Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 603
Filter
1.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210083, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1346056

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo compreender as representações sociais de adolescentes sobre vulnerabilidades e riscos para contrair o HIV/Aids nas relações sexuais. Método estudo de representações sociais, realizado a partir de entrevistas individuais com 15 adolescentes e grupo focal com oito adolescentes de uma escola pública do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados no período de maio a outubro de 2016. Para tratamento dos dados, empregou-se a técnica de análise de conteúdo temática-categorial com o auxílio do Software QSR Nvivo11. Resultados as categorias: riscos de contrair HIV/Aids nas relações sexuais; e dos riscos de contrair HIV/Aids nas relações sexuais às vulnerabilidades abrigam os temas não usar preservativo, ter usado álcool e/ou drogas, ter vários parceiros, ter dificuldades de acesso aos serviços de saúde e de educação sexual nas escolas; e não ter conversas com os pais ou familiares. Conclusão e implicações para a prática compreendeu-se que as representações sociais circulam no imaginário e no ambiente escolar, interferindo na realidade dos adolescentes. Propõe-se priorizar políticas públicas focadas nas dimensões emocionais, afetivas e sociais.


RESUMEN Objetivo comprender las representaciones sociales de adolescentes acerca de las vulnerabilidades y riesgos de contraer el VIH/SIDA en relaciones sexuales. Método estudio de representaciones sociales realizado a partir de entrevistas individuales con 15 adolescentes y un grupo focal con ocho adolescentes de una escuela pública en Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Los datos se recolectaron entre mayo y octubre de 2016. Para el tratamiento de los datos, se utilizó la técnica de análisis de contenido temático-categórico, con la ayuda del software QSR Nvivo11. Resultados las categorías riesgos de contraer el VIH/SIDA en las relaciones sexuales; y de los riesgos de contraer el VIH/SIDA en las relaciones sexuales a las vulnerabilidades que cubren los temas de no usar condón, haber consumido alcohol y/o drogas, tener varios pares, tener dificultades para acceder a los servicios de salud y de educación sexual en las escuelas; y no tener conversaciones con los padres o miembros de la familia. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica se entendió que las representaciones sociales circulan en el imaginario y en el ámbito escolar, interfiriendo en la realidad de los adolescentes. Se propone priorizar políticas públicas enfocadas en las dimensiones emocionales, afectivas y sociales.


ABSTRACT Objective To understand social representations of adolescents about vulnerabilities and risks of contracting HIV/AIDS in sexual relations. Method Study of social representations, based on individual interviews with 15 adolescents and a focus group with eight adolescents from a public school in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Data were collected from May to October 2016. For the processing of data, the thematic-categorial content analysis technique was used with the aid of the QSR Nvivo11 Software. Results The categories: risks of contracting HIV/AIDS in sexual relations; and from the risks of contracting HIV/AIDS in sexual relations to the vulnerabilities cover the themes of not using condoms, having used alcohol and/or drugs, having several partners, having difficulties in accessing health and sex education services in schools; and not having conversations with parents or family members. Conclusion and implications for practice it was understood that social representations circulate in the imaginary and in the school environment, interfering in the reality of adolescents. It is proposed to prioritize public policies focused on the emotional, affective and social dimensions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Social Perception , HIV Infections/transmission , Coitus , Adolescent Health , Health Vulnerability , Poverty , Sex Education , Alcohol Drinking , Sexual Partners , Condoms , Substance-Related Disorders , Qualitative Research , Unsafe Sex , Family Relations , Health Services Accessibility
2.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(3): 945-953, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346996

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to calculate the prevalence and rate per 1,000 live births of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in pregnant women at a public maternity hospital in Salvador. Methods: this descriptive, cross-sectional study retrospectively collected data from compulsory notifications and medical records of pregnant women with STI seen at a maternity hospital in northeastern Brazil between 2014 and 2017 (n = 520). Prevalence and rate per 1,000 live births were estimated for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, and syphilis. Associations between STI and other clinical and sociodemographic variables were investigated. Results: most pregnant women were born and resided in Salvador, presented a mean age of 26.4 years, self-reported mixed-race and had unplanned pregnancies. Prevalence and rates per 1,000 live births were, respectively: 0.26% and 3.39 for hepatitis B, 0.06% and 0.79 for hepatitis C, 0.47% and 6.23 for HIV, and 2.46% and 32.2 for syphilis. Conclusion: higher prevalence and rates of infection per 1,000 live births were seen at the maternity hospital in northeastern Brazil compared to official data provided by the Brazilian government, notably with regard to HIV and syphilis. The appropriate epidemiological notification of STI, especially in pregnant women, enables the elaboration of effective preventive strategies incorporating specific sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.


Resumo Objetivos: calcular a prevalência e as taxas por 1000 nascidos vivos de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) em gestantes de uma maternidade pública de Salvador. Métodos: estudo transversal, descritivo, com dados coletados retrospectivamente a partir das fichas de notificação dos agravos e dos prontuários de todas as gestantes com IST atendidas na maternidade, entre os anos de 2014 e 2017 (n=520). Foram calculadas as prevalências e as taxas por 1000 nascidos vivos de hepatite B, hepatite C, HIV e sífilis para a população de gestantes da maternidade. Associações entre as IST e demais variáveis clínicas e sociodemográficas também foram investigadas. Resultados: a maioria das gestantes era natural e residente de Salvador, pardas, com idade média de 26,4 anos e que não planejaram a gravidez. As prevalências e as taxas por 1000 nascidos vivos foram respectivamente: 0,26% e 3,39 para hepatite B, 0,06% e 0,79 para hepatite C, 0,47% e 6,23 para HIV e 2,46% e 32,2 para sífilis. Conclusão: a maternidade apresenta prevalências e taxas por 1000 nascidos vivos superiores aos dados oficiais do governo brasileiro, especialmente para HIV e sífilis. A correta notificação epidemiológica desses agravos, especialmente em gestantes, permite o desenvolvimento de estratégias preventivas mais eficientes e com enfoque nas características sociodemográficas e clínicas das pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Syphilis/transmission , Syphilis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/transmission , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Hepatitis B/transmission , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Live Birth , Health Information Systems
3.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 672-683, oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144265

ABSTRACT

La prevención de la transmisión vertical de VIH es un desafío para todos los países del mundo. Esto se ve complejizado por la construcción permanente de sociedades globales, con grado variable de población migrante internacional. Las políticas, programas y acciones sanitarias para la prevención de transmisión vertical de VIH en gestantes migrantes demandan una perspectiva intercultural, en donde se aborden todas las dimensiones sociales, culturales y de género asociadas a la infección. El entender la realidad local en cuanto a la prevención de transmisión vertical de VIH en población migrante internacional en Chile es esencial para llevar acciones concretas que favorezcan la prevención de transmisión madre-hijo de VIH. En este artículo se presentan algunos conceptos esenciales relacionados a esta temática. También se expone información internacional y nacional sobre riesgos de transmisión vertical de VIH en migrantes gestantes, la importancia del plan nacional de preven ción de transmisión vertical de VIH en nuestro país, y algunos esfuerzos que se están realizando para adaptar dicho plan a la realidad de diversidad social y cultural que migrantes gestantes presentan hoy en Chile, como un valioso insumo de salud pública con perspectiva intercultural.


Preventing vertical transmission of HIV is a challenge for all countries worldwide. The permanent construction of global societies with a variable degree of international migrant population has made it more complex. Health policies, programs, and actions for preventing vertical transmission of HIV in pregnant migrants demand an intercultural perspective, where social, cultural, and gender dimen sions associated with the infection are addressed. Understanding the local reality regarding the pre vention of vertical transmission in the international migrant population in Chile is essential to carry out concrete actions that favor the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This article presents some essential concepts related to this topic. It also presents international and national in formation on risks of vertical transmission in pregnant migrants, the importance of the national plan for preventing vertical transmission of HIV in our country, and some ongoing efforts to adapt such plan to the reality of social and cultural diversity that pregnant migrants currently present in Chile, as a useful public health instrument with an intercultural perspective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/ethnology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Prenatal Care/methods , Transients and Migrants , HIV Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Emigrants and Immigrants , Culturally Competent Care/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/ethnology , HIV Infections/therapy , Chile/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Health Policy
4.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 253-262, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134093

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the last five years there has been a resurgence of scholarly research and museum exhibitions on the history of HIV and AIDS. This work has called into question some of the conventions of archiving and interpreting the history of the pandemic. It is increasingly clear that a narrow range of materials have been saved. As historians and curators turn to these holdings for analysis and exhibition, they find they inadequately represent the impact of AIDS across diverse groups as well as the range of local, national, international responses. This essay considers some of the factors that shape collection of the material culture, particularly the heritage of public health, and the consequences for our understanding of lessons from the past.


Resumo Nos últimos cinco anos, retomaram-se as pesquisas acadêmicas e exposições museológicas sobre a história do HIV e da aids. Este trabalho questiona algumas das convenções de arquivamento e interpretação da história da pandemia. Fica cada vez mais claro que foi preservada uma pequena amostra de materiais. À medida que historiadores e curadores recorrem a esse patrimônio para análise e exposição, descobrem que representam de maneira inadequada o impacto da aids em diversos grupos, bem como o escopo das respostas locais, nacionais e internacionais. Este artigo considera alguns dos fatores que influenciam a coleção de cultura material, em particular o legado da saúde pública e as consequências de nossa compreensão das lições do passado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Archives , HIV Infections/history , Public Health/history , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/history , Museums , HIV Infections/transmission , Homosexuality, Male/history
5.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (34): 25-45, jan.-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139628

ABSTRACT

Resumo Neste artigo, discutimos narrativas sobre as relações afetivo-sexuais de homens jovens vivendo com HIV/aids, com carga viral indetectável e possibilidade de não transmis-sibilidade do HIV. Realizamos dez entrevistas semiestruturadas com homens que fazem sexo com homens, entre 18 e 30 anos, acompanhados em um SAE - Serviço de Assistência Es-pecializada de Salvador-BA, em 2017. Nas narrativas em foco, a condição de indetectável aparece como uma mudança [bio]identitária importante, e sua manutenção como uma res-ponsabilidade contínua consigo e com o outro. Apesar de avanços biomédicos e das novas possibilidades interativas abertas nesse cenário, os efeitos estigmatizantes do HIV persistem, sustentados pelos discursos de medo e culpa por uma possível transmissão do vírus. Uma noção de corpos perigosos, de risco, em detrimento dos avanços alcançados com os estudos que indicam que indetectável=intransmissível.


Resumen En este artículo, discutimos narrativas sobre las relaciones afectivo-sexuales de hombres jóvenes que viven con VIH/sida, con carga viral indetectable y posibilidades de no transmisibilidad del VIH. Hicimos diez entrevistas semi-estructuradas con hombres que tienen sexo con hombres, entre 18 y 30 años, en seguimiento en el servicio especializado de salud, en Salvador de Bahía, 2017. En las narrativas en foco, la condición de indetectable expresa un cambio bio-identitario importante, y su mantenimiento una responsabilidad con-tinua consigo y con el otro. A pesar de los avances biomédicos y de las nuevas posibilidades interactivas abiertas en ese escenario, los efectos estigmatizantes del VIH persisten, respal-dados en discursos de miedo y culpa por la posible transmisión del virus. Una noción de cuerpos peligrosos y riesgosos, a pesar de los avances logrados en los estudios que afirman indetectable=intransmisible.


Abstract In this article, we discuss narratives on affective-sexual relationships of young men living with HIV/AIDS, with undetectable viral load and possibility of not transmit-ting HIV. We conducted ten semi-structured interviews with men who have sex with men, aged between 18 and 30 years old, followed at a specialized health service in Salvador, Ba-hia, Brazil, in 2017. In these narratives, the undetectable condition appears as an impor-tant [bio]identity change, and its maintenance as an ongoing responsibility to themselves and others. Despite biomedical advances, the 'undetectable equals Untransmittable' (U=U) campaign and new interactive possibilities open up in this scenario, the stigma of HIV as well as a notion of dangerous/risky bodies persist, supported by discourses of fear and guilt for a possible virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , HIV Infections/transmission , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Homosexuality, Male , Viral Load , Sexuality , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Self Care , Brazil , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Interviews as Topic , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , HIV Seropositivity/transmission , Biomedical Technology , Social Stigma , Personal Narrative , Psychological Distress , Interpersonal Relations
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(2): 575-584, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055823

ABSTRACT

Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar e analisar a produção científica acerca do comportamento e conhecimento sobre sexualidade de idosos que vivem com HIV. Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa de artigos científicos indexados nas bases de dados, Lilacs, Ibecs, Medline, BDENF, PubMed e Scopus (Elsevier), considerando publicações a partir de janeiro de 2007 a dezembro de 2016, utilizando os seguintes descritores: conhecimento (knowledge), comportamento (behavior/behaviour) sexualidade (sexuality), idoso (Elderly), HIV/AIDS. De 1.493 artigos encontrados, 11 foram incluídos por preencherem os critérios de inclusão e foram analisados através de dois instrumentos: Critical Appraisal Skill Programme (CASP) e Agency for Healthcare and Research and Quality (AHRQ). Os dados sugerem que os idosos HIV positivo são sexualmente ativos e estão envolvidos em comportamentos de risco de transmissão do vírus. Percebe-se que existe uma produção científica limitada em relação ao comportamento e conhecimento sobre sexualidade entre os idosos que vivem com HIV. Conclui-se que o estudo poderá subsidiar políticas públicas em saúde que valorizem a abordagem sobre sexualidade na terceira idade, assim como a realização de novos questionamentos no tocante a esta temática.


Abstract The scope of this study was to identify and analyze the scientific production on behavior and knowledge about the sexuality of elderly people living with HIV. An integrative review of scientific articles indexed in the Lilacs, IBECS, Medline, BDENF, PubMed and Scopus (Elsevier) databases was conducted, considering publications from January 2007 to December 2016, using the following key words: knowledge, behavior, sexuality, Elderly, HIV/AIDS. Of the 1493 articles located, 11 were included because they met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed through two instruments: Critical Appraisal Skill Program (CASP) and Agency for Healthcare and Research and Quality (AHRQ). The data suggest that HIV-positive elderly people are sexually active and are involved in risk behaviors of virus transmission. It transpires that there is a limited scientific production regarding the behavior and knowledge about sexuality among elderly people living with HIV. The conclusion drawn is that the study may contribute to the improvement of public health policies that promote the approach on sexuality among elderly people, as well as the emergence of new questions regarding this issue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Sexuality/statistics & numerical data , Risk-Taking , HIV Infections/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Health Policy
8.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1268317

ABSTRACT

Senior High School (SHS) students fall within the age group (15-24 years) hardest hit by HIV/AIDS. Since about 90% of HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is through heterosexual intercourse, it is assumed that these students engage in risky sexual behaviours. Hohoe municipality has one of the highest HIV prevalence in Ghana (3.4%). The current study investigated the demographic determinants of risky sexual behaviours among senior high school students in the Hohoe municipality, Ghana.Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional design was employed in the study. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a multistage sample of 270 SHS students who consented to participate in January 2019. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using Stata version 14.0 software program at the 0.05 level of significance.Results: of 270 respondents, 112 (41.5%) were engaged in risky sexual behaviours. Single students were 82% less likely to engage in risky sexual behaviours than their married counterparts (p=0.032) and muslims were 89% less likely to engage in risky sexual behaviours than christians (p=0.032).Conclusion: religion and marital status were the two socio-demographic characteristics that were significantly associated with risky sexual behaviour. Health promotion interventions to curb risky sexual behaviours among the SHS students should target the christian and married students


Subject(s)
Ghana , HIV Infections/transmission , Population Characteristics , Risk Factors , Sexual Behavior , Students
9.
South Sudan med. j ; 13(3): 79-85, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1272132

ABSTRACT

Introduction: While exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life is recommended for HIV-infected mothers, this may not be practiced fully in South Sudan; exclusive formula feeding, which is the best alternative to breastfeeding, may not be practical. Objective: To assess the knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) and practices of feeding infants in the first six months of life among HIV-infected mothers attending Antiretroviral Therapy Centres in Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH) and Juba Military Hospital (JMH). Method: A cross-sectional study in which 304 HIV-infected mothers with children aged 6-18 months were interviewed between October and December 2016 using structured questionnaires. Key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) were also conducted using interview guides. Quantitative data was analysed using Statistics Package for Social Sciences software. Chi-square test was used to test the presence of significant association between the variables and the association is statistically significant when the p-value is < 0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify which predictor variables have major effect on the dependent variable. Qualitative data was transcribed in English and summarized according to the key themes, and the information obtained was used to supplement and interpret the findings of the quantitative data. Results: Only 120 (40%) of the HIV-infected mothers had a good knowledge of MTCT; 213 mothers (70.1%) practiced mixed feeding, 70 (23.0%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding and 20 (6.6%) practiced exclusive formula feeding. The factors that were found to have a positive effect on choice of infant feeding methods were having more than one child (odds ratio = 0.303, 95% Confidence interval: 0.161-0.571, p = 0.001) and participation in the prevention of motherto-child transmission of HIV programme (PMTCT) (odds ratio = 2.260, 95% Confidence interval: 1.251-4.084, p = 0.007). Stigma (p = 0.248) and mothers' knowledge of MTCT (p = 0.072) were not statistically significantly associated with the mothers' infant feeding practices. Conclusion: Knowledge of MTCT is low. Mixed feeding before six months of age is predominant among the HIV-infected mothers. It is therefore recomm;ended that HIV-infected mothers receive adequate information from counsellors regarding MTCT and exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of an infant's life


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mothers , South Sudan
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190461, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091243

ABSTRACT

Phylogenetic analyses were crucial to elucidate the origin and spread of the pandemic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M virus, both during the pre-epidemic period of cryptic dissemination in human populations as well as during the epidemic phase of spread. The use of phylogenetics and phylodynamics approaches has provided important insights to track the founder events that resulted in the spread of HIV-1 strains across vast geographic areas, specific countries and within geographically restricted communities. In the recent years, the use of phylogenetic analysis combined with the huge availability of HIV sequences has become an increasingly important approach to reconstruct HIV transmission networks and understand transmission dynamics in concentrated and generalised epidemics. Significant efforts to obtain viral sequences from newly HIV-infected individuals could certainly contribute to detect rapidly expanding HIV-1 lineages, identify key populations at high-risk and understand what public health interventions should be prioritised in different scenarios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/genetics , Phylogeography , Phylogeny , Cluster Analysis , HIV Infections/virology , Gorilla gorilla
11.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 30(1): e300105, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101313

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo parte de uma discussão internacional sobre a intransmissibilidade do vírus HIV, quando a pessoa soropositiva está em tratamento e com carga viral indetectável. Trata-se de um dos resultados da pesquisa qualitativa sobre sociabilidades de jovens vivendo com HIV, com ênfase nos novos discursos/práticas biomédicos e seu impacto nas relações afetivo-sexuais desses/as jovens. Durante os meses de março a novembro de 2017, houve a interação com pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids (PVHA), com idade entre 18 e 30 anos, e médicos/as infectologistas de um Serviço de Assistência Especializada em Salvador-BA. Para além das mudanças significativas em relação ao HIV, decorrentes dos avanços atuais das biotecnologias, colocamos em pauta algumas controvérsias em torno da intransmissibilidade do vírus do ponto de vista de quatro médicos/as infectologistas. Realizamos entrevistas abertas e a leitura exploratória das narrativas, identificando temas, questões e atores que se deslocavam nos relatos em torno da condição de indetectável. Discutimos que a carga viral indetectável aparece como um assunto delicado/controverso nos consultórios médicos, atualizando a posição de PVHA como potencialmente perigosas, podendo reincidir em práticas sexuais desprotegidas ou "relaxar" no cuidado consigo e com o outro. São narrativas que suscitam questões éticas fundamentais na relação de cuidado, tais como o direito à informação na perspectiva da saúde como um direito humano.


Abstract This article is based on an international discussion on HIV non-transmissibility when the HIV-positive person is under treatment and has an undetectable viral load. This is one of the results of research on the sociability of young people living with HIV, with emphasis on new biomedical discourses/practices and their impact on the affective-sexual relationships of young people. From March to November of 2017, the researchers interacted with people living with HIV (PLHIV), aged between 18 and 30 years, and infectologists in a Specialized Service in Salvador-BA, Brazil. Beyond significant changes in relation to HIV due to advances in biotechnology, the study focused on some controversies surrounding the non-transmissibility of the virus from the viewpoint of four infectologists. Open interviews and exploratory reading of the narratives were conducted, identifying themes, issues and actors that moved in the reports on the condition of undetectable. The article argues that undetectable viral load appears as a sensitive/controversial subject in medical offices, updating the PLHIV's position as potentially dangerous that may engage in unprotected sexual practices or "relax" in mutual care. Such narratives raise fundamental ethical issues in care relations, such as the right to information from the perspective of health as a human right.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Self Care , HIV Infections/transmission , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Viral Load , Infectious Disease Medicine , Interpersonal Relations , Biotechnology/methods , Brazil , Qualitative Research , Unsafe Sex , Empathy/ethics , Health Communication
12.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3262, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1101740

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to know the effects of a nursing intervention to reduce alcohol use and risk factors for transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Method: randomized single-blinded clinical trial performed by nurses with young women. The study included 66 participants in the intervention group and 66 participants in the control group. The instruments were the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the HIV Risk Behavior Knowledge and the Condom Use Self-efficacy Scale. Analysis of variance was used. Results: alcohol involvement decreased in the intervention group (F (1.119) = 50.28; p < 0.001; η2p = 0.297), while HIV knowledge (F (1.130) = 34.34; p < 0.001; η2p = 0.209) and condom use self-efficacy increased (F (1.129) = 27.20; p < 0.001; η2p = 0.174). In addition, less participants consumed alcohol in the past week compared to the control group (χ2 = 15.95; p < 0.001). Conclusion: the nursing intervention had positive effects, which could help young women stay away from alcohol use and the risk of sexually transmitted infections. NCT: 02405481.


Resumo Objetivo: conhecer os efeitos de uma intervenção de enfermagem para reduzir o uso de álcool e diminuir os fatores de risco para a transmissão do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, sigla em inglês). Método: ensaio clínico randomizado, simples-cego, realizado por enfermeiras com mulheres jovens. O estudo incluiu 66 participantes no grupo de intervenção e 66 participantes no grupo controle. Os instrumentos foram o Questionário de Identificação de Distúrbios de Uso de Álcool, a HIVRisk Behavior Knowledge e a Escala de Autoeficácia no Uso de Preservativos. Foi utilizada a análise de variância. Resultados: o consumo de álcool diminuiu no grupo de intervenção (F (1,119) = 50,28; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,297), enquanto o conhecimento sobre o HIV (F (1,130) = 34,34; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,209) e a autoeficácia no uso de preservativos aumentaram (F (1,129) = 27,20; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,174). Além disso, menos participantes consumiram álcool na última semana em comparação com o grupo controle (χ2 = 15,95; p < 0,001). Conclusão: a intervenção de enfermagem teve efeitos positivos, que poderiam ajudar as mulheres jovens a ficarem longe do uso de álcool e do risco de infecção por doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. NCT: 02405481.


Resumo Objetivo: conocer los efectos de una intervención de enfermería para reducir el uso de alcohol y disminuir factores de riesgo para transmisión del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV, siglas en inglés). Método: ensayo clínico aleatorizado, simple ciego, administrado por enfermeras a mujeres jóvenes. Participaron 66 personas en el grupo de intervención y 66 en el de control. Los instrumentos fueron el Cuestionario de Identificación de Trastornos debidos al Consumo de Alcohol, el HIV Risk Behavior Knowledge y la escala de Autoeficacia del Uso de Condón. Se utilizó análisis de la varianza. Resultados: en el grupo de intervención disminuyó el involucramiento con el alcohol (F (1,119) = 50,28; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,297), aumentaron los conocimientos sobre el HIV (F (1,130) = 34,34; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,209) y la autoeficacia para uso de condón (F (1,129) = 27,20; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,174). También menos participantes bebieron alcohol en la última semana en comparación con el grupo de control (χ2 = 15,95; p < 0,001). Conclusión: la intervención de enfermería tuvo efectos positivos que podrían ayudar a las mujeres jóvenes a mantenerse alejadas del uso de alcohol y de contagio de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. NCT: 02405481.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Sexual Behavior , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Hispanic Americans/education , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/transmission , Single-Blind Method , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Education , Risk Factors , Health Surveys , Mexico
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(12): 4707-4716, dez. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055739

ABSTRACT

Resumen Esta etnografía se realizó en Barcelona, ciudad que ofrece diferentes recursos de ocio homosexual, como las saunas gay. El objetivo fue analizar desde los estudios sobre género y masculinidades, cómo se articula la sexualidad, la percepción sobre la infección por VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), y las medidas preventivas en trabajadores sexuales masculinos (TSM) usuarios de saunas gay. Se realizaron 10 entrevistas en profundidad y observación entre 2012 y 2016. Las prácticas de sexo seguro son más frecuentes con clientes, mientras que las de riesgo se realizan más con parejas no comerciales. La orientación sexual juega un rol relevante, los homosexuales asumen más prácticas de riesgo en el trabajo sexual que los heterosexuales. Consumo de drogas o la escasez de redes de apoyo se relacionaron con mayor vulnerabilidad social y conductas de riesgo. Contraer el VIH aún genera miedo, mientras que tener otras ITS se percibe como parte de la vida sexual de un hombre. El TSM afianza una masculinidad con múltiples parejas sexuales, breadwinner y por otra parte, cuestiona un modelo heteronormativo. Las intervenciones para la prevención del VIH e ITS en este colectivo, deberían considerar los determinantes sociales como las precarias alternativas laborales y el ofrecer mayor soporte social.


Abstract This ethnography was conducted in Barcelona, a city that provides different gay leisure resources, such as gay saunas. We aimed to analyze from studies on gender and masculinities, how sexuality, perception of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preventive measures are articulated in gay sauna male sex workers (MSW). Ten in-depth interviews and observation were conducted between 2012 and 2016. Safe sex practices are more frequent with clients, while risk practices are carried out more with non-commercial partners. Sexual orientation plays an important role. Homosexuals assume riskier practices in sex work than heterosexuals. Drug use or lack of support networks were associated with higher social vulnerability and risk behaviors. Contracting HIV still creates fear, while having other STIs is perceived as part of a man's sexual life. The MSW affirms masculinity with concurrent sexual partners, breadwinner, and on the other hand, questions a heteronormative model. Interventions for the prevention of HIV and STIs in this group should consider social determinants such as inferior work alternatives and the provision of more significant social support.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Steam Bath , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Safe Sex/psychology , Unsafe Sex/psychology , Masculinity , Sex Workers/psychology , Social Support , Spain , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/transmission , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/transmission , Homosexuality, Male , Heterosexuality , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Qualitative Research , Interpersonal Relations , Anthropology, Cultural
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(4): 218-223, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039238

ABSTRACT

Abstract HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (HIV-1 MTCT), is an important cause of children mortality worldwide. Brazil has been traditionally praised by its HIV/Aids program, which provides free-of-charge care for people living with HIV-1. Using public epidemiology and demographic databases, we aimed at modeling HIV-1 MTCT prevalence in Brazil through the years (1994-2016) and elaborate a statistical model for forecasting, contributing to HIV-1 epidemiologic surveillance and healthcare decision-making. We downloaded sets of live births and mothers' data alongside HIV-1 cases notification in children one year old or less. Through time series modeling, we estimated prevalence along the years in Brazil, and observed a remarkable decrease of HIV-1 MTCT between 1994 (10 cases per 100,000 live births) and 2016 (five cases per 100,000 live births), a reduction of 50%. Using our model, we elaborated a prognosis for each Brazilian state to help HIV-1 surveillance decision making, indicating which states are in theory in risk of experiencing a rise in HIV-1 MTCT prevalence. Ten states had good (37%), nine had mild (33%), and eight had poor prognostics (30%). Stratifying the prognostics by Brazilian region, we observed that the Northeast region had more states with poor prognosis, followed by North and Midwest, Southeast and South with one state of poor prognosis each. Brazil undoubtedly advanced in the fight against HIV-1 MTCT in the past two decades. We hope our model will help indicating where HIV-1 MTCT prevalence may rise in the future and support government decision makers regarding HIV-1 surveillance and prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Linear Models , Prevalence , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 318-330, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013790

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Desde la incorporación de la terapia anti-retroviral (TAR) la infección por VIH ha pasado a ser una condición crónica, mejorando la sobrevida y permitiendo que los niños que han sido infectados con el virus lleguen en mejores condiciones a la adolescencia, donde se ven enfrentados a una serie de cambios, entre ellos, al despertar sexual. Objetivo: Explorar las principales creencias, percepciones y experiencias en sexualidad de un grupo de adolescentes con infección por VIH adquirida por transmisión vertical. Pacientes y Métodos: Se realizó una investigación cualitativa con alcance exploratorio y descriptivo. Se aplicaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a 28 adolescentes, bajo control en hospitales de Santiago y Región de Valparaíso, con infección por VIH. El análisis se realizó de acuerdo a la Teoría Fundamentada. Resultados: Se observó falta de educación sexual y una visión que se centra en los riesgos, tales como contagio de infecciones de transmisión sexual o embarazo adolescente. Existen temores frente a la posibilidad de rechazo de los otros y a transmitir el virus a la pareja o a los hijos y los invaden sentimientos de vergüenza y rabia. Conclusión: Es importante capacitar a los profesionales de salud que trabajan con este grupo, pues son identificados como fuente confiable de información y educación.


Background: Since the incorporation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) HIV has become a chronic condition, improving survival and allowing children with the virus to come in better conditions to adolescence, where they are faced with a series of changes, among them, to sexual awakening. Aim: To explore the main beliefs, perceptions and experiences in sexuality of a group of adolescents with HIV infection acquired through vertical transmission. Methods: A qualitative research was carried out with exploratory and descriptive scope. Semi-structured interviews were applied to 28 adolescents, under control in hospitals in Santiago and Valparaíso, with HIV infection. The analysis was carried out according to the Grounded Theory. Results: There was a lack of sexual education and a vision that focuses on risks, such as sexually transmissible infections or teenage pregnancy. There are fears about the possibility of rejection by others and of transmitting the virus to the couple or the children and they are invaded by feelings of shame and anger. Conclusion: It is important to train health professionals who work with this group, because they are identified as a reliable source of information and education.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sexual Behavior/psychology , HIV Infections/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Perception , Sex Education , Socioeconomic Factors , HIV Infections/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Culture , Life Change Events
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(4): 1417-1426, abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001767

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por VIH, adquirida con participación consciente del receptor, es un problema complejo de alcance mundial, particular entre hombres que tienen sexo con otros hombres. Emergen comportamientos como el Bareback (sexo anal sin protección de modo intencional entre hombres) y, Bugchasing (sexo bareback cuando uno de los participantes es VIH+ y el otro no). Se caracterizó un grupo de conductas emergentes de riesgo hacia la infección por VIH. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en las bases de datos Medline, Web of Sciences, y Scielo regional. Se utilizaron términos de búsqueda como, sexo sin protección, Barebacking/Bareback, y Bug chasing, todos relacionados al VIH. Las conductas Barecack, y Bug Chaser se producen entre otros factores por el Homonegativiso social, la cobertura positiva de la Terapia Antirretroviral, campañas de prevención insuficientes, búsqueda de nuevas sensaciones, y el intento de fortalecer la relación con un miembro de la pareja VIH+. El sexo sin protección por su parte se asocia principalmente a tener diagnóstico de VIH/sida, violencia física debido a la orientación sexual, asistir a sitios de sexo Gay y haber comprado o vendido sexo. Se debe trabajar con los comportamientos individuales que acercan al sujeto a la infección.


Abstract HIV infection, acquired with the conscious participation of the recipient, is a complex problem of international concern, especially among men who have sex with men. Behaviors emerge such as bareback (intentionally unprotected anal sex between men) and bugchasing (bareback sex when one participant is HIV+ and the other is not). A group of emerging risk behaviors for HIV infection was characterized. A review of the literature in the MEDLINE, Web of Science and regional SciELO databases was performed. HIV-related search terms such as unprotected sex, barebacking/bareback and bug chasing, were used. Bareback and bug chaser behaviors occur, among other factors, through social homonegativity, ART positive coverage, insufficient prevention campaigns, search for new sensations and attempts to strengthen the relationship with the HIV+ member. Unprotected sex is primarily associated with having HIV/AIDS diagnoses, physical violence due to sexual orientation, viewing homosexual sex sites, and having bought or sold sex. It is necessary to work with individual behaviors that draw individuals close to infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Risk-Taking , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Unsafe Sex/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior , HIV Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/transmission , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , Unsafe Sex/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 71-78, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011576

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Class I human leukocyte antigens, especially the molecules encoded at the B locus (HLA-B), are associated with AIDS progression risk. Different groups of HLA-B alleles have been associated to a protective effect or increasing susceptibility to HIV infection and are expressed from the earliest stages of gestation. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate which variants of HLA-B are associated with the risk of HIV vertical transmission in infected pregnant women and in their offspring, in a referral center in Salvador Bahia. Methods: We performed HLA-B genotyping in 52 HIV-infected mothers and their children exposed to HIV-1 during pregnancy (N = 65) in Salvador, Brazil. We compared the HLA-B alleles frequency in mothers, uninfected and infected children, according to the use of antiretroviral prophylaxis. Results: Absence of antiretroviral antenatal and postnatal prophylaxis was significantly associated with vertical transmission of HIV-1 (p = <0.01, and p = <0.01 respectively). Frequency of HLA-B*14 (29.2%, p = 0.002), HLA-B*18 (16.7%, p = 0.04) or HLA-B*14:1 (20.8%, p = 0.01) alleles subgroups were significantly higher in HIV-1 infected children and persisted (HLA-B*14, p = 0.04) even after adjusting for use of antiretroviral prophylaxis. No significant difference in expression of HLA-B alleles was observed among mothers who transmitted the virus compared to those who did not. Conclusions: Expression of HLA-B*14 allele in children exposed to HIV-1 is predictive of vertical transmission and reinforces the important role of genetics in mother-to-child transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Alleles , HLA-B14 Antigen/genetics , Reference Values , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/blood , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Disease Progression , HLA-B14 Antigen/blood , Genotyping Techniques , Gene Frequency
18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 715-728, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-989628

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo pretende identificar e analisar criticamente, com base no quadro analítico do conceito de vulnerabilidade, estudos qualitativos sobre a vulnerabilidade de caminhoneiros ao HIV. Os critérios de inclusão foram: abordar a temática da susceptibilidade dos caminhoneiros ao HIV/AIDS e empregar a abordagem qualitativa. Foram encontrados 445 resumos, dentre os quais 17 artigos foram incluídos na análise e categorizados em "estudos socioculturais", "estudos avaliativos" e "estudos de comportamentos de risco". A análise foi balizada por reflexões realizadas a partir do conceito de vulnerabilidade em saúde. O estudo critica a predominância de estudos qualitativos de cunho comportamentalista, com ênfase na identificação de comportamentos de risco, e de concepções e representações sobre HIV/AIDS. Além disso, aponta para estudos de matriz sociocultural e avaliativos que transpassam a barreira dos comportamentos individuais, ampliando o escopo de análise, ao compreender os fenômenos estruturais e interações dos sujeitos frente à epidemia, aproximando-se do conceito de vulnerabilidade. A revisão aponta para a necessidade de estudos que levem em consideração o conceito de vulnerabilidade, contextualizando os comportamentos às dimensões socioestruturais envolvidas na epidemia de aids.


Abstract The scope of this article is to conduct a critical identification and analysis, based on the analytical framework of the concept of vulnerability of truck drivers to HIV. The criteria for inclusion were to address the issue of truck drivers' susceptibility to HIV/AIDS and to adopt the qualitative approach. A total of 445 abstracts were located, of which 17 articles were included in the analysis and categorized as "sociocultural studies", "evaluative studies" and "risk behavior studies." The analysis was based on reflections surrounding the concept of vulnerability in health. The study criticizes the predominance of qualitative studies of a behaviorist nature, with an emphasis on the identification of risk behaviors, concepts and representations about HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, it points to studies of a sociocultural and evaluative nature that transcend the barrier of individual behaviors, expanding the scope of analysis, analysis of structural phenomena and interactions of subjects faced with the epidemic, duly approaching the concept of vulnerability. The review reveals the need for studies that take into account the concept of vulnerability, contextualizing the behaviors to the socio-structural dimensions involved in the AIDS epidemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Automobile Driving , HIV Infections/transmission , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Risk-Taking , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Motor Vehicles , Qualitative Research
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 973-982, mar. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-989615

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo apresenta resultados de pesquisa etnográfica na comunidade gay do Recife (PE), realizada por meio de observação participante e entrevistas. Objetiva compreender condutas sexuais de risco de homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH) ao HIV, focando os sentidos das posições sexuais no intercurso anal — receptivo (IAR) e insertivo (IAI). Praticantes de IAR desprotegido são sujeitos a maior risco de infecção que praticantes de IAI. Os que praticam ambos, IAR e IAI, são elos amplificadores (maiores chances de receber e passar o vírus) nas cadeias de transmissão. O texto aborda as categorias êmicas, relacionadas com as identidades de gênero — pintosa (gay feminino), boy (gay masculino) e cafuçu (HSH e com mulheres, não gay, masculino, classe popular) — e com as identidades sexuais — ativo (IAI), passivo (IAR) e versátil (IAI e IAR) —, nos modos como significam as posições sexuais e produzem atração sexual. Os homens masculinos são os sexualmente desejados. Boys tendem a se relacionar com boys, e pintosas, com cafuçus. Há expressivo número de versáteis, o que amplia o risco coletivo dentro da comunidade gay. Por meio das relações entre pintosas e cafuçus, pode existir um caminho propício para o vírus circular mais entre a comunidade gay e a sociedade mais ampla.


Abstract The article presents the results of an ethnographic study of the gay community in Recife (PE), conducted via participant observation and interviews. It seeks to understand sexual risk conduct among men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV, focusing on the significance of sexual positions during anal-receptive intercourse (ARI) and anal-insertive intercourse (AII). Those who practice unprotected ARI are subject to a greater risk of infection than those who practice AII. Those who practice both, ARI and AII, are amplifiers (greater chances of receiving and passing on the virus) in the transmission chains. The text addresses the emic categories related with gender identities - pintosa (female gay), boy (male gay), and cafuçu (MSM and with women, non-gay, male, lower social class) - and with gender identities - active (AII), passive (ARI), and versatile (AII and ARI) - in the ways they result in sexual positions and produce sexual attraction. Masculine men are the most sexually desirable. Boys tend to relate with boys, and pintosas with cafuçus. There is a significant number of versatiles, which increases the collective risk within the gay community. By means of the relations between pintosas and cafuçus, there is increased danger for the virus to circulate more among the gay community and society in general.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/transmission , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , Risk-Taking , Brazil , Sexual Partners , Interviews as Topic , Risk Factors , Gender Identity
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(1): 53-59, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001501

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) is the main route of HIV-1 infection in children. Genetic studies suggest HLA-B alleles play an important role on HIV-1 transmission, progression, and control of HIV-1 infection. Objective: To evaluate which polymorphisms of HLA-B are involved in HIV-1 MTCT. Methods: Two independent reviewers performed a systematic review on search engines PubMed, Europe PMC, Cochrane, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and Literatura Latino-americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs), using the following key terms: "HIV infection", "HIV newborn", "HLA polymorphisms", "HLA-B", and "Mother to child transmission". All studies focusing on evaluation of HIV-1 MTCT, HIV infection evolution, and molecular analyses of HLA-B in children were selected. Results: Nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Sixteen HLA-B alleles groups were associated with HIV-1 infection; seven of them (43.8%) were related to slow disease progression or reduced risk of MTCT, while six (37.5%) alleles groups were linked to a faster progression of HIV infection in children and to increased risk of MTCT. The available evidence suggest that HLA-B*57 group allele is associated with slow disease progression, while HLA-B*35 group allele is associated to increased risk of MTCT and rapid disease progression in infected children. The role of HLA-B*18, B*58 and B*44 are still controversial because they were associated to both, protection against MTCT, and to higher HIV replicative capacity, in different studies. Conclusion: HLA-B*57 group allele can be protective against MTCT while HLA-B*35 groups alleles are consistently associated with HIV-1 MTCT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , HIV Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Risk Assessment , Disease Progression , Alleles
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL