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1.
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 35jan. 31, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451617

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Brazilian universities receive annually thousands of young people who experience situations of vulnerability to the human immunodeficiency virus, sexually transmitted infections, and viral hepatitis. Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyze the secondary data obtained from the attendance record of the rapid testing campaign for these health problems at a federal university in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 2019. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with secondary data of students (n=1,113) obtained from the standard attendance form by the Ministry of Health during the campaigns Fique Sabendo (Be Aware) in the period between November 25 and 29, 2019. Analyses were performed with the support of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program, with the calculation of absolute and relative frequencies. Pearson's chi-square test (5%) was used for comparison. Results: The results revealed a young, heterosexual, white profile. More than half reported having consumed alcohol and drugs in their lives. Other findings were the non-use of condoms with steady partners (18.1%) and occasional partners (21.3%), oral sex (86.8%), and unprotected sex in the last intercourse (45.6%). Most declared never being tested for human immunodeficiency virus (74.5%), syphilis (67.4%), hepatitis B (76.1%), or hepatitis C (77.0%). Conclusion: The university population is vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections due to the number of sexual partners and discontinued use of condoms with occasional partners. Such vulnerability is increased by the use of alcohol and other drugs


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Students/statistics & numerical data , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/transmission , HIV Infections/transmission , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vulnerability Analysis
3.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 31(2): e2021877, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384886

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a tendência temporal e a distribuição espacial dos casos de transmissão vertical do HIV, Santa Catarina, 2007-2017. Métodos: Estudo ecológico misto, com dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Realizou-se regressão linear para análise de série temporal; calcularam-se as taxas médias no período e variações percentuais médias anuais das taxas de gestantes infectadas pelo HIV, de crianças expostas ao HIV na gestação e de soroconversão das crianças expostas ao HIV/aids na gestação, além do geoprocessamento dos dados. Resultados: Foram registradas 5.554 gestantes infectadas pelo HIV, com taxa de 5,6 gestantes/1 mil nascidos vivos. A taxa média de soroconversão foi de 13,5/100 mil nascidos vivos (IC95% 6,8;20,1) e apresentou tendência decrescente (APC = -99,4%; IC95% -99,9;-93,1). A taxa de soroconversão foi mais elevada em municípios de pequeno porte. Conclusão: A taxa de gestantes infectadas pelo HIV foi estável; houve diminuição de crianças infectadas com HIV por via vertical.


Objetivo: Estimar la tendencia temporal y la distribución de casos de VIH por transmisión vertical en Santa Catarina, 2007-2017. Métodos: Estudio ecológico mixto con datos del Sistema de Información de Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria. Se utilizó la regresión lineal para análisis de series temporales y se calcularon las tasas medias en el período y los cambios porcentuales medios anuales en las tasas de mujeres embarazadas infectadas por el VIH; de niños expuestos al VIH; y seroconversión de niños expuestos al VIH/SIDA durante el embarazo, además del geoprocesamiento de datos Resultados: Había 5.554 gestantes infectadas por el VIH, con tasa de 5,6 gestantes/1.000 nacidos vivos. La tasa media de seroconversión fue 13,5/100.000 de nacidos vivos (IC95% 6,8;20,1) y mostró tendencia decreciente (APC = -99,4%; IC95%-99,9;-93,1). La tasa de seroconversión fue más expresiva en los municipios pequeños. Conclusão: Hubo una tasa estable de mujeres embarazadas infectadas por el VIH, mientras que el número de niños infectados por el VIH disminuyó.


Objective: To analyze the temporal trend and spatial distribution of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Santa Catarina between 2007 and 2017. Methods: This was a mixed ecological study with data from the Notifiable Health Conditions Information System. Linear regression was performed for time series analysis and the mean rates in the period and mean annual percentage changes in the rates of HIV-infected pregnant women were calculated, children exposed to HIV during pregnancy, and seroconversion of children exposed to HIV/AIDS during pregnancy, in addition to data geoprocessing. Results: There were 5,554 records of HIV-infected pregnant women, with a rate of 5.6 pregnant women per 1,000 live births. The mean seroconversion rate was 13.5/100,000 live births (95%CI 6.8;20.1) and it showed a falling trend (APC = -99.4%; 95%CI -99.9;-93.1). The seroconversion rate was more expressive in small towns. Conclusion: The rate of HIV-infected pregnant women was stable in the period, whereas the number of children infected with HIV through mother-to-child transmission decreased.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Brazil/epidemiology , Time Series Studies
4.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210083, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1346056

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo compreender as representações sociais de adolescentes sobre vulnerabilidades e riscos para contrair o HIV/Aids nas relações sexuais. Método estudo de representações sociais, realizado a partir de entrevistas individuais com 15 adolescentes e grupo focal com oito adolescentes de uma escola pública do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados no período de maio a outubro de 2016. Para tratamento dos dados, empregou-se a técnica de análise de conteúdo temática-categorial com o auxílio do Software QSR Nvivo11. Resultados as categorias: riscos de contrair HIV/Aids nas relações sexuais; e dos riscos de contrair HIV/Aids nas relações sexuais às vulnerabilidades abrigam os temas não usar preservativo, ter usado álcool e/ou drogas, ter vários parceiros, ter dificuldades de acesso aos serviços de saúde e de educação sexual nas escolas; e não ter conversas com os pais ou familiares. Conclusão e implicações para a prática compreendeu-se que as representações sociais circulam no imaginário e no ambiente escolar, interferindo na realidade dos adolescentes. Propõe-se priorizar políticas públicas focadas nas dimensões emocionais, afetivas e sociais.


RESUMEN Objetivo comprender las representaciones sociales de adolescentes acerca de las vulnerabilidades y riesgos de contraer el VIH/SIDA en relaciones sexuales. Método estudio de representaciones sociales realizado a partir de entrevistas individuales con 15 adolescentes y un grupo focal con ocho adolescentes de una escuela pública en Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Los datos se recolectaron entre mayo y octubre de 2016. Para el tratamiento de los datos, se utilizó la técnica de análisis de contenido temático-categórico, con la ayuda del software QSR Nvivo11. Resultados las categorías riesgos de contraer el VIH/SIDA en las relaciones sexuales; y de los riesgos de contraer el VIH/SIDA en las relaciones sexuales a las vulnerabilidades que cubren los temas de no usar condón, haber consumido alcohol y/o drogas, tener varios pares, tener dificultades para acceder a los servicios de salud y de educación sexual en las escuelas; y no tener conversaciones con los padres o miembros de la familia. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica se entendió que las representaciones sociales circulan en el imaginario y en el ámbito escolar, interfiriendo en la realidad de los adolescentes. Se propone priorizar políticas públicas enfocadas en las dimensiones emocionales, afectivas y sociales.


ABSTRACT Objective To understand social representations of adolescents about vulnerabilities and risks of contracting HIV/AIDS in sexual relations. Method Study of social representations, based on individual interviews with 15 adolescents and a focus group with eight adolescents from a public school in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Data were collected from May to October 2016. For the processing of data, the thematic-categorial content analysis technique was used with the aid of the QSR Nvivo11 Software. Results The categories: risks of contracting HIV/AIDS in sexual relations; and from the risks of contracting HIV/AIDS in sexual relations to the vulnerabilities cover the themes of not using condoms, having used alcohol and/or drugs, having several partners, having difficulties in accessing health and sex education services in schools; and not having conversations with parents or family members. Conclusion and implications for practice it was understood that social representations circulate in the imaginary and in the school environment, interfering in the reality of adolescents. It is proposed to prioritize public policies focused on the emotional, affective and social dimensions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Social Perception , HIV Infections/transmission , Coitus , Adolescent Health , Health Vulnerability , Poverty , Sex Education , Alcohol Drinking , Sexual Partners , Condoms , Substance-Related Disorders , Qualitative Research , Unsafe Sex , Family Relations , Health Services Accessibility
5.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(3): 945-953, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346996

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to calculate the prevalence and rate per 1,000 live births of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in pregnant women at a public maternity hospital in Salvador. Methods: this descriptive, cross-sectional study retrospectively collected data from compulsory notifications and medical records of pregnant women with STI seen at a maternity hospital in northeastern Brazil between 2014 and 2017 (n = 520). Prevalence and rate per 1,000 live births were estimated for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, and syphilis. Associations between STI and other clinical and sociodemographic variables were investigated. Results: most pregnant women were born and resided in Salvador, presented a mean age of 26.4 years, self-reported mixed-race and had unplanned pregnancies. Prevalence and rates per 1,000 live births were, respectively: 0.26% and 3.39 for hepatitis B, 0.06% and 0.79 for hepatitis C, 0.47% and 6.23 for HIV, and 2.46% and 32.2 for syphilis. Conclusion: higher prevalence and rates of infection per 1,000 live births were seen at the maternity hospital in northeastern Brazil compared to official data provided by the Brazilian government, notably with regard to HIV and syphilis. The appropriate epidemiological notification of STI, especially in pregnant women, enables the elaboration of effective preventive strategies incorporating specific sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.


Resumo Objetivos: calcular a prevalência e as taxas por 1000 nascidos vivos de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) em gestantes de uma maternidade pública de Salvador. Métodos: estudo transversal, descritivo, com dados coletados retrospectivamente a partir das fichas de notificação dos agravos e dos prontuários de todas as gestantes com IST atendidas na maternidade, entre os anos de 2014 e 2017 (n=520). Foram calculadas as prevalências e as taxas por 1000 nascidos vivos de hepatite B, hepatite C, HIV e sífilis para a população de gestantes da maternidade. Associações entre as IST e demais variáveis clínicas e sociodemográficas também foram investigadas. Resultados: a maioria das gestantes era natural e residente de Salvador, pardas, com idade média de 26,4 anos e que não planejaram a gravidez. As prevalências e as taxas por 1000 nascidos vivos foram respectivamente: 0,26% e 3,39 para hepatite B, 0,06% e 0,79 para hepatite C, 0,47% e 6,23 para HIV e 2,46% e 32,2 para sífilis. Conclusão: a maternidade apresenta prevalências e taxas por 1000 nascidos vivos superiores aos dados oficiais do governo brasileiro, especialmente para HIV e sífilis. A correta notificação epidemiológica desses agravos, especialmente em gestantes, permite o desenvolvimento de estratégias preventivas mais eficientes e com enfoque nas características sociodemográficas e clínicas das pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Syphilis/transmission , Syphilis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/transmission , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Hepatitis B/transmission , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Live Birth , Health Information Systems
6.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 672-683, oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144265

ABSTRACT

La prevención de la transmisión vertical de VIH es un desafío para todos los países del mundo. Esto se ve complejizado por la construcción permanente de sociedades globales, con grado variable de población migrante internacional. Las políticas, programas y acciones sanitarias para la prevención de transmisión vertical de VIH en gestantes migrantes demandan una perspectiva intercultural, en donde se aborden todas las dimensiones sociales, culturales y de género asociadas a la infección. El entender la realidad local en cuanto a la prevención de transmisión vertical de VIH en población migrante internacional en Chile es esencial para llevar acciones concretas que favorezcan la prevención de transmisión madre-hijo de VIH. En este artículo se presentan algunos conceptos esenciales relacionados a esta temática. También se expone información internacional y nacional sobre riesgos de transmisión vertical de VIH en migrantes gestantes, la importancia del plan nacional de preven ción de transmisión vertical de VIH en nuestro país, y algunos esfuerzos que se están realizando para adaptar dicho plan a la realidad de diversidad social y cultural que migrantes gestantes presentan hoy en Chile, como un valioso insumo de salud pública con perspectiva intercultural.


Preventing vertical transmission of HIV is a challenge for all countries worldwide. The permanent construction of global societies with a variable degree of international migrant population has made it more complex. Health policies, programs, and actions for preventing vertical transmission of HIV in pregnant migrants demand an intercultural perspective, where social, cultural, and gender dimen sions associated with the infection are addressed. Understanding the local reality regarding the pre vention of vertical transmission in the international migrant population in Chile is essential to carry out concrete actions that favor the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This article presents some essential concepts related to this topic. It also presents international and national in formation on risks of vertical transmission in pregnant migrants, the importance of the national plan for preventing vertical transmission of HIV in our country, and some ongoing efforts to adapt such plan to the reality of social and cultural diversity that pregnant migrants currently present in Chile, as a useful public health instrument with an intercultural perspective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/ethnology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Prenatal Care/methods , Transients and Migrants , HIV Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Emigrants and Immigrants , Culturally Competent Care/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/ethnology , HIV Infections/therapy , Chile/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Health Policy
7.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 253-262, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134093

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the last five years there has been a resurgence of scholarly research and museum exhibitions on the history of HIV and AIDS. This work has called into question some of the conventions of archiving and interpreting the history of the pandemic. It is increasingly clear that a narrow range of materials have been saved. As historians and curators turn to these holdings for analysis and exhibition, they find they inadequately represent the impact of AIDS across diverse groups as well as the range of local, national, international responses. This essay considers some of the factors that shape collection of the material culture, particularly the heritage of public health, and the consequences for our understanding of lessons from the past.


Resumo Nos últimos cinco anos, retomaram-se as pesquisas acadêmicas e exposições museológicas sobre a história do HIV e da aids. Este trabalho questiona algumas das convenções de arquivamento e interpretação da história da pandemia. Fica cada vez mais claro que foi preservada uma pequena amostra de materiais. À medida que historiadores e curadores recorrem a esse patrimônio para análise e exposição, descobrem que representam de maneira inadequada o impacto da aids em diversos grupos, bem como o escopo das respostas locais, nacionais e internacionais. Este artigo considera alguns dos fatores que influenciam a coleção de cultura material, em particular o legado da saúde pública e as consequências de nossa compreensão das lições do passado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Archives , HIV Infections/history , Public Health/history , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/history , Museums , HIV Infections/transmission , Homosexuality, Male/history
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(2): 120-124, abril/jun 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361476

ABSTRACT

O vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) é um retrovírus com genoma ácido ribonucleico da família Retroviridae (retrovírus) e subfamília Lentivirinae, que necessita, para multiplicar-se, de uma enzima denominada transcriptase reversa, responsável pela transcrição do ácido ribonucleico viral para uma cópia de ácido desoxirribonucleico. A transmissão ocorre por via predo- minantemente sexual, mas também pelo contato com sangue contaminado, pela via transplacentária ou por aleitamento materno. A transmissão vertical é a principal via de infecção pelo HIV em crianças. É estimado que 15% a 30% da população infan til nascida de mães soropositivas para o vírus da imunodefici- ência humana adquirem o vírus com maior frequência durante o trabalho de parto, pós-parto ou por meio da amamentação. Tem-se utilizado para gestantes a terapia antirretroviral combi- nada, a qual reduziu 20 vezes nas taxas de transmissão vertical. O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir sobre as drogas que retar- dam a progressão da imunodeficiência, aumentando o tempo e a qualidade de vida do portador do vírus da imunodeficiência humana, além de especificar a terapia que obteve mais sucesso. O início de terapia antirretroviral combinada em uma fase precoce da gestação em pacientes infectadas tem o potencial de melhorar substancialmente a saúde materna e a sobrevida, além de tornar a transmissão vertical um evento raro.


The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus with a ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome of the Retrovirus Family and subfamily Lentivirinae, which needs an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to be multiplied, which is responsible for trans- cribing viral ribonucleic acid to a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand. Transmission occurs predominantly sexually, but also through contact with blood, transplacental, or through breastfee- ding. Vertical transmission is the main route of HIV infection in children. It is estimated that 15 to 30% of the child population born to HIV-positive mothers acquire the virus most often du- ring labor, postpartum, or through breastfeeding. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy has been used for pregnant women, with 20-fold reduction of vertical transmission rates. The aim of this paper is to discuss about the drugs that slow the progression of immunodeficiency, increasing the time and quality of life of pa- tients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and specifying the most successful therapy. Initiation of Highly Active Antiretro- viral Therapy at an early stage of pregnancy in infected patients has the potential to improve maternal health and survival subs- tantially, and makes vertical transmission a rare event.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infant, Newborn , HIV Infections/immunology , Viral Load/drug effects , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (34): 25-45, jan.-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139628

ABSTRACT

Resumo Neste artigo, discutimos narrativas sobre as relações afetivo-sexuais de homens jovens vivendo com HIV/aids, com carga viral indetectável e possibilidade de não transmis-sibilidade do HIV. Realizamos dez entrevistas semiestruturadas com homens que fazem sexo com homens, entre 18 e 30 anos, acompanhados em um SAE - Serviço de Assistência Es-pecializada de Salvador-BA, em 2017. Nas narrativas em foco, a condição de indetectável aparece como uma mudança [bio]identitária importante, e sua manutenção como uma res-ponsabilidade contínua consigo e com o outro. Apesar de avanços biomédicos e das novas possibilidades interativas abertas nesse cenário, os efeitos estigmatizantes do HIV persistem, sustentados pelos discursos de medo e culpa por uma possível transmissão do vírus. Uma noção de corpos perigosos, de risco, em detrimento dos avanços alcançados com os estudos que indicam que indetectável=intransmissível.


Resumen En este artículo, discutimos narrativas sobre las relaciones afectivo-sexuales de hombres jóvenes que viven con VIH/sida, con carga viral indetectable y posibilidades de no transmisibilidad del VIH. Hicimos diez entrevistas semi-estructuradas con hombres que tienen sexo con hombres, entre 18 y 30 años, en seguimiento en el servicio especializado de salud, en Salvador de Bahía, 2017. En las narrativas en foco, la condición de indetectable expresa un cambio bio-identitario importante, y su mantenimiento una responsabilidad con-tinua consigo y con el otro. A pesar de los avances biomédicos y de las nuevas posibilidades interactivas abiertas en ese escenario, los efectos estigmatizantes del VIH persisten, respal-dados en discursos de miedo y culpa por la posible transmisión del virus. Una noción de cuerpos peligrosos y riesgosos, a pesar de los avances logrados en los estudios que afirman indetectable=intransmisible.


Abstract In this article, we discuss narratives on affective-sexual relationships of young men living with HIV/AIDS, with undetectable viral load and possibility of not transmit-ting HIV. We conducted ten semi-structured interviews with men who have sex with men, aged between 18 and 30 years old, followed at a specialized health service in Salvador, Ba-hia, Brazil, in 2017. In these narratives, the undetectable condition appears as an impor-tant [bio]identity change, and its maintenance as an ongoing responsibility to themselves and others. Despite biomedical advances, the 'undetectable equals Untransmittable' (U=U) campaign and new interactive possibilities open up in this scenario, the stigma of HIV as well as a notion of dangerous/risky bodies persist, supported by discourses of fear and guilt for a possible virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , HIV Infections/transmission , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Homosexuality, Male , Viral Load , Sexuality , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Self Care , Brazil , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Interviews as Topic , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , HIV Seropositivity/transmission , Biomedical Technology , Social Stigma , Personal Narrative , Psychological Distress , Interpersonal Relations
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 25(2): 575-584, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055823

ABSTRACT

Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar e analisar a produção científica acerca do comportamento e conhecimento sobre sexualidade de idosos que vivem com HIV. Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa de artigos científicos indexados nas bases de dados, Lilacs, Ibecs, Medline, BDENF, PubMed e Scopus (Elsevier), considerando publicações a partir de janeiro de 2007 a dezembro de 2016, utilizando os seguintes descritores: conhecimento (knowledge), comportamento (behavior/behaviour) sexualidade (sexuality), idoso (Elderly), HIV/AIDS. De 1.493 artigos encontrados, 11 foram incluídos por preencherem os critérios de inclusão e foram analisados através de dois instrumentos: Critical Appraisal Skill Programme (CASP) e Agency for Healthcare and Research and Quality (AHRQ). Os dados sugerem que os idosos HIV positivo são sexualmente ativos e estão envolvidos em comportamentos de risco de transmissão do vírus. Percebe-se que existe uma produção científica limitada em relação ao comportamento e conhecimento sobre sexualidade entre os idosos que vivem com HIV. Conclui-se que o estudo poderá subsidiar políticas públicas em saúde que valorizem a abordagem sobre sexualidade na terceira idade, assim como a realização de novos questionamentos no tocante a esta temática.


Abstract The scope of this study was to identify and analyze the scientific production on behavior and knowledge about the sexuality of elderly people living with HIV. An integrative review of scientific articles indexed in the Lilacs, IBECS, Medline, BDENF, PubMed and Scopus (Elsevier) databases was conducted, considering publications from January 2007 to December 2016, using the following key words: knowledge, behavior, sexuality, Elderly, HIV/AIDS. Of the 1493 articles located, 11 were included because they met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed through two instruments: Critical Appraisal Skill Program (CASP) and Agency for Healthcare and Research and Quality (AHRQ). The data suggest that HIV-positive elderly people are sexually active and are involved in risk behaviors of virus transmission. It transpires that there is a limited scientific production regarding the behavior and knowledge about sexuality among elderly people living with HIV. The conclusion drawn is that the study may contribute to the improvement of public health policies that promote the approach on sexuality among elderly people, as well as the emergence of new questions regarding this issue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Sexuality/statistics & numerical data , Risk-Taking , HIV Infections/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Health Policy
12.
South Sudan med. j ; 13(3): 79-85, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1272132

ABSTRACT

Introduction: While exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life is recommended for HIV-infected mothers, this may not be practiced fully in South Sudan; exclusive formula feeding, which is the best alternative to breastfeeding, may not be practical. Objective: To assess the knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) and practices of feeding infants in the first six months of life among HIV-infected mothers attending Antiretroviral Therapy Centres in Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH) and Juba Military Hospital (JMH). Method: A cross-sectional study in which 304 HIV-infected mothers with children aged 6-18 months were interviewed between October and December 2016 using structured questionnaires. Key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) were also conducted using interview guides. Quantitative data was analysed using Statistics Package for Social Sciences software. Chi-square test was used to test the presence of significant association between the variables and the association is statistically significant when the p-value is < 0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify which predictor variables have major effect on the dependent variable. Qualitative data was transcribed in English and summarized according to the key themes, and the information obtained was used to supplement and interpret the findings of the quantitative data. Results: Only 120 (40%) of the HIV-infected mothers had a good knowledge of MTCT; 213 mothers (70.1%) practiced mixed feeding, 70 (23.0%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding and 20 (6.6%) practiced exclusive formula feeding. The factors that were found to have a positive effect on choice of infant feeding methods were having more than one child (odds ratio = 0.303, 95% Confidence interval: 0.161-0.571, p = 0.001) and participation in the prevention of motherto-child transmission of HIV programme (PMTCT) (odds ratio = 2.260, 95% Confidence interval: 1.251-4.084, p = 0.007). Stigma (p = 0.248) and mothers' knowledge of MTCT (p = 0.072) were not statistically significantly associated with the mothers' infant feeding practices. Conclusion: Knowledge of MTCT is low. Mixed feeding before six months of age is predominant among the HIV-infected mothers. It is therefore recomm;ended that HIV-infected mothers receive adequate information from counsellors regarding MTCT and exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of an infant's life


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mothers , South Sudan
13.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1268317

ABSTRACT

Senior High School (SHS) students fall within the age group (15-24 years) hardest hit by HIV/AIDS. Since about 90% of HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is through heterosexual intercourse, it is assumed that these students engage in risky sexual behaviours. Hohoe municipality has one of the highest HIV prevalence in Ghana (3.4%). The current study investigated the demographic determinants of risky sexual behaviours among senior high school students in the Hohoe municipality, Ghana.Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional design was employed in the study. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a multistage sample of 270 SHS students who consented to participate in January 2019. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using Stata version 14.0 software program at the 0.05 level of significance.Results: of 270 respondents, 112 (41.5%) were engaged in risky sexual behaviours. Single students were 82% less likely to engage in risky sexual behaviours than their married counterparts (p=0.032) and muslims were 89% less likely to engage in risky sexual behaviours than christians (p=0.032).Conclusion: religion and marital status were the two socio-demographic characteristics that were significantly associated with risky sexual behaviour. Health promotion interventions to curb risky sexual behaviours among the SHS students should target the christian and married students


Subject(s)
Ghana , HIV Infections/transmission , Population Characteristics , Risk Factors , Sexual Behavior , Students
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190461, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091243

ABSTRACT

Phylogenetic analyses were crucial to elucidate the origin and spread of the pandemic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M virus, both during the pre-epidemic period of cryptic dissemination in human populations as well as during the epidemic phase of spread. The use of phylogenetics and phylodynamics approaches has provided important insights to track the founder events that resulted in the spread of HIV-1 strains across vast geographic areas, specific countries and within geographically restricted communities. In the recent years, the use of phylogenetic analysis combined with the huge availability of HIV sequences has become an increasingly important approach to reconstruct HIV transmission networks and understand transmission dynamics in concentrated and generalised epidemics. Significant efforts to obtain viral sequences from newly HIV-infected individuals could certainly contribute to detect rapidly expanding HIV-1 lineages, identify key populations at high-risk and understand what public health interventions should be prioritised in different scenarios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/genetics , Phylogeography , Phylogeny , Cluster Analysis , HIV Infections/virology , Gorilla gorilla
15.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 30(1): e300105, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101313

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo parte de uma discussão internacional sobre a intransmissibilidade do vírus HIV, quando a pessoa soropositiva está em tratamento e com carga viral indetectável. Trata-se de um dos resultados da pesquisa qualitativa sobre sociabilidades de jovens vivendo com HIV, com ênfase nos novos discursos/práticas biomédicos e seu impacto nas relações afetivo-sexuais desses/as jovens. Durante os meses de março a novembro de 2017, houve a interação com pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids (PVHA), com idade entre 18 e 30 anos, e médicos/as infectologistas de um Serviço de Assistência Especializada em Salvador-BA. Para além das mudanças significativas em relação ao HIV, decorrentes dos avanços atuais das biotecnologias, colocamos em pauta algumas controvérsias em torno da intransmissibilidade do vírus do ponto de vista de quatro médicos/as infectologistas. Realizamos entrevistas abertas e a leitura exploratória das narrativas, identificando temas, questões e atores que se deslocavam nos relatos em torno da condição de indetectável. Discutimos que a carga viral indetectável aparece como um assunto delicado/controverso nos consultórios médicos, atualizando a posição de PVHA como potencialmente perigosas, podendo reincidir em práticas sexuais desprotegidas ou "relaxar" no cuidado consigo e com o outro. São narrativas que suscitam questões éticas fundamentais na relação de cuidado, tais como o direito à informação na perspectiva da saúde como um direito humano.


Abstract This article is based on an international discussion on HIV non-transmissibility when the HIV-positive person is under treatment and has an undetectable viral load. This is one of the results of research on the sociability of young people living with HIV, with emphasis on new biomedical discourses/practices and their impact on the affective-sexual relationships of young people. From March to November of 2017, the researchers interacted with people living with HIV (PLHIV), aged between 18 and 30 years, and infectologists in a Specialized Service in Salvador-BA, Brazil. Beyond significant changes in relation to HIV due to advances in biotechnology, the study focused on some controversies surrounding the non-transmissibility of the virus from the viewpoint of four infectologists. Open interviews and exploratory reading of the narratives were conducted, identifying themes, issues and actors that moved in the reports on the condition of undetectable. The article argues that undetectable viral load appears as a sensitive/controversial subject in medical offices, updating the PLHIV's position as potentially dangerous that may engage in unprotected sexual practices or "relax" in mutual care. Such narratives raise fundamental ethical issues in care relations, such as the right to information from the perspective of health as a human right.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Self Care , HIV Infections/transmission , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Viral Load , Infectious Disease Medicine , Interpersonal Relations , Biotechnology/methods , Brazil , Qualitative Research , Unsafe Sex , Empathy/ethics , Health Communication
16.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 73(3): e20190491, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1101489

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: assess the implementation of actions to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Methods: a retrospective cohort study conducted in two maternity hospitals in the city of Montes Claros, State of Minas Gerais. All women admitted for childbirth diagnosed with HIV and their respective newborns were included from 2014 to 2017. Data were collected from medical records and analyzed descriptively. Results: population consisted of 46 pairs of mothers and newborns. Management was considered inadequate in 30 cases of parturient/postpartum women (65.2%) and 14 cases of newborns (30.4%). The main reasons for inadequate maternal management were lack of pharmacological inhibition of lactation (53.3%) and counseling/consent for HIV testing (43.3%). For newborns, late onsetoffirst dose ofZidovudine (50.0%) and no prescriptionofNevirapine (28.6%). Conclusions: important prevention opportunities were missed, pointing to the need for improved care.


RESUMEN Objetivos: evaluar la implementación de acciones para prevenir la transmisión vertical del VIH. Métodos: estudio de cohorte retrospectivo realizado en dos hospitales de maternidad em la ciudad de Montes Claros, estado de Minas Gerais. Todas las mujeres ingresadas para el parto diagnosticadas con VIH y sus respectivos reciénnacidos se incluyeron entre 2014 y 2017. Los datos se recopilaron de los registros médicos y se analizaron descriptivamente. Resultados: la población consistió en 46 pares de madres y reciénnacidos. El manejo se consideró inadecuado en 30 casos de mujeres parturientas/posparto (65,2%) y 14 casos de reciénnacidos(30,4%). Las razones principales para el manejo materno inadecuado fueron: falta de inhibición farmacológica de lalactancia (53.3%) y asesoramiento/consentimiento para la prueba del VIH (43,3%). Para los reciénnacidos, inicio tardío de la primera dosis de zidovudina (50.0%) y sin prescripción de nevirapina (28,6%). Conclusiones: se perdieron importantes oportunidades de prevención, lo que indica la necesidad de una mejor atención.


RESUMO Objetivos: avaliar a implementação das ações de prevenção da transmissão vertical do HIV. Métodos: estudo de coorte retrospectivo, realizado em duas maternidades de Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. Foram incluídas todas as mulheres admitidas para o parto com diagnóstico de HIV e seus respectivos recém-nascidos, nos anos de 2014 a 2017. Os dados foram coletados de prontuários e analisados de forma descritiva. Resultados: a população foi composta por 46 pares de mães e recém-nascidos. O manejo foi considerado inadequado em 30 casos de parturientes/puérperas (65,2 %) e em 14 casos de recém-nascidos (30,4%). Os principais motivos para a inadequação do manejo materno foram: ausência da inibição farmacológica da lactação (53,3%) e do aconselhamento/consentimento na realização do exame anti-HIV (43,3%). Para os recém-nascidos, início tardio da primeira dose daZidovudina (50,0%) e não prescrição da Nevirapina (28,6%). Conclusões: oportunidades importantes de prevenção foram perdidas, apontando para a necessidade de melhoria da assistência.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Health Care/standards , HIV Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
17.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3262, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1101740

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to know the effects of a nursing intervention to reduce alcohol use and risk factors for transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Method: randomized single-blinded clinical trial performed by nurses with young women. The study included 66 participants in the intervention group and 66 participants in the control group. The instruments were the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the HIV Risk Behavior Knowledge and the Condom Use Self-efficacy Scale. Analysis of variance was used. Results: alcohol involvement decreased in the intervention group (F (1.119) = 50.28; p < 0.001; η2p = 0.297), while HIV knowledge (F (1.130) = 34.34; p < 0.001; η2p = 0.209) and condom use self-efficacy increased (F (1.129) = 27.20; p < 0.001; η2p = 0.174). In addition, less participants consumed alcohol in the past week compared to the control group (χ2 = 15.95; p < 0.001). Conclusion: the nursing intervention had positive effects, which could help young women stay away from alcohol use and the risk of sexually transmitted infections. NCT: 02405481.


Resumo Objetivo: conhecer os efeitos de uma intervenção de enfermagem para reduzir o uso de álcool e diminuir os fatores de risco para a transmissão do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, sigla em inglês). Método: ensaio clínico randomizado, simples-cego, realizado por enfermeiras com mulheres jovens. O estudo incluiu 66 participantes no grupo de intervenção e 66 participantes no grupo controle. Os instrumentos foram o Questionário de Identificação de Distúrbios de Uso de Álcool, a HIVRisk Behavior Knowledge e a Escala de Autoeficácia no Uso de Preservativos. Foi utilizada a análise de variância. Resultados: o consumo de álcool diminuiu no grupo de intervenção (F (1,119) = 50,28; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,297), enquanto o conhecimento sobre o HIV (F (1,130) = 34,34; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,209) e a autoeficácia no uso de preservativos aumentaram (F (1,129) = 27,20; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,174). Além disso, menos participantes consumiram álcool na última semana em comparação com o grupo controle (χ2 = 15,95; p < 0,001). Conclusão: a intervenção de enfermagem teve efeitos positivos, que poderiam ajudar as mulheres jovens a ficarem longe do uso de álcool e do risco de infecção por doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. NCT: 02405481.


Resumo Objetivo: conocer los efectos de una intervención de enfermería para reducir el uso de alcohol y disminuir factores de riesgo para transmisión del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV, siglas en inglés). Método: ensayo clínico aleatorizado, simple ciego, administrado por enfermeras a mujeres jóvenes. Participaron 66 personas en el grupo de intervención y 66 en el de control. Los instrumentos fueron el Cuestionario de Identificación de Trastornos debidos al Consumo de Alcohol, el HIV Risk Behavior Knowledge y la escala de Autoeficacia del Uso de Condón. Se utilizó análisis de la varianza. Resultados: en el grupo de intervención disminuyó el involucramiento con el alcohol (F (1,119) = 50,28; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,297), aumentaron los conocimientos sobre el HIV (F (1,130) = 34,34; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,209) y la autoeficacia para uso de condón (F (1,129) = 27,20; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,174). También menos participantes bebieron alcohol en la última semana en comparación con el grupo de control (χ2 = 15,95; p < 0,001). Conclusión: la intervención de enfermería tuvo efectos positivos que podrían ayudar a las mujeres jóvenes a mantenerse alejadas del uso de alcohol y de contagio de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. NCT: 02405481.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Sexual Behavior , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Hispanic or Latino/education , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/transmission , Single-Blind Method , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Education , Risk Factors , Health Surveys , Mexico
18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(12): 4707-4716, dez. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055739

ABSTRACT

Resumen Esta etnografía se realizó en Barcelona, ciudad que ofrece diferentes recursos de ocio homosexual, como las saunas gay. El objetivo fue analizar desde los estudios sobre género y masculinidades, cómo se articula la sexualidad, la percepción sobre la infección por VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), y las medidas preventivas en trabajadores sexuales masculinos (TSM) usuarios de saunas gay. Se realizaron 10 entrevistas en profundidad y observación entre 2012 y 2016. Las prácticas de sexo seguro son más frecuentes con clientes, mientras que las de riesgo se realizan más con parejas no comerciales. La orientación sexual juega un rol relevante, los homosexuales asumen más prácticas de riesgo en el trabajo sexual que los heterosexuales. Consumo de drogas o la escasez de redes de apoyo se relacionaron con mayor vulnerabilidad social y conductas de riesgo. Contraer el VIH aún genera miedo, mientras que tener otras ITS se percibe como parte de la vida sexual de un hombre. El TSM afianza una masculinidad con múltiples parejas sexuales, breadwinner y por otra parte, cuestiona un modelo heteronormativo. Las intervenciones para la prevención del VIH e ITS en este colectivo, deberían considerar los determinantes sociales como las precarias alternativas laborales y el ofrecer mayor soporte social.


Abstract This ethnography was conducted in Barcelona, a city that provides different gay leisure resources, such as gay saunas. We aimed to analyze from studies on gender and masculinities, how sexuality, perception of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preventive measures are articulated in gay sauna male sex workers (MSW). Ten in-depth interviews and observation were conducted between 2012 and 2016. Safe sex practices are more frequent with clients, while risk practices are carried out more with non-commercial partners. Sexual orientation plays an important role. Homosexuals assume riskier practices in sex work than heterosexuals. Drug use or lack of support networks were associated with higher social vulnerability and risk behaviors. Contracting HIV still creates fear, while having other STIs is perceived as part of a man's sexual life. The MSW affirms masculinity with concurrent sexual partners, breadwinner, and on the other hand, questions a heteronormative model. Interventions for the prevention of HIV and STIs in this group should consider social determinants such as inferior work alternatives and the provision of more significant social support.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Steam Bath , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Safe Sex/psychology , Unsafe Sex/psychology , Masculinity , Sex Workers/psychology , Social Support , Spain , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/transmission , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/transmission , Homosexuality, Male , Heterosexuality , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Qualitative Research , Interpersonal Relations , Anthropology, Cultural
19.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.2): 66-77, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038829

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La prevención de la transmisión materno-infantil del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) es una estrategia fundamental para evitar la infección en niños. A nivel local, se desconoce la situación de las mujeres gestantes infectadas por HIV y el grado de observancia de las estrategias reconocidas mundialmente para disminuir la transmisión perinatal. Objetivo. Describir las características sociodemográficas y clínicas de las mujeres gestantes con HIV y de sus hijos en un centro de referencia de Medellín. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo entre 2012 y 2015 mediante la revisión de las historias clínicas de las mujeres gestantes con HIV y de sus neonatos habidos en partos atendidos en el Hospital San Vicente Fundación. Se describieron las variables de atención prenatal, parto, recién nacido y seguimiento de los neonatos. Resultados. Se analizaron 106 madres y sus hijos expuestos al HIV. El 39,6 % de las mujeres gestantes conocía el diagnóstico antes del embarazo y al 58,5 % se le diagnosticó durante este. El 95,3 % de las mujeres gestantes asistió a control prenatal, 46,5 % de ellas a partir del primer trimestre. Si bien el 95 % recibió antirretrovirales, el 23,9 % comenzó a tomarlos tardíamente en el tercer trimestre. Solo el 63 % de las mujeres registró carga viral para el HIV después de la semana 34 de gestación. El 90,6 % de los partos fueron por cesárea, y el virus del papiloma humano y la sífilis fueron las principales infecciones concomitantes. Se hizo seguimiento de 103 niños (no fue posible localizar a tres de ellos para el seguimiento), a ninguno se le confirmó la presencia del HIV y, en el 88 %, se descartó. Conclusiones. En este estudio, no se registraron casos de transmisión perinatal. Sin embargo, siguen presentándose fallas y retrasos en la atención prenatal y en la oportunidad del seguimiento materno para confirmar oportunamente el HIV y para detectar tempranamente infecciones maternas concomitantes que eviten la morbilidad y las secuelas en los neonatos.


Abstract Introduction: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is essential to limit the spread of the disease. Colombian data about HIV infection in pregnancy are scarce, as well as on the results of the strategies used worldwide to reduce perinatal transmission. Objective: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women infected with HIV and their children in a reference center in Medellín. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study for the 2012- 2015 period by studying the clinical records of newborns exposed to HIV and their mothers. We evaluated the characteristics of prenatal care, deliveries, and infant postnatal care, as well as the follow-up data to confirm or exclude HIV transmission. Results: We included 106 infants and their mothers. We found that 39,6% of mothers knew about the HIV diagnosis before pregnancy and 58,5% were diagnosed during pregnancy; 95.3% of them attended prenatal controls, but only 46.5% as of the first trimester; 95% of them received antiretrovirals, but 23.9% started therapy just during the third trimester. Only 63% of women had a viral load for HIV after 34 weeks of gestation. None of the 103 children with follow up had confirmed presence for HIV and in 88% of them, it was discarded. Conclusions: No cases of perinatal HIV transmission were found in the study. However, difficulties and delays persist in prenatal care, in timely maternal follow-up to confirm or discard HIV, and for early detection of maternal co-infections and their effects on newborns.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Prenatal Care , Quality of Health Care , HIV Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Hospitals, Urban , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/congenital , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Cesarean Section , Retrospective Studies , HIV-1 , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Colombia/epidemiology , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Guideline Adherence , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Early Diagnosis , Secondary Care Centers , Infant Care
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(4): 218-223, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039238

ABSTRACT

Abstract HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (HIV-1 MTCT), is an important cause of children mortality worldwide. Brazil has been traditionally praised by its HIV/Aids program, which provides free-of-charge care for people living with HIV-1. Using public epidemiology and demographic databases, we aimed at modeling HIV-1 MTCT prevalence in Brazil through the years (1994-2016) and elaborate a statistical model for forecasting, contributing to HIV-1 epidemiologic surveillance and healthcare decision-making. We downloaded sets of live births and mothers' data alongside HIV-1 cases notification in children one year old or less. Through time series modeling, we estimated prevalence along the years in Brazil, and observed a remarkable decrease of HIV-1 MTCT between 1994 (10 cases per 100,000 live births) and 2016 (five cases per 100,000 live births), a reduction of 50%. Using our model, we elaborated a prognosis for each Brazilian state to help HIV-1 surveillance decision making, indicating which states are in theory in risk of experiencing a rise in HIV-1 MTCT prevalence. Ten states had good (37%), nine had mild (33%), and eight had poor prognostics (30%). Stratifying the prognostics by Brazilian region, we observed that the Northeast region had more states with poor prognosis, followed by North and Midwest, Southeast and South with one state of poor prognosis each. Brazil undoubtedly advanced in the fight against HIV-1 MTCT in the past two decades. We hope our model will help indicating where HIV-1 MTCT prevalence may rise in the future and support government decision makers regarding HIV-1 surveillance and prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Linear Models , Prevalence , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting
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