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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2108-2125, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981193

ABSTRACT

γ-aminobutyric acid can be produced by a one-step enzymatic reaction catalyzed by glutamic acid decarboxylase. The reaction system is simple and environmentally friendly. However, the majority of GAD enzymes catalyze the reaction under acidic pH at a relatively narrow range. Thus, inorganic salts are usually needed to maintain the optimal catalytic environment, which adds additional components to the reaction system. In addition, the pH of solution will gradually rise along with the production of γ-aminobutyric acid, which is not conducive for GAD to function continuously. In this study, we cloned the glutamate decarboxylase LpGAD from a Lactobacillus plantarum capable of efficiently producing γ-aminobutyric acid, and rationally engineered the catalytic pH range of LpGAD based on surface charge. A triple point mutant LpGADS24R/D88R/Y309K was obtained from different combinations of 9 point mutations. The enzyme activity at pH 6.0 was 1.68 times of that of the wild type, suggesting the catalytic pH range of the mutant was widened, and the possible mechanism underpinning this increase was discussed through kinetic simulation. Furthermore, we overexpressed the Lpgad and LpgadS24R/D88R/Y309K genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum E01 and optimized the transformation conditions. An optimized whole cell transformation process was conducted under 40 ℃, cell mass (OD600) 20, 100 g/L l-glutamic acid substrate and 100 μmol/L pyridoxal 5-phosphate. The γ-aminobutyric acid titer of the recombinant strain reached 402.8 g/L in a fed-batch reaction carried out in a 5 L fermenter without adjusting pH, which was 1.63 times higher than that of the control. This study expanded the catalytic pH range of and increased the enzyme activity of LpGAD. The improved production efficiency of γ-aminobutyric acid may facilitate its large-scale production.


Subject(s)
Glutamate Decarboxylase/genetics , Lactobacillus plantarum/genetics , Catalysis , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Glutamic Acid
2.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 140-146, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971051

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study new biomarkers for the early diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by analyzing the differences in blood metabolites based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and metabolomics.@*METHODS@#Dried blood spots were collected from 21 infants with ROP (ROP group) and 21 infants without ROP (non-ROP group) who were hospitalized in the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2013 to December 2016. LC-MS/MS was used to measure the metabolites, and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis was used to search for differentially expressed metabolites and biomarkers.@*RESULTS@#There was a significant difference in blood metabolic profiles between the ROP and non-ROP groups. The pattern recognition analysis, Score-plot, and weight analysis obtained 10 amino acids with a relatively large difference. Further statistical analysis showed that the ROP group had significant increases in blood levels of glutamic acid, leucine, aspartic acid, ornithine, and glycine compared with the non-ROP group (P<0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that glutamic acid and ornithine had the highest value in diagnosing ROP.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Blood metabolites in preterm infants with ROP are different from those without ROP. Glutamic acid and ornithine are the metabolic markers for diagnosing ROP. LC-MS/MS combined with metabolomics analysis has a potential application value in the early identification and diagnosis of ROP.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Infant , Humans , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Infant, Premature , Chromatography, Liquid , Retinopathy of Prematurity/diagnosis , Glutamic Acid , Ornithine
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1023-1031, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970574

ABSTRACT

This study used m-chloropheniperazine(MCPP) and chronic unforeseeable mild stress(CUMS) to induce the rat models of anxiety and depression, respectively. The behaviors of rats were observed by the open field test(OFT), light-dark exploration test(LDE), tail suspension test(TST), and forced swimming test(FST), and the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of agarwood essential oil(AEO), agarwood fragrant powder(AFP), and agarwood line incense(ALI) were explored. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to determine the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT), glutamic acid(Glu), and γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA_A) in the hippocampal area. The Western blot assay was used to determine the protein expression levels of glutamate receptor 1(GluR1) and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1(VGluT1), exploring the anxiolytic and antidepressant mechanism of agarwood inhalation. The results showed that compared with the anxiety model group, the AEO, AFP, and ALI groups decreased the total distance(P<0.05), decreased the velocity of movements(P<0.05), prolonged the immobile time(P<0.05), and reduced the distance and velocity of the rat model of anxiety in the dark box(P<0.05). Compared with the depression model group, the AEO, AFP, and ALI groups increased the total distance and average velocity(P<0.05), reduced the immobile time(P<0.05), and reduced the forced swimming and tail suspension time(P<0.05). In terms of transmitter regulation, the AEO, AFP, and ALI groups decreased the level of Glu in the rat model of anxiety(P<0.05) and increased the levels of GABA_A and 5-HT(P<0.05), while the AEO, AFP, and ALI groups all increased the level of 5-HT in the rat model of depression(P<0.05) and decreased the levels of GABA_A and Glu(P<0.05). At the same time, the AEO, AFP, and ALI groups all increased the protein expression levels of GluR1 and VGluT1 in the hippocampus of the rat models of anxiety and depression(P<0.05). In conclusion, AEO, AFP, and ALI exert anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, and the mechanism might be related to the regulation of the neurotransmitter and the protein expression of GluR1 and VGluT1 in the hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Serotonin , alpha-Fetoproteins , Antidepressive Agents , Glutamic Acid , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
4.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2023. 33 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1435264

ABSTRACT

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is essential in the execution of cognitive tasks, however very little is known on how these neurons are modulated during specific tasks and which subtype of neurons are responsible for so. Therego, with the intention of addressing this issue, we recorded mPFC gabaergic and glutamatergic activation patterns through fiber photometry (FIP) in mice, while simultaneously performing the Barnes Maze (BM) cognitive task (4 day behavioral trial). In addition, an altered structural and procedural protocol for BM was validated in this study due to necessary modifications allowing FIP and BM to happen simultaneously. A successful protocol validation was followed by our preliminary results, which showed that both glutamatergic and gabaergic neurons presented significant change in activation intensity and number of events in specific contexts throughout the task days. In addition, when stratified and crossed with BM performance parameters, such as latency to complete tasks and adopted strategy, glutamatergic and gabaergic neurons presented a significant decline in both activation patterns and number of activation events throughout the days. This data suggest not only an important role of glutamatergic and gabaergic mPFC neurons in learning, memory and decision making, but also that activation patterns of each of these groups may serve as markers for cognitive progression and/or dysfunction. KEY-WORDS: Memory, Learning, Decision Making, Medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC), Fiber Photometry (FIP), Barnes Maze (BM), Glutamatergic, Gabaergic, Neuronal Activity, Neuronal Activation Patterns, Neuronal Dynamics.


O córtex pré-frontal medial (mPFC) é essencial na execução de tarefas cognitivas, no entanto, pouco se sabe sobre como esses neurônios são modulados durante tarefas específicas e qual subtipo de neurônios é responsável por isso. Portanto, com a intenção de abordar essa questão, registramos os padrões de ativação de neurônios gabaérgicos e glutamatérgicos do mPFC por meio de fotometria de fibra (FIP) em camundongos, enquanto realizávamos simultaneamente a tarefa cognitiva do Labirinto de Barnes (BM) (ensaio comportamental de 4 dias). Além disso, um protocolo estrutural e procedimental alterado para o BM foi validado neste estudo devido a modificações necessárias que permitiram a realização simultânea de FIP e BM. Uma validação bem-sucedida do protocolo foi seguida pelos nossos resultados preliminares, que mostraram que tanto os neurônios glutamatérgicos quanto os gabaérgicos apresentaram mudanças significativas na intensidade de ativação e no número de eventos em contextos específicos ao longo dos dias da tarefa. Além disso, quando estratificados e cruzados com parâmetros de desempenho do BM, como latência para completar as tarefas e estratégia adotada, os neurônios glutamatérgicos e gabaérgicos apresentaram uma diminuição significativa nos padrões de ativação e no número de eventos de ativação ao longo dos dias. Esses dados sugerem não apenas um papel importante dos neurônios glutamatérgicos e gabaérgicos do mPFC na aprendizagem, memória e tomada de decisões, mas também que os padrões de ativação de cada um desses grupos podem servir como marcadores de progressão e/ou disfunção cognitiva. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Memória, Aprendizagem, Tomada de Decisões, Córtex Pré-Frontal Medial (mPFC), Fotometria de Fibra (FIP), Labirinto de Barnes (BM), Glutamatérgico, Gabaérgico, Atividade Neuronal, Padrões de Ativação Neuronal, Dinâmica Neuronal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Photometry , Prefrontal Cortex , Glutamic Acid , GABA Agents , Decision Making , Learning , Memory , GABAergic Neurons , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neurons
5.
Biol. Res ; 55: 18-18, 2022. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383920

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Glutamate and voltage-gated sodium channels, both have been the target of intense investigation for its involvement in carcinogenesis and progression of malignant disease. Breast cancer with increased level of glutamate often metastasize to other organs (especially bone), whilst re-expression of 'neonatal' Nav1.5, nNav1.5 in breast cancer is known to promote cell invasion in vitro, metastasis in vivo and positive lymph node metastasis in patients. Methods: In this study, the role of nNav1.5 in regulating glutamate level in human breast cancer cells was examined using pharmacological approach (VGSCs specific blocker, TTX, glutamate release inhibitor, riluzole and siRNA-nNav1.5). Effect of these agents were evaluated based on endogenous and exogenous glutamate concentration using glutamate fluorometric assay, mRNA expression of nNav1.5 using qPCR and finally, invasion using 3D culture assay. Results: Endogenous and exogenous glutamate levels were significantly higher in aggressive human breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 cells compared to less aggressive human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and non-cancerous human breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A. Treatment with TTX to MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in significant reduction of endogenous and exogenous glutamate levels corresponded with significant suppression of cell invasion. Subsequently, downregulation of nNav1.5 gene was observed in TTX-treated cells. Conclusions: An interesting link between nNav1.5 expression and glutamate level in aggressive breast cancer cells was detected and requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Glutamic Acid , RNA, Small Interfering , Cell Line, Tumor , NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel/genetics , NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel/metabolism
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1587-1594, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928088

ABSTRACT

In this study, we analyzed the composition and content of 25 free amino acids in 32 batches of different forms of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum(CCP; one-branched, two-branched, and three-branched) from 15 producing areas. The clustering analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were performed based on the content of 25 free amino acids. Potential differential metabolites were identified based on VIP value. The results showed that there were 25 free amino acids in CCP, and the average content of essential, non-essential, and total amino acids was 6.13, 32.99, and 39.12 mg·g~(-1), respectively. The clustering analysis and OPLS-DA demonstrated that 25 free amino acids had different content among the three forms of CCP, of which two-branched CCP samples were separately gathered into a group. Five differential components, including glutamic acid, tryptophan, ornithine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and hydroxylysine, were screened out as potential quality markers for the identification of different forms of CCP. This study provides a theoretical basis for the quality evaluation, processing, and utilization of different forms of CCP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amino Acids/analysis , Cornus , Deer , Gastropoda , Glutamic Acid
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 774-779, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351050

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la asociación entre el nivel de glutamato en el líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) al inicio de la enfermedad y la progresión de la enfermedad durante el seguimiento en una cohorte de pacientes con esclerosis múltiple (EM). Se determinaron niveles de glutamato (Glu) en LCR al inicio de la enfermedad. Se realizó una resonancia basal y durante el seguimiento cada 12 meses con el objeto de determinar el porcentaje de cambio de volumen cerebral (PCVC), grosor cortical (GC) y volumen le sional cerebral en secuencia T2 (VLT2). Los predictores primarios de interés fueron los niveles basales de Glu en LCR, PCVC Y GC, así como la progresión clínica de la enfermedad [medida por Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) y tasa anual de recaídas]. Un total de 26 pacientes fueron incluidos. La concentración media de Glu fue de 5.3 ± 0.4 μM/l. Se encontró una asociación significativa entre concentraciones basales elevadas de Glu y la progresión del EDSS (b = 1.06, IC 95% 0.47-1.66, p = 0.003), así como también el PCVC (b = -0.71, IC 95% -0.56-1.38, p = 0.002) y CG (b = -0.15, IC 95% -0.06-0.33, p = 0.01). No se encontró asociación entre los niveles de Glu y la tasa anual de recaídas como tampoco el VLT2 (b = 0.08, IC 95% -0.11-0.43, p = 0.11 y b = 195, IC -39-330, p = 0.22, respectivamente). Los niveles aumentados de Glu se asociaron con un mayor cambio en el PCVC y progresión del EDSS durante el seguimiento.


Abstract. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between glutamate (Glu) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at disease onset and disease progression during follow up in a cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Glu level was measured at disease onset (first relapse). MRI was obtained at baseline and follow-up (every 12 months) to determine the percent of brain volume change (PBVC), cortical thickness (CT), and T2 lesion volume (T2LV). The primary predictors of interest were baseline CSF Glu levels, PBVC and CT, as well as clinical disease progression [measured by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and annualized relapse rate] during follow-up. A total of 26 MS patients were included. Mean concentration of Glu in CSF at diagnosis was 5.3 ± 0.4 μM/l. A significant association was observed between higher baseline levels of Glu and an increase in EDSS during follow up (b = 1.06, 95%CI 0.47-1.66, p = 0.003) as well as PBVC (b = -0.71 95%CI -0.56-1.38, p = 0.002) and CT (b = -0.15, 95%CI -0.06-0.33, p = 0.01). We did not observe an association between baseline Glu levels and relapse rate or T2LV during follow-up (b = 0.08, 95%CI -0.11-0.43, p = 0.11 and b = 195, 95%CI -39-330, p = 0.22, respectively). Higher Glu concentrations at disease onset were associated with an increase in PBVC and EDSS progression during follow-up in MS patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Glutamic Acid
8.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1090-1095, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922588

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the metabolite characteristics in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) by @*METHODS@#A total of 46 patients with the first-episode schizophrenia (FES), 49 people with clinical high risk (CHR), 61 people with genetic high risk (GHR), and 58 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. The levels of N-acetylaspartylglutamate+N-acetylaspartate (tNAA), choline-containing compounds (Cho) and myo-inositol (MI), glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in medial prefrontal cortex were measured by single-voxel @*RESULTS@#There were significant differences in Glx, tNAA, and MI concentrations among 4 groups (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#The decreased levels of MI and Glx in the FES patients suggest that there may be glial functional damage and glutamatergic transmitter dysfunction in the early stage of the disease. The compensatory increase of metabolites may be a protective factor for schizophrenia in the genetic individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspartic Acid , Glutamic Acid , Glutamine , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Schizophrenia
9.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(9): 513-519, 20200000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1362771

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome del hombre rígido representa una rara enfermedad neuromuscular caracterizada por rigidez muscular progresiva y espasmos musculares dolorosos que afecta a 1 persona por cada millón de habitantes por año en el mundo. En la mayoría de los pacientes se encuentran niveles elevados de anticuerpos descarboxilasa del ácido glutámico. En Colombia solo se han publicado alrededor de 3 casos, lo que motiva la presentación de un nuevo informe que aporte a la discusión actual en el campo de la neurología clínica. Caso clínico: Paciente de sexo femenino de 35 años con cuadro clínico progresivo de varios años, caracterizado por contracciones paroxísticas dolorosas, parestesias y pérdida de fuerza. Se documentó la presencia de anticuerpos anti-GAD compatibles con el síndrome del hombre rígido. Tras un tratamiento integral, que incluyó la infusión farmacológicamente intratecal con baclofeno, se obtuvo mejoría clínica en el índice de Barthel. Conclusiones: El síndrome del hombre rígido es una condición infradiagnosticada que se asocia a un deterioro de la calidad de vida de quienes lo padecen.


Introduction: Stiff man syndrome represents a rare neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive muscle rigidity and painful muscle spasms that affects 1 person for every million habitants per year in the world. High levels of glutamic acid antibodies decarboxylase are found in most patients. In Colombia, only around 3 cases have been published, which motivates the presentation of a new report that contributes to the current discussion in the field of clinical neurology. Clinical Case: 35-year-old female patient with a progressive clinical picture of several years, characterized by painful paroxysmal contractions, paresthesias and loss of strength. The presence of anti-GAD antibodies was documented, compatible with Stiff man syndrome. After comprehensive treatment, which included pharmacologically intrathecal infusion with baclofen, clinical improvement was obtained in the Barthel index. Conclusions: Stiff man syndrome is an underdiagnosed condition which is associated with a deterioration in the quality of life for those who suffer from it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Paresthesia/diagnosis , Quality of Life , Baclofen/therapeutic use , Stiff-Person Syndrome/diagnosis , Glutamic Acid , Neuromuscular Manifestations , Diagnosis, Differential , Muscle Rigidity/diagnosis
10.
Biol. Res ; 53: 36, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the thalamic neurotransmitters and functional connections in the development of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain. METHODS: The paw withdrawal threshold was measured by mechanical stimulation the right hind paw with the von frey hair in the rats of CCI-induced neuropathic pain. The N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and Glutamate (Glu) in thalamus were detected by magnetic resonance spectrum (MRS) process. The thalamic functional connectivity with other brain regions was scanned by functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI). RESULTS: The paw withdrawal threshold of the ipsilateral side showed a noticeable decline during the pathological process. Increased concentrations of Glu and decreased levels of NAA in the thalamus were significantly correlated with mechanical allodynia in the neuropathic pain states. The thalamic regional homogeneity (ReHo) decreased during the process of neuropathic pain. The functional connectivity among the thalamus with the insula and somatosensory cortex were significantly increased at different time points (7, 14, 21 days) after CCI surgery. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that dynamic changes in thalamic NAA and Glu levels contribute to the thalamic functional connection hyper-excitation during CCI-induced neuropathic pain. Enhanced thalamus-insula functional connection might have a significant effect on the occurrence of neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Thalamus/metabolism , Wounds and Injuries/physiopathology , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Neuralgia , Thalamus/physiopathology , Aspartic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Aspartic Acid/metabolism , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Constriction , Hyperalgesia
11.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1)20200129.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049323

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Three vanadium complexes with orotic and glutamic acids, in their anion forms, were prepared and their in vitro cytotoxicity toward human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and human colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) are reported. Objective: Describe the synthesis and characterization of new vanadium complexes with orotic and glutamic acids, and test its antitumor activity against HepG2 and Caco-2. Method: The complexes were formulated as VO (oro), VO (α-glu) and VO (γ-glu) based on chemical, thermogravimetric analyses and infrared spectra. Results: Resazurin assay demonstrates its cytotoxicity against the HepG2 and Caco-2 cell lines with the IC50 ranging from 7.90 to 44.56 µmol.L-1. The cytotoxicity profiles indicate that the tumoral lines show more activity than the cells MRC-5, with selectivity indexes ranging from 1.58 to 8.96. Conclusion: The three complexes had better in vitro activity than cisplatin for both normal and cancer cell lines. The IC50 values are two to six times better for the cancer cell ines and five to seven times better for the normal cell lines. This study indicates that the complexes obtained are promising candidates for antitumor drugs.


Introdução: Foram preparados três complexos de vanádio com ácidos orótico e glutâmico, em suas formas aniônicas, e foi testada sua citotoxicidade in vitro para fibroblastos pulmonares humanos (MRC-5), carcinoma hepatocelular humano (HepG2) e adenocarcinoma colorretal humano (Caco-2). Objetivo: Descrever a síntese e caracterização de novos complexos de vanádio com ácidos orótico e glutâmico e testar sua atividade antitumoral contra HepG2 e Caco-2. Método: Os complexos foram formulados como VO (oro), VO (α-glu) e VO (γ-glu) com base em análises químicas, termogravimétricas e espectros no infravermelho. Resultados: O ensaio de resazurina demonstrou sua citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares HepG2 e Caco-2 com o IC50 variando de 7,90 a 44,56 µmol.L-1. Os perfis de citotoxicidade indicam que as linhas tumorais apresentam maior atividade que as células MRC-5, com índices de seletividade variando de 1,58 a 8,96. Conclusão: Os três complexos tiveram melhor atividade in vitro do que a cisplatina, tanto para linhagens celulares normais como cancerosas. Os valores de IC50 são de duas a seis vezes melhores para as linhagens celulares cancerosas e de cinco a sete vezes melhores para as linhagens celulares normais. Este estudo indica que os complexos obtidos são promissores candidatos a fármacos antitumorais.


Introducción: Tres complejos de vanadio con ácidos orótico y glutámico, en sus formas aniónicas, fueram preparados. Su citotoxicidad in vitro hacia los fibroblastos pulmonares humanos (MRC-5), el carcinoma hepatocelular humano (HepG2) y el adenocarcinoma colorrectal humano (Caco-2) son reportados. Objetivo: Los principales objetivos de este trabajo son describir la síntesis y caracterización de nuevos complejos de vanadio con ácidos orótico y glutámico y probar su actividad antitumoral contra el HepG2 y el Caco-2. Método: Los complejos fueron formulados como VO (oro), VO (α-glu) y VO (γ-glu) basados en análisis químicos, termogravimétricos y espectros infrarrojos. El ensayo de resazurina demuestra su citotoxicidad contra las líneas celulares HepG2 y Caco-2 con el IC50 que van de 7,90 a 44,56 µmol.L-1. Los perfiles de citotoxicidad indican que las líneas tumorales presentan mayor actividad que los MRC-5, con índices de selectividad que van de 1,58 a 8,96. Conclusión: Los tres complejos tuvieron mejor actividad in vitro que el cisplatino, tanto para líneas celulares normales como para líneas celulares cancerosas. Los valores del IC50 son de dos a seis veces mejores para las líneas celulares de cáncer y de cinco a siete veces mejores para las líneas celulares normales. Este estudio indica que los complejos obtenidos son candidatos prometedores para fármacos antitumorales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orotic Acid/pharmacology , Vanadium Compounds/pharmacology , Glutamic Acid/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts/drug effects , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 820-828, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826894

ABSTRACT

Corynebacterium glutamicum, an important microorganism to produce amino acids and organic acids, has been widely applied in food and medicine fields. Therefore, using editing tools to study the function of unknown genes in C. glutamicum has great significance for systematic development of industrial strain with efficient and novel production capability. Recently, gene editing has been greatly developed. Traditional gene editing based on homologous recombination and gene editing mediated by nuclease are successfully applied in C. glutamicum. Among these, the CRISPR system has been developed to be a main tool used for gene knockout of C. glutamicum due to its advantages of efficiency, simplicity and good target specificity. However, more efficient and reliable knockout system is still urgently demanded, to help develop high-performing strains in industrial application.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Corynebacterium glutamicum , Genetics , Gene Editing , Glutamic Acid , Industrial Microbiology
13.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 101-110, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787134

ABSTRACT

Transient receptor potential canonical 4 (TRPC4) channel is a nonselective calcium-permeable cation channels. In intestinal smooth muscle cells, TRPC4 currents contribute more than 80% to muscarinic cationic current (mIcat). With its inward-rectifying current-voltage relationship and high calcium permeability, TRPC4 channels permit calcium influx once the channel is opened by muscarinic receptor stimulation. Polyamines are known to inhibit nonselective cation channels that mediate the generation of mIcat. Moreover, it is reported that TRPC4 channels are blocked by the intracellular spermine through electrostatic interaction with glutamate residues (E728, E729). Here, we investigated the correlation between the magnitude of channel inactivation by spermine and the magnitude of channel conductance. We also found additional spermine binding sites in TRPC4. We evaluated channel activity with electrophysiological recordings and revalidated structural significance based on Cryo-EM structure, which was resolved recently. We found that there is no correlation between magnitude of inhibitory action of spermine and magnitude of maximum current of the channel. In intracellular region, TRPC4 attracts spermine at channel periphery by reducing access resistance, and acidic residues contribute to blocking action of intracellular spermine; channel periphery, E649; cytosolic space, D629, D649, and E687.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Binding Sites , Calcium , Cytosol , Glutamic Acid , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Permeability , Polyamines , Receptors, Muscarinic , Spermine , Transient Receptor Potential Channels
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2113-2125, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878471

ABSTRACT

Glutamic acid is an important amino acid with wide range of applications and huge market demand. Therefore, by performing transcriptome sequencing and re-sequencing analysis on Corynebacterium glutamicum E01 and high glutamate-producing strain C. glutamicum G01, we identified and selected genes with significant differences in transcription and gene levels in the central metabolic pathway that may have greatly influenced glutamate synthesis and further increased glutamic acid yield. The oxaloacetate node and α-ketoglutarate node play an important role in glutamate synthesis. The oxaloacetate node and α-ketoglutarate node were studied to explore effect on glutamate production. Based on the integrated strain constructed from the above experimental results, the growth rate in a 5-L fermenter was slightly lower than that of the original strain, but the glutamic acid yield after 48 h reached (136.1±5.53) g/L, higher than the original strain (93.53±4.52) g/L, an increase by 45.5%; sugar-acid conversion rate reached 58.9%, an increase of 13.7% compared to 45.2% of the original strain. The application of the above experimental strategy improved the glutamic acid yield and the sugar-acid conversion rate, and provided a theoretical basis for the metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum.


Subject(s)
Citric Acid Cycle , Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolism , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics
15.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 38(1): e164, Jan.-Mar. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093384

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The etiology of autoimmune diseases is still unknown, but different causes arise. Objective: To describe the role of hormones, diet, stress and infections in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Methods: A bibliographic review was made using the Google Scholar and articles of free access in the Pubmed and Scielo database from 2015 to 2019. The search terms were used according to the DeCS and MeSH descriptors. Development: It is well known that female hormones increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. Stress can maintain low-grade chronic inflammatory responses that cause tissue damage, initiating or aggravating the clinical manifestations of autoimmunity. An adequate diet allows the guests of the intestinal microbiota to maintain the homeostasis of the immune system. Today, glutamate is used as a flavor enhancer, especially in developed countries. Perhaps it is one of the causes of the higher incidence of autoimmune diseases in these regions. Conclusions: Autoimmune diseases are more frequent in women. Adequate nutrition allows the gut microbiota not to be altered and to maintain immunological homeostasis. Infections and stress situations can trigger or exacerbate the clinical manifestations of autoimmunity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmunity , Glutamic Acid/genetics , Nutritional Sciences
16.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 166-174, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Globus pallidus interna (GPi) is acknowledged as an essential treatment for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Nonetheless, the neurotransmitter study about its results is undiscovered. The goal of this research was to examine influences of entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) stimulation, identical to human GPi, in no-lesioned (NL) rat and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-HD)-lesioned rat on glutamate change in the striatum.METHODS: Extracellular glutamate level changes in striatum of NL category, NL with deep brain stimulation (DBS) category, 6-HD category, and 6-HD with DBS category were examined using microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivities in substantia nigra and striatum of the four categories were also analyzed.RESULTS: Extracellular glutamate levels in the striatum of NL with DBS category and 6-HD with DBS category were significantly increased by EPN stimulation compared to those in the NL category and 6-HD category. EPN stimulation had no significant effect on the expression of TH in NL or 6-HD category.CONCLUSION: Clinical results of GPi DBS are not only limited to direct inhibitory outflow to thalamus. They also include extensive alteration within basal ganglia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Basal Ganglia , Chromatography, Liquid , Deep Brain Stimulation , Entopeduncular Nucleus , Globus Pallidus , Glutamates , Glutamic Acid , Microdialysis , Neurotransmitter Agents , Oxidopamine , Parkinson Disease , Substantia Nigra , Thalamus , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
17.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 495-503, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763778

ABSTRACT

Memantine, a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, suppresses the release of excessive levels of glutamate that may induce neuronal excitation. Here we investigated the effects of memantine on salicylate-induced tinnitus model. The expressions of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (ARC) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF α)genes; as well as the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) gene and protein, were examined in the SH-SY5Y cells and the animal model. We also used gap-prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (GPIAS) and noise burst prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and the auditory brainstem level (electrophysiological recordings of auditory brainstem responses, ABR) and NR2B expression level in the auditory cortex to evaluate whether memantine could reduce salicylate-mediated behavioral disturbances. NR2B was significantly upregulated in salicylate-treated cells, but downregulated after memantine treatment. Similarly, expression of the inflammatory cytokine genes TNFα and immediate-early gene ARC was significantly increased in the salicylate-treated cells, and decreased when the cells were treated with memantine. These results were confirmed by NR2B immunocytochemistry. GPIAS was attenuated to a significantly lesser extent in rats treated with a combination of salicylate and memantine than in those treated with salicylate only. The mean ABR threshold in both groups was not significant different before and 1 day after the end of treatment. Additionally, NR2B protein expression in the auditory cortex was markedly increased in the salicylate-treated group, whereas it was reduced in the memantine-treated group. These results indicate that memantine is useful for the treatment of salicylate-induced tinnitus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Acoustics , Auditory Cortex , Brain Stem , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Genes, Immediate-Early , Glutamic Acid , Immunohistochemistry , Integrin alpha2 , Memantine , Models, Animal , N-Methylaspartate , Neurons , Noise , Prepulse Inhibition , Reflex, Startle , Tinnitus , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
18.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002500

ABSTRACT

Studies on toad poison are relevant since they are considered a good source of toxins that act on different biological systems. Among the molecules found in the toad poison, it can be highlighted the cardiotonic heterosides, which have a known mechanism that inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme. However, these poisons have many other molecules that may have important biological actions. Therefore, this work evaluated the action of the low molecular weight components from Rhinella schneideri toad poison on Na+/K+-ATPase and their anticonvulsive and / or neurotoxic effects, in order to detect molecules with actions of biotechnological interest. Methods: Rhinella schneideri toad (male and female) poison was collected by pressuring their parotoid glands and immediately dried and stored at -20 °C. The poison was dialysed and the water containing the low molecular mass molecules (< 8 kDa) that permeate the dialysis membrane was collected, frozen and lyophilized, resulting in the sample used in the assays, named low molecular weight fraction (LMWF). Na+/K+ ATPase was isolated from rabbit kidneys and enzyme activity assays performed by the quantification of phosphate released due to enzyme activity in the presence of LMWF (1.0; 10; 50 and 100 µg/mL) from Rhinella schneideri poison. Evaluation of the L-Glutamate (L-Glu) excitatory amino acid uptake in brain-cortical synaptosomes of Wistar rats was performed using [3H]L-glutamate and different concentration of LMWF (10-5 to 10 µg/µL). Anticonvulsant assays were performed using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) to induce seizures in Wistar rats (n= 6), which were cannulated in the lateral ventricle and treated with different concentration of LMWF (0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 µg/µL) 15 min prior to the injection of the seizure agent. Results: LMWF induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase (IC50% = 107.5 μg/mL). The poison induces an increased uptake of the amino acid L-glutamate in brain-cortical synaptosomes of Wistar rats. This increase in the L-glutamate uptake was observed mainly at the lowest concentrations tested (10-5 to 10-2 µg/µL). In addition, this fraction showed a very relevant central neuroprotection on seizures induced by PTZ and NMDA. Conclusions: LMWF from Rhinella schneideri poison has low molecular weight compounds, which were able to inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase activity, increase the L-glutamate uptake and reduced seizures induced by PTZ and NMDA. These results showed that LMWF is a rich source of components with biological functions of high medical and scientific interest.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poisons , Synaptosomes , Bufo rana , Neuroprotection , Anticonvulsants , Glutamic Acid , Molecular Weight
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 636-646, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771345

ABSTRACT

Glutamate decarboxylase, a unique pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, catalyzes α-decarboxylation of L-glutamate to γ-aminobutyrate. However, glutamate decarboxylase from different sources has the common problem of poor thermostability that affects its application in industry. In this study, proline was introduced at 13 different positions in glutamate decarboxylase by using the design strategy of homologous sequence alignment between Thermococcus kodakarensis and Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC No.1306. A mutant enzyme G364P with higher thermostability was obtained. Compared to the wild type, thermostability of the mutant G364P was significantly improved, the half-life time (t1/2) at 55 °C and the semi-inactivation temperature (T₅₀ ¹⁵) of the mutant G364P increased 19.4 min and 5.3 °C, respectively, while kcat/Km of the mutant enzyme remained nearly unchanged. Further analysis of their thermostability by molecular dynamics simulations were performed. The root mean square deviation of G364P and root mean square fluctuation in the loop region including G364 were lower than the wild type at 313 K for 10 ns, and G364P increased one hydrophobic interaction in the loop region. It proves that mutation of flexible 364-Gly to rigid proline endows glutamate decarboxylase with enhanced thermostability.


Subject(s)
Glutamate Decarboxylase , Glutamic Acid , Levilactobacillus brevis , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Proline
20.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 438-442, 2019.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763548

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Until recently, riluzole was the only drug licensed for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In spite of its efficacy, the mechanism of action remains elusive, and both blocking of glutamate release and antioxidant properties have been postulated. Here we characterized human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines, taking advantage of their insensitivity to excitotoxic insults, in order to selectively assess the presence of a direct antioxidant effect of riluzole. METHODS: SH-SY5Y cells, either parental or overexpressing the G93A SOD1 mutation, were exposed for 24 hours to the selected stimuli. RESULTS: Riluzole (1–10 μM) was able to counteract the effects of H₂O₂ exposure (200 μM/24 hr), limiting both cell death and whole-cell reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase. The same experiments were repeated using SH-SY5Y cells carrying the familial ALS-related G93A-SOD1 mutation and constitutively expressing two-fold increased whole-cell ROS levels with respect to wild-type cells: riluzole was ineffective in this paradigm. Analogously, riluzole was ineffective in preventing cell death induced by exposing SH-SY5Y cells to 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1, 1.5 mM/24 hr), a reactive nitrogen species (RNS) donor. CONCLUSION: Our data support a direct antioxidant action of riluzole. Furthermore, the lack of efficacy of riluzole observed in the SOD1 cell model mirrors the lack of efficacy already demonstrated in cognate mouse models of ALS, plausibly reflecting differences in the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Finally, riluzole inefficacy against nitrosative stress might support the idea that a combined therapeutic intervention may result more effective in ALS patients, as in the case of co-administration of edaravone, a drug known to reduce RNS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Antioxidants , Cell Death , Cell Line , Endophenotypes , Glutamic Acid , Neuroblastoma , Parents , Reactive Nitrogen Species , Reactive Oxygen Species , Riluzole , Tissue Donors
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