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1.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1899-1904, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010057

ABSTRACT

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the major complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), which seriously affects the prognosis of patients. At present, a new regimen of post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) combined with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has been used to prevent GVHD, indicating that PTCy combined with ATG may have a good effect on the prevention of GVHD in different types of transplantation. However, the mechanism of this regimen, its effect on immune reconstitution and viral reactivation still needs to be further studied. Therefore, this article briefly reviews the research progress of PTCy combined with ATG in preventing GVHD after HSCT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antilymphocyte Serum , Cyclophosphamide , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Transplantation, Homologous , Retrospective Studies
2.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 677-684, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the efficacy and safety of CLAE intensive chemotherapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in patients with relapsed/refractory acute leukemia (R/R AL).@*METHODS@#CLAE regimen [cladribine 5 mg/(m2·d), d 1-5; cytarabine 1.5 g/(m2·d), d 1-5; etoposide 100 mg/(m2·d), d 3-5] followed by allo-HSCT was used to treat 3 R/R AL patients. The patients received CLAE chemotherapy in relapsed or refractory status and underwent bone marrow puncture to judge myelodysplastic state. After an interval of 3 to 5 days, followed by preconditioning regimen for allo-HSCT [fludarabine 30 mg/(m2·d), d -7 to d -3; busulfan 0.8 mg/kg q6h, d -6 to d -3 or d -5 to d -2. If the bone marrow hyperplasia was not active and the blasts were less than 10%, busulfan should be used for 3 days. If the bone marrow hyperplasia was active and the blasts were more than 10%, busulfan should be used for 4 days]. Cyclosporin A, mycophenolate mofetil and short-term methotrexate were used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prevention. After transplantation, the status of minimal residual disease (MRD) and bone marrow chimerism were regularly monitored in all 3 patients, and demethylation drugs or dasatinib were used to prevent recurrence 3 months after transplantation.@*RESULTS@#2 patients with t(11;19) translocation and relapse/refractory acute myeloid leukemia recurred within 6 months after induction of remission, and received intensive chemotherapy with CLAE regimen followed by haploidentical allo-HSCT and unrelated donor allo-HSCT, respectively. The two patients both relapsed 6 months after transplantation, then achieved complete remission by donor lymphocyte infusion, interferon, interleukin-2 and other methods, and disease-free survival was 2 years after transplantation. The other patient was chronic myelogenous leukemia who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia during oral administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitor, accompanied by T315I and E255K mutations in ABL1 kinase region and additional chromosomal abnormalities. After morphological remission by induction chemotherapy, central nervous system leukemia was complicated. Intensive chemotherapy with CLAE regimen followed by sibling allo-HSCT was performed in the positive state of MRD. The patient relapsed 3 months after transplantation, and achieved remission after chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy, however, he died 5 months after transplantation because of severe cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and GVHD.@*CONCLUSION@#CLAE regimen followed by allo-HSCT may be an effective salvage treatment option for R/R AL patients to prolong the overall survival.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Busulfan/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/etiology , Acute Disease , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control
3.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 826-832, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985993

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the efficacy and safety of letermovir in primary prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in patients receiving haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods: This retrospective, cohort study was conducted using data of patients who underwent haploidentical transplantation at Peking University Institute of Hematology and received letermovir for primary prophylaxis between May 1, 2022 and August 30, 2022. The inclusion criteria of the letermovir group were as follows: letermovir initiation within 30 days after transplantation and continuation for≥90 days after transplantation. Patients who underwent haploidentical transplantation within the same time period but did not receive letermovir prophylaxis were selected in a 1∶4 ratio as controls. The main outcomes were the incidence of CMV infection and CMV disease after transplantation as well as the possible effects of letermovir on acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and bone marrow suppression. Categorical variables were analyzed by chi-square test, and continuous variables were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for evaluating incidence differences. Results: Seventeen patients were included in the letermovir prophylaxis group. The median patient age in the letermovir group was significantly greater than that in the control group (43 yr vs. 15 yr; Z=-4.28, P<0.001). The two groups showed no significant difference in sex distribution and primary diseases, etc. (all P>0.05). The proportion of CMV-seronegative donors was significantly higher in the letermovir prophylaxis group in comparison with the control group (8/17 vs. 0/68, χ2=35.32, P<0.001). Three out of the 17 patients in the letermovir group experienced CMV reactivation, which was significantly lower than the incidence of CMV reactivation in the control group (3/17 vs. 40/68, χ2=9.23, P=0.002), and no CMV disease development observed in the letermovir group. Letermovir showed no significant effects on platelet engraftment (P=0.105), aGVHD (P=0.348), and 100-day NRM (P=0.474). Conclusions: Preliminary data suggest that letermovir may effectively reduce the incidence of CMV infection after haploidentical transplantation without influencing aGVHD, NRM, and bone marrow suppression. Prospective randomized controlled studies are required to further verify these findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytomegalovirus , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Recurrence , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 351-356, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985875

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), and to analyze the factors related to the outcomes. Methods: The clinical data of 60 children with WAS received HSCT in Shanghai Children's Medical Center from January 2006 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. All cases were treated with a myeloablative conditioning regimen with busulfan and cyclophosphamide, and a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prevention regimen based on cyclosporine and methotrexate. Implantation, GVHD, transplant-related complications, immune reconstitution and survival rate were observed. Survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method, and Log-Rank method was used for univariate comparison. Results: The 60 male patients had main clinical features as infection and bleeding. The age at diagnosis was 0.4 (0.3, 0.8) years, and the age at transplantation was 1.1 (0.6, 2.1) years. There were 20 cases of human leukocyte antigen matched transplantation and 40 mismatched transplantation; 35 patients received peripheral blood HSCT, and 25 cord blood HSCT. All cases were fully implanted. The incidence of acute GVHD (aGVHD) was 48% (29/60) and only 2 (7%) developed aGVHD of grade Ⅲ; the incidence of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 23% (13/56), and all cases were limited. The incidence of CMV and EBV infection was 35% (21/60) and 33% (20/60) respectively; and 7 patients developed CMV retinitis. The incidence of sinus obstruction syndrome was 8% (5/60), of whom 2 patients died. There were 7 cases (12%) of autoimmune hemocytopenia after transplantation. Natural killer cells were the earliest to recover after transplantation, and B cells and CD4+T cells returned to normal at about 180 days post HSCT. The 5-year overall survival rate (OS) of this group was 93% (95%CI 86%-99%), and the event free survial rate (EFS) was 87% (95%CI 78%-95%). EFS of non-CMV reactivation group is higher than that of CMV reactivation group (95% (37/39) vs.71% (15/21), χ2=5.22, P=0.022). Conclusions: The therapeutic efficacy of HSCT for WAS is satisfying, and the early application of HSCT in typical cases can achieve better outcome. CMV infection is the main factor affecting disease-free survival rate, which can be improved by strengthening the management of complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Retrospective Studies , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome/therapy , China , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Transplantation Conditioning
5.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 465-471, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984645

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a second allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) in patients with hematological malignancies who had relapsed after the first allo-HSCT. Methods: Between April 2018 and June 2021, 44 patients with hematological malignancies (B-ALL 23, T-ALL/T-LBL 4, AML15, and MDS 2) were enrolled and retrospectively examined. Unrelated donors (n=12) or haploidentical donors (n=32) were used. Donors were replaced in all patients for the second allo-HSCT. Hematological and immunological germline predisposition genes and hematopoietic and immune function tests were used to select the best-related donor. Total body irradiation (TBI) /fludarabine (FLU) -based (n=38), busulfan (BU) /FLU-based (n=4), total marrow irradiation (TMI) /FLU-based (n=1), and BU/cladribine-based (n=1) were the RIC regimens used. For graft versus host disease (GVHD) prevention, cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, short-term methotrexate, and ATG were used. Eighteen (40.9%) of 44 patients with gene variations for which targeted medications are available underwent post-transplant maintenance therapy. Results: The median age was 25 years old (range: 7-55). The median interval between the first and second HSCT was 19.5 months (range: 6-77). Before the second allo-HSCT, 33 (75%) of the patients were in complete remission (CR), whereas 11 (25%) were not. All patients had long-term engraftment. The grade Ⅱ-Ⅳ GVHD and severe acute GVHD rates were 20.5% and 9.1%, respectively. Chronic GVHD was found in 20.5% of limited patterns and 22.7% of severe patterns. CMV and EBV reactivation rates were 29.5% and 6.8%, respectively. Hemorrhage cystitis occurred in 15.9% of cases, grade Ⅰ or Ⅱ. The 1-yr disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and cumulative recurrence incidence (RI) rates of all patients were 72.5% (95% CI, 54.5%-84.3%), 80.6% (95% CI, 63.4%-90.3%), and 25.1% (95% CI, 13.7%-43.2%), respectively, with a median follow-up of 14 (2-39) months. There were eight deaths (seven relapses and one infection). The rate of non-relapse mortality (NRM) was only 2.3%. The CR patients' 1-yr RI rate was significantly lower than the NR patients (16.8% vs 48.1%, P=0.026). The DFS rate in CR patients was greater than in NR patients, although there was no statistical difference (79.9% vs 51.9%, P=0.072). Univariate analysis revealed that CR before the second allo-HSCT was an important prognostic factor. Conclusion: With our RIC regimens, donor change, and post-transplant maintenance therapy, the second allo-HSCT in relapsed hematological malignancies after the first allo-HSCT is a safe and effective treatment with high OS and DFS and low NRM and relapse rate. The most important factor influencing the prognosis of the second allo-HSCT is the patient's illness condition before the transplant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Busulfan/therapeutic use , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Chronic Disease , Unrelated Donors , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Transplantation, Homologous , Transplantation Conditioning
6.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1531-1536, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010004

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of chemotherapy combined with venetoclax followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for the treatment of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 3 patients with BPDCN undergoing allo-HSCT in Department of Hematology, Wuhan First Hospital from July 2017 to November 2021 were collected and retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among the 3 patients, there were 1 male and 2 females, aged 27-52 years old. Skin lesions were observed during initial diagnosis, and it could also be characterized by acute leukemia. Characteristic molecular markers of tumor cells, such as CD4, CD56, CD123, and CD303 were positive. In addition, the expression detection of Bcl-2 in 3 patients were positive. Chemotherapy combined with venetoclax in the initial induction of chemotherapy (1 case) or disease recurrence and progress (2 cases) was performed. There were 2 cases evaluated as complete remission (CR) and 1 case as partial remission (PR) before allo-HSCT. The patients all received a nonmyeloablative conditioning without total body irradiation (TBI). The prevention programme of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was antithymocyte globulin + mycophenolate mofetil + cyclosporin A/FK506 ± methotrexate. The number of mononuclear cell (MNC) count was (16.73-18.35)×108/kg, and CD34+ cell count was (3.57-4.65)×106/kg. The 3 patients were evaluated as CR after allo-HSCT (+21 to +28 d), the donor-recipient chimerism rate was 100%, and Ⅲ-Ⅳ GVHD was not observed. One patient died at +50 d after transplantation, two patients were followed up for 28 months and 15 months, respectively, and achieved disease-free survival (DFS).@*CONCLUSIONS@#BPDCN is a highly aggressive malignant tumor with poor prognosis. Chemotherapy combined with venetoclax followed by allo-HSCT may lead to long-term DFS or even cure. Post-transplant maintenance is still unclear.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Acute Disease , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Myeloproliferative Disorders , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology , Dendritic Cells
7.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 635-642, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the clinical effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in children with hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 17 children with HIGM who received allo-HSCT. The Kaplan Meier method was used for the survival analysis of the children with HIGM after allo-HSCT.@*RESULTS@#After allo-HSCT, 16 children were diagnosed with sepsis; 14 tested positive for virus within 100 days after allo-HSCT, among whom 11 were positive for Epstein-Barr virus, 7 were positive for cytomegalovirus, and 2 were positive for JC virus; 9 children were found to have invasive fungal disease. There were 6 children with acute graft-versus-host disease and 3 children with chronic graft-versus-host disease. The median follow-up time was about 2 years, and 3 children died in the early stage after allo-HSCT. The children had an overall survival (OS) rate of 82.35%, an event-free survival (EFS) rate of 70.59%, and a disease-free survival (DFS) rate of 76.47%. The univariate analysis showed that the children receiving HLA-matched allo-HSCT had a significantly higher EFS rate than those receiving HLA-mismatched allo-HSCT (P=0.019) and that the children receiving HLA-matched unrelated allo-HSCT had significantly higher OS, EFS, and DFS rates than those receiving HLA-mismatched unrelated allo-HSCT (P<0.05). Compared with the children with fungal infection after allo-HSCT, the children without fungal infection had significantly higher EFS rate (P=0.02) and DFS rate (P=0.04).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Allo-HSCT is an effective treatment method for children with HIGM. HLA-matched allo-HSCT and active prevention and treatment of fungal infection and opportunistic infection may help to improve the prognosis of such children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Hyper-IgM Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Retrospective Studies
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 600-606, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of intestinal acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in children and futher evaluate the occurring risk factors.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 136 patients undergoing allo-HSCT in Wuhan Children's Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College from August 2016 to August 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, clinical characteristics of children with intestinal aGVHD were observed. The risk factors of intestinal aGVHD were assessed by logistic regression while cumulative survival were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method.@*RESULTS@#Among 136 patients intestinal aGVHD occurred in 24 (17.6%) cases, with 4 cases of grade II, 20 cases of grade III-IV, and the median occurrence time was 28(10-63) days. The clinical manifestations were diarrhea with intermittent abdominal pain, 17 cases with nausea and vomiting, 11 cases with fresh bloody stool, and 8 cases with skin rash before intestinal aGVHD. The average time for treatment was 33(11-100) days. 18 cases received electronic colonoscopy and histopathology examination. 20 out of 24 cases achieved remission after treatment, and the total effective rate was 83.3%. Finally, 9 out of 24 cases died during the follow-up time. Survival analysis showed that the cumulative survival rate of patients with intestinal aGVHD (15/24, 62.5%) were significantly lower than those without intestinal aGVHD (101/112, 90.2%) (Log-rank test, P=0.001). Univariate analysis showed that recipient age, sex, primary disease, donor age, donor sex, donor-recipient blood type, conditioning regimen, prophylaxis of GVHD, dosage of ATG, engraft time of blood platelet and neutrophils, and number of MNC/CD34+ were not risk factors for intestinal aGVHD (P>0.05). Only the type of HSCT (χ2=16.020, P=0.001) and matched degree of HLA (χ2=15.502, P=0.001) had statistical significance with intestinal aGVHD (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that only HLA-mismatched unrelated donor was the risk factor for intestinal aGVHD for children (P=0.014,OR=16,95%CI 1.735-147.543).@*CONCLUSION@#Intestinal aGVHD is a risk factor for cumulative survial of patients who received allo-HSCT in children and HLA-mismatched unrelated donor is its independent risk factor.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Acute Disease , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tissue Donors
9.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(3): 303-308, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346266

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a serious complication in allogeneic transplantation. The first-line treatment is high doses of corticosteroids. In the absence of response to corticosteroids, several immunosuppressive drugs can be used, but they entail an elevated risk of severe infections. Added to this, there are patients who do not improve on any immunosuppressive treatment, with subsequent deteriorated quality of life and high mortality. Ruxolitinib has been shown to induce responses in refractory patients. In this study we have presented our real-life experience. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with severe GVHD refractory to corticosteroids. Demographic, previous treatment, response and mortality data were collected. Results: Since 2014, seventeen patients with GVHD were treated with ruxolitinib due to refractoriness to corticosteroids and immunosuppressants and a few to extracorporeal photopheresis, 8 with acute GVHD (1 pulmonary, 4 cutaneous grade IV and 3 digestive grade IV) and 9 with chronic GHVD (5 cutaneous sclerodermiform, 2 pulmonary and 1 multisystemic). The overall response to ruxolitinib treatment for acute GVHD was 80%, 40% with partial response and 40% with complete remission. Global response in chronic GVHD was 79%. The GVHD mortality was only seen in acute disease and was 40%. Causes of mortality in those patients were severe viral pneumonia, post-transplantation hemophagocytic syndrome and meningeal GVHD refractory to ruxolitinib. Conclusions: In our series, the use of ruxolitinib as a rescue strategy in acute or chronic GVHD was satisfactory. Ruxolitinib treatment in patients with a very poor prognosis showed encouraging results. However, the GVHD mortality remains high in refractory patients, showing that better therapeutic strategies are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Transplantation, Homologous , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Transfusion Reaction , Graft vs Host Disease/drug therapy
10.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 108-115, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880940

ABSTRACT

Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs has emerged as a promising strategy in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Improved survival rate was reported in lymphoid malignancies following PT-Cy strategy compared with myeloid disease in non-myeloablative bone marrow transplant setting. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of PT-Cy combined with cyclosporine as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after myeloablative conditioning and T cell-replete peripheral stem cell transplantation in lymphoid malignancies. This single-arm phase II clinical trial (NCT01435447) involving 31 adult patients was conducted from January 2013 to June 2018. The donor-type neutrophil engraftment rate was 100%, and the overall incidence of grade II to IV and grade III to IV acute GVHD was 39% and 24%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of chronic GVHD (35%), including moderate to severe forms (10%), were reduced compared with those of the historical group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). With a median follow-up of 18 months, the estimated 2-year overall and event-free survival was 64.8% (95% confidence interval: 47.8%-86.7%) and 58.4% (95% CI: 41.9%-81.7%), respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidence rate of relapse was 19.5% (95% CI: 9.0%-35.8%), whereas the non-relapse mortality rate was 21.8% (95% CI: 11.3%-38.1%). These results demonstrated the feasibility of PT-Cy as GVHD prophylaxis in this clinical setting. This strategy could significantly reduce the incidence of chronic GVHD and its moderate to severe forms but not of acute GVHD and results in similar survival outcomes compared with the historical group. A prospective study with additional patients is warranted to confirm the role of PT-Cy in lymphoid malignancy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Busulfan/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Neoplasms , Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Prospective Studies , Transplantation Conditioning , Vidarabine/analogs & derivatives
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(2): e5566, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839257

ABSTRACT

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and cytomegalovirus reactivation are important complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). Here, we evaluated the impact of treatment with alemtuzumab on the occurrence of aGVHD, cytomegalovirus reactivation and survival after alloHSCT. This was a prospective cohort study conducted at the allo-HSCT unit of Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil, from January 2009 to December 2011. Fifty-seven patients who underwent alloHSCT were included. Forty-five (79%) patients had a malignant disease. Alemtuzumab was administered before the conditioning regimen at a dose of 1 mg/kg in children and 30 mg/day for 2 days in adults or children weighing more than 40 kg (a total dose of 60 mg) with a non-malignant disease or patients with a malignant disease and high-risk for GVHD mortality. Alemtuzumab was used in 23 (40%) patients, of whom 17 received a reduced-intensity conditioning. Eleven patients presented aGVHD (grade 2–4) and only 1 of them received alemtuzumab. Cumulative incidence of aGVHD (grade 2–4) at day 100 after transplantation (D+100) was 4 for patients receiving alemtuzumab and 29% for patients not receiving alemtuzumab. Cumulative incidence of cytomegalovirus reactivation for patients receiving or not alemtuzumab was 62 and 38%, respectively. Sixteen patients died in the first 100 days after alloHSCT, most of them due to bacterial sepsis. Only 2 patients died of aGVHD until D+100. Overall survival was 50% without any impact of alemtuzumab. Alemtuzumab effectively controlled aGVHD but increased the risk of cytomegalovirus reactivation without improving survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Alemtuzumab , Cytomegalovirus/physiology , Disease-Free Survival , Graft vs Host Disease/virology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Transplantation, Homologous , Virus Activation/drug effects
12.
Clinics ; 71(9): 544-549, Sept. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794646

ABSTRACT

Post-transplant complications such as graft-versus-host disease and graft ischemia-reperfusion injury are crucial challenges in transplantation. Hydrogen can act as a potential antioxidant, playing a preventive role against post-transplant complications in animal models of multiple organ transplantation. Herein, the authors review the current literature regarding the effects of hydrogen on graft ischemia-reperfusion injury and graft-versus-host disease. Existing data on the effects of hydrogen on ischemia-reperfusion injury related to organ transplantation are specifically reviewed and coupled with further suggestions for future work. The reviewed studies showed that hydrogen (inhaled or dissolved in saline) improved the outcomes of organ transplantation by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation at both the transplanted organ and the systemic levels. In conclusion, a substantial body of experimental evidence suggests that hydrogen can significantly alleviate transplantation-related ischemia-reperfusion injury and have a therapeutic effect on graft-versus-host disease, mainly via inhibition of inflammatory cytokine secretion and reduction of oxidative stress through several underlying mechanisms. Further animal experiments and preliminary human clinical trials will lay the foundation for hydrogen use as a drug in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Hydrogen/therapeutic use , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Cytokines/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 75(4): 201-206, Aug. 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841495

ABSTRACT

We have retrospectively reviewed 137 medical records of patients older than 50 years receiving an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between January 1997 and July 2013. Median follow up was 1.3 years. Sex, age, diagnosis, disease stage, comorbidities (according to HCT-CI score), type of donor, histocompatibility, conditioning regimen and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis were evaluated. The incidence and severity of acute and chronic GVHD, overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), non-relapse mortality (NRM) and relapse were investigated according those variables. Acute GVHD incidence was 41% (7.3% GIII-IV). Patients with acute myeloid leukemia had lesser aGVH GII-IV (14% vs. 35%, p < 0.01) comparing to the entire population. Extensive cGVHD incidence was 9.4%. Global OS 1-3 years was 44-20%, DFS 33-20%, relapse 35-41% and NRM 36-43% respectively. The presence of comorbidities showed a significant increase in NRM (CT-CI 0 vs. 1 vs ≥ 2: 1-3 years 17-24% vs. 40-46% vs. 45-67%, p = 0.001, MA HR 2.03, CI 95% 1.02-5.29), as well as cyclosporine vs. tacrolimus (1-3 years 47-53% vs. 25-36%, p = 0.01). Tacrolimus patients had higher 1-3 years OS (49-25% vs. 31-13%, p = 0.01) and DFS (41-26% vs. 20-11%, p < 0.01). Age, type of donor and myeloablative conditioning showed no significant differences in any outcome. Allogeneic HSCT is a valid therapeutic option for older patients in Argentina. The main risk factor for a significantly increased NRM and a trend to inferior OS was the number of comorbidities. Age was not a factor for a worse result. The other factor having a significant effect in better outcome was tacrolimus administration.


Se efectuó un análisis retrospectivo de 137 historias clínicas de pacientes mayores de 50 años que recibieron un trasplante alogénico de precursores hematopoyéticos (TAPH). Se evaluaron las siguientes características: sexo, edad, enfermedad, estadio, comorbilidades (según el HCT-CI), donante, acondicionamiento e inmunosupresión. Se analizó la incidencia de enfermedad injerto vs. huésped aguda (aEICH) y crónica (cEICH), supervivencia global (SG), supervivencia libre de enfermedad (SLE), recaída y mortalidad libre de enfermedad (MLE). Los trasplantes fueron realizados entre 1997-2013, mediana de seguimiento 1.3 años. La incidencia de aEICH fue de 41% (7.3% GIII-IV). Los pacientes con leucemia mieloide aguda presentaron menor incidencia de EICHa GII-IV (14% vs. 34%, p < 0.01). La incidencia de EICHc extenso fue de 9.4%. La SG a 1-3 años fue 44-20%, SLE 33-20%, recaída 35-41% y la MLE 36-43%. Los pacientes con comorbilidades tuvieron un aumento significativo de la MLE (HCT-CI 0 vs. 1 vs. ≥2: 1-3 años 17-24% vs. 40-46% vs. 45-67%, p = 0.001, AMV HR 2.03, IC 95% 1.02-5.29), al igual que el uso de ciclosporina vs. tacrolimus (1-3 años 47-53% vs. 25-36%, p = 0.01). Los pacientes que recibieron tacrolimus tuvieron una mayor SG (1-3 años 49-25% vs. 31-13%, p = 0.01) y SLE (1-3 años 41-26% vs. 20-11%, p < 0.01). La edad, tipo de donante y acondicionamiento no resultaron significativos para ningún evento. El TAPH es una herramienta terapéutica válida en pacientes mayores. Los factores pronósticos que inciden mayormente en el trasplante son las comorbilidades y no la edad. El otro factor que demostró un efecto significativo fue el uso de tacrolimus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/mortality , Graft vs Host Disease/mortality , Time Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-8, 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, which include thymus-derived and peripherally induced cells, play a central role in immune regulation, and are therefore crucial to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The increasing use of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for elderly patients with thymus regression, and our case of allo-HSCT shortly after total thymectomy, raised questions about the activity of thymus-derived Treg cells and peripherally induced Treg cells, which are otherwise indistinguishable. RESULTS: We found that despite pre-transplant thymectomy or older age, both naïve and effector Treg cells, as well as naïve and effector conventional T cells, proliferated in allo-HSCT recipients. Higher proportions of total Treg cells 1 month post allo-HSCT, and naïve Treg cells 1 year post allo-HSCT, appeared in patients achieving complete chimera without developing significant chronic GVHD, including our thymectomized patient, compared with patients who developed chronic GVHD. CONCLUSIONS: Treg cells that modulate human allogeneic immunity may arise peripherally as well as in the thymus of allo-HSCT recipients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Thymectomy , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Transplantation, Homologous , Age Factors , Graft vs Host Disease/immunology
15.
Dermatol. peru ; 22(4): 161-170, oct.-dic. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-712844

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad injerto versus huésped (EIVH) es una entidad de frecuente presentación en las personas que son intervenidas con alotrasplantes. Es inducida y mantenida por las células inmunocompetentes del injerto, que atacan los tejidos del huésped; especialmente los epitelios. El diagnóstico de la EIVH es clínico, apoyado en la histopatología, pero esta, por sí misma, no permite diagnosticar la entidad. La primera línea de tratamiento de la EIVH continúan siendo los esteroides sistémicos y ante refractariedad para estos, aparecen nuevas terapéuticas que resultan efectivas en casos reportados en la literatura, sin que aún se hayan podido definir guías de manejo para este tipo de pacientes. Se necesita realizar estudios de terapéutica en pacientes refractarios a esteroides para poder concluir al respecto.


Graft versus host disease is a condition of frequent occurrence in people who are implanted with allogeneic transplants. The diagnosis is clinical, supported by histopathology, but this, by itself does not make a diagnosis. The first line of treatment for this entity are systemic steroids. For the patient refractory to systemic steroids, new therapeutics that could be useful are reported, but not yet defined its use and none were superior to steroids. Studies are needed to define the approach to the patient refractory to steroids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Graft vs Host Disease/classification , Graft vs Host Disease/diagnosis , Graft vs Host Disease/history , Graft vs Host Disease/pathology , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Graft vs Host Disease/therapy , Epithelium , Lymphocytes
17.
São Paulo med. j ; 127(5): 251-258, Sept. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-538376

ABSTRACT

Context and objective: Non-myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (NMA-HSCT) is performed in onco-hematological patients who cannot tolerate ablative conditioning because of older age or comorbidities. This approach does not completely eliminate host cells and initially results in mixed chimerism. Long-term persistence of mixed chimerism results in graft rejection and relapse. Involvement of graft-versus-host disease is concomitant with complete chimerism and graft-versus-tumor effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of chimerism in onco-hematological patients who underwent NMA-HSCT. Desingn and setting: Observational clinical study on chimerism status after human leukocyte antigen-identical NMA-HSCT at the Discipline of Hematology and Hemotherapy of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Methods: We sequentially analyzed the amplification of APO-B, D1S80, DxS52, FVW, 33.6, YNZ-2 and H-ras primers using variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) on 17 pairs and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with the XY probe and SRY primer on 13 sex-unmatched pairs. RESULTS: The informativeness of the primers using VNTR was 60 percent for APO-B, 75 percent D1S80, 36 percent DxS52, 14 percent FVW, 40 percent YNZ-22 and 16 percent H-ras. The SRY primer was informative in female receptors with male donors. The XY-FISH method was informative in 100 percent of the sex-unmatched pairs. Conclusion: These methods were sensitive and informative. In VNTR, the association of APO-B with D1S80 showed 88 percent informativeness. The quantitative FISH method was more sensitive, but had the disadvantage of only being used for sex-unmatched pairs.


Contexto e objetivo: O transplante de células hematopoiéticas não-mieloablativo é realizado em pacientes com doenças onco-hematológicas que não suportam condicionamentos ablativos devido à elevada idade ou ao acometimento por comorbidades. Esta abordagem não elimina completamente as células do hospedeiro, resultando, inicialmente, em quimerismo misto. A persistência do quimerismo misto na evolução de longo prazo resulta na rejeição ao enxerto e recaída. O acometimento pela doença do enxerto contra hospedeiro é concomitante ao quimerismo completo e ao efeito enxerto versus tumor. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência do quimerismo em doenças onco-hematológicas tratadas com o transplante não-mieloablativo de células hematopoiéticas. Tipo de estudo e local: Estudo clínico observacional do estado de quimerismo após transplante antígenos leucocitários humanos-idêntico não-mieloabaltivo realizado na Disciplina de Hematologia e Hemoterapia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Métodos: Analisamos sequencialmente a amplificação dos primers APO-B, D1S80, DxS52, FVW, 33,6, YNZ-22, H-ras pelo VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) em 17 pares e FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) pela sonda XY e do primer SRY em 13 pares de não relacionados a sexo. Resultado: A informatividade dos primers pelo VNTR foi de 60 por cento para APO-B; 75 por cento D1S80; 36 por cento DxS52; 14 por cento FVW; 40 por cento YNZ-22 e 16 por cento H-ras. O primer SRY foi informativo em receptores femininos com doadores masculinos. O método XY-FISH foi informativo em 100 por cento dos pares de não relacionado a sexo. Conclusão: Estes métodos foram sensíveis e informativos. No VNTR, a associação do APO-B com D1S80 mostrou 88 por cento de informatividade. O FISH, método quantitativo, foi mais sensível, porém com desvantagem de ser usado somente nos pares não relacionados a sexo.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Graft vs Host Disease/genetics , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Multiple Myeloma/surgery , Transplantation Chimera/genetics , Epidemiologic Methods , Gene Amplification/genetics , Genetic Markers , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Minisatellite Repeats
18.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 252-262, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The bone marrow functions not only as the primary B-lymphocyte-producing organ but also as a secondary lymphoid organ for CD4 and CD8 cell responses and a site of preferential homing and persistence for memory T cells. Bone marrow T (BM-T) cells are distinguished from peripheral blood T cells by surface phenotype, cytokine secretion profile, and immune functions. In this study, we evaluated the alloreactive potential of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) using BM-T cells in mixed chimerism compared to that using spleen T (SP-T) cells. METHODS: Cells were prepared using established procedures. BM-T cells were obtained as a by-product of T-cell depletion in BM grafting and then cryopreserved for subsequent DLI. We performed DLI using BM-T cells in allogeneic mixed chimera mice on post-BMT day 21. RESULTS: When the same dose of T cells, 5-10x10(5) (Thy1.2+), fractionated from BM and spleen were administered into mixed chimeras, the BM-T group showed complete chimeric conversion, with self-limited graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and no pathological changes. However, the SP-T group showed persistent mixed chimerism, with pathological signs of GVHD in the liver and intestine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that DLI using BM-T cells, even in small numbers, is more potent at inducing chimeric conversion in mixed chimerism than DLI using SP-T cells. Further study is needed to determine whether cryopreserved BM-T cells are an effective cell source for DLI to consolidate donor-dominant chimerism in clinical practice without concerns about GVHD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Bone Marrow Cells/physiology , Bone Marrow Transplantation , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Lymphocyte Transfusion , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spleen/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/physiology , Tissue Donors , Transplantation Chimera , Transplantation, Homologous
19.
Acta Medica Iranica. 2008; 46 (2): 109-114
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-85582

ABSTRACT

Hematopoietic cell transplantation [HCT] is an accepted treatment for acute myeloid leukemia [AML] in first remission, the treatment of choice for chronic myeloid leukemia [CML] and high risk groups of ALL who relapse with conventional chemotherapy. We assessed results of HCT for pediatric leukemia in our center. A total of 92 children, 63 with diagnose of AML, 23 with ALL and 6 with CML received allogeneic transplantation from HLA full matched siblings [57.6%] and autologous transplantation [42.4%]. Source of hematopoietic cells were peripheral blood 83.7%, bone marrow 15.2% and cord blood 1.6%. The median transplanted nucleated cells were 6.4 +/- 4.7 X 10[8] /Kg [body weight of patients] and mononuclear cells were 5.5 +/- 2.9 X 10[8]/Kg. The most common conditioning regimens were cyclophosphamide + busulfan. Prophylaxis regimen for GVHD was cyclosporin +/- methotrexate. GVHD occurred in 50 [54.3%] patients. Eighty five of children had engraftment, 26 [28.6%] relapsed and 57 [62%] are alive. The most common cause of death was relapse [68.6%]. Five years overall survival of patients with AML and ALL were 49% and 44% respectively and disease free survival of them were 52% and 49%. One year overall survival and disease free survival of CML was 57%. Overall survival increased with increasing age of patients at transplantation time [P = 0.06]. Longer survival significantly related to earlier WBC and platelet recovery [P < 0.0001 and P = 0.006 respectively]. Considering acceptable overall and disease free survival of patients after HCT, we concluded that is a good modality in treatment of leukemia of children


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Leukemia/therapy , Child , Transplantation, Homologous , Transplantation, Autologous , Cyclophosphamide , Cyclophosphamide , Graft vs Host Disease/epidemiology , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
20.
J. bras. pneumol ; 33(1): 36-42, jan.-fev. 2007. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-452349

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados da espirometria de pacientes submetidos a transplante de medula óssea e verificar sua importância na detecção de complicações pulmonares e sua correlação com a evolução dos pacientes. MÉTODOS:Foram analisados retrospectivamente os resultados da espirometria em 120 pacientes, maiores de doze anos, de ambos os sexos, e comparados com o tipo de transplante de medula óssea, doença de base, sorologia para citomegalovírus, fonte de células para o transplante, tabagismo, infecção pulmonar, doença pulmonar prévia, duração da doença hematológica, quimioterapia utilizada, regime de condicionamento, doença do enxerto contra o hospedeiro aguda e crônica e óbito. RESULTADOS: Dezesseis pacientes apresentaram alterações da espirometria antes do transplante, sendo 5 por cento com obstrução pura, 5,8 por cento com restrição pura e 2,5 por cento com obstrução com redução da capacidade vital. Após o transplante 29 pacientes apresentaram alterações desses exames. A chance de alteração da espirometria foi maior nos pacientes com doença do enxerto contra o hospedeiro aguda (p = 0,02), idade menor que 30 anos (p = 0,02), sexo feminino (p = 0,02) e naqueles que receberam células tronco (p = 0,01). As presenças de doença pulmonar prévia e doença do enxerto contra o hospedeiro crônica associaram-se com aumento da mortalidade. Alterações prévias da espirometria não estiveram relacionadas com o óbito pós-transplante. CONCLUSÃO: As alterações detectadas na espirometria não foram capazes de predizer a ocorrência de complicações pulmonares e óbito pós-transplantes. Também não foram determinantes para a não realização do procedimento. A espirometria simples realizada na avaliação desses pacientes parece ter pouca importância prática.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spirometry findings in patients undergoing bone marrow transplant, determining the importance of such findings in predicting postoperative pulmonary complications and looking for correlations with postoperative outcomes. METHODS:The spirometry findings in 120 male and female patients, all above the age of 12, were evaluated retrospectively and compared in terms of the following parameters: the type of bone marrow transplant; the underlying disease; cytomegalovirus serology; source of the transplanted cells; smoking; pulmonary infection; history of lung disease; duration of the hematological disease; chemotherapy employed; conditioning regimen; acute or chronic rejection of the transplant; and post-operative mortality. RESULTS: In the pre-operative spirometry, 16 patients (13.3 percent) presented alterations: 6 (5 percent) presented pure obstruction; 7 (5.8 percent) presented pure restriction; and 3 (2.5 percent) presented obstruction accompanied by a reduction in vital capacity. In the post-operative spirometry, 29 patients (24.2 percent) presented alterations. The chance of presenting post-operative spirometry alterations was greater in patients presenting acute transplant rejection (p = 0.02), patients older than 30 (p = 0.02), female patients (p = 0.02) and patients receiving stem cells (p = 0.01). Having a history of lung disease was found to be associated with greater mortality, as was suffering from chronic transplant rejection. No relationship was found between pre-operative spirometry alterations and post-operative mortality. CONCLUSION: In bone marrow transplant patients, the alterations found through pre-operative spirometry were not predictive of post-operative pulmonary complications or mortality. Nor were such alterations determinant of whether or not a given patient was a good candidate for bone marrow transplant. Simple spirometry seems to be of little practical importance in the evaluation of such patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Bone Marrow Transplantation/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/etiology , Spirometry , Bone Marrow Transplantation/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Clinical Protocols , Epidemiologic Methods , Graft vs Host Disease/diagnosis , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Postoperative Period , Preoperative Care , Vital Capacity
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