cochlea , Contrast Media , Ear, Inner , Ear, Middle , Gadolinium DTPA , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Injections , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meniere Disease , Diagnosis , Vestibule, Labyrinth
18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 449-464, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182510

ABSTRACT

Imaging studies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play a crucial role in the diagnosis and staging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several recent studies reveal a large number of MRI features related to the prognosis of HCC. In this review, we discuss various MRI features of HCC and their implications for the diagnosis and prognosis as imaging biomarkers. As a whole, the favorable MRI findings of HCC are small size, encapsulation, intralesional fat, high apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and smooth margins or hyperintensity on the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Unfavorable findings include large size, multifocality, low ADC value, non-smooth margins or hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase images. MRI findings are potential imaging biomarkers in patients with HCC.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Biological Products , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Contrast Media , Gadolinium DTPA , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neoplasm Staging/methods , Prognosis
19.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1207-1215, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102547

ABSTRACT

Gadoxetate disodium is a widely used magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent for liver MR imaging, and it provides both dynamic and hepatobiliary phase images. However, acquiring optimal arterial phase images at liver MR using gadoxetate disodium is more challenging than using conventional extracellular MR contrast agent because of the small volume administered, the gadolinium content of the agent, and the common occurrence of transient severe motion. In this article, we identify the challenges in obtaining high-quality arterial-phase images of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MR imaging and present strategies for optimizing arterial-phase imaging based on the thorough review of recent research in this field.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiography , Arteries/anatomy & histology , Contrast Media/chemistry , Gadolinium DTPA/chemistry , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
20.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 523-530, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83674

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate relative enhancement (RE) in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a preoperative estimation of future remnant liver (FRL) function in a patients who underwent portal vein embolization (PVE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 53 patients, the correlation between the indocyanine green clearance (ICG-K) and RE imaging was analyzed before hepatectomy (first analysis). Twenty-three of the 53 patients underwent PVE followed by a repeat RE imaging and ICG test before an extended hepatectomy and their results were further analyzed (second analysis). Whole liver function and FRL function were calculated on the MR imaging as follows: RE x total liver volume (RE Index) and FRL-RE x FRL volume (Rem RE Index), respectively. Regarding clinical outcome, posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) was evaluated in patients undergoing PVE. RESULTS: Indocyanine green clearance correlated with the RE Index (r = 0.365, p = 0.007), and ICG-K of FRL (ICG-Krem) strongly correlated with the Rem RE Index (r = 0.738, p < 0.001) in the first analysis. Both the ICG-Krem and the Rem RE Index were significantly correlated after PVE (r = 0.508, p = 0.013) at the second analysis. The rate of improvement of the Rem RE Index from before PVE to after PVE was significantly higher than that of ICG-Krem (p = 0.014). Patients with PHLF had a significantly lower Rem RE Index than patients without PHLF (p = 0.023). CONCLUSION: Relative enhancement imaging can be used to estimate FRL function after PVE.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Gadolinium DTPA , Hepatectomy/methods , Indocyanine Green/pharmacokinetics , Liver/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Portal Vein/pathology , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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