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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2426-2434, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981319

ABSTRACT

Tripterygium glycosides liposome(TPGL) were prepared by thin film-dispersion method, which were optimized accor-ding to their morphological structures, average particle size and encapsulation rate. The measured particle size was(137.39±2.28) nm, and the encapsulation rate was 88.33%±1.82%. The mouse model of central nervous system inflammation was established by stereotaxic injection of lipopolysaccharide(LPS). TPGL and tripterygium glycosides(TPG) were administered intranasally for 21 days. The effects of intranasal administration of TPG and TPGL on behavioral cognitive impairment of mice due to LPS-induced central ner-vous system inflammation were estimated by animal behavioral tests, hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining of hippocampus, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) and immunofluorescence. Compared with TPG, TPGL caused less damage to the nasal mucosa, olfactory bulb, liver and kidney of mice administered intranasally. The behavioral performance of treated mice was significantly improved in water maze, Y maze and nesting experiment. Neuronal cell damage was reduced, and the expression levels of inflammation and apoptosis related genes [tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), BCL2-associated X(Bax), etc.] and glial activation markers [ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1(IBA1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP)] were decreased. These results indicated that liposome technique combined with nasal delivery alleviated the toxic side effects of TPG, and also significantly ameliorated the cognitive impairment of mice induced by central nervous system inflammation.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Tripterygium , Liposomes , Glycosides/therapeutic use , Administration, Intranasal , Lipopolysaccharides , Central Nervous System , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cardiac Glycosides
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1310-1318, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970602

ABSTRACT

In this study, the underlying mechanism of Qiwei Guibao Granules(QWGB) in the treatment of premature ovarian fai-lure(POF) was explored by the proteomics technique. Firstly, the POF model was induced in mice by intragastric administration of Tripterygium wilfordii glycosides solution at 50 mg·kg~(-1) for 14 days. Ten days prior to the end of the modeling, the estrous cycle of mice was observed every day to evaluate the success of modeling. From the 1st day after modeling, the POF model mice were treated with QWGB by gavage every day and the treatment lasted four weeks. On the 2nd day after the end of the experiment, blood was collected from the eyeballs and the serum was separated by centrifugation. The ovaries and uterus were collected and the adipose tissues were carefully stripped. The organ indexes of the ovaries and uterus of each group were calculated. The serum estrogen(E_2) level of mice in each group was detected by ELISA. Protein samples were extracted from ovarian tissues of mice, and the differential proteins before and after QWGB intervention and before and after modeling were analyzed by quantitative proteomics using tandem mass tags(TMT). As revealed by the analysis of differential proteins, QWGB could regulate 26 differentially expressed proteins related to the POF model induced by T. wilfordii glycosides, including S100A4, STAR, adrenodoxin oxidoreductase, XAF1, and PBXIP1. GO enrichment results showed that the 26 differential proteins were mainly enriched in biological processes and cellular components. The results of KEGG enrichment showed that those differential proteins were involved in signaling pathways such as completion and coalescence cascades, focal adhesion, arginine biosynthesis, and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis. The complement and coalescence cascades signaling pathway was presumably the target pathway of QWGB in the treatment of POF. In this study, the proteomics technique was used to screen the differential proteins of QWGB in the treatment of POF in mice induced by T. wilfordii glycosides, and they were mainly involved in immune regulation, apoptosis regulation, complement and coagulation cascade reactions, cholesterol metabolism, and steroid hormone production, which may be the main mechanisms of QWGB in the treatment of POF.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Mice , Animals , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency/chemically induced , Proteomics , Signal Transduction , Glycosides/adverse effects
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 202-210, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970515

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of Buyang Huanwu Decoction glycosides on the inflammatory response of apolipoprotein E~(-/-)(ApoE~(-/-)) mice and RAW264.7 cells through nuclear factor kappa-B(NF-κB) signaling pathway. In the in vivo experiment, ApoE~(-/-) mice were fed with high-fat diets for 12 weeks to induce the animal model of atherosclerosis, and 75 μg·mL~(-1) oxidized low-density lipoprotein(Ox-LDL) incubated RAW264.7 cells for 24 h to establish the atherosclerosis cell model. Automatic biochemical analyzer, hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), Western blot, and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction(PCR) were used to determine the blood lipid levels, aortic intimal thickness, inflammatory factor content, NF-κB pathway-related proteins, and mRNA expression levels, and evaluate arterial atherosclerotic lesions and anti-atherosclerotic mechanisms of the drug. The model of atherosclerosis was successfully established in ApoE~(-/-) mice after 12 weeks of feeding with high-fat diets. In the model group, the plasma levels of total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) were increased(P<0.01), the intima of the blood vessels was thickened, the levels of inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-6(IL-6) were increased, and the protein and mRNA expressions of NF-κB and inhibitor of NF-κB(IκBα) were significantly increased as compared with the control group. Compared with the model group, the high-dose Buyang Huanwu Decoction glycoside group decreased the plasma levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C, reduced the plaque area and thickness and the content of inflammatory factor TNF-α, and inhibited the protein and mRNA expressions of NF-κB and IκBα, with the effect same as Buyang Huanwu Decoction. In the in vivo experiment, 75 μg·mL~(-1) Ox-LDL stimulated RAW264.7 cells for 24 h to successfully establish a foam cell model. As compared with the control group, the nuclear amount of NF-κB and the protein and mRNA expressions of IκBα in the model group increased. Compared with the model group, the middle-dose and high-dose Buyang Huanwu Decoction glycoside groups decreased the nuclear amount of NF-κB and the protein and mRNA expressions of IκBα. The above results show that the glycosides are the main effective substances of Buyang Huanwu Decoction against atherosclerosis, which inhibit the NF-κB pathway and reduce the inflammatory response, thus playing the role against atherosclerotic inflammation same as Buyang Huanwu Decoction.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Glycosides/pharmacology , Cholesterol, LDL , Atherosclerosis/genetics , Signal Transduction , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-6 , Apolipoproteins E/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
4.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 459-480, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982717

ABSTRACT

Chang-Kang-Fang (CKF) formula, a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) prescription, has been widely used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, its potential material basis and underlying mechanism remain elusive. Therefore, this study employed an integrated approach that combined ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) with network pharmacology to systematically characterize the phytochemical components and metabolites of CKF, as well as elucidating its underlying mechanism. Through this comprehensive analysis, a total of 150 components were identified or tentatively characterized within the CKF formula. Notably, six N-acetyldopamine oligomers from CicadaePeriostracum and eight resin glycosides from Cuscutae Semen were characterized in this formula for the first time. Meanwhile, 149 xenobiotics (58 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were detected in plasma, urine, feces, brain, and intestinal contents, and the in vivo metabolic pathways of resin glycosides were elaborated for the first time. Furthermore, network pharmacology and molecular docking analyses revealed that alkaloids, flavonoids, chromones, monoterpenes, N-acetyldopamine dimers, p-hydroxycinnamic acid, and Cus-3/isomer might be responsible for the beneficial effects of CKF in treating IBS, and CASP8, MARK14, PIK3C, PIK3R1, TLR4, and TNF may be its potential targets. These discoveries offer a comprehensive understanding of the potential material basis and clarify the underlying mechanism of the CKF formula in treating IBS, facilitating the broader application of CKF in the field of medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Glycosides , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3815-3825, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981514

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify the chemical constituents from Callicarpa kwangtungensis and determine their activities. MCI, ODS, and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC were employed to separate the chemical constituents. A total of 15 compounds were separated, and their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with the data in relevant literature. Specifically, the 15 compounds were 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-6-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-4-O-E-caffeoyl-D-glucopyranoside(1), 3,6-O-α-L-dirhamnopyranosyl-4-O-E-caffeoyl-D-glucopyranoside(2), β-OH-forsythoside B(3), β-OH-poliumoside(4),(+)-lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside(5),(+)-lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(6),(-)-lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(7), kelampayoside A(8), descaffeoylpoliumoside(9), acteoside(10), alyssonoside(11), poliumoside(12), isacteoside(13), acetyl forsythoside B(14), and forsythoside B(15). Compounds 1 and 2 were novel, and the NMR data of compounds 3 and 4 were reported here for the first time. Furthermore, the hemostatic activities of the extract and abundant ingredients(compounds 12 and 15) of C. kwangtungensis were determined with Yunnan Baiyao as the positive control and normal saline as the negative control. The extract and compounds 12 and 15 significantly shortened the tail tip bleeding time in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Callicarpa , Hemostatics , China , Glycosides/chemistry
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3633-3649, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981494

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of various Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of inflammatory response in diabetic nephropathy(DN) based on network Meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trial(RCT) of oral Chinese patent medicines for improving inflammatory response in patients with DN was retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMbase, Web of Science, and other databases from database inception to October 2022. All investigators independently screened the literature, extracted data, and evaluated the quality. Stata 16.0 software and RevMan 5.4.1 were used to analyze the data of the literature that met the quality standards. Finally, 53 RCTs were included, involving 6 Chinese patent medicines. The total sample size was 4 891 cases, including 2 449 cases in the test group and 2 442 cases in the control group. The network Meta-analysis showed that(1) in terms of reducing TNF-α, the top 3 optimal interventions according to the surface under the cumulative ranking curve(SUCRA) were Shenshuaining Capsules/Granules/Tablets + conventional western medicine, Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional western medicine, and Niaoduqing Granules + conventional western medicine.(2) In terms of reducing hs-CRP, the top 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Bailing Capsules + conventional western medicine, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets + conventional western medicine, and Shenshuaining Capsules/Granules/Tablets + conventional western medicine.(3) In terms of reducing IL-6, the top 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Bailing Capsules + conventional western medicine, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets + conventional western medicine, and Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional western medicine.(4) In terms of reducing UAER, the top 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Shenshuaining Capsules/Granules/Tablets + conventional western medicine, Huangkui Capsules + conventional western medicine, and Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional western medicine.(5) In terms of reducing Scr, the top 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional western medicine, Niaoduqing Granules + conventional wes-tern medicine, and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets + conventional western medicine.(6) In terms of reducing BUN, the first 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Niaoduqing Granules + conventional western medicine, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets + conventional western medicine, and Huangkui Capsules + conventional western medicine.(7) In terms of improving the clinical total effective rate, the first 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional western medicine, Niaoduqing Granu-les + conventional western medicine, and Huangkui Capsules + conventional western medicine. The results showed that the combination of western medicine and Chinese patent medicine could reduce the expression of serum inflammatory factors TNF-α, hs-CRP, and IL-6 and inhibit the inflammatory response. The combination of western medicine and Chinese patent medicine was superior to western medicine alone in reducing Scr, BUN, and UAER, and improving the total effective rate of treatment. Due to the limitation of the quantity and quality of literature included, the above conclusions need to be validated by more high-quality studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , C-Reactive Protein , Capsules , Interleukin-6 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Glycosides , Tablets , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3462-3471, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981481

ABSTRACT

The flavonoids in Panax notoginseng were qualitatively analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), and the content of three main flavonoids in P. notoginseng of different specifications and grades collected from different habitats was determined by HPLC-DAD. Flavonoids and anthocyanins were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS in the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Twelve flavonoid glycosides and one anthocyanin glycoside in P. notoginseng were identified, but no flavonoid aglycones were detected. Among them, 12 compounds were identified in the underground part of P. notoginseng for the first time and eight compounds were first reported in this plant. Moreover, six and four compounds were identified in the Panax genus and the Araliaceae family for the first time, respectively. A method for simultaneous determination of three flavonoids in P. notoginseng was established by HPLC-DAD. The content of flavonoids in 721 P. notoginseng samples of 124 specifications and grades collected from 20 different habitats was simultaneously determined. Among three flavonoids determined, the content of quercetin-3-O-(2″-β-D-xylosyl)-β-D-galactoside was the highest with the average content in the tested samples of 161.0 μg·g~(-1). The content of compounds quercetin-3-O-hexosyl-hexoside and kaempferol-3-O-pentosyl-hexoside was relatively low, with the average content of 18.5 μg·g~(-1)(calculated as quercetin-3-O-sophoroside) and 49.4 μg·g~(-1)(calculated as kaempferol-3-O-sangbu diglycoside). There were significant differences in flavonoids content of samples from different production area. The content of flavonoids in spring P. notoginseng was significantly lower than that in winter P. notoginseng when the other influencing factors such as production areas, germplasm resources, and cultivation conditions were fixed. As for P. notoginseng of different specifications, the flavonoid content in the part connecting the taproot and the aboveground stem was significantly higher than that in other parts. The results of large-scale data showed that the flavonoid content gradually increased with the increase in the number of heads. There were significant differences between the flavonoid content in most specifications and grades, especially the 20-head P. notoginseng and countless head P. notoginseng, whose content was significantly lower and significantly higher than that of other specifications and grades, respectively. This study provides a scientific basis for the study of the effective components and quality control of P. notoginseng from the perspective of flavonoids.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/analysis , Anthocyanins/analysis , Quercetin , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Kaempferols , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Glycosides
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2639-2645, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981368

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of multi-glycosides of Tripterygium wilfordii(GTW) on renal injury in diabetic kidney disease(DKD) rats through Nod-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3)/cysteine-aspartic acid protease-1(caspase-1)/gsdermin D(GSDMD) pyroptosis pathway and the mechanism. To be specific, a total of 40 male SD rats were randomized into the normal group(n=8) and modeling group(n=34). In the modeling group, a high-sugar and high-fat diet and one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin(STZ) were used to induce DKD in rats. After successful modeling, they were randomly classified into model group, valsartan(Diovan) group, and GTW group. Normal group and model group were given normal saline, and the valsartan group and GTW group received(ig) valsartan and GTW, respectively, for 6 weeks. Blood urea nitrogen(BUN), serum creatinine(Scr), alanine ami-notransferase(ALT), albumin(ALB), and 24 hours urinary total protein(24 h-UTP) were determined by biochemical tests. The pathological changes of renal tissue were observed based on hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. Serum levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and interleukin-18(IL-18) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Western blot was used to detect the expression of pyroptosis pathway-related proteins in renal tissue, and RT-PCR to determine the expression of pyroptosis pathway-related genes in renal tissue. Compared with the normal group, the model group showed high levels of BUN, Scr, ALT, and 24 h-UTP and serum levels of IL-1β and IL-18(P<0.01), low level of ALB(P<0.01), severe pathological damage to kidney, and high protein and mRNA levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and GSDMD in renal tissue(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, valsartan group and GTW group had low levels of BUN, Scr, ALT, and 24 h-UTP and serum levels of IL-1β and IL-18(P<0.01), high level of ALB(P<0.01), alleviation of the pathological damage to the kidney, and low protein and mRNA levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and GSDMD in renal tissue(P<0.01 or P<0.05). GTW may inhibit pyroptosis by decreasing the expression of NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD in renal tissue, thereby relieving the inflammatory response of DKD rats and the pathological injury of kidney.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Glycosides/pharmacology , Tripterygium , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Caspase 1/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Uridine Triphosphate/pharmacology , Kidney , Valsartan/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus
9.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 154-160, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971670

ABSTRACT

The fungus Xylaria sp. KYJ-15 was isolated from Illigera celebica. Based on the one strain many compounds (OSMAC) strategy, the strain was fermented on potato and rice solid media, respectively. As a result, two novel steroids, xylarsteroids A (1) and B (2), which are the first examples of C28-steroid with an unusual β- and γ-lactone ring, respectively, along with two new dihydroisocoumarin glycosides, xylarglycosides A (3) and B (4), were identified. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) experiments. All isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antimicrobial effect. Compound 1 exhibited potent AChE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 2.61 ± 0.05 μmol·L-1. The β-lactone ring unit of 1 is critical for its AChE inhibitory activity. The finding was further confirmed through exploring the interaction of 1 with AChE by molecular docking. In addition, both compounds 1 and 2 exhibited obvious antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg·mL-1. Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus with MICs of 4 and 2 μg·mL-1, respectively, which also exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activity comparable to the positive control with IC50 values of 9.2 ± 0.03 and 13.3 ± 0.01 μmol·L-1, respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetylcholinesterase , Molecular Docking Simulation , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Glycosides , Lactones , Pain
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2134-2147, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928153

ABSTRACT

An UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was employed to characterize and classify the chemical components of the standard decoction of Yiguanjian, a classical famous recipe. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity HSS T3(2.1 mm ×100 mm, 1.8 μm) column with a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid water-0.1% formic acid acetonitrile using gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.4 mL·min~(-1) and the column temperature was 40 ℃. Mass spectrometry was performed on electrospray ionization source(ESI) with positive and negative ion scanning modes. The potential compounds were identified by comparing the reference compounds, analyzing the mass spectrometry data and matching the published articles on Masslynx 4.1 software and SciFinder database. Finally, a total of 113 compounds, including 11 amino acids, 19 terpenoids, 13 phthalides, 11 steroidal saponins, 10 coumarins, 9 alkaloids, 7 flavonoids, 8 phenylethanoid glycosides, 8 organic acids and 17 other categories were identified. The established method systematically and accurately characterized the chemical components in Yiguanjian, which could provide experimental evidences for the subsequent studies on the pharmacodynamical material basis and quality control of Yiguanjian.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Formates , Glycosides/analysis , Prescriptions
12.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 387-392, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929269

ABSTRACT

Most bacterial cell surface glycans are structurally unique, and have been considered as ideal target molecules for the developments of detection and diagnosis techniques, as well as vaccines. Chemical synthesis has been a promising approach to prepare well-defined oligosaccharides, facilitating the structure-activity relationship exploration and biomedical applications of bacterial glycans. L-Galactosaminuronic acid is a rare sugar that has been only found in cell surface glycans of gram-negative bacteria. Here, an orthogonally protected L-galactosaminuronic acid building block was designed and chemically synthesized. A synthetic strategy based on glycal addition and TEMPO/BAIB-mediated C6 oxidation served well for the transformation of commercial L-galactose to the corresponding L-galactosaminuronic acid. Notably, the C6 oxidation of the allyl glycoside was more efficient than that of the selenoglycoside. In addition, a balance between the formation of allyl glycoside and the recovery of selenoglycoside was essential to improve efficiency of the NIS/TfOH-catalyzed allylation. This synthetically useful L-galactosaminuronic acid building block will provide a basis for the syntheses of complex bacterial glycans.


Subject(s)
Carbohydrates , Glycosides , Oligosaccharides , Oxidation-Reduction , Polysaccharides/chemistry
13.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 221-228, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929255

ABSTRACT

Four new prenylflavonoid glycosides, namely koreanoside H-K (1-4), together with eleven known ones (5-15) were isolated from the leaves of Epimedium koreanum Nakai. Their structures were elucidated by 1D NMR, 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS, IR and UV. The identification of the sugar moieties was carried out by means of acid hydrolysis and HPLC analysis of their derivatives. It is worth noting that compound 3 and compound 4 were elucidated to contain fucose and quinovose moieties, which were two extremely rare sugar units from the genus Epimedium. The anti-pulmonary fibrosis activity of the new compounds was evaluated using A549 cell line. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 showed significant anti-pulmonary fibrosis activities.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Epimedium/chemistry , Glycosides/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry
14.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 202-209, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929252

ABSTRACT

Two cardenolide glycosides, corotoxigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-6-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranoside] (1) and coroglaucigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-6-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranoside] (2), were isolated from the seed fairs of Asclepias curassavica. The structures of 1-2 were determined based on the combination of the analysis of their MS, NMR spectroscopic data and acid hydrolysis. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT116), non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (A549) and hepatic cancer cells (SMMC-7721) were evaluated. The results showed that both compounds 1 and 2 significantly inhibited the viability, proliferation, and migration of A549, HCT116 and SMMC-7721 cells, suggesting that compounds 1 and 2 can be applied in the treatment of lung, colon and liver cancers in clinical practice. This study may not only provide a scientific basis for clarifying the active ingredients in A. curassavica, but also help to understand its antitumor activity, which can promote the application of A. curassavica in clinical treatment of various cancers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Asclepias/chemistry , Cardenolides/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Seeds
15.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 809-816, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939794

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the effect of echinacoside (ECH) on cognitive dysfunction in post cerebral stroke model rats.@*METHODS@#The post stroke cognitive impairment rat model was created by occlusion of the transient middle cerebral artery (MCAO). The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups by a random number table: the sham group (sham operation), the MCAO group (received operation for focal cerebral ischemia), and the ECH group (received operation for focal cerebral ischemia and ECH 50 mg/kg per day), with 6 rats in each group. The infarct volume and spatial learning were evaluated by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining and Morris water maze. The expression of α7nAChR in the hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemistry. The contents of acetylcholine (ACh), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), activities of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and catalase (CAT) were evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The neural apoptosis and autophagy were determined by TUNEL staining and LC3 staining, respectively.@*RESULTS@#ECH significantly lessened the brain infarct volume and ameliorated neurological deficit in infarct volume and water content (both P<0.01). Compared with MCAO rats, administration of ECH revealed shorter escape latency and long retention time at 7, 14 and 28 days (all P<0.01), increased the α7nAChR protein expression, ACh content, and ChAT activity, and decreased AChE activity in MCAO rats (all P<0.01). ECH significantly decreased MDA content and increased the GSH content, SOD, and CAT activities compared with MCAO rats (all P<0.05). ECH suppressed neuronal apoptosis by reducing TUNEL-positive cells and also enhanced autophagy in MCAO rats (all P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#ECH treatment helped improve cognitive impairment by attenuating neurological damage and enhancing autophagy in MCAO rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Acetylcholinesterase , Autophagy , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Cerebral Infarction , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Glutathione/metabolism , Glycosides , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Stroke/drug therapy , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor
16.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 567-574, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939772

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants have provided numerous medicinal active ingredients for thousands of years and these ingredients have been used in Chinese medicine (CM) and traditional pharmacologies worldwide. Recently, the exploitation and utilisation of medicinal plant resources has increased significantly. The results of the studies have led to the identification of many active components, such as steroidal alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, and glycosides, in various medicinal plants with different evolutionary levels. Moreover, research on the chemical classification, molecular phylogeny, and pharmacological activity of medicinal plants is increasing in popularity. Pharmacophylogeny is an interdisciplinary topic that studies the correlation between plant phylogeny, chemical composition, and curative effects (pharmacological activity and the traditional curative effect) of medicinal plants. In addition, it provides the basic tools to enable research and development of CM resources. This literature review, based on the genetic relationship between phytogroup and species, highlights the formation process, research content, applications, and future directions of pharmacophylogeny.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Glycosides , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Saponins , Terpenes
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 575-597, nov. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369745

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the antibacterial potential of Euphorbia hirtawhole plant extracts, honey and conventional antibiotics and their synergistic effects against selected multidrug resistant and typed bacterial strains associated with otitis media. E. hirtawhole plant extract was purified using column chromatography technique. The antibacterial assays of extracts were done using standard microbiological procedures. Protein, sodium and potassium ion leakage of the synergistic mixtures was determined using flame-photometry. At 100 mg/ml, acetone extracts presented highest inhibition against S. aureus (NCTC 6571) with 32 ± 0.83 mm zone of inhibition. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices displayed higher synergism in combination of plant extract, honey and ciprofloxacin against P. mirabilisat 0.02 compared to drug combination synergy standard (≤ 0.5). This work revealed augmentation of ciprofloxacin potency when combined with purified E. hirta acetone extract and honey and implies their high potential in the treatment of multidrug resistant infectionof otitis media.


Este estudio investigó el potencial antibacteriano de extractos de plantas enteras de Euphorbia hirta, miel y antibióticos convencionales y sus efectos sinérgicos contra cepas bacterianas seleccionadas multirresistentes y tipificadas asociadas con la otitis media. El extracto de la planta entera de E. hirtase purificó usando la técnica de cromatografía en columna. Los ensayos antibacterianos de extractos se realizaron utilizando procedimientos microbiológicos estándar. La fuga de iones de proteínas, sodio y potasio de las mezclas sinérgicas se determinó mediante fotometría de llama. A 100 mg/ml, los extractos de acetona presentaron la mayor inhibición contra S. aureus (NCTC 6571) con una zona de inhibición de 32 ± 0,83 mm. Los índices de concentración inhibitoria fraccional mostraron un mayor sinergismo en combinación de extracto de planta, miel y ciprofloxacina contra P. mirabilisa 0,02 en comparación con el estándar de sinergia de combinación de fármacos (≤ 0,5). Este trabajo reveló un aumento de la potencia de la ciprofloxacina cuando se combina con extracto de acetona purificado de E. hirtay miel e implica sualto potencial en el tratamiento de infecciones de otitis media resistentes a múltiples fármacos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otitis Media/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Euphorbia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Proteus mirabilis/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Terpenes/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Flame Emission Photometry , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Synergism , Glycosides/analysis , Honey , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e11028, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285653

ABSTRACT

Engeletin is a natural derivative of Smilax glabra rhizomilax that exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and suppresses lipid peroxidation. In the present study, we sought to elucidate the mechanistic basis for the neuroprotective and pro-angiogenic activity of engeltin in a human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model system and a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. These analyses revealed that engeletin (10, 20, or 40 mg/kg) was able to reduce the infarct volume, increase cerebral blood flow, improve neurological function, and bolster the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vasohibin-2 (Vash-2), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), phosphorylated human angiopoietin receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (p-Tie2), and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) in MCAO rats. Similarly, engeletin (100, 200, or 400 nM) markedly enhanced the migration, tube formation, and VEGF expression of HUVECs in an OGD/R model system, while the VEGF receptor (R) inhibitor axitinib reversed the observed changes in HUVEC tube formation activity and Vash-2, VEGF, and CD31 expression. These data suggested that engeletin exhibited significant neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats, and improved cerebrovascular angiogenesis by modulating the VEGF/vasohibin and Ang-1/Tie-2 pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Endothelial Cells , Flavonols , Angiopoietin-1 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Glycosides
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6178-6184, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921775

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents of the flower buds of Buddleja officinalis were investigated in this study. Eight compounds were isolated from the water extract of B. officinalis by column chromatography, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. These compounds were identified as(Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-xylcopyranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside(1), ebracteatoside B(2), jasmonic acid-11-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(3), 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(4), luteolin-7-O-galacturonide(5), vicenin-2(6), decaffeoylverbascoside(7), and 6-O-(E)-feruloyl-D-glucopyranoside(8). Compound 1 is a new 3-hexenol glycoside. Compounds 2, 3, and 6 were isolated from Buddleja genus for the first time, and compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from this plant for the first time.


Subject(s)
Buddleja , Cardiac Glycosides , Glycosides , Plant Extracts
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5953-5957, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921718

ABSTRACT

An UPLC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously determine complanatoside A and complanatoside B in rat plasma with rutin as the internal standard and applied to examine the effect of salt-processing on pharmacokinetics of these two flavonoid glycosides. The pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using DAS 3.2.6 and subjected to independent sample t-test with SPSS 23.0. No significant difference in T_(max) of complanatoside B was observed between the raw and processed groups; however, in the processed group, C_(max) and AUC_(0-12 h) of complanatoside B increased obviously(P<0.05), while MRT_(0-12 h) decreased from(3.34±0.44) h to(1.81±0.36) h(P<0.05). C_(max) [(14.72±11.13) μg·L~(-1)] and MRT_(0-24) [(3.93±0.26) h] of complanatoside A in the raw group were statistically different from those [(35.64±21.99) μg·L~(-1),(1.43±0.24) h] in the processed group(P<0.05). As a result, salt-processing can facilitate the in vivo adsorption and accelerate the excretion of complanatoside A and complanatoside B.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Astragalus Plant , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Glycosides , Semen , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
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