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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(1): e202302992, feb. 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1525290

ABSTRACT

La resistencia a los antirretrovirales (ARV) es un problema de salud pública. Con el uso de inhibidores de la integrasa (INSTI) en pediatría, también comienzan a aparecer resistencias. El objetivo de esta comunicación es describir 3 casos con resistencia a los INSTI. Se describen 3 pacientes pediátricos con transmisión vertical del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Iniciaron ARV de lactantes y preescolares, con mala adherencia al tratamiento, cursaron con diferentes planes secundarios a comorbilidades asociadas y fallas virológicas por resistencia. Los 3 casos clínicos describen la rápida aparición de resistencia frente a la falla virológica y el compromiso de los INSTI. La adherencia debe ser supervisada para detectar precozmente el aumento de la viremia. La falla virológica en un paciente tratado con raltegravir obliga a un rápido cambio de esquema ARV, ya que continuar utilizándolo podría favorecer nuevas mutaciones y resistencia a los INSTI de segunda generación.


Antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance is a public health issue. Resistance has also been observed in the case of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) used in pediatrics. The objective of this article is to describe 3 cases of INSTI resistance. These are the cases of 3 children with vertically-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They were started on ARVs as infants and preschoolers, with poor treatment adherence, and had different management plans due to associated comorbidities and virological failure due to resistance. In the 3 cases, resistance developed rapidly as a result of virological failure and INSTI involvement. Treatment adherence should be monitored so that any increase in viremia can be detected early. Virological failure in a patient treated with raltegravir forces to a rapid change in ARV therapy because its continued use may favor new mutations and resistance to second-generation INSTIs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/genetics , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Uruguay , Raltegravir Potassium/therapeutic use , Raltegravir Potassium/pharmacology , Mutation
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1527678

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del estudio fue describir los niveles de resistencia transmitida de VIH-1 en adultos atendidos en Unidades de Atención Integral de Guatemala. El estudio incluyó registros de 185 pacientes adultos VIH-1 positivo, de reciente diagnóstico sin antecedente de uso de TAR, de noviembre del 2019 a noviembre del 2020. El análisis se realizó en el software DeepChek® v2.0, para la clasificación de la resistencia se siguió el algoritmo de Stanford HIVdb (v9.4 - 07/12/2022). Se encontró 18.4% (IC 95% 13.1 - 24.7%) de resistencia general a alguna familia de ARVs. Se evidenció 15.1% (IC 95% 10.3 - 21.1%) de resistencia individual a la familia de INNTR afectando principalmente a NVP y EFV; 2.2% (IC 95% 0.6 - 5.4%) de resistencia a INTR, mayormente a FTC/3TC; y 2.7% (IC 95% 0.9 - 6.2%) de resistencia intermedia y baja los IP NFV y LPV/r. Tres casos presentaron resistencia múltiple a los INTR + INNTR. Las mutaciones más frecuentemente encontradas fueron K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) y M46I (5.9%). La elevada resistencia transmitida del VIH-1 en pacientes atendidos en distintas Unidades de Atención Integral del VIH, demuestra la importancia de analizar periódicamente la tendencia de la resistencia en personas que no han estado expuestas a ARVs, lo cual a su vez es un marcador indirecto de presencia de resistencia adquirida en el país, datos que evidencian la necesidad de acciones e intervenciones prontas y efectivas dado su impacto en la salud pública.


The objective of this study was to describe the levels of transmitted HIV-1 resistance in patients with a recent HIV diagnosis before starting ART, treated in Comprehensive Care Units in Guatemala during the years 2019 and 2020. The study included records of 185 HIV-positive adult patients, recently diagnosed with HIV without a history of ART use. The analysis was carried out in the DeepChek® v2.0 software, the Stanford HIVdb algorithm (v9.4 - 07/12/2022) was followed to classify resistance. 18.4% (95% CI 13.1 - 24.7%) of general resistance to some family of ARVs was found. There was evidence of 15.1% (95% CI 10.3 - 21.1%) of individual resistance to the NNRTI family, mainly affecting NVP and EFV; 2.2% (95% CI 0.6 - 5.4%) resistance to INTR, mostly to FTC/3TC; and 2.7% (95% CI 0.9 - 6.2%) of intermediate and low resistance IP NFV and LPV/r. Three cases presented multiple resistance to NRTIs + NNRTIs. The most frequently found mutations were K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) and M46I (5.9%). The high transmitted resistance of HIV-1 in patients treated in different Comprehensive HIV Care Units demonstrates the importance of periodically analyzing the trend of resistance in people who have not been exposed to ARVs, which in turn is an indirect marker. of the presence of acquired resistance in the country, data that demonstrate the need for prompt and effective actions and interventions given its impact on public health.


O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever os níveis de resistência transmitida ao HIV-1 em adultos tratados em Unidades de Cuidados Integrais na Guatemala. O estudo incluiu prontuários de 185 pacientes adultos HIV-1 positivos, recentemente diagnosticados sem histórico de uso de TARV, no período de novembro de 2019 a novembro de 2020. A análise foi realizada no software DeepChek® v2.0, para classificação da resistência, O algoritmo Stanford HIVdb (v9.4 - 07/12/2022) foi seguido. Foi encontrada 18.4% (IC 95% 13.1 - 24.7%) de resistência geral a alguma família de ARVs. Houve evidência de 15.1% (IC 95% 10.3 - 21.1%) de resistência individual à família de NNRTI, afetando principalmente NVP e EFV; 2.2% (IC 95% 0.6 - 5.4%) resistência ao INTR, principalmente ao FTC/3TC; e 2.7% (IC 95% 0.9 - 6.2%) de resistência intermediária e baixa ao IP NFV e LPV/r. Três casos apresentaram resistência múltipla a NRTIs + NNRTIs. As mutações mais frequentemente encontradas foram K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) e M46I (5.9%). A elevada resistência transmitida do HIV-1 em pacientes atendidos em diferentes Unidades de Cuidados Integrados ao HIV demonstra a importância de analisar periodicamente a tendência de resistência em pessoas que não foram expostas aos ARVs, o que por sua vez é um marcador indireto da presença de ARVs adquiridos. resistência no país, dados que demonstram a necessidade de ações e intervenções rápidas e eficazes dado o seu impacto na saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , HIV Infections/genetics , Population Surveillance , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV-1/genetics , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Guatemala/epidemiology , Mutation
3.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 399-404, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981282

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the genetic subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance in the newly reported HIV-infected men in Guangxi. Methods The stratified random sampling method was employed to select the newly reported HIV-infected men aged≥50 years old in 14 cities of Guangxi from January to June in 2020.The pol gene of HIV-1 was amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced.The mutation sites associated with drug resistance and the degree of drug resistance were then analyzed. Results A total of 615 HIV-infected men were included in the study.The genetic subtypes of CRF01_AE,CRF07_BC,and CRF08_BC accounted for 57.4% (353/615),17.1% (105/615),and 22.4% (138/615),respectively.The mutations associated with the resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI),non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI),and protease inhibitors occurred in 8 (1.3%),18 (2.9%),and 0 patients,respectively.M184V (0.7%) and K103N (1.8%) were the mutations with the highest occurrence rates for the resistance to NRTIs and NNRTIs,respectively.Twenty-two (3.6%) patients were resistant to at least one type of inhibitors.Specifically,4 (0.7%),14 (2.3%),4 (0.7%),and 0 patients were resistant to NRTIs,NNRTIs,both NRTIs and NNRTIs,and protease inhibitors,respectively.The pretreatment resistance to NNRTIs had much higher frequency than that to NRTIs (2.9% vs.1.3%;χ2=3.929,P=0.047).The prevalence of pretreatment resistance to lamivudine,zidovudine,tenofovir,abacavir,rilpivirine,efavirenz,nevirapine,and lopinavir/ritonavir was 0.8%, 0.3%, 0.7%, 1.0%, 1.3%, 2.8%, 2.9%, and 0, respectively. Conclusions CRF01_AE,CRF07_BC,and CRF08_BC are the three major strains of HIV-infected men≥50 years old newly reported in Guangxi,2020,and the pretreatment drug resistance demonstrates low prevalence.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , China/epidemiology , Mutation , HIV-1/genetics , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Genotype
4.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 418-430, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981070

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The mode of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission via injection drug use (IDU) still exists, and the recent shift in IDU-related transmission of HIV infection is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the spatiotemporal sources and dynamics of HIV-1 transmission through IDU in Guangxi.@*METHODS@#We performed a molecular epidemiological investigation of infections across Guangxi from 2009 to 2019. Phylogenetic and Bayesian time-geographic analyses of HIV-1 sequences were performed to confirm the characteristics of transmission between IDUs in combination with epidemiological data.@*RESULTS@#Among the 535 subjects, CRF08_BC (57.4%), CRF01_AE (28.4%), and CRF07_BC (10.7%) were the top 3 HIV strains; 72.6% of infections were linked to other provinces in the transmission network; 93.6% of sequence-transmitted strains were locally endemic, with the rest coming from other provinces, predominantly Guangdong and Yunnan; 92.1% of the HIV transmission among people who inject drugs tended to be transmitted between HIV-positive IDUs.@*CONCLUSION@#HIV recombinants were high diversity, and circulating local strains were the transmission sources among IDUs in Guangxi. However, there were still cases of IDUs linked to other provinces. Coverage of traditional prevention strategies should be expanded, and inter-provincial collaboration between Guangxi, Yunnan, and Guangdong provinces should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV-1/genetics , HIV Infections , Drug Users , Phylogeny , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology , Genotype
5.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 692-695, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935445

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the dynamic changes and influencing factors of HIV-1 DNA load in HIV-1 infected individuals under antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefecture, Yunnan province, and provide information support for the clinical use of HIV-1 DNA quantitative detection. Methods: The HIV infection cases in recent infection cohort from Dehong Center for Disease Control and Prevention during 2009-2018 were selected as study subjects. The dynamic curve of HIV-1 DNA load varrying with time was generated and logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the risk factors for HIV-1 load in the recent follow up after ART and statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 17.0. Results: Among the 113 HIV infection cases detected from the recent infection cohort, the recent HIV infection rate were 49.6%(56/113) males, sexual transmission cases and drug injection transmission cases accounted for 53.1% (60/113), 80.5% (91/113) and 19.5% (22/113), respectively. The dynamic changes curve showed that HIV-1 DNA load was relatively high (>800 copies /106 PBMCs) before ART, and droped rapidly (<400 copies /106 PBMCs) after ART for 1 year. However, HIV-1 DNA load decreased insignificantly from the second year of ART, and remained to be 269 copies/106 PBMCs after ART for 6 years. Univariable logistic regression analysis indicated that OR (95%CI) of CD8, CD4/CD8 and HIV-1 DNA load were 1.00 (1.00-1.00), 0.30 (0.09-1.05) and 1.01 (1.00-1.01), respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that OR value of HIV-1 DNA load base was 1.00 (1.00-1.01). Conclusions: HIV-1 DNA load decreased significantly in the first year of ART, then remained stable for years. HIV-1 DNA load base was the key factor associated with the decrease of HIV-1 DNA load, the lower the HIV-1 DNA load base, the lower HIV-1 DNA load. Therefore, earlier ART can contribute to the decrease of HIV-1 DNA load.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , China/epidemiology , DNA/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1/genetics , Viral Load
6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 523-527, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935421

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the distribution of HIV-1 genetic subtypes and pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) among men who have sex with men (MSM) from 19 cities of 6 provinces in China. Methods: From April to November 2019, 574 plasma samples of ART-naive HIV-1 infected MSM were collected from 19 cities in Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, and Guangdong provinces, total ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted and amplified the HIV-1 pol gene region by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after reverse transcription. Then sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree to determine genetic subtypes and submitted to the Stanford drug resistance database for drug resistance analysis. Results: A total of 479 samples were successfully amplified by PCR. The HIV-1 genetic subtypes included CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC, B, CRF55_01B, CRF59_01B, CRF65_cpx, CRF103_01B, CRF67_01B, CRF68_01B and unrecognized subtype, which accounted for 43.4%, 36.3%, 6.3%, 5.9%, 0.8%, 0.8%, 0.4%, 0.4%, 0.2% and 5.5%, respectively. The distribution of genetic subtypes among provinces is statistically different (χ2=44.141, P<0.001). The overall PDR rate was 4.6% (22/479), the drug resistance rate of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors were 3.5% (17/479), 0.8% (4/479) and 0.2% (1/479), respectively. The PDR rate of recent infections was significantly higher than that of long-term infections (χ2=4.634, P=0.031). Conclusions: The HIV-1 genetic subtypes among MSM infected with HIV-1 from 19 cities of 6 provinces in China are diverse, and the distribution of subtypes is different among provinces. The overall PDR rate is low, while the PDR rate of recent infections was significantly higher than that of long-term infections, suggesting the surveillance of PDR in recent infections should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , China/epidemiology , Cities , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Genotype , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Seropositivity/drug therapy , HIV-1/genetics , Homosexuality, Male , Phylogeny , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sexual and Gender Minorities
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(1): 101036, jan., 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249300

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Homeless people are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and syphilis. We investigated the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection and syphilis among homeless individuals in a large city in Central-Western Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, we interviewed and tested 355 individuals from September 2014 to August 2015. Rapid test samples positive for syphilis were retested using the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Blood samples from HIV-infected participants were collected for POL sequencing using HIV-1 RNA extracted from plasma, reverse transcription, and nested polymerase chain reaction. Anti-HIV-1-positive samples were subtyped by sequencing the nucleotides of HIV-1 protease and part of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase genes. Transmitted and acquired drug resistance mutations and susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs were also analyzed. Anti-HIV was positive in 14 patients (3.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3-6.4). HIV-1 RNA was detected in 8 of the 14 samples. Two of the eight (25%) isolates showed HIV-1 drug resistance mutations. Furthermore, 78 (22%; 95% CI: 17.9-26.5) and 29 (8.2%; 95% CI: 5.6-11.4) homeless individuals tested positive for syphilis using the rapid test and VDRL test, respectively. Two individuals were anti-HIV-1 and VDRL test positive. Daily alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4), sex with people living with HIV (PLWH) infection (AOR: 6.8, 95% CI: 1.9-25.0), and sex with people of the same sex (AOR: 5.4, 95% CI: 1.7-17.5) were predictors of HIV infection. Age ≤35 years (AOR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.4-10.8), previous syphilis testing (AOR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.4-8.4), history of genital lesions (AOR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.3-19.1), and crack use in the last six months (AOR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.3-7.6) were predictors of syphilis. Our findings highlight the importance of STI prevention and control strategies among the homeless.


Subject(s)
Syphilis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1/genetics , Genetic Variation , Brazil/epidemiology , Drug Resistance , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Mutation
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(3): 101596, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339422

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Brazil is a huge continental country with striking geographic differences which are well illustrated in the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Contrasting with the significant decline in the national AIDS detection rate in the last decade, a linear growth has been reported in the Northern region. Despite its public health and epidemiologic importance, there is scarce HIV-1 molecular data from Northern Brazil. This scoping review summarizes recent epidemiologic data with special emphasis on HIV-1 genetic diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in patients from the seven Northern states of Brazil. Studies from the Northern Brazil on different HIV-1 genomic regions, mostly pol (protease/reverse transcriptase) sequences of naïve/antiretroviral treated adults/children were retrieved from PubMed/MEDLINE electronic database. These studies indicate a consistent molecular profile largely dominated by HIV-1 subtype B with minor contribution of subtypes F1 and C and infrequent detection of other subtypes (A1, D, K), recombinants (BF1, BC), circulating recombinant forms (CRF) as the new CRF90_BF1 and CRF02_AG-like, CRF28-29_BF-like, CRF31_BC-like, and a potential new CRF_BF1. This pattern indicates a founder effect of subtype B and the introduction of non-B-subtypes and recombinants probably generated in the Southern/Southeastern regions. In naïve populations transmitted drug resistance (TDR) can impact the outcome of first-line antiretroviral treatment and prophylactic/preventive regimens. In the Northern region TDR rates are moderate while patients failing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) showed high prevalence of acquired drug resistance mutations. The limited HIV-1 molecular data from Northern Brazil reflects the great challenges to generate comprehensive scientific data in isolated, underprivileged areas. It also highlights the need to invest in local capacity building which supported by adequate infrastructure and funding can promote robust research activities to help reduce the scientific asymmetries in the Northern region. Currently the impacts of the overwhelming COVID-19 pandemic on the expanding HIV/AIDS epidemic in Northern Brazil deserves to be closely monitored.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1/genetics , COVID-19 , Phylogeny , Brazil , Drug Resistance , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Genotype , Mutation
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(5): 101619, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350324

ABSTRACT

The interaction of HIV-1, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), and elite controllers (EC) compose a still intricate triad. Elite controllers maintain a very low viral load and a normal CD4 count, even without antiretrovirals. There is a lot of diversity in HIV subtypes and HLA alleles. The most common subtype in each country varies depending on its localization and epidemiological history. As we know EC appears to maintain an effective CD8 response against HIV. In this phenomenon, some alleles of HLAs are associated with a slow progression of HIV infection, others with a rapid progression. This relationship also depends on the virus subtype. Epitopes of Gag protein-restricted by HLA-B*57 generated a considerable immune response in EC. However, some mutations allow HIV to escape the CD8 response, while others do not. HLA protective alleles, like HLA-B*27, HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*58:01, that are common in Caucasians infected with HIV-1 Clade B, do not show the same protection in sub-Saharan Africans infected by HIV-1 Clade C. Endogenous pathway of antigen processing and presentation is used to present intracellular synthesized cellular peptides as well as viral protein fragments via the MHC class I molecule to the cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). Some epitopes are immunodominant, which means that they drive the immune reaction to some virus. Mutation on an anchor residue of epitope necessary for binding on MHC class I is used by HIV to escape the immune system. Mutations inside or flanking an epitope may lead to T cell lack of recognition and CTL escape. Studying how immunodominance at epitopes drives the EC in a geographically dependent way with genetics and immunological elements orchestrating it may help future research on vaccines or immunotherapy for HIV. 2021 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/genetics , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Viral Load , gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(11)nov. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389245

ABSTRACT

Background: Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) occurs in patients with HIV infection who are not exposed to antiretroviral drugs but who are infected with a virus with mutations associated with resistance. Aim: To determine the prevalence of TDR and characterize HIV reverse transcriptase and protease mutation patterns. Material and Methods: HIV infected antiretroviral treatment-naive patients treated in three centers between 2014 and 2018 were studied. A genotyping study was carried out. The HIVdb Program (Stanford University) and the World Health Organization (WHO) TDR surveillance mutation list were used to register resistance-associated mutations. Results: We enrolled 220 patients aged a median of 29 (interquartile range (IQR) 24-34) years, 99% men. Median CD4 count was 365 cells/μL (IQR 250-499 cells/μL) and median viral load was 39.150 copies/mL (IQR 9,270 −120,000). The overall prevalence of RTD was 10.45% (95% CI 6.7-15.2, N = 23/220). The higher frequency of TDR was against non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, reaching 9.0% (95% CI 5.6-13.6), followed by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reaching 1.8% (95% CI 0.49-4.5) and protease inhibitors reaching 0.45% (95% CI 0.01-2.5). The mutations in reverse transcriptase were M41L, L210W, D67N, K70E, M184V, K103N (6.36%, 95% CI 3.5-10.4), G190A, E138A, K101E, and I84V in protease. Conclusions: These results should prompt a change in recommendations for starting antiretoviral therapy, especially in first-line regimens that include non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , HIV-1/genetics , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Genotype , Mutation
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190461, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091243

ABSTRACT

Phylogenetic analyses were crucial to elucidate the origin and spread of the pandemic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M virus, both during the pre-epidemic period of cryptic dissemination in human populations as well as during the epidemic phase of spread. The use of phylogenetics and phylodynamics approaches has provided important insights to track the founder events that resulted in the spread of HIV-1 strains across vast geographic areas, specific countries and within geographically restricted communities. In the recent years, the use of phylogenetic analysis combined with the huge availability of HIV sequences has become an increasingly important approach to reconstruct HIV transmission networks and understand transmission dynamics in concentrated and generalised epidemics. Significant efforts to obtain viral sequences from newly HIV-infected individuals could certainly contribute to detect rapidly expanding HIV-1 lineages, identify key populations at high-risk and understand what public health interventions should be prioritised in different scenarios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/genetics , Phylogeography , Phylogeny , Cluster Analysis , HIV Infections/virology , Gorilla gorilla
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180432, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003137

ABSTRACT

Abstract By decreasing the pre-seroconversion window period, nucleic acid testing (NAT) has improved the safety of blood products and reduced the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. Between 2011 and 2017, NAT determinations for approximately 898,202 donations were performed at Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo (FPS-HSP). Three seronegative HIV-viremic donations were detected. The NAT yield rate per million donations was 3.34 for HIV, and the acute HIV-1 infections detected are described, followed by a brief review of the situation in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Blood Donors , DNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
13.
São Paulo med. j ; 136(2): 129-135, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904150

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Increasing genetic diversity of HIV-1 and emergence of drug-resistant mutations may reduce the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy and prophylaxis that are used to prevent mother-to-child transmission. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and prevalence of drug-resistant mutations among HIV-infected pregnant women. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at an outpatient clinic for infectious diseases within gynecology and obstetrics. METHODS: This study evaluated the dynamics of HIV-1 subtypes and the prevalence of transmitted and acquired drug-resistant mutations among 38 HIV-infected pregnant women (20 previously exposed to antiretroviral therapy and 18 naive), in Ribeirão Preto (SP), Brazil, between 2010 and 2011. Genotyping was performed by means of molecular sequencing of the protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the HIV-1 pol gene. RESULTS: Subtype B was identified in 84.2% of the samples, recombinant forms between B and F in 7.9%, subtype F1 in 5.3% and the recombinant form K/F in 2.6%. No mutation associated with transmitted drug resistance was detected in the samples from the naive pregnant women, whereas mutations associated with acquired drug resistance were found in 35.0% of the pregnant women previously exposed to antiretroviral therapy. CONCLUSION: The results showed that subtype B predominated, while there was low prevalence of sequences with transmitted drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Genetic Variation , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Phylogeny , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , RNA, Viral/genetics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV-1/drug effects , Genotype
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(8): e170483, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040601

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, detection of the HIV-1 sub-subtype F1 has decreased with a simultaneous increase in detection of the recombinant FB and FC forms. In previous HIV-1 env molecular epidemiology studies in Rio de Janeiro, 11.4% of the detected sequences were of the F1 sub-subtype. With the goal of re-estimating the prevalence of the HIV-1 F1 sub-subtype, we performed extended analyses of these samples by examining five genomic regions, resulting in 3.3% being confirmed as F1. Moreover, genomic analysis of 11 of the 21 samples identified as F1 confirmed that nine were F1 and two were BF1. Considering the number of samples assayed, the prevalence of F1 was quite low, which supports the use of different genomic regions for the assessment of HIV-1 classification in countries where several subtypes and recombinant forms co-circulate.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Phylogeny , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Base Sequence , Molecular Epidemiology , Genotype
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(5): 601-605, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978076

ABSTRACT

Resumen La detección de virus en el líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) en pacientes infectados por VIH con carga viral (CV) indetectable en el plasma se ha denominado escape viral. Estas fugas pueden ser asintomáticas o asociadas con enfermedad neurológica. La discordancia de la carga viral de VIH entre plasma y LCR evidenciaría la presencia de distintos compartimentos del virus, con la posibilidad de identificar quasiespecies con mutaciones específicas que confieran resistencia a la TARV. Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente con infección por VIH en etapa SIDA y una tuberculosis diseminada que presentó un cuadro neurológico manifestado por cefalea y un síndrome convulsivo, en que se encontró una discordancia entre la CV para VIH en plasma y LCR. El estudio genotípico del virus obtenido del LCR identificó nuevas mutaciones que determinaron un cambio de la TARV, con evolución posterior satisfactoria.


Detection of virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in HIV-infected patients with HIV viral load (VL) undetectable in plasma has been termed viral escape. These leaks may be asymptomatic from a neurological point of view, similar to plasma blips, or associated with neurological disease, with discordant VL between plasma and CSF, and may be evidence of a compartmentalization of the virus and the possibility of identifying quasispecies with mutations that confer resistance to ART. We present the case of a man with AIDS and disseminated tuberculosis who presented neurological symptomatology evidenced by headache and convulsive syndrome, who presented a discordance between plasma and CSF HIV VL; the genotypic test of the virus, obtained by lumbar puncture, identified new mutations that determined a change in ART with subsequent satisfactory evolution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/diagnosis , HIV Infections/cerebrospinal fluid , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Viral Load , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/complications , RNA, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , HIV Infections/complications , Mutation/genetics
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 49-61, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899777

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción Las recomendaciones internacionales de tratamiento anti-retroviral incluyen pruebas de resistencia para orientar el régimen de tratamiento en cada paciente, lo que no está disponible de forma estable en Ecuador. Objetivo Describir las mutaciones que confieren resistencia a anti-retrovirales en una población de pacientes ecuatorianos. Metodología A partir de muestras de plasma de 101 pacientes con VIH-1 con fallo a la terapia anti-retroviral, 15 niños y 86 adultos, se realizó pirosecuenciación con el GS Junior (Roche) y se analizaron las secuencias con el programa DeepChek. Resultados Las mutaciones más frecuentes fueron M184V/I, K101E/P/H, K103N/S, D30N, M46L/I, I54L/M, V82T/F/A/S/L y L90M en adultos, y F77L, K103N/S, M46L/I, V82T/F/A/S/L y L90M en niños. Se encontró una elevada resistencia a los inhibidores de la transcriptasa reversa (TR) no análogos de nucleósidos en poblaciones minoritarias virales de adultos y niños (34,9 y 70%, respectivamente), en los niños, tanto las poblaciones virales mayoritarias como minoritarias, fueron resistente a inhibidores de proteasa (> 45%). Los pacientes que tuvieron un mayor número de esquemas terapéuticos presentaron mayores niveles de resistencia a los anti-retrovirales. La mayoría de las muestras fueron del subtipo B en la región de la TR y proteasa, y CRF25_cpx en integrasa. Conclusiones Se muestran las mutaciones y la resistencia a antiretrovirales en una población de pacientes ecuatorianos con infección por VIH-1, que permitirán realizar un llamado de alerta a las autoridades de salud sobre la necesidad de realizar estudios de resistencia.


Background The international recommendations of antiretroviral treatment include resistance tests to guide the treatment regimen in each patient, which is not available on a regular basis in Ecuador. Aim To describe mutations that confer resistance to antiretrovirals in a population of Ecuadorian patients. Methods Plasma samples from 101 HIV-1 patients with failure to antiretroviral therapy, divided into 15 children and 86 adults, were studied with the GS Junior (Roche) and the sequences were analyzed with the DeepChek program. Results The most frequent mutations were M184V/I, K101E/P/H, K103N/S, D30N, M46L/I, I54L/M, V82T/F/A/S/L and L90M in adults and F77L, K103N/S, M46L/I, V82T/F/A/S/L and L90M in children. High resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors in minority viral populations of adults and children (34.9% and 70%) was detected; in children both viral populations (majority and minority viral populations) (> 45%) were protease inhibitor resistant. Patients who had a greater number of therapeutic regimens had higher levels of resistance to antiretrovirals. Most of the samples were subtype B in the TR and protease region, and CRF25_cpx in integrase. Conclusions Mutations and resistance to antiretrovirals are shown in a population of Ecuadorian patients with HIV-1. These results will make it possible to issue a warning to health authorities about the need for resistance studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , HIV-1/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral/genetics , Anti-Retroviral Agents/pharmacology , Mutation/drug effects , HIV Infections/blood , Logistic Models , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ecuador , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/drug effects
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(4): 396-401, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888887

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy increased the transmission of antiretroviral resistant HIV strains. Antiretroviral therapy initiation during acute/recent HIV infection limits HIV reservoirs and improves immune response in HIV infected individuals. Transmitted drug resistance may jeopardize the early goals of early antiretroviral treatment among acute/recent HIV infected patients. Methods: Patients with acute/recent HIV infection who underwent resistance test before antiretroviral treatment initiation were included in this analysis. HIV-1 sequences were obtained using an in house protease/reverse transcriptase genotyping assay. Transmitted drug resistance was identified according to the Stanford HIV Database for Transmitted Drug Resistance Mutations, based on WHO 2009 surveillance list, and HIV-1 subtyping according to Rega HIV-1 subtyping tool. Comparison between patients with and without transmitted drug resistance was made using Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests. Results: Forty-three patients were included, 13 with acute HIV infection and 30 with recent HIV infection. The overall transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 16.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.1-30.0%). The highest prevalence of resistance (11.6%, 95% CI: 8.1-24.5) was against non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and K103N was the most frequently identified mutation. Conclusions: The high prevalence of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors resistance indicates that efavirenz-based regimen without prior resistance testing is not ideal for acutely/recently HIV-infected individuals in our setting. In this context, the recent proposal of including integrase inhibitors as a first line regimen in Brazil could be an advantage for the treatment of newly HIV infected individuals. However, it also poses a new challenge, since integrase resistance test is not routinely performed for antiretroviral naive individuals. Further studies on transmitted drug resistance among acutely/recently HIV-infected are needed to inform the predictors of transmitted resistance and the antiretroviral therapy outcomes among these population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/drug effects , HIV-1/genetics , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Brazil , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Acute Disease , Genotype , Mutation
18.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(2): 267-273, abr.-jun. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038788

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introduction: Variants in genes encoding for HIV-1 co-receptors and their natural ligands have been individually associated to natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. However, the simultaneous presence of these variants has been poorly studied. Objective: To evaluate the association of single and multilocus haplotypes in genes coding for the viral co-receptors CCR5 and CCR2, and their ligands CCL3 and CCL5, with resistance or susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Materials and methods: Nine variants in CCR5-CCR2, two SNPs in CCL3 and two in CCL5 were genotyped by PCR-RFLP in 35 seropositive (cases) and 49 HIV-1-exposed seronegative Colombian individuals (controls). Haplotypes were inferred using the Arlequin software, and their frequency in individual or combined loci was compared between cases and controls by the chi-square test. A p' value <0.05 after Bonferroni correction was considered significant. Results: Homozygosis of the human haplogroup (HH) E was absent in controls and frequent in cases, showing a tendency to susceptibility. The haplotypes C-C and T-T in CCL3 were associated with susceptibility (p'=0.016) and resistance (p'<0.0001) to HIV-1 infection, respectively. Finally, in multilocus analysis, the haplotype combinations formed by HHC in CCR5-CCR2, T-T in CCL3 and G-C in CCL5 were associated with resistance (p'=0.006). Conclusion: Our results suggest that specific combinations of variants in genes from the same signaling pathway can define an HIV-1 resistant phenotype. Despite our small sample size, our statistically significant associations suggest strong effects; however, these results should be further validated in larger cohorts.


ABSTRACT Introducción. Algunas variantes en genes que codifican los correceptores del HIV-1 y sus ligandos se han asociado individualmente a la resistencia natural frente a dicha infección. Sin embargo, su presencia simultánea ha sido poco estudiada. Objetivo. Evaluar la asociación de haplotipos individuales y multilocus en genes que codifican los correceptores virales CCR5 y CCR2 y sus ligandos CCL3 y CCL5 con la resistencia o la propensión a la infección por el HIV-1. Materiales y métodos. Nueve variantes en CCR5-CCR2, dos en CCL3 y dos en CCL5 fueron genotipificadas mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de polimorfismos de longitud de fragmentos de restricción (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-PCR-RFLP) en 35 individuos seropositivos (casos) y 49 seronegativos expuestos (controles) de Colombia. Los haplotipos se infirieron utilizando el programa Arlequín, y su frecuencia individual o combinada se comparó en los casos y los controles mediante la prueba de ji al cuadrado. Se consideró significativo un valor de p'<0,05 después de la corrección de Bonferroni. Resultados. La homocigosis del haplogrupo humano (HH) E estaba ausente en los controles y era frecuente en los casos, es decir, con tendencia hacia la propensión. Los haplotipos C-C y T-T en CCL3 se asociaron con la propensión (p'=0,016) y la resistencia (p'<0,0001), respectivamente. Por último, en el análisis multilocus, el haplotipo combinado formado por HHC en CCR5-CCR2, T-T en CCL3 y G-C en CCL5 se asoció con la resistencia (p'=0,006). Conclusión. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que ciertas combinaciones específicas de variantes en los genes de una misma vía de señalización pueden definir un fenotipo resistente al HIV-1. Aunque el tamaño de la muestra era pequeño, las asociaciones estadísticamente significativas sugieren un efecto considerable; sin embargo, estos resultados deben validarse en cohortes de mayor tamaño.


Subject(s)
Humans , Haplotypes/genetics , HIV Infections/microbiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1/immunology , Receptors, CCR5/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Phenotype , HIV Infections/genetics , Cohort Studies , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/chemistry , Colombia , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/physiology , Genotype , Immunity, Innate/physiology
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(3): 234-239, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839219

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Geographical distribution of HIV variants is an important way to understand the circulation and spread of such viral strains. Objectives: To evaluate the spatial distribution of HIV-1 variants in patients failing antiretroviral therapy, in Salvador, Brazil. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of HIV resistance test reports of patients who underwent genotyping tests in a referral center in Salvador, Brazil, for the years 2008-2014. The laboratory database contains around 2500 resistance reports of patients failing antiretroviral therapy. Genotypic tests were performed by sequencing of HIV-1 POL region (TrueGene, Siemens). We assessed HIV-1 resistance mutations and subtype, as well as residential address, age, and gender of patients. Results: We evaluated 1300 reports, 772 (59.4%) of them from male patients. As expected, subtype B predominated (79%) followed by subtypes F1 (6.7%) and BF (6.5%). The most frequent mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase were 184V (79.1%), 41L (33.5%), 67N (30.4%), 103N (42.4%), and 108I (11.1%). Most frequent mutations in HIV-1 protease were 63P (52.4%), 36I (47.9%), 15 V (33.0%), 62 V (28.1%) and 13 V (25.8%). Some mutations (41L, 215Y, 210W) were significantly more frequent among men. We detected a significantly higher accumulation of 103N mutation in specific areas of Salvador. We identified a more restricted circulation pattern for subtype FB (more frequent in some regions), and F1 (almost absent in a specific region). Conclusion: Our results suggest that specific subtypes/resistance mutations present a distinct frequency rate in specific areas of Salvador, probably due to a restricted circulation pattern. This trend to clustering was observed in regions covered by AIDS referral centers, suggesting that pattern of care for such patients can interfere in virological outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/genetics , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/genetics , Mutation , RNA, Viral/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV-1/drug effects , Treatment Failure , Viral Load , Spatial Analysis , Genotype
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(3): 219-225, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839208

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the virological outcomes in children and adolescents infected with HIV-1 in Salvador, Bahia according to genotyping results. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the rates of virological suppression of children and adolescents submitted to HIV-1 genotyping test from January/2008 to December/2012. The participants were followed in the two referral centers for pediatric AIDS care, in Salvador, Brazil. Resistance mutations, drug sensitivity profiles, and viral subtypes were analyzed using the Stanford HIV-1 Drug Resistance Database. Adherence was estimated by drugs withdrawal at pharmacies of the two sites. Results: 101 subjects were included: 35 (34.6%) were drug-naïve, and the remaining 66 were failing ART. In drug-naïve group, 3 (8.6%), presented with NNRTIs resistance mutations, along with polymorphic mutations to PIs in most (82.8%) of them. Among the failing therapy group, we detected a high frequency (89.4%) of resistance mutations to PIs, NRTI (84.8%), and NNRTI (59.1%). Virological suppression after introduction/modification of genotyping-guided ART was achieved only for patients (53.1%) with drug withdrawal over 95%. Main detected HIV-1 subtypes were B (67.3%), F (7.9), C (1.9%), and recombinant forms (22.9%). Conclusions: Despite the use of genotyping tests in guidance of a more effective antiretroviral regimen, poor adherence to ART seems to be the main determinant of low virological suppression rate for children and adolescents, in Salvador, Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/genetics , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Medication Adherence , Mutation , HIV Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load/drug effects , Genotype
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