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1.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 457-464, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009378

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To establish the GC-MS qualitative and quantitative analysis methods for the synthetic cannabinoids, its main matrix and additives in suspicious electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) oil samples.@*METHODS@#The e-cigarette oil samples were analyzed by GC-MS after diluted with methanol. Synthetic cannabinoids, its main matrix and additives in e-cigarette oil samples were qualitatively analyzed by the characteristic fragment ions and retention time. The synthetic cannabinoids were quantitatively analyzed by using the selective ion monitoring mode.@*RESULTS@#The linear range of each compound in GC-MS quantitative method was 0.025-1 mg/mL, the matrix recovery rate was 94%-103%, the intra-day precision relative standard deviations (RSD) was less than 2.5%, and inter-day precision RSD was less than 4.0%. Five indoles or indazole amide synthetic cannabinoids were detected in 25 e-cigarette samples. The main matrixes of e-cigarette samples were propylene glycol and glycerol. Additives such as N,2,3-trimethyl-2-isopropyl butanamide (WS-23), glycerol triacetate and nicotine were detected in some samples. The content range of synthetic cannabinoids in 25 e-cigarette samples was 0.05%-2.74%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The GC-MS method for synthesizing cannabinoid, matrix and additive in e-cigarette oil samples has good selectivity, high resolution, low detection limit, and can be used for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of multiple components; The explored fragment ion fragmentation mechanism of the electron bombardment ion source of indole or indoxamide compounds helps to identify such substances or other compounds with similar structures in cases.


Subject(s)
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Illicit Drugs/analysis , Indazoles/chemistry , Glycerol/analysis , Cannabinoids , Indoles/chemistry , Ions
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-8, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411263

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on glycerol-induced renal changes in rats. Methods: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were submitted to ovariectomized (OVX) or sham surgery. One week after surgery, the animals received an intramuscular injection (8ml/kg) of 50% glycerol or saline (0.15 M) solution. These animals were divided into the following groups (n=6 per group): Sham, sham-operated female rats injected with saline; OVX, ovariectomized female rats injected with saline; Sham+Gly, sham-operated female rats injected with glycerol; OVX+Gly, ovariectomized female rats injected with glycerol. All rats were euthanized 3 days after the injections and the kidneys were removed for histological and immunohistochemical studies. Blood and urine samples were also collected for renal function studies. Results: The OVX+Gly group presented higher creatinine serum levels, as well as greater fractional excretion of sodium and urinary flow than the Sham+Gly group. Histological lesions and tubulointerstitial staining for macrophages, nuclear factor-kappa B, and nitrotyrosine were more pronounced in the renal cortex of the OVX+Gly group compared to the Sham+Gly group. Conclusion: We conclude that ovariectomy aggravated changes in renal function and structure in glycerol-induced acute kidney injury by the intensification of the proinflammatory tissue response.


Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da ovariectomia nas alterações renais induzidas pelo glicerol em ratas. Métodos: Vinte e quatro ratas Wistar foram submetidas à ovariectomia (OVX) ou cirurgia sham (intervenção falsa). Uma semana após a cirurgia, os animais receberam injeção intramuscular (8ml/kg) de glicerol a 50% ou solução salina (0,15 M). As ratas foram divididas nos seguintes grupos (n=6 por grupo): Sham, fêmeas sham-operadas e injetadas com solução salina; OVX, fêmeas ovariectomizadas e injetadas com solução salina; Sham+Gly, fêmeas sham-operadas e injetados com glicerol; OVX+Gly, fêmeas ovariectomizadas e injetadas com glicerol. Todas as ratas foram eutanasiadas 3 dias após as injeções e os rins foram removidos para estudos histológicos e imuno-histoquímicos. Amostras de sangue e urina também foram coletadas para estudos de função renal. Resultados: O grupo OVX+Gly apresentou maiores níveis séricos de creatinina, assim como maiores fração de excreção de sódio e fluxo urinário do que o grupo Sham+Gly. As lesões histológicas e imunomarcação tubulointersticial para macrófagos, fator nuclear-kappa B e nitrotirosina foram mais pronunciadas no córtex renal do grupo OVX+Gly em comparação ao grupo Sham+Gly. Conclusão: Concluímos que a ovariectomia agravou as alterações na função e estrutura renal, na lesão renal aguda induzida por glicerol, pela intensificação da resposta tecidual pró-inflamatória.


Subject(s)
Ovariectomy , Rhabdomyolysis , Acute Kidney Injury , Glycerol , Inflammation , Kidney
3.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 59(2): e3758, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408382

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El efecto del oxígeno sobre la superficie de las resinas al momento de la fotopolimerización origina una capa que es susceptible a los pigmentos. El uso de la glicerina puede bloquear este efecto. Objetivo: Determinar si existe diferencia en la estabilidad del color de la resina compuesta nano-híbrida sometida a un agente colorante, al aplicar o no la glicerina. Métodos: 60 discos de resina se dividieron en Grupo 1 (sin glicerina) y Grupo 2 (con glicerina). La fotopolimerización se realizó por 20 s con la lámpara LED Bluephase®N. Se realizó la primera medición del color con el espectrofotómetro Easyshase®V y se registraron los valores arrojados para L* (luminosidad), a* (eje rojo-verde) y b* (eje azul-amarillo). Posterior a la inmersión por 1 mes de las muestras en Coca-Cola®, manteniéndolas en una incubadora a 37 ºC, se realizó la segunda medición del color. Se procesaron los datos estadísticamente con la prueba t de Student para determinar las variaciones en la estabilidad del color de ambos grupos y compararlos entre sí. Resultados: En todos los especímenes del experimento existió alteración en la estabilidad del color de la resina. La media de la distancia entre el color inicial y el color final del Grupo 1 fue de ΔE = 6,91, mientras en el Grupo 2 fue ΔE = 3,74. Se halló diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre ambos grupos analizados (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: La glicerina es una sustancia efectiva para bloquear el efecto del oxígeno en la superficie de la resina y evitar la formación de la capa inhibida de oxígeno, aumentando la estabilidad del color de la resina compuesta nano-híbrida(AU)


Introduction: The effect of oxygen on the surface of resins at the moment of photopolymerization creates a layer which is susceptible to pigments. The use of glycerin may block this effect. Objective: Determine whether there is a difference in the color stability of nanohybrid composite resin subjected to a coloring agent when glycerin is either applied or not applied. Methods: Sixty resin disks were distributed into Group 1 (without glycerin) and Group 2 (with glycerin). Photopolymerization was performed for 20 s with a Bluephase®N LED lamp. The first color measurement was taken with an Easyshase®V spectrophotometer, recording the values obtained for L* (luminosity), a* (red-green axis) and b* (blue-yellow axis). The second color measurement was taken after immersion of the samples for one month in Coca-Cola®, maintaining them in an incubator at 37ºC. Statistical data analysis was performed with Student's t test to determine the color stability changes occurring in the two groups and compare them. Results: Color stability changes were observed in all the resin samples. Mean distance between initial and final color was ΔE = 6.91 in Group 1 and ΔE = 3.74 in Group 2. A statistically significant difference was found between the two groups analyzed (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Glycerin is an effective substance to block the effect of oxygen on the resin surface, preventing the formation of an oxygen-inhibited layer and raising the color stability of the nanohybrid composite resin(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Composite Resins , Coloring Agents , Glycerol , Data Interpretation, Statistical
4.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(1): 117-122, maio 05,2022. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370755

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o uso de substitutos cutâneos para o tratamento de diversas feridas graves é uma forma eficiente de prevenir infecções e favorecer o processo de reepitelização. No entanto, tecidos biológicos estão suscetíveis a degradação e contaminação. Por isso, devem ser submetidos a rigorosos protocolos de processamento e testes que comprovem suas contribuições benéficas e segurança de aplicação. Objetivo: trazer uma abordagem sobre as principais características dos métodos de criopreservação, glicerolização e liofilização e sua consequencia nos aspectos imunológicos, microbiológicos e de viabilidade tecidual de enxertos de pele humana. Metodologia: foi realizada uma busca online utilizando as palavras chaves "criopreservação", "liofilização", "glicerolização", "enxertos", "processamento tecidual" e "engenharia dos tecidos" em múltiplas combinações nos bancos de dados PubMed, LILACS e ScienceDirect. Resultados: 200 artigos científicos foram obtidos, 26 excluídos por duplicidade, 92 selecionados para leitura integral a partir da leitura de seus resumos e 27 utilizados na construção desta revisão. A liofilização e a glicerolização são métodos semelhantes considerando a viabilidade tecidual. O uso de glicerol traz como principal desvantagem sua citotoxicidade quando comparado aos outros métodos. A criopreservação mantém os tecidos viáveis. Contudo, pode ser mais cara e trazer riscos de transmissão de microorganismos patogênicos. De modo geral, não é bem estabelecido quais os melhores métodos de conservação para uma adequada conservação da viabilidade dos enxertos de pele. Considerações Finais: os 3 métodos, liofilização, glicerolização e criopreservação, possuem aplicabilidade na conservação de enxertos. A falta de padronização na aplicação de enxertos apesar de sua frequente aplicação e a escassez de estudos recentes sobre o tema justificam o presente estudo.


Introduction: the use of skin substitutes for treatment of several wounds is an efficient way to prevent infections and allow the re-epithelialization process. However, biological tissues are susceptible to degradation and contamination. Therefore, they must undergo rigorous processing and testing protocols that prove their beneficial contributions and application security. Objective:to bring an approach on the main characteristics of cryopreservation, freeze-drying and glycerol conservation methods and their implications on immunological, microbiological and tissue viability aspects when applied to human skin grafts. Methodology:a mostly online search was performed using the keywords "cryopreservation", "freeze-drying", "glycerol conservation", "grafts", "tissue processing" and "tissue engineering" in multiple combinations in PubMed, LILACS and ScienceDirect databases. Results: 200 scientific articles were rescued, 26 excluded by duplicity, 92 selected for full reading from the reading of their abstracts and 27 used in the construction of this review. Freeze-drying and glycerol conservation are similar methods, with glycerol conservation having greater economic advantage. The use of glycerol presents cytotoxicity when compared to the other methods. Cryopreservation keeps tissues viable, however, is more expensive and carry risks of transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. Overall, there is a lack of clarity about the importance of viability in the performance of skin grafts. Final considerations: the 3 methods have applicability in graft conservation. The lack of standardization in graft application despite its frequent application and the scarcity of recent studies on the subject justify the present study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryopreservation/methods , Cryoprotective Agents , Free Tissue Flaps , Allografts , Glycerol , Freeze Drying/methods
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19736, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383992

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacillus species are promising producers of various compounds that have pronounced antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumor activities. Due to its GRAS status, Bacillus subtilis represents an excellent candidate for the usage in plant pathogens biocontrol. In this research, evaluation of antifungal metabolites biosynthesis by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and optimization of glycerol-based medium composition, using response surface methodology, for the production of compounds effective against Neurospora crassa were investigated. The results of disc-diffusion method indicate that applied Bacillus strain produces compounds with antifungal activity against tested fungus. In order to find optimal cultivation medium composition, the experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design, and optimization was performed using the concept of desirability function combined with previously defined mathematical equation, which describes examined bioprocess. The optimization model predicts that maximum inhibition zone diameter against Neurospora crassa of 32.24 mm is achieved when initial content of glycerol, NaNO2 and K2HPO4 were 49.68 g/L, 2.90 g/L and 6.49 g/L, respectively. Additionally, the second optimization set was made to minimize the consumption of medium components and costs of medium preparation. The obtained results are the basis for further research aimed to develop medium appropriate for economically justified production of bioactive compounds at industrial scale.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Process Optimization , Glycerol/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Costs and Cost Analysis/classification , Methodology as a Subject , Evaluation Studies as Topic
6.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 29(2): [1-15], abr.-jun. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366584

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de hormônio do crescimento (Growth Hormone - GH) e treinamento de força (TF) na composição do tecido ósseo de ratos Wistar a partir da Espectroscopia Raman. 40 ratos machos foram distribuídos de forma aleatória em quatro grupos: controle (C [n=10]), controle a aplicação de GH (GHC [n=10]), treinamento de força (T [n=10]) e treinamento de força e aplicação de GH (GHT [n=10]). O treinamento foi composto por quatro séries de 10 saltos aquáticos, realizados três vezes por semana, com sobrecarga correspondente a 50% do peso corpóreo e duração de quatro semanas. O GH foi aplicado na dose de 0,2 UI/Kg em cada animal, três vezes por semana e em dias alternados. Ao final do experimento, os animais foram eutanasiados e coletados os fêmures direitos para realização da análise da composição óssea. A espectroscopia Raman (ER) foi utilizada para observar os seguintes compostos a partir de suas respectivas bandas: colágeno e fosfolipídio (1445 cm-1), colesterol (548 cm-1), glicerol (607 cm-1), glicose (913 cm-1), Pico de carboidrato (931 cm-1 ) e prolina (918 cm-1 ). Para a análise estatística, foram realizados os testes de normalidade de Shapiro-Wilk e análise de variâncias ANOVA one-way, seguida pelo pós-teste de Tukey. Os resultados revelaram aumento nas concentrações de colágeno e fosfolipidio, colesterol, glicerol, glicose, pico de carboidrato e prolina em todos os grupos experimentais, associados ou não à realização do ST e/ou aplicação de GH. Porém, somente o grupo T diferiu significativamente do grupo C (p<0,05). Conclui-se que todas intervenções puderam promover ganho no tecido ósseo, porém, somente o grupo T demonstrou diferença significativa nos compostos minerais analisados. (AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of growth hormone (GH) and strength training (TF) on the bone tissue composition of Wistar rats using Raman Spectroscopy. 40 male rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C [n = 10]), control the application of GH (GHC [n = 10]), strength training (T [n = 10]) and training of strength and application of GH (GHT [n = 10]). The training consisted of four series of 10 water jumps, performed three times a week, with an overload corresponding to 50% of body weight and lasting four weeks. GH was applied at a dose of 0.2 IU / kg to each animal, three times a week and on alternate days. After four weeks, the animals were euthanized and the right femurs were collected to carry out the analysis of the bone composition. Raman spectroscopy (ER) was used to observe the following compounds from their respective bands: collagen and phospholipid (1445 cm-1), cholesterol (548 cm-1), glycerol (607 cm-1), glucose (913 cm-1), Peak carbohydrate (931 cm-1), proline (918 cm-1). For statistical analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk normality tests and ANOVA One-Way analysis of variances were performed, followed by the Tukey post-test. The results revealed an increase in the concentrations of collagen and phospholipid, cholesterol, glycerol, glucose, peak carbohydrate and proline in all experimental groups, associated or not with the performance of ST and / or application of GH. However, only group T differed significantly from group C (p <0.05). It was concluded that all intervention could promote gain in bone tissue, however, only the T group showed a significant difference in the analyzed mineral compounds. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Spectrum Analysis , Bone and Bones , Exercise , Rats, Wistar , Resistance Training , Femur , Metabolism , Phospholipids , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Body Weight , Proline , Growth Hormone , Carbohydrates , Cholesterol , Analysis of Variance , Collagen , Glycerol , Lipids
7.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 68(1): 19-36, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1352090

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las evaluaciones clínica y radiológica son técnicas que se emplean para el diagnóstico de ruptura de ligamento cruzado anterior (RLCA) y para la evaluación posoperatoria de cirugías correctivas. Se planteó como objetivo describir los resultados posoperatorios de la técnica avance de tuberosidad tibial en caninos con RLCA utilizando hueso de origen bovino conservado en glicerina al 98%. Fueron intervenidos 5 caninos con la patología y sin cambios radiológicos marcados en las columnas óseas relacionadas. El heteroim-plante óseo se cortó a manera de cuña y, para determinar su tamaño, se tuvo en cuenta la medida prequirúrgica que necesitaba la rodilla para alcanzar el ángulo de avance de la cresta tibial. Seguidamente se fijó al receptor local con implantes metálicos (agujas de Kirschner y alambre ortopédico). En el posoperatorio, se evaluaron por 90 días signos clínicos como claudicación, dolor al movimiento flexión-extensión e inflamación, según la circunferencia de la rodilla, y se evaluó por 120 días el ángulo de avance tibial y la radiopacidad del heteroimplante con respecto al hueso circunvecino (tuberosidad tibial y tibia caudal). El estudio estableció que los parámetros clínicos y radiológicos tienen un efecto estadísticamente significativo; sin embargo, la evaluación del ángulo de avance tibial no tiene un efecto significativo entre el paciente y los días posquirúrgicos. Durante el periodo de evaluación el heteroimplante óseo bovino demostró ser efectivo para estabilizar una rodilla con RLCA en caninos.


ABSTRACT The clinical and radiological evaluations are techniques used for the diagnosis of the anterior cruciate ligament rupture (LCAR) and the post-operatory assessment of corrective surgeries. It was proposed as an objective to describe the post-operatory results of the advance technique of tibial tuberosity in canines with LCAR using bovine bone conserved in 98% glycerin. Five canines were intervened and with no other radiological changed in the related bone columns. The bone heteroimplant was cut in a wedge-like manner and for its size it was taken into account the pre-operatory measurement that the knee needed to reach the advancement angle of the tibial crest. Next, the bone implant was fixated to the local receptor with metallic implants (Kirschner needles and orthopedic wire). In the post-op, the canines were evaluated for 90 days for clinical signs such as claudication, pain when flexing and extending and inflammation according to the knee circumference, and for 120 days the advancement angle of the tibia and the radiopacitry of the heteroimplant in relation to the surrounding bone. The trial established that the clinical and radiological parameters have a statistically significant effect; however, the evaluation of the tibial advancement angle does not have a significant effect between the patient and the post-operatory days. During the evaluation period, the heteroimplant bovine bone proved to be effective to stabilize the knee in canines with LCAR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Tibia , Bone and Bones , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries , Glycerol , Ligaments , Postoperative Care , Cattle , Dogs
8.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(1): 23-29, jan./mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1491696

ABSTRACT

Na procura por material alternativo no tratamento de feridas cutâneas, buscou-se com este estudo avaliar o comportamento da túnica vaginal canina conservada em glicerina a 98% como curativo biológico no tratamento de feridas cutâneas provocadas experimentalmente em ratos. Foram utilizados 16 ratos Wistar, nos quais foram induzidas experimentalmente duas lesões cutâneas na região dorsal, sendo uma cranial e a outra caudal. Uma ferida serviu de controle, a qual não recebeu tratamento, a outra recebeu a túnica vaginal recobrindo toda extensão da lesão. A seleção de qual das feridas, cranial ou caudal, iria receber a membrana foi feita de forma aleatória. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de igual número para análises clínicas, macroscópicas e histológicas decorridos três, sete, 14 e 21 dias de pós-operatório. Na avaliação clínica e macroscópica pode-se observar que o processo de reparação teve evolução semelhante tanto no grupo controle quanto no grupo membrana. Na análise histopatológica foi constatada grande quantidade de infiltrado inflamatório nos períodos iniciais, no entanto, decorridos 21 dias, a epiderme já se encontrava reparada, e em todos os momentos foi observada maior presença de tecido conjuntivo no grupo membrana, sugerindo maior precocidade na cicatrização. Deste modo, concluiu-se que a túnica vaginal canina pode ser utilizada como nova alternativa no tratamento de feridas cutâneas.


In the search for alternative material in the treatment of cutaneous wounds, this study aimed to evaluate the behavior of canine vaginal tunic conserved in glycerin 98% as a biological dressing in the treatment of cutaneous wounds provoked experimentally in rats. Sixteen animals were used in which two cutaneous lesions were caused in the dorsal region, one cranial and the other caudal. One wound served as a control which did not receive treatment, the other received the vaginal tunic covering all extension of the lesion. The selection of which of the wounds, cranial or caudal, would receive the membrane was made at random. The animals were divided into four groups of equal numbers for clinical, macroscopic, and histological analyzes after three, seven, 14 and 21 postoperative days. In the clinical and macroscopic evaluation, it can be observed that the healing process had similar evolution in both the control group and the membrane group. In the histopathological analysis, a large amount of inflammatory infiltrate was observed in the initial periods; however, after 21 days the epidermis was already healed, and at all times a greater presence of connective tissue was observed in the membrane group, suggesting a greater precocity in healing. Thus, it was concluded that the canine vaginal tunic can be used as a new alternative in the treatment of cutaneous wounds.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Wound Healing , Glycerol , Biocompatible Materials , Rats, Wistar/injuries
9.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 34-41, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This work studied how the exposure to an unusual substrate forced a change in microbial populations during anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production, with freshwater sediment used as an inoculum. RESULTS: The microbial associations almost completely (99.9%) utilized the glycerol contained in crude glycerol 6 g L 1 within four days, releasing gases, organic acids (acetic, butyric) and alcohols (ethanol, n-butanol) under anaerobic conditions. In comparison with control medium without glycerol, adding crude glycerol to the medium increased the amount of ethanol and n-butanol production and it was not significantly affected by incubation temperature (28 C or 37 C), nor incubation time (4 or 8 d), but it resulted in reduced amount of butyric acid. Higher volume of gas was produced at 37 C despite the fact that the overall bacterial count was smaller than the one measured at 20 C. Main microbial phyla of the inoculum were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. During fermentation, significant changes were observed and Firmicutes, especially Clostridium spp., began to dominate, and the number of Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria decreased accordingly. Concentration of Archaea decreased, especially in medium with crude glycerol. These changes were confirmed both by culturing and culture-independent (concentration of 16S rDNA) methods. CONCLUSIONS: Crude glycerol led to the adaptation of freshwater sediment microbial populations to this substrate. Changes of microbial community were a result of a community adaptation to a new source of carbon.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Fresh Water/microbiology , Glycerol/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , Adaptation, Biological , Biofuels , Fermentation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Anaerobiosis
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(11): e361105, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349871

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The development of cutting surface leakage and postoperative peritoneal adhesions (PPA) after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are the most serious operative complications. We investigated the effectiveness of the newly developed glycerol and sodium pentaborate containing formulation on the prevention of these complications. Methods: Sixteen Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 310 ± 50 g, mean age 3 months old) were divided into two groups, consisting of eight rats in each. SG and a double-layer suture technique were performed for each group. In study group, there was the mixture of 2 mL 3% glycerol plus 3% sodium pentaborate formulation, and in the control group 2 mL 0.9% NaCl was injected into the peritoneal cavity. Rats were sacrificed after 30 days, then macroscopic adhesion grade scoring and histopathological evaluations were assessed. Results: Macroscopic PPA scores in the control and study groups were 2.75 ± 0.16 and 1.50 ± 0.327, respectively (p = 0.004). Histopatologic fibrosis scores in the control and study groups were 0.87 ± 0.125 and 2.00 ± 0.26, respectively (p = 0.002). Conclusions: In SG operation model, glycerol plus sodium pentaborate compound decreased PPA formation and also increased stomach cut surface line fibrosis. This new formulation is hopeful for more safe SG operations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Gastrectomy , Glycerol , Borates , Tissue Adhesions/prevention & control , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2348-2354, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142292

ABSTRACT

The energetic values of crude glycerin (CG) were determined for broilers at different ages using the method proposed by Matterson and by polynomial regressions. Two trials were performed with broilers from 11 to 21 and from 31 to 41 days of age. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a reference ration (RR), without CG, and three ration tests with replacement of 5%, 10%, and 15% of RR by CG. The metabolizable energy values were calculated by the Matterson method, and the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values were used in polynomial regression analysis. The mean values of AME, apparent corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn), metabolizable coefficient of gross energy (CAMEB), and corrected for nitrogen balance (CAMEBn) of CG, for the phase from 11 to 21 days by the Matterson method were 10.08 MJ kg-1, 10.04 MJ kg-1, 67.06%, and 66.74%, respectively. The inclusion of CG presented an increasing linear effect for CAMEB and CAMEBn in this period. From 31 to 41 days, these values were 10.38 MJ kg-1, 10.27 MJ kg-1, 69.02%, and 62.24%, respectively. The predicted AMEn value through the polynomial regression equations was 10.49 MJ kg-1 and 10.18 MJ kg-1, respectively. According to the equations proposed by Matterson, the crude glycerin EMAn values for broilers from 11 to 21 and 31 to 41 days of age were 10.04 MJ kg-1 and 10.26 MJ kg-1, respectively. According to Adeola's method the AMEn values were 10.49 and 10.20 MJ kg-1 for each phase.(AU)


Os valores energéticos da glicerina bruta (GB) foram determinados para frangos de corte em diferentes idades, por meio da utilização do método proposto por Matterson e de regressões polinomiais. Foram realizados dois ensaios: de 11 a 21 dias e de 31 a 41 dias de idade das aves; em ambos, as aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com uma ração referência (RR), sem GB, e três rações testes com substituição de 5%, 10% e 15% da RR por GB. Foram calculados os valores de energia metabolizável pelo método de Matterson, sendo os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA) utilizados na análise de regressão polinomial. Os valores médios da EMA corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn), o coeficiente de metabolizabilidade da EB (CMAEB) e o corrigido para o balanço de nitrogênio (CMAEBn) da GB, na matéria natural, para a fase de 11 a 21 dias, pelo método de Matterson, foram de 10,08 MJ kg-1, 10,04 MJ kg-1, 67,06% e 66,74%, respectivamente. A inclusão de GB apresentou um efeito linear crescente para os CMAEB e os CMAEBn. Na fase de 31 a 41 dias, foram de 10,38 MJ kg-1, 10,27 MJ kg-1, 69,02% e 62,24%, respectivamente. Por meio das equações de regressões polinomiais, o valor de EMAn estimada foi de 10,49 MJ kg-1 e 10,18 MJ kg-1, respectivamente. Os valores de EMAn da GB para as idades 11 a 21 e 31 a 41 dias foram de 10,04 MJ kg-1 e 10,26 MJ kg-1, respectivamente. De acordo com as equações propostas por Matterson e com o método de Adeola, os valores de EMAn foram 10,49 e 10,20 MJ kg-1 para cada fase.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens/metabolism , Biofuels/analysis , Glycerol/administration & dosage , Poultry/growth & development
12.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 764-770, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156206

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the anatomical variations of the motor branches of the radial nerve in the elbow region. The origin, course, length, branches, motor points and relationships with neighboring structures were evaluated. Materials and Methods Thirty limbs from15 adult cadavers were dissected and prepared by intra-arterial injection of a 10% glycerin and formaldehyde solution. Results The first branch of the radial nerve in the forearm went to the brachioradialis muscle (BR), originating proximally to the division of the radial nerve into superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) and posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) in all limbs. The branches to the extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (ECRL) detached from the proximal radial nerve to its division into 26 limbs, in 2, at the dividing points, in other 2, from the PIN. In six limbs, the branches to the BR and ECRL muscles originated from a common trunk. We identified the origin of the branch to the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (ECRB) in the PIN in 14 limbs, in the SBRN in 12, and in the radial nerve in only 4. The branch to the supinator muscle originated from the PIN in all limbs. Conclusion Knowledge of the anatomy of the motor branches of the radial nerve is important when performing surgical procedures in the region (such as the approach of the proximal third and the head of the radius, release of compressive syndromes of the posterior interosseous nerve and radial tunnel, and distal nerve transfers) in order to understand the order of recovery of muscle function after a nerve injury.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar as variações anatômicas dos ramos motores do nervo radial na região do cotovelo. Foram avaliadas a origem, curso, comprimento, ramificações, pontos motores e relações com estruturas vizinhas. Materiais e Métodos Foram dissecados 30 membros de 15 cadáveres adultos, preparados por injeção intra-arterial de uma solução de glicerina e formol a 10%. Resultados O primeiro ramo do nervo radial no antebraço foi para o músculo braquiorradial (BR), que se origina proximalmente à divisão do nervo radial em ramo superficial do nervo radial (RSNR) e nervo interósseo posterior (NIP) em todos os membros. Os ramos para o músculo extensor radial longo do carpo (ERLC) se desprenderam do nervo radial proximalmente à sua divisão em 26 membros, em 2, nos pontos de divisão, em outros 2, do NIP. Em seis, os ramos para os músculos BR e ERLC originavam-se de um tronco comum. Identificamos a origem do ramo para o músculo extensor radial curto do carpo (ERCC) no NIP em 14 membros, no RSNR em 12, e no nervo radial em apenas 4. O ramo para o músculo supinador originou-se do NIP em todos os membros. Conclusão O conhecimento da anatomia dos ramos motores do nervo radial é importante quando se realizam procedimentos cirúrgicos na região, como a abordagem do terço proximal e da cabeça do rádio, a liberação das síndromes compressivas do nervo interósseo posterior e do túnel radial, as transferências nervosas distais, e para entender a ordem de recuperação da função muscular após uma lesão nervosa.


Subject(s)
Radial Nerve , Radius , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Wrist , Cadaver , Nerve Transfer , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Elbow , Extremities , Forearm , Forearm Injuries , Glycerol , Head , Anatomy , Injections, Intra-Arterial
13.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. Porto Alegre ; 61(1): 67-74, jan-jun. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1417647

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The combination of sol-gel derived calcium silicate particles and glycerol salicylate resins may enhance the pyhisico-chemical properties contribute to the unders-tanding of the interaction between these materials. This study aims to evaluate the physical-chemical properties of resin-based bioactive endodontic cements with glycerol salicylate resins and calcium silicate particles. Materials and methods: Calcium silicate was produced by the sol-gel route, while the resin was produced by mixing 60wt% glycerol salicylate, 30wt% methyl salicylate and 10wt% distilled water. Calcium silicate was added in three different concentrations, 50, 40 and 25% by weight. The cement was tested for setting time, flow, radiopacity and pH. Results: The 50:50 group shows the time of 15min8s while the 75:25 shows the time of 256min13s (p < 0.05). The 50:50 group has a lower flow (15.156mm) compared to 60:40 (23.588 mm) and 75:25 (25.396 mm). All radiopacity values were below 3mmAl. All groups showed a pH increase up to 24 hours and the pH value drop was inversely proportional to the amount of calcium silicate. Discussion: Bioactive calcium silicate particles were used in a composite material with a glycerol salicylate resin. Among the tested cements, the combination of 50wt% calcium silicate particles to 50wt% glycerol salicylate resin showed adequate setting time and promoted an increase in water pH. Conclusion: The 50:50 group showed the setting time and the pH, showing that these materials may be able to promote enhanced biological response. The adjustment of flow and radiopacity should be considered for its clinical application.


Introdução: A combinação entre partículas de silicato de cálcio e glycerol salicilato tem potencial para melhorar as propriedades físico-químicas de cimentos endodônticos bioativos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as propriedades físico-químicas de cimentos resinosos contendo glicerol salicilato e silicatos de cálcio. Materiais e métodos: O silicato de cálcio foi produzido pelo método sol-gel, en-quanto o líquido foi obtido pela mistura de 60% de salicilato de glicerol, 30% de salicilato de metila e 10% de água destilada em peso. O silicato de cálcio foi adicionado em três diferentes concentrações, sendo elas 50, 40 e 25% em peso. O cimento foi testado em relação ao tempo de presa, escoamento, radiopacidade e pH. Resultados: O grupo 50:50 apresentou tempo de presa de 15min8s enquanto o 75:25 apresentou um tempo de 256min13s (p < 0,05). O grupo 50:50 apresentou menor escoamento (15,156mm) em comparação ao 60:40 (23,588mm) e 75:25 (25,396mm). Quanto à radiopacidade, todos obtiveram valores menores que 3mmAl. Todos apresentaram aumento de pH até 24h, e após esse período tiveram quedas inversamente proporcionais a quantidade de silicato de cálcio em cada um. Discussão: Partículas bioativas de silicato de cálcio foram utilizadas em um compósito com base resi-nosa de glicerol salicilato. Dentre os cimentos utilizados, a combinação de 50:50 entre os componentes tem resultados promissores para a aplicação destes materiais. Conclusão: O grupo 50:50 apresentou adequado tempo de presa e pH, indicando que o material pode manter suas propriedades biológicas. A radiopacidade e o escoamento, no entando, devem ser adequadas para aplicação do material.


Subject(s)
Materials Testing , Calcarea Silicata , Resin Cements , Glycerol
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 19-24, Mar. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pyruvic acid (PA), a vital α-oxocarboxylic acid, plays an important role in energy and carbon metabolism. The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica (Y. lipolytica) has considerable potential for the production of PA. An increased NaCl concentration reportedly increases the biomass and PA yield of Y. lipolytica. RESULTS: To increase the yield of PA, the NaCl-tolerant Y. lipolytica A4 mutant was produced using the atmospheric and room temperature plasma method of mutation. The A4 mutant showed growth on medium containing 160 g/L NaCl. The PA yield of the A4 mutant reached 97.2 g/L at 120 h (0.795 g/g glycerol) in a 20-L fermenter with glycerol as the sole carbon source, which was 28.9% higher than that of the parental strain. CONCLUSION: The PA yield from Y. lipolytica can be improved by increasing its NaCl tolerance.


Subject(s)
Pyruvic Acid/metabolism , Yarrowia/genetics , Yarrowia/metabolism , Osmotic Pressure , Yeasts , Carbon/metabolism , Sodium Chloride , Bioreactors , Salt Tolerance/genetics , Fermentation , Glycerol/metabolism , Mutation
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 243-252, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088938

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o perfil de ácidos graxos (AG) do leite de vacas alimentadas com dietas à base de silagem de milho contendo 0% e 8,9% de glicerina bruta (GB) na matéria seca (MS). Foram utilizadas 18 vacas Holandês x Gir com 48±18 dias em lactação, produzindo 19,8±4,9kg/dia de leite. Utilizou-se delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove vacas/tratamento e duas medidas repetidas no tempo, com os resultados analisados por modelos mistos. A inclusão de GB na dieta não alterou a ingestão de MS, mas reduziu os consumos dos AG oleico, linoleico e α-linolênico. Os teores dos AG mirístico, palmítico, rumênico, vacênico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico, α-linolênico e CLA trans-10 cis-12 na gordura do leite foram semelhantes entre dietas. A inclusão de GB reduziu os teores dos AG elaídico e C18:1 trans-10 e aumentou os teores dos AG de cadeia ímpar linear e do ácido láurico. Não houve efeito da inclusão da GB sobre os índices de aterogenicidade e trombogenicidade da gordura do leite. Concluiu-se que a inclusão de glicerina bruta em dieta à base de silagem de milho não afetou a qualidade nutricional da gordura do leite de vacas Holandês x Gir.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed corn silage-based diets containing 0% and 8.9% of crude glycerin (GB) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Eighteen Holstein x Gyr cows with 48±18 days in milk and producing 19.8±4.9kg milk/day were used in the study. The experimental design was a randomized block with nine cows per treatment and two repeated measures. Results were analyzed using mixed models. The milk fat contents of myristic, palmitic, rumenic, vaccenic, estearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, and trans-10 cis-12 CLA were similar between diets. Dietary inclusion of GB decreased elaidic and trans-10 C18:1, and increased lauric acid and odd linear-chain FA contents in milk fat. Both atherogenicity and trombogenicity indices were unaffected by GB inclusion. It was concluded that GB inclusion in corn silage-based diets had no effect on the nutritional quality of milk fat from Holstein x Gyr dairy cows.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Silage , Milk/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Glycerol/administration & dosage , Biofuels , Animal Feed
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1101-1112, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826867

ABSTRACT

As an important platform compound, 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) can be used as a substrate to synthesize a variety of biological products with commercial potential. The titer of 3-HP by wild-type bacteria is low, which severely limits the large-scale application and production of 3-HP. By modifying the genes related to the metabolic pathway, engineered bacteria using cheap substrates as carbon sources are constructed, the aim of reducing production cost and increasing output is realized. In this paper, the recent progress in the synthesis of 3-HP by metabolic engineering at home and abroad is reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of glycerol pathway, malonyl-CoA pathway and beta-alanine pathway for synthesis of 3-HP are also summarized and analyzed, and the future development of 3-HP is prospected.


Subject(s)
Glycerol , Metabolism , Industrial Microbiology , Lactic Acid , Metabolic Engineering , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Genetics
17.
Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis ; : 50-65, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786082

ABSTRACT

Ceramides are minor components of the hepatic lipidome that have major effects on liver function. These products of lipid and protein metabolism accumulate when the energy needs of the hepatocyte have been met and its storage capacity is full, such that free fatty acids start to couple to the sphingoid backbone rather than the glycerol moiety that is the scaffold for glycerolipids (e.g., triglycerides) or the carnitine moiety that shunts them into mitochondria. As ceramides accrue, they initiate actions that protect cells from acute increases in detergent-like fatty acids; for example, they alter cellular substrate preference from glucose to lipids and they enhance triglyceride storage. When prolonged, these ceramide actions cause insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis, 2 of the underlying drivers of cardiometabolic diseases. Herein the author discusses the mechanisms linking ceramides to the development of insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis and resultant cardiometabolic disorders.


Subject(s)
Carnitine , Ceramides , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Fatty Liver , Glucose , Glycerol , Hepatocytes , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Metabolism , Mitochondria , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Triglycerides
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18784, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249176

ABSTRACT

Antibacterial activity and good mechanical properties are some of the characteristics required for an appropriate film dressing. A novel polymer blend was developed for wound healing application. Twenty-four formulations using the polymers chitosan, poly(vinyl alcohol) and/or ɛ-Polylysine and the plasticizer glycerol were designed using factorial design and then the films were prepared by the casting/solvent evaporation method. Seventeen films were obtained among the twenty-four proposed formulations that were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Mechanical properties, such as tensile strength (σ), elongation at break (ɛ) and Young's modulus (Y) as well as antibacterial properties were determined. The best candidate was then further analyzed with regard to porosity, Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR), swelling and cytotoxicity experiments. The results showed a film with semi-occlusive characteristics, good mechanical properties and no toxic. Incorporation of ɛ-Polylysine increased antibacterial activity against gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria


Subject(s)
Bandages , Chitosan/pharmacology , Polylysine/pharmacology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Glycerol/pharmacology
19.
Actual. osteol ; 15(3): 180-191, Sept-Dic. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104226

ABSTRACT

Bone metabolism disorders are characterized by an imbalance of bone resorption and formation in the bone remodeling process. Glucocorticoids that are used to treat kidney diseases exacerbate these disorders. P-selectin and galectin-3 are molecules involved in the sclerotic process in kidney, whereas bone resorption is regulated by the interaction between the nuclear factor activator kappa b receptor (RANK), its ligand (RANKL) and the RANKL decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of disruption of bone remodeling regulation processes, reflected by intercellular mediators (RANKL, OPG, P-selectin and galectin-3) in chronic kidney disease experimental model treated with glucocorticoids. Rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. The first group, the control group, included intact animals. The second group consisted of rats with impaired bone remodeling resulting from chronic kidney disease (experimental group (CKD). The third group was a group of animals with impaired bone remodeling due to exposure to glucocorticoids (experimental group (GCs)). The fourth group consisted of rats with impaired bone remodeling in chronic kidney disease, followed by exposure to glucocorticoids (experimental group (CKD + GCs)). The effects of CKD and glucocorticoid were evaluated biochemically, histologically and by measuring bone density. An enzymelinked immunoassay was used to measure intercellular mediator levels in the serum. The bone density in the experimental groups was reduced compared to the control group. RANKL levels in animals of three experimental groups were higher than in intact animals. Serum levels of OPG were higher in CKD and GCs groups than in intact animals. At the same time, in the animals' blood serum of the CKD + GCs group, the levels of OPG were lower, than those in animals from the control group. The levels of galectin-3 in the serum of the experimental groups GCs and CKD + GCs were lower than in intact animals. The serum levels of galectin-3 in animals of the CKD group were higher than those in animals from the control group. The levels of P-selectin were lower in the serum of the GCs group than in intact animals. At the same time, the levels of P-selectin were higher in the CKD and CKD + GCs groups, than those in animals from the control group. In conclusion, the study of the complex system of bone remodeling regulation, which includes many factors and their interactions, may lead to the development of new methods for treating patients with chronic kidney disease in order to prevent osteoporosis in the future. (AU)


Las enfermedades metabólicas óseas se caracterizan por un desequilibrio en el proceso de remodelación ósea en los que participan mediadores tales como receptor del activador del factor nuclear- kappa- b (RANK), su ligando (RANKL) y la osteoprotegerina (OPG). Los glucocorticoides, recuentemente empleados en el tratamiento de la enfermedad renal crónica, exacerban este desequilibrio. En la enfermedad esclerótica renal, las moléculas de adhesión celular P-selectina and galectina-3 tienen un rol fundamental. El objetivo de esta trabajo fue estudiar las alteraciones en los mediadores de la remodelación ósea (RANKL, OPG, P-selectina and galectina-3) en un modelo de enfermedad renal crónica con tratamiento glucocorticoideo. Ratas Wistar hembras fueron divididos en 4 grupos: control (C); enfermedad renal crónica con afección de la remodelación ósea (ERC); animales con afección de la remodelación ósea expuestos a glucocorticoides (GC); enfermedad renal crónica con afección de la remodelación ósea tratados con glucocorticoides (ERC+GC). Los efectos de la ERC y los GC fueron evaluados bioquímicamente, histológicamente y por medición de la densidad ósea. RANKL, OPG, Pselectina and galectina-3 se cuantificaron en muestras de sangre venosa empleando enzimoinmuno análisis. En los 3 grupos experimentales la densidad ósea se evidenció reducida y los niveles séricos de RANKL elevados respecto al grupo control. Los niveles de OPG en los grupos ERC y GC fueron superiores mientras que en el grupo ERC+GC menores respecto a los animales controles. Galectina 3 plasmática en GC y ERC+GC se encontró reducida y aumentada en los animales ERC, en comparación con los animales controles. La concentración sérica de P-selectina sérica fue mayor en los grupos ERC y ERC+GC, y menor en los animales GC respecto a los niveles plasmáticos de los animales intactos. El avance del conocimiento sobre la regulación de la remodelación ósea a través de la interacción de mediadores sistémicos, en un futuro, puede conducir al desarrollo de nuevas estrategias terapéuticas para la prevención de la osteoporosis en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/chemically induced , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnosis , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Bone Density/drug effects , Chloroform/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , P-Selectin/drug effects , P-Selectin/blood , Galectin 3/drug effects , Galectin 3/blood , RANK Ligand/drug effects , RANK Ligand/blood , Osteoprotegerin/drug effects , Osteoprotegerin/blood , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Glycerol/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1515-1524, sept./oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049041

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to evaluate the metabolizability, performance and economic viability of purified glycerin inclusion in balanced diets fed to chicken broilers from 8 to 21 days old. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 100 broilers (14 days old) were distributed in a completely randomized design into two treatments, with five replications of 10 broilers. Treatments consisted of a control diet and a test diet, in which purified glycerin replaced 10% of the control diet. In the second experiment, 200 broilers (8 days old) were distributed in a completely randomized design into four treatments (0, 2, 4 and 6% of purified glycerin inclusion), with five replications of 10 broilers. The weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, final weight, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (DMMC), crude protein (CPMC) and gross energy (GEMC), and the cost of feed per kg of broiler produced were evaluated. The AME, AMEn, DMMC, CPMC and GEMC from the purified glycerin were 3790 and 3560 kcal/kg, and 83.72, 71.52 and 86.27%, respectively. The glycerin levels did not affect (p>0.05) any of the performance characteristics (weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and final weight). The lowest feeding cost and the highest gross margin were obtained for broilers fed with 6% purified glycerin. The inclusion of 6% purified glycerin in balanced diets for broilers from 8 to 21 days old was technically and economically feasible.


Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a metabolizabilidade, o desempenho zootécnico e a viabilidade econômica da inclusão de glicerina purificada, em dietas balanceadas para frangos de corte dos 8 aos 21 dias de idade. Foram realizados dois experimentos, sendo que, no primeiro experimento, foram utilizados 100 pintos de 14 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com dois tratamentos, cinco repetições de 10 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta referência e uma dieta teste, na qual a glicerina purificada substituiu 10% da dieta referência. No segundo experimento, foram utilizados 200 pintos de 8 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com quatro tratamentos (0, 2, 4 e 6% de inclusão de glicerina purificada) e cinco repetições de 10 aves. Foram determinados o ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, peso final, energia metabolizável aparente (EMA), energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn), os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade da matéria seca (CMMS), proteína bruta (CMPB), energia bruta (CMEB) e o custo da alimentação por kg de frango produzido. A EMA, EMAn e os CMMS, CMPB, CMEB da glicerina purificada obtida foram de 3790, 3560 Kcal/kg e 83,72, 71,52, 86,27%, respectivamente. Observou-se que a inclusão de glicerina purificada não afetou (p>0,05) o desempenho (ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e peso final). O menor custo com a alimentação e a maior margem bruta foi obtido com os frangos alimentados com 6% de inclusão de glicerina purificada. A inclusão de 6% de glicerina purificada em dietas balanceadas para frangos de corte dos 8 aos 21 dias de idade, mostrou-se técnica e economicamente viável.


Subject(s)
Food, Fortified , Chickens , Biofuels , Glycerol
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