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1.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 204-213, Junio 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443868

ABSTRACT

El Hospital Garrahan ha sido pionero en el diagnóstico molecular de patologías pediátricas en Argentina. Los avances tecnológicos de las últimas décadas en el área de la biología molecular, sentaron las bases para la optimización y ampliación del diagnóstico molecular a partir de la secuenciación masiva en paralelo de múltiples genes. El presente trabajo describe el proceso de implementación de los estudios de secuenciación de nueva generación y el desarrollo de la Unidad de Genómica en un hospital público pediátrico de alta complejidad, así como su impacto en las capacidades diagnósticas de enfermedades poco frecuentes de origen genético. La creación del Grupo Interdisciplinario de Estudios Genómicos constituyó la vía institucional para la toma de decisiones que implican la implementación de nuevos estudios genómicos y el establecimiento de prioridades diagnósticas, extendiendo la disponibilidad del diagnóstico molecular a más disciplinas. La Unidad de Genómica trabaja en diseñar las estrategias que permitan la mayor optimización de los recursos con los que cuenta el hospital, teniendo en cuenta el equipamiento disponible, las prioridades establecidas y la frecuencia de las distintas patologías. Se demuestra el salto significativo operado en nuestras capacidades diagnósticas, tanto en la variedad de enfermedades como en el número de genes analizados, habiendo estudiado a la fecha alrededor de 2.000 pacientes, muchos de los cuales ven de este modo finalizada su odisea diagnóstica. Los estudios de NGS se han convertido en una herramienta de la práctica diaria para la atención de un número importante de pacientes de nuestro hospital. Continuaremos trabajando para ampliar su aplicación a la mayor cantidad de patologías, a través de los mecanismos institucionales ya existentes (AU)


The Garrahan Hospital has been a pioneer in the molecular diagnosis of pediatric diseases in Argentina. The technological advances of the last decades in the area of molecular biology have laid the foundations for the optimization and expansion of molecular diagnostics through massive parallel sequencing of multiple genes. This study describes the process of implementation of next-generation sequencing studies and the development of the Genomics Unit in a public pediatric tertiary hospital, and its impact on the capacity to diagnose rare diseases of genetic origin. The creation of the Interdisciplinary Group of Genomic Studies constituted the institutional pathway for decision-making involving the implementation of new genomic studies and the establishment of diagnostic priorities, extending the availability of molecular diagnostics to additional disciplines. The Genomics Unit is working to design strategies that allow for optimization of the resources available to the hospital, taking into account the equipment available, the priorities established, and the frequency of the different diseases. It demonstrates the significant leap in our diagnostic capabilities, both in the variety of diseases and in the number of genes analyzed. To date, around 2,000 patients have been studies, many of whom have thus completed their diagnostic odyssey. NGS studies have become a tool in daily practice for the care of a significant number of patients in our hospital. We will continue working to expand its application to as many diseases as possible, through the existing institutional mechanisms (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Genomics/instrumentation , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Genomic Medicine/trends , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/diagnosis , Laboratories, Hospital , Hospitals, Pediatric
2.
Distúrb. comun ; 35(1): e58948, 01/06/2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1436184

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A prematuridade é um fator de risco para o crescimento e o desenvolvimento dos neonatos. Objetivo: Analisar as características clinicas e fonoaudiológicas de neonatos hospitalizados na unidade de tratamento intensivo (UTI) neonatal com suspeita de doença genética. Material e Método:Estudo transversal descritivo, conduzido em um hospital na região sul do Brasil com coleta de dados entre novembro de 2020 e setembro de 2021. Todos os neonatos que se encontravam internados na UTI, atendidos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde e que apresentavam suspeita de etiologias genéticas foram acompanhados pela equipe de Fonoaudiologia. Foram analisados todos os prontuários dos recém-nascidos com suspeita de alteração genética, extraindo-se os dados médicos e fonoaudiológicos. Resultados:A amostra foi constituída por 14 neonatos prematuros com média de idade gestacional de 36 semanas e 5 dias e uma média de tempo de nascimento, no momento da avaliação fonoaudiológica, de 14,6 dias de vida. No que se refere às comorbidades, 71,4% dos recém-nascidos apresentavam alguma malformação, sendo múltiplas na maior parte dos casos (64,29%). Todos os neonatos estavam fazendo uso de via enteral de alimentação durante a avaliação fonoaudiológica. Na avaliação de reflexos orais, observou-se que houve um predomínio de pacientes com reflexo de procura débil, sendo que a maior parte apresentava reflexo de sucção presente. Conclusões: Pode-se afirmar que, neste estudo, a amostra foi composta por pacientes principalmente prematuros que apresentavam malformações múltiplas e que todos faziam uso de via alternativa de alimentação sugerindo, assim, a necessidade de atendimento fonoaudiológico como parte da assistência multidisciplinar desses neonatos. (AU)


Introduction: Prematurity is a risk factor for the growth and development of neonates. Objective: To analyze clinical and speech therapy characteristics of neonates hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit with suspected genetic disease. Method: Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in a hospital in southern Brazil with data collection between November 2020 and September 2021. All neonates who were hospitalized in the ICU attended by the public health system and who were suspected of having genetic etiologies were followed up by the Speech-Language Pathology team. All newborn`s medical records with suspected genetic alterations were analyzed and the medical and the speech-language pathology data were analyzed. Results: The sample consisted of 14 premature neonates with a mean gestational age of 36 weeks and 5 days and a mean time of birth, at the time of the speech-language pathology assessment, of 14.6 days of life. Regarding to comorbidities, 71.4% of newborns had some malformation, being multiple in most cases (64.29%). All neonates were using enteral feeding at the time of the speech-language evaluation. At the oral reflexes evaluation it was observed that there was a predominance of patients with a weak rooting reflex and most of them had a present sucking reflex. Conclusions: In this study the sample consisted of mainly premature patients who had multiple malformations and all of them used an alternative feeding route, thus suggesting the demand for speech therapy as part of the multidisciplinary care of these neonates. (AU)


Introducción: La prematuridad es un factor de riesgo para el crecimiento y desarrollo de los recién nacidos. Objetivo: Analizar las características clinicas y de terapia del habla de recién nacidos hospitalizados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales (UCI) con sospecha de enfermedad genética. Método: Estudio transversal descriptivo realizado en un hospital en la región del Sur de Brasil. Todos los recién nacidos que fueron hospitalizados en la UTI y que tenían sospecha de tener etiologías genéticas, fueron atendidos por el equipo de Patología del Habla y Lenguaje. Se analizaron todas las historias clínicas de los recién nacidos con sospecha de alteraciones genéticas, extrayéndose datos médicos y de patología del habla y del lenguaje. Resultados: La muestra estuvo constituida por 14 neonatos prematuros con una edad gestacional media de 36 semanas. En cuanto a las comorbilidades, el 71,4% de los recién nacidos presentó alguna malformación, siendo múltiples en la mayoría de los casos (64,29%). Con respecto a los datos de la evaluación de la patología del habla y el lenguaje, todos los recién nacidos estaban usando alimentación enteral. En la evaluación de los reflejos orales, se observó que hubo un predominio de pacientes con reflejo de búsqueda débil, y la mayoría de ellos tenían presente el reflejo de succión. Conclusiones: Se puede decir que en este estudio la muestra estuvo compuesta principalmente por pacientes prematuros, que presentaban plurimalformaciones y que todos utilizaban una vía alternativa de alimentación, sugiriendo así, la necesidad de la fonoaudiología como parte del cuidado multidisciplinario de estos neonatos. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Sucking Behavior , Abnormalities, Multiple , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enteral Nutrition , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences , Electronic Health Records
3.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 33(1): 1-17, 4 de Abril 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427717

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de mama es la causa más común de muerte por cáncer en el mundo, y la resistencia a los medicamentos es una de las barreras más importantes para el éxito de la terapia de la enfermedad. Es fundamental tener una comprensión sólida de los procesos moleculares que impulsan la resistencia al tratamiento en el cáncer de mama para diseñar terapias dirigidas con el potencial de superar esta resistencia. Estos mecanismos son complejos y multifacéticos e incluyen la activación de vías de señalización que promueven la supervivencia y proliferación celular, la regulación positiva de las bombas de salida de fármacos, la aparición de células madre cancerosas y cambios genéticos y epigenéticos. Esta revisión de la literatura brinda una descripción general de estos mecanismos y analiza las posibles estrategias para superar la resistencia a los medicamentos en el cáncer de mama, incluido el uso de terapias dirigidas que se dirigen específicamente a las vías y los mecanismos involucrados en la resistencia a los medicamentos. La revisión también destaca la necesidad de más investigación para identificar estrategias efectivas para superar la resistencia a los medicamentos y mejorar los resultados del tratamiento en pacientes con cáncer de mama.


Breast cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in the world, and drug resistance is one of the most significant barriers to successful therapy for the disease. It is critical to have a solid understanding of the molecular processes driving treatment resistance in breast cancer to design targeted therapies with the potential to overcome this resistance. These complex and multifaceted mechanisms include the activation of signaling pathways that promote cell survival and proliferation, the upregulation of drug efflux pumps, the emergence of cancer stem cells, and genetic and epigenetic changes. This literature review provides an overview of these mechanisms. It discusses potential strategies for overcoming drug resistance in breast cancer, including targeted therapies that specifically target the pathways and mechanisms involved in drug resistance. The review also highlights the need for further research to identify effective strategies for overcoming drug resistance and improving treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Signal Transduction , Genetic Diseases, Inborn
4.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(2): 74-81, Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449703

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study evaluated the profile of germline mutations present in patients who underwent genetic counseling for risk assessment for breast cancer (BC), ovarian cancer (OC), and endometrial cancer (EC) with a possible hereditary pattern. Methods Medical records of 382 patients who underwent genetic counseling after signing an informed consent form were analyzed. A total of 55.76% of patients (213/382) were symptomatic (personal history of cancer), and 44.24% (169/382) were asymptomatic (absence of the disease). The variables analyzed were age, sex, place of birth, personal or family history of BC, OC, EC, as well as other types of cancer associated with hereditary syndromes. The Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) nomenclature guidelines were used to name the variants, and their biological significance was determined by comparing 11 databases. Results We identified 53 distinct mutations: 29 pathogenic variants, 13 variants of undetermined significance (VUS), and 11 benign. The most frequent mutations were BRCA1 c.470_471delCT, BRCA1 c.4675 + 1G > T, and BRCA2 c.2T> G. Furthermore, 21 variants appear to have been described for the first time in Brazil. In addition to BRCA1/2 mutations, variants in other genes related to hereditary syndromes that predispose to gynecological cancers were found. Conclusion This study allowed a deeper understanding of the main mutations identified in families in the state of Minas Gerais and demonstrates the need to assess the family history of non-gynecological cancer for risk assessment of BC, OC, and EC. Moreover, it is an effort that contributes to population studies to evaluate the cancer risk mutation profile in Brazil.


Resumo Objetivo O presente estudo avaliou o perfil de mutações germinativas presentes em pacientes submetidas a aconselhamento genético para avaliação de risco para câncer de mama (CM), câncer de ovário (OC) e câncer de endométrio (CE) com possível padrão hereditário. Métodos Foram analisados os prontuários de 382 pacientes que realizaram aconselhamento genético após consentimento informado. Um total de 55,76% dos pacientes (213/382) eram sintomáticos (história pessoal de câncer), e 44,24% (169/382) eram assintomáticos (ausência da doença). As variáveis analisadas foram idade, sexo, naturalidade, história pessoal ou familiar de CM, OC, CE bem como outros tipos de câncer associados a síndromes hereditárias. As diretrizes de nomenclatura da Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) foram usadas para nomear as variantes e seu significado biológico foi determinado pela comparação de 11 bancos de dados. Resultados Identificamos 53 mutações distintas: 29 variantes patogênicas, 13 variantes de significado indeterminado e 11 benignas. As mutações mais frequentes foram BRCA1 c.470_471delCT, BRCA1 c.4675 + 1G > T e BRCA2 c.2T > G. Além disso, 21 variantes parecem ter sido descritas pela primeira vez no Brasil. Além das mutações BRCA1/2, foram encontradas variantes em outros genes relacionados a síndromes hereditárias que predispõem a cânceres ginecológicos. Conclusão Este estudo permitiu conhecer melhor as principais mutações identificadas nas famílias do estado de Minas Gerais e demonstra a necessidade de avaliar a história familiar de câncer não ginecológico para avaliação do risco de CM, OC e CE. Além disso, é um esforço que contribui com estudos populacionais para avaliar o perfil de mutações de risco para câncer no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Endometrial Neoplasms/prevention & control , Genetic Counseling , Genital Neoplasms, Female/prevention & control , Genetic Diseases, Inborn
5.
Singapore medical journal ; : 7-16, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969660

ABSTRACT

There are more than 7,000 paediatric genetic diseases (PGDs) but less than 5% have treatment options. Treatment strategies targeting different levels of the biological process of the disease have led to optimal health outcomes in a subset of patients with PGDs, where treatment is available. In the past 3 decades, there has been rapid advancement in the development of novel therapies, including gene therapy, for many PGDs. The therapeutic success of treatment relies heavily on knowledge of the genetic basis and the disease mechanism. Specifically, gene therapy has been shown to be effective in various clinical trials, and indeed, these trials have led to regulatory approvals, paving the way for gene therapies for other types of PGDs. In this review, we provide an overview of the treatment strategies and focus on some of the recent advancements in therapeutics for PGDs.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/therapy , Genetic Therapy
6.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1517022

ABSTRACT

Galloway­Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is a rare hereditary disease manifested as a combination of nephrotic syndrome and central nervous system impairment. To date, many GAMOS cases attributed to various gene mutations have been reported such as WHAMM, NUP107, WDR73, OSGEP, and TP53RK. We detected two novel homozygous mutations of WDR73 ''NM_032856:c.G287A:p.R96K'' and TP53RK ''NM_033550:c.A193O:p.K65Q'' in two female kids of the consanguineous parents from different families using whole exome sequencing. Both patients almost manifested similar neurodegenerative phenotypes, including developmental delay, microcephaly, hypotonia, and brain atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging during infancy. WDR73-positive GAMOS case manifested a lateonset minimal nephrotic syndrome at the age 4 years while TP53RK-positive case presented nephrotic syndrome at the age 1 which progressed to steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome due to lack of remission after 4-6 weeks of initial treatment with prednisone. Despite the brain abnormalities and the onset time difference of renal abnormalities, both patients are still alive. Given the heterogeneity of the renal phenotype among GAMOS types, accurate recognition of expanding spectrum of phenotype findings and regular renal function screening are necessary for an early diagnosis and timely treatment


A síndrome de Galloway-Mowat (GAMOS) é uma doença hereditária rara que se manifesta como uma combinação de síndrome nefrótica e comprometimento do sistema nervoso central. Até o momento, foram relatados muitos casos de GAMOS atribuídos a várias mutações genéticas, como WHAMM, NUP107, WDR73, OSGEP e TP53RK. Detectamos duas novas mutações homozigóticas de WDR73 ''NM_032856:c.G287A:p.R96K'' e TP53RK ''NM_033550:c.A193O:p.K65Q'' em duas crianças do sexo feminino, de pais consanguíneos de diferentes famílias usando o exoma completo de sequenciamento. Ambos os pacientes manifestaram fenótipos neurodegenerativos semelhantes, incluindo atraso no desenvolvimento, microcefalia, hipotonia e atrofia cerebral por ressonância magnética durante a infância. O caso GAMOS positivo para WDR73 manifestou síndrome nefrótica mínima de início tardio aos quatro anos de idade, enquanto o caso positivo para TP53RK apresentou síndrome nefrótica com um ano de idade, que progrediu para síndrome nefrótica resistente a esteroides devido à falta de remissão após quatro a seis semanas de tratamento inicial com prednisona. Apesar das anormalidades cerebrais e da diferença de tempo de início das anormalidades renais, ambos os pacientes ainda estão vivos. Dada a heterogeneidade do fenótipo renal entre os tipos de GAMOS, o reconhecimento preciso do espectro em expansão dos achados fenótipos e a triagem regular da função renal são necessários para um diagnóstico precoce e tratamento oportuno


Subject(s)
Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Mutation/genetics
7.
Montevideo; [s.n.]; 2023. 109 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1524295
8.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368288

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Osteogênese Imperfeita (OI) é uma doença genética rara com fragilidade óssea. A classificação inclui muitos tipos. Além do risco de recorrência, o manejo pode variar com o tipo de OI. Relato do caso: Apresentamos um paciente do sexo masculino nascido com 39 semanas, de pais não consanguíneos e saudáveis. A hidrocefalia foi diagnosticada no pré-natal. Com 50 dias de vida, detectamos muitas fraturas e calos ósseos. O teste molecular identificou uma deleção em homozigose do éxon 4 do gene WNT1. Considerações finais: Concluímos que o caso apresentado tinha características clínicas de OI XV, e o teste molecular foi fundamental para o diagnóstico preciso e aconselhamento genético.


Introduction: Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disease with bone fragility. The classification includes many types. In addition, the risk of a recurrence, the management can vary with the kind of OI. Case report: We report a male patient born at 39 weeks from non-consanguineous healthy parents. The patient was diagnosed with Hydrocephalus at prenatal. At 50 days of life, we detected many fractures and bone calluses. The molecular test identified a homozygous deletion of exon 4 of the WNT1 gene. Final considerations: We conclude this case had clinical features of OI XV, and the molecular test was fundamental for the precise diagnosis and the genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/diagnosis , Osteogenesis , Prenatal Care , Infant, Premature , Fractures, Bone , Genetic Counseling , Genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Hydrocephalus
9.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 21(3): e828, sept.-dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408170

ABSTRACT

El angioedema hereditario (AEH) es una enfermedad genética poco frecuente debida a una mutación de transmisión autosómica dominante que produce una alteración del gen que codifica la proteína inhibidora de la C1 esterasa activada (C1-INH), provoca un déficit o disfunción de la misma. Se caracteriza por episodios recurrentes y autolimitados con síntomas transitorios de hinchazón sin urticaria de tejidos subcutáneos, extremidades, pared intestinal, genitales y vías respiratorias superiores. La afectación de laringe y glotis puede ocasionar la muerte por asfixia. Se informa la conducción perioperatoria en una paciente portadora de AEH y un amplio historial de alergias donde las principales consideraciones están relacionadas con la prevención de una crisis aguda durante el perioperatorio. Para lograrlo se requirió de una preparación con plasma fresco congelado (PFC) y ácido tranexámico (ATX) con días de antelación a la cirugía que se continuó en el posoperatorio, además de un manejo cuidadoso durante el acto anestésico(AU)


Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disease caused by an autosomal dominant mutation that results in an alteration of the gene encoding the activated C1 esterase inhibitor protein (C1-INH), causing deficiency or dysfunction of C1-INH. It is characterized by recurrent and self-limited episodes with transient symptoms of swelling without urticaria of subcutaneous tissues, extremities, intestinal wall, genitalia and upper respiratory tract. Involvement of the larynx and glottis may result in death by asphyxia. The perioperative managment is reported of a patient with HAE and a long history of allergies in which the main considerations are related to the prevention of an acute crisis during the perioperative period. This required a preparation with fresh frozen plasma and tranexamic acid days before surgery, which was continued postoperatively, in addition to careful management during the anesthetic procedure(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Angioedemas, Hereditary , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Anesthesia
10.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(3): 429-434, jul.-set. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403593

ABSTRACT

La distonía por mutación en el gen KMT2B es un subtipo recientemente descrito del inicio focal de la enfermedad en los miembros inferiores que, posteriormente, evoluciona a una forma generalizada con compromiso cervical y orofaríngeo, disartria, trastorno secundario de la deglución y discapacidad intelectual. Se describe el caso de una escolar de 10 años de edad, sin antecedentes de consanguinidad ni historia familiar de enfermedad neurológica, que presentó alteración de la marcha y distonía de inicio focal, de curso progresivo a una forma generalizada que afectó sus músculos orofaciales y bulbares con alteración significativa del lenguaje y la deglución. Los estudios metabólicos y sistémicos, incluidas las neuroimágenes, no evidenciaron anormalidades. Se hizo una secuenciación genómica completa y se identificó una nueva variante, probablemente patogénica heterocigota, en el gen KMT2B, la c.1205delC, p.(Pro402Hisfs*5), que causa desplazamiento en el marco de lectura. Este hallazgo explica el fenotipo de la paciente y la distonía de inicio temprano autosómica dominante. Se reporta una nueva mutación heterocigota del gen KMT2B como causa de distonía generalizada de inicio temprano, no reportada en la literatura especializada hasta el momento. El diagnóstico de esta afección tiene implicaciones en el tratamiento y el pronóstico de los pacientes, porque las estrategias terapéuticas tempranas pueden prevenir su rápido deterioro y un curso más grave de la enfermedad.


Introduction: KMT2B-related dystonia is a recently described subtype of focal-onset dystonia in the lower limbs, evolving into a generalized form with cervical, oropharyngeal involvement, dysarthria, swallowing disorder and intellectual disability. Clinical case: We describe the case of a 10-year-old female patient, without a history of consanguinity or neurological disease. She manifested abnormal gait and dystonia with focal onset and progressive course with evolution into generalized dystonia, affecting orofacial and bulbar muscles, significant alteration of language and swallowing. Metabolic and systemic studies, including neuroimaging, were found to be normal. A complete genomic sequencing study was performed identifying a new, probably pathogenic, heterozygous variant in the KMT2B gene, c.1205delC, p. (Pro402Hisfs*5), causing displacement in the reading frame, a finding that explains the patient's phenotype and it is associated to autosomal dominant childhood-onset dystonia-28. Conclusion: We report a new heterozygous mutation in the KMT2B gene as a cause of generalized early-onset dystonia not reported in the literature until the date. The diagnosis of this pathology has implications for the treatment and prognosis of patients, given that therapeutic strategies implemented early can prevent the fast deterioration and severe course of this disease.


Subject(s)
Dystonia , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Dystonic Disorders , Deep Brain Stimulation , Intellectual Disability , Movement Disorders
11.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 24(2): e1002, mayo.-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409213

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de Rendu-Osler-Weber, también conocido como telangiectasia hemorrágica hereditaria, es una enfermedad genética de herencia autosómica dominante con penetrancia incompleta. Afecta por igual a ambos sexos y los síntomas se inician habitualmente entre los 20 y 40 años, pero se considera que la enfermedad está infradiagnosticada. Típicamente las formas clínicas y el debut de esta enfermedad se asocian a los órganos y tejidos que se afectan con mayor frecuencia: telangiectasias en mucosas y en piel, epistaxis, sangramiento gastrointestinal, pulmonar e intracerebral. En contraste, el caso clínico que se presenta se caracteriza porque las primeras manifestaciones clínicas que motivaron la consulta médica fueron crisis de dolores e inflamación ósea en el miembro superior derecho, lo cual es inusual y se inscribe como un elemento de novedad en la enfermedad. Es el objetivo de esta publicación exponer un caso de telangiectasia hemorrágica hereditaria con una forma de presentación atípica en una adolescente. Al alta hospitalaria, la paciente estaba estable, sin complicaciones. Se recomendó seguimiento hospitalario fundamentalmente por la especialidad de Neumología, por ser los pulmones los órganos más afectados(AU)


Rendu-Osler-Weber´s disease, also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, is a genetic disease of autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. It affects both sexes equally and symptoms usually begin between the ages of 20 and 40, but it is considered that the disease is underdiagnosed. Typically, the clinical forms and the onset of this disease are associated with the organs and tissues that are most frequently affected: mucosal and skin telangiectasias, epistaxis, gastrointestinal, pulmonary and intracerebral bleeding. In contrast, the clinical case that is presented is characterized because the first clinical manifestations that motivated the medical consultation were crises of pain and bone inflammation in the right upper limb, which is unusual and is inscribed as an element of novelty in the disease. The objective of this publication is to present a case of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with an atypical presentation in a female teenager(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/prevention & control , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic/diagnosis
12.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 38(2): e1598, abr.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408692

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ecografía prenatal en el Programa de Prevención de Enfermedades Genéticas permite la detección precoz de malformaciones congénitas y mejora la calidad de vida de la madre y su familia. Objetivo: Conocer la frecuencia de malformaciones congénitas diagnosticadas en el Centro de Genética de Marianao y compararla con las estadísticas nacionales e internacionales. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y observacional. Se cuantificaron 203 malformaciones diagnosticadas entre 2007 y 2017 en el Centro de Genética de Marianao. Se consideraron como variables la edad materna, la edad gestacional del diagnóstico, la frecuencia por años y los tipos de malformaciones por sistemas. Resultados: En 13 307 nacimientos se diagnosticaron 203 fetos malformados (1,52 por ciento) a una edad gestacional media de 20,15 semanas. Las malformaciones más frecuentes fueron neurológicas (27,1 por ciento) y cardiovasculares (16,2 por ciento). En las madres adolescentes predominaron las cardiovasculares (27,3 por ciento) y digestivas (16,2 por ciento en las madres añosas, las cromosómicas (57,1 por ciento). Antes de la semana 17 se diagnosticaron malformaciones digestivas (41,7 por ciento) y neurológicas (40 por ciento); entre las 18 y 21 semanas, las esqueléticas (41,2 por ciento); entre las 22 y 26 semanas, cardiovasculares (66,7 por ciento) y cromosómicas (52,4 por ciento) y, después de la semana 27, las renales (9 por ciento. Conclusión: Predominaron las malformaciones neurológicas y cardiovasculares. La edad materna media fue superior en las malformaciones cromosómicas y menor en las digestivas y cardiovasculares. En el primer marcador del programa se diagnosticó la mayoría de las malformaciones digestivas y neurológicas; y en el segundo marcador, las cardiovasculares, cromosómicas y esqueléticas(AU)


Introduction: Prenatal ultrasound in the Genetic Disease Prevention Program allows early detection of congenital malformations and improves the quality of life of the mother and her family. Objective: To know the frequency of congenital malformations diagnosed at the Genetics Center of Marianao Municipality, Havana, Cuba, and to compare it with national and international statistics. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive and observational study. A total of 203 malformations diagnosed between 2007 and 2017 at the Genetics Center of Marianao were quantified. Maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, frequency by years and types of malformations by systems were considered as variables. Results: In 13,307 births, 203 malformed fetuses were diagnosed (1.52 percent), at a mean gestational age of 20.15 weeks. The most frequent malformations were neurological (27.1 percent) and cardiovascular (16.2 percent). Cardiovascular (27.3 percent) and digestive (16.2 percent) malformations predominated in adolescent mothers, while chromosomal malformations predominated in older mothers (57.1 percent). Before the seventeenth week, digestive (41.7 percent) and neurological (40 percent) alformations were diagnosed; between the eighteenth and twenty-first weeks, skeletal (41.2 percent) malformations were diagnosed; between the twenty-second and twenty-sixth weeks, cardiovascular (66.7 percent) and chromosomal (52.4 percent) malformations were diagnosed; and after the twenty-seventh week, renal (9 percent) malformations were diagnosed. Conclusion: Neurological and cardiovascular malformations prevailed. The mean maternal age was higher in chromosomal malformations, and lower in digestive and cardiovascular malformations. Most of the digestive and neurological malformations were diagnosed in the first marker of the Program, while cardiovascular, chromosomal and skeletal malformations were diagnosed in the second marker(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/prevention & control , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods , Observational Study
13.
Medisan ; 26(1)feb. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1405777

ABSTRACT

Los sarcomas de partes blandas son tumores malignos que se originan en el tejido conectivo, a partir del mesénquima embrionario. Teniendo en cuenta la existencia de nuevos y constantes cambios en la naturaleza de estos tumores, se realizó una revisión de las publicaciones más recientes para profundizar en las alteraciones genéticas, los síndromes de predisposición y su relación con los sarcomas. Se pudo concluir que aún siguen siendo muy pocos los registros que describen la identificación de dichos síndromes como principal eslabón en el desarrollo de los sarcomas.


The sarcomas of soft parts are malignancies that originate in the connective tissue, starting from the embryonic mesenchyme. Taking into account the existence of new and constant changes in the nature of these tumors, a review of the most recent publications was carried out to deepen in the genetic disorders, the predisposing syndromes and its relationship with sarcomas. It was concluded that the records that describe the identification of these syndromes are still very few as main link in the development of sarcomas.


Subject(s)
Sarcoma , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Sarcoma, Clear Cell , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
14.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 32(2): e320218, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386834

ABSTRACT

Resumo As inovações científicas em torno do estudo de cromossomos humanos surgidas após a segunda metade do século XX consolidaram a inserção da genética na assistência em saúde, no que tange ao diagnóstico pré-natal. A associação entre idade materna e síndromes genéticas, proposta por pesquisadores da biomedicina, produziu determinações sobre risco, referidas a gestantes a partir de determinada idade. O artigo apresenta as concepções de risco em torno do que a biomedicina considera ser idade materna avançada de modo a configurar o que é classificado como gestação de risco. A análise documental em manuais médicos brasileiros e estrangeiros das especialidades obstetrícia e genética evidenciou diferentes concepções de risco em relação ao fator etário reprodutivo. A idade materna é um aspecto presente na obstetrícia enquanto fator de risco de doenças. Para a especialidade genética, a idade materna não é um fator central de risco reprodutivo. A pesquisa constatou que a classificação de uma idade materna ideal para gestar é relativa e suscetível a alterações, segundo o contexto sócio-histórico de cada sociedade.


Abstract Scientific innovations around the study of human chromosomes, which emerged after the mid 20th century, consolidated the incorporation of genetics in prenatal diagnosis. The link between maternal age and genetic syndromes, proposed by biomedical researchers, produced resolutions about risks to pregnant women of a certain age. The article presents biomedicine concepts for advanced maternal age classified as a risk pregnancy. The review of Brazilian and foreign medical manuals in obstetrics and genetics showed different conceptions of risk concerning the reproductive age factor. Maternal age is an aspect in obstetrics related to the risk of diseases. For genetic expertise, advanced maternal age is not a central factor of risk for reproduction. The research found that the classification of an ideal maternal age for pregnancy is relative and susceptible to changes according to the socio-historical context of each society.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Prenatal Diagnosis , Pregnancy/genetics , Maternal Age , Pregnancy, High-Risk/genetics , Genetic Counseling , Genetics, Medical , Chromosomes, Human , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Obstetrics
15.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 884-889, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939705

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the molecular polymorphisms of CD36 among 58 blood donors with CD36 deficiency and compare with CD36 positive controls.@*METHODS@#A total of 58 donors with CD36 deficiency during a screening conducted in the laboratory from September 2019 to December 2020 were enrolled as the test group, including 39 males and 19 females, while 120 platelet donors with CD36 positive were randomly selected as the controls, including 76 males and 44 females. All of the subjects were Han nationality. The PCR-SBT method was used to detect coding region of CD36 gene, and molecular mutations were compared with those CD36 positive controls.@*RESULTS@#Among the 58 donors with CD36 deficiency, mutations appears in 32 individuals. The detection rate for type I was 71.43% (5/7), and type II was 51.92% (27/52), while among the 120 controls, mutations appears in 12 donors (10%). In the CD36 antigen-deficient donors, 16 variations were found, in which 329-330 del AC with the highest frequency accounted for 20.69%, followed by 1228-1239 del ATTGTGCCTATT(15.52%) and 1156 C>T(10.34%). Two variations, 198-205 del GATCTTTG and 220 C>T, led to premature termination of translation; four mutations, 329-330 del AC, 560 ins T, 1011-1049 39bp dupl and 1343-1344 ins TCTT, caused translation frame shift; 1228-1239 del ATTGTGCCTATT led to deletion of four amino acids (Ile-Val-Pro-Ile) at sites 410-413 of the peptide chain. The 1140 T>A and 1275 G>A were synonymous mutations, and the other 7 mutations resulted in the substitution of single nucleotide. The platelet expression in the donors of CD36 positive with 329-330 del AC or 1228-1239 del ATTGTGCCTATT mutation (heterozygote) was lower than those CD36 positive individuals without mutations (homozygote).@*CONCLUSION@#Multiple gene mutations in the CD36 coding region may cause CD36 deficiency, and the heterozygous individuals with mutations may lead to CD36 antigen reduction or deletion. Mutation is not detected in 44.83% of CD36 deficient individuals, there may be some other reasons for the CD36 antigen deficiency.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Blood Donors , Blood Platelet Disorders/metabolism , Blood Platelets/metabolism , CD36 Antigens/metabolism , Genetic Diseases, Inborn
17.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(3): 466-471, dez 20, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354350

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a epidermólise bolhosa compreende um grupo de doenças genéticas e raras da pele, onde há uma fragilidade estrutural da pele e das mucosas. A gravidade das manifestações clínicas varia de acordo com o subtipo envolvido, no qual a citada enfermidade distrófica recessiva é a mais severa. Há várias implicações sistêmicas, como a anemia, a desidratação e a desnutrição. O envolvimento bucal acompanha e torna mais severo o comprometimento sistêmico. As alterações em tecidos moles e duros dessa região variam consideravelmente. São relatados atrasos no crescimento e desenvolvimento dentoesquelético. Objetivo: considerando as possíveis alterações de desenvolvimento, este estudo tem o objetivo de mensurar a idade dentária em pacientes com epidermólise bolhosa distrófica recessiva, verificando a acurácia de dois métodos em relação à idade cronológica. Metodologia: foi realizado um estudo descritivo analítico transversal do tipo série de casos, que avaliou a idade dentária de 10 pacientes pelos métodos de Demirjian e Willems. Resultados: não houve divergência significativa entre as idades dentária e cronológica, com superestimação comum aos métodos utilizados. Conclusão: sugere-se que o tempo de maturação dentária pode ser um parâmetro estável frente a fatores adversos ao desenvolvimento, que são comuns a esse grupo. São necessários estudos que avaliem também outras variáveis para melhor compreender a relação da epidermólise bolhosa com o desenvolvimento dentoesquelético.


Introduction: Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB) describes a group of rare genetic skin diseases where there is structural fragility within the skin and mucosa. Severity of clinical manifestations varies according to the specific EB type, and the most severe EB type is recessive dystrophic EB. There are several systemic implications, such as anemia, dehydration and malnutrition. There are also oral manifestations, so systemic manifestations may be more severe. Changes in soft and hard oral tissues vary considerably. Dentofacial growth and development retardation is reported. Aim: considering developmental changes, this study aims to measure the dental age of patients with recessive dystrophic EB by verifying the accuracy of two methods in relation to chronological age. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional and analytical study of case series was carried out, which assessed the dental age of 10 patients using Demirjian and Willems methods. Results: there was not significant divergence between dental and chronological ages, but there was mutual overestimation related to both methods. Conclusion: it is suggested that dental maturation period may be a stable parameter against adverse developmental factors that are common to this group. Studies that also assess other variables are necessary to better understand the relation between EB and dentofacial growth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Age Determination by Teeth , Child Development , Epidermolysis Bullosa , Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genetic Diseases, Inborn
18.
Rev. ADM ; 78(6): 356-360, nov.-dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357553

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Gardner es una enfermedad genética de herencia autosómica dominante, presenta múltiples manifestaciones craneofaciales caracterizadas por hipercrecimientos óseos conocidos como osteomas, riesgo de desarrollo de pólipos gastrointestinales con alto potencial de malignidad y de tumores o quistes en piel, así como alteraciones dentales, entre las que destacan la presencia de dientes supernumerarios, retenciones dentarias, permanencia de dientes deciduos y odontomas, estas últimas de gran importancia para el odontólogo. Se trata de una enfermedad que afecta a mujeres y hombres de forma indistinta, no obstante, su prevalencia es mayor en el sexo femenino. El objetivo del presente artículo es explicar las manifestaciones clínicas y radiográficas dentales y craneofaciales del síndrome de Gardner mediante la presentación de un caso clínico y revisión de la literatura (AU)


Gardner syndrome is a genetic disease of autosomal dominant inheritance, it presents multiple craniofacial manifestations characterized by bone overgrowths known as osteomas, risk of development of gastrointestinal polyps with high potencial of malignancy, and skin tumors or cysts, as well as dental alterations, among the characteristics of the presence of supernumerary teeth, dental retention, permanence of deciduous teeth and odontomas, the latter of great importance for the dentist. It is a disease that affects women and men indistinctly, however, its prevalence is higher in the female sex. The aim of this article is to explain the dental and craniofacial clinical and radiographic manifestations of Gardner syndrome by presenting a clinical case and a review of the literature (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tooth Abnormalities/genetics , Gardner Syndrome , Oral Manifestations , Patient Care Team , Radiography, Panoramic , Follow-Up Studies , Craniofacial Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Age and Sex Distribution , Genetic Diseases, Inborn
19.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 37(2): e1369, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352007

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades genéticas se corresponden con variaciones genéticas del desarrollo que precisan ayuda médica, educativa, social o combinaciones de estas. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente a los pacientes con enfermedades genéticas. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. El universo estuvo constituido por los 521 pacientes evaluados en la consulta de asesoramiento genético del municipio Mayarí y la muestra estuvo representada por los 216 pacientes portadores de enfermedades genéticas pertenecientes al Policlínico Universitario 26 de Julio; del Área de Salud de Mayarí, durante el año 2018. Resultados: Predominó el sexo femenino (53,24 por ciento), el grupo de edades de 41 a 50 años (18,06 por ciento), las enfermedades monogénicas (58,8 por ciento), los pacientes con síndrome de Down (20,37 por ciento), los pacientes que no cuentan con antecedentes familiares (54,63por ciento). Conclusiones: Prevalecieron los pacientes con discapacidad mental, con diagnóstico posnatal y con más de 20 años de diagnóstico. El mayor número no realizaba tratamiento. Los pacientes vinculados integralmente a la sociedad resultaron minoría, así como los que tenían antecedentes familiares de enfermedad genética(AU)


Introduction: Genetic diseases are due to developmental genetic variations that require medical, educational and social help, or combinations of these. Objective: To characterize, clinically and epidemiologically, patients with genetic diseases. Method: Descriptive and cross-sectional study. The universe was made up of the 521 patients assessed in the genetic counseling consultation of Mayarí Municipality and the sample was represented by the 216 patients with genetic diseases belonging to 26 de Julio University Polyclinic of the health area of Mayarí, during the year 2018. Results: The female sex predominated (53.24 percent), together with the age group 41-50 years (18.06 percent), monogenic diseases (58.8 percent), patients with Down syndrome (20.37 percent), and patients with no family history of diseases (54.63 percent). Conclusions: Patients with mental disabilities, with postnatal diagnosis and with more than twenty years of diagnosis prevailed. The largest number did not undergo treatment. Patients fully linked to society were a minority, as well as those with a family history of genetic disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Down Syndrome/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
20.
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 6(1): 50-55, abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354537

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A Síndrome de Singleton-Merten (SMS) é uma doença autossômica dominante hereditária rara caracterizada por alterações cardiovasculares, ósseas e dentais, pouco discutida na literatura em relação ao tratamento odontológico. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi relatar o caso de uma paciente com SMS, descrevendo seus aspectos bucais e o plano de tratamento proposto, em conjunto com uma equipe multiprofissional. Relato do caso: Durante a anamnese constatou-se que o paciente apresentava alterações cutâneas decorrentes da síndrome. Os exames clínico, radiográfico e tomográfico revelaram maxila e mandíbula parcialmente edêntulas, ampla reabsorção do osso maxilar, além da maioria dos dentes permanentes incluídos e com raízes curtas. O plano de tratamento multidisciplinar incluiu a extração de dentes com formação radicular deficiente, tração ortodôntica dos caninos superiores incluídos e a confecção de próteses parciais superiores e inferiores removíveis, para reabilitação das funções mastigatória, fonética e estética. Conclusão: É importante ressaltar que durante o atendimento odontológico de pacientes com SMS, deve-se considerar o estado geral de saúde anterior, principalmente em relação às possíveis complicações cardiovasculares existentes, e a necessidade de reabilitação destes pacientes, por apresentarem perda dentária extensa.


Intoduction: Singleton-Merten Syndrome (SMS) is a rare in herited autosomaldominant disorder. Characterized by cardiovascular, bone and dental alterations, little discussed in the literature regarding dental treatment. Objective: The aim of this study was to report the case of a patient with SMS, describing her oral aspects and the proposed treatment plan, together with a multidisciplinary team. Case report: During the anamnesis it was found that the patient has alterations due to the syndrome. Clinical, radiographic and tomographic examinations revealed partially edentulous maxilla and mandible, wide resorption of maxillary bone, in addition to most of the permanent teeth included and with short roots. The multidisciplinary treatment plan included the extraction of teeth with deficient root formation, orthodontic traction of the included upper canines and the making of removable upper and lower partial dentures, for rehabilitation of masticatory, phonetic and aesthetic functions. Conclusion: It is important to emphasize that during dental care of patients with SMS, the previous general state of health should be considered, especially in relation to possible existing cardiovascular complications, and the need for rehabilitation of these patients, since they will present extensive tooth loss.


Subject(s)
Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Oral Manifestations , Pathologic Processes , Syndrome , Dental Care
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