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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(3): e007522, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1394891

ABSTRACT

Abstract Birds of prey harbor a wide spectrum of various parasites, mostly with a heteroxenous life cycle. However, most reports on their parasites come from Europe. Although the Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus) is a widespread species in America, parasitological surveys on this hawk are mostly focused on coprological findings and ectoparasites, with poor attention paid to helminths. The aim of this study was to gather new and additional data on host-parasite associations for the Harris's hawk. Twenty-nine birds from central and southern Chile were necropsied. Further, nine birds from a rehabilitation center and 22 museum specimens were inspected for ectoparasites. Sixty-eight percent of birds hosted at least one parasite species. Four lice species, one mite species and eight helminth species (five nematodes, two platyhelminthes and one acanthocephalan) were recorded. Parasitic lice Colpocephalum nanum and Nosopon chanabense, and a nematode Cyathostoma (Hovorkonema) americana were recorded for the first time in raptors from the Neotropics. A feather mite, Pseudalloptinus sp., nematodes, Physaloptera alata and Microtetrameres sp., and a trematode Neodiplostomim travassosi, were recorded for the first time in Chile. The presence of diverse heteroxenous helminths reported here in the Harris's hawk could be explained by the generalist diet of this raptor.


Resumo As aves de rapina representam uma fonte importante de parasitas heteroxenos. Porém, a maioria dos relatos são da Europa. O gavião-asa-de-telha (Parabuteo unicinctus) é uma espécie amplamente distribuída no continente Americano, porém estudos parasitológicos nessas aves têm documentado achados coprológicos e ectoparasitas, com poucos relatos sobre endoparasitas como helmintos. Por essa razão, o objetivo deste estudo foi descrever novas associações parasita-hospedeiro para o gavião-asa-de-telha e rapinantes neotropicais. Vinte nove aves provenientes do centro e sul do Chile foram submetidas à necropsia. Por outro lado, nove aves de um centro de reabilitação e 22 espécimes de museu foram inspecionados em busca de ectoparasitas. Do total de aves, 68,3% foram identificadas como portadoras de pelo menos uma espécie de parasita. Quatro espécies de piolhos, um ácaro e oito helmintos (cinco nematoides, dois platelmintos e um acantocéfalo) foram registrados. Os piolhos Colpocephalum nanum, Nosopon chanabense e o nematóide Cyathostoma (Hovorkonema) americana são reportados pela primeira vez em rapinantes neotropicais. Colpocephalum nanum, N. chanabense, Pseudalloptinus sp., Physaloptera alata, Microtetrameres sp., C. (H.) americana e Neodiplostomim travassosi, são reportados pela primeira vez no Chile. A diversidade de helmintos heteróxenos, identificados neste trabalho, poderia ser explicada devido à dieta geralista do gavião-asa-de-telha.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Hawks/parasitology , Helminths/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Phthiraptera/physiology , Mites/physiology , Platyhelminths/isolation & purification , Autopsy/veterinary , Tropical Climate , Beak/parasitology , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Ectoparasitic Infestations/epidemiology , Age and Sex Distribution , Acanthocephala/isolation & purification , Feathers/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/epidemiology , Nematoda/isolation & purification
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(3): e005722, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1394895

ABSTRACT

Abstract This paper investigated information on monogenean species using 312 scientific papers, to search for infection and geographic distribution patterns in native freshwater fish from Brazil. We used 1,698 samples of 296 fish species of 28 families distributed into Characiformes, Siluriformes, Cichliformes, Gymnotiformes, Perciformes, Mugiliformes, Osteoglossiformes and Clupeiformes, in addition to four hybrid fish. Among the hosts of the different orders and families, the greatest numbers of parasite-host associations were found for species of the families Serrasalmidae, Characidae, Loricariidae, Curimatidae and Anostomidae. The 578 species of monogeneans used in parasite-host interactions were distributed in 86 genera of six five families (Dactylogyridae, Gyrodactylidae, Diplectanidae, Microcotylidae, Ancylodiscoididae and Ancyrocephalidae), but with great predominance of Dactylogyridae species. There was variation in prevalence, intensity and abundance levels of monogeneans species among host fish species, as well as in infection sites that occurred predominantly in external organs. Positive correlations of prevalence, intensity and abundance with body length of hosts were observed. There was geographic distribution pattern of monogeneans limited mostly to two hydrographic basins those being the Amazon River and Paraná River. Just approximately 6% of potential monogeneans have been explored thus far, showing a clear need for further studies on this interesting group of parasites.


Resumo Este estudo investigou informações sobre espécies de monogenéticos, usando 312 artigos científicos para buscar padrões de infecção e distribuição geográfica em peixes nativos de água doce do Brasil. Foram utilizadas 1.698 amostras de 296 espécies de peixes de 28 famílias, distribuídas em Characiformes, Siluriformes, Cichliformes, Gymnotiformes, Perciformes, Mugiliformes, Osteoglossiformes e Clupeiformes, além de quatro peixes híbridos. Entre os hospedeiros das diferentes ordens e famílias, os maiores números de associações parasito-hospedeiro foram encontrados para espécies das famílias Serrasalmidae, Characidae, Loricariidae, Curimatidae e Anostomidae. As 578 espécies de monogenéticos, utilizadas nas interações parasito-hospedeiro, foram distribuídas em 86 gêneros de seis famílias (Dactylogyridae, Gyrodactylidae, Diplectanidae, Microcotylidae, Ancylodiscoididae e Ancyrocephalidae), mas com grande predominância de espécie de Dactylogyridae. Houve variação nos níveis de prevalência, intensidade e abundância das espécies de monogenéticos entre as espécies de peixes hospedeiros, bem como nos locais de infecção que ocorreram predominantemente em órgãos externos. Correlações positivas de prevalência, intensidade e abundância com o comprimento corporal dos hospedeiros foram observadas. Houve padrão de distribuição geográfica dos monogenéticos limitados principalmente a duas bacias hidrográficas, sendo elas o Rio Amazonas e Rio Paraná. Apenas aproximadamente 6% dos potenciais monogenéticos são conhecidos até agora, mostrando uma clara necessidade de mais estudos sobre esse interessante grupo de parasitos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Platyhelminths/physiology , Animal Distribution/physiology , Fishes/parasitology , Fresh Water/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Platyhelminths/classification , Species Specificity , Trematode Infections/veterinary , Trematode Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Fish Diseases/epidemiology , Fishes/classification , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Nematode Infections/epidemiology
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 443-448, Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951564

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) represent a threat to fruit growing worldwide, mainly the citrus culture, however, biological studies show that fruit flies are not perfectly adapted to this host. This study investigated oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) and its relation with the pericarp of citrus fruits. We evaluated the relationship between depth of oviposition of A. fraterculus and C. capitata and epicarp thickness of orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck)] 'Navelina' and tangerine [C. reticulata (L.)] 'Clemenules' and the influence of fruit mesocarp of tangerine 'Clemenules' on oviposition of these species. The study was conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2 °C), relative humidity (70 ± 10% RH) and photophase (12 h). A. fraterculus and C. capitata laid their eggs in the flavedo region of orange 'Navelina' and between the albedo and flavedo of tangerine 'Clemenules'. When fruits with mesocarp exposed were offered, there was no oviposition by both fruit fly species. The results show that epicarp thickness of citrus fruits did not influence oviposition of A. fraterculus and C. capitata as oviposition did not occur only in the presence of the mesocarp, suggesting that other factors are involved in oviposition of these species.


Resumo As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) representam um risco à fruticultura mundial, especialmente na cultura dos citros, entretanto estudos biológicos demonstram que as moscas-das-frutas não estão perfeitamente adaptadas à estes hospedeiros. Este estudo investigou a oviposição de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) e Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) e sua relação com o pericarpo de frutos cítricos. Foi avaliada a relação entre a profundidade de oviposição de A. fraterculus e de C. capitata e a espessura do epicarpo dos frutos de laranjeira [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck)] 'Navelina' e tangerineira [C. reticulata (L.)] 'Clemenules' e a influência do mesocarpo de frutos de tangerineira 'Clemenules' na oviposição destas espécies. O estudo foi conduzido em condições controladas de temperatura (25 ± 2 °C), umidade relativa (70 ± 10%) e fotofase (12 horas). A. fraterculus e C. capitata depositaram ovos no flavedo de frutos de laranjeira 'Navelina' e entre o flavedo e o albedo de frutos de tangerineira 'Clemenules'. Quando oferecido frutos com mesocarpo exposto, não houve oviposição por ambas as espécies de mosca. Os resultados demonstram que a espessura do epicarpo de frutos cítricos não influenciou a oviposição de A. fraterculus e de C. capitata, a qual não ocorreu na presença apenas do mesocarpo, sugerindo que outros fatores estão envolvidos na oviposição por estas espécies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oviposition/physiology , Citrus/parasitology , Carica/parasitology , Tephritidae/growth & development , Mangifera/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Ovum/physiology , Pupa/physiology , Citrus/physiology , Carica/physiology , Mangifera/physiology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 636-643, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951591

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, we report the first records and morphological characterization of galls in a Cerrado area in western Bahia, Brazil. The data were collected monthly over two hours between March and September 2015. Fifteen gall morphotypes were found in twelve plant species distributed among seven families. The plant family with the greatest richness of galls was Fabaceae (n = 8). The following gall morphologies were found: globoid, lenticular, marginal leaf roll, conical, cylindrical, fusiform, spherical and pocket shaped. Cecidomyiidae induced globoid, lenticular, conical, fusiform, spherical and cylindrical morphotypes. In addition, species of microhymenoptera belonging to the Eulophidae, Eurytomidae and Encyrtidae families were found. Marginal leaf roll and pocket-shaped galls induced by Thysanoptera were also verified. Springtails were also identified as a successor. Undescribed species of Schizomyia and Lopesia were recorded in B. cupulata and Andira humilis, respectively.


Resumo Nesse trabalho são apresentadas informações sobre a ocorrência e a caracterização morfológica de galhas induzidas por insetos em uma área de Cerrado do Oeste da Bahia, Brasil. Os materiais foram coletados mensalmente durante duas horas entre Março e Setembro de 2015. Foram encontrados quinze morfotipos de galhas em doze espécies vegetais, distribuídas em sete famílias. A família de planta com maior riqueza de galhas foi Fabaceae (n = 8). Com relação à morfologia externa, foram encontradas galhas com forma globoide, lenticular, enrolamento marginal, cônica, cilíndrica, fusiforme, esférica e bolso. Quanto à fauna associada às galhas, os morfotipos globoide, cônico, lenticular, fusiforme, esférico e cilíndrico foram induzidos por Cecidomyiidae. Além disso, espécies de microhimenópteros pertencentes às famílias Eulophidae, Eurytomidae e Encyrtidae foram encontrados. A indução de galhas por Thysanoptera, nos morfotipos enrolamento marginal e formato de bolso, também foi detectada. Espécies de colembôlos foram identificadas como sucessoras. Espécies não descritas de Schizomyia e Lopesia foram registradas em Bauhinia cupulata e Andira humilis, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Tumors/parasitology , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Insecta/physiology , Oviposition/physiology , Brazil , Insecta/classification
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(3): 281-289, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896453

ABSTRACT

Summary Leishmaniasis is a disease with ample clinical spectrum and epidemiological diversity and is considered a major public health problem. This article presents an overview of the transmission cycles, host-parasite interactions, clinical, histological and immunological aspects, diagnosis and treatment of various forms of the human disease.


Resumo A leishmaniose representa um complexo de doenças com amplo espectro clínico e diversidade epidemiológica, sendo considerada um grande problema de saúde pública. O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão geral sobre os ciclos de transmissão, as interações parasito-hospedeiro, os aspectos clínicos, histopatológicos e imunológicos, o diagnóstico e o tratamento das diversas formas da doença humana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Leishmaniasis/epidemiology , Psychodidae/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis/physiopathology , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Leishmania/physiology , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(3): 202-205, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040591

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Lutzomyia umbratilis, the vector for Leishmania guyanensis in northern South America, has been found naturally infected with L. guyanensis only in areas north of the Negro and Amazon rivers. While populations of this sand fly species are also found in areas south of these rivers, these populations have never been reported to be infected and/or transmitting L. guyanensis. However, no studies on the corresponding host-parasite interactions are available. OBJECTIVES This study evaluated the interaction between Lu. guyanensis promastigotes and field-collected Lu. umbratilis sand flies from Rio Preto da Eva and Manacapuru, which are located to the north and south, respectively, of the Negro River. METHODS Procyclic and metacyclic attachment was quantified using an in vitro system. FINDINGS Low attachment of parasites to the midguts of insects collected from Manacapuru was detected. Conversely, greater binding of metacyclic parasites was observed in the midguts of insects collected from Rio Preto da Eva, and this attachment was more pronounced than that observed for procyclics (p < 0.03). MAIN CONCLUSIONS The Lu. umbratilis population from an area south of the Negro River has lower in vitro interaction with L. guyanensis. The higher attachment of L. guyanensis to midguts of insects from Rio Preto da Eva may suggest better vector competence. These findings are in accordance with previously reported epidemiological information of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission in the Amazon.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Psychodidae/parasitology , Leishmania guyanensis/physiology , Digestive System/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Psychodidae/classification , Brazil , Rivers , Geography
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(6): e170471, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040597

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii uses epigenetic mechanisms to regulate both endogenous and host cell gene expression. To identify genes with putative epigenetic functions, we developed an in silico pipeline to interrogate the T. gondii proteome of 8313 proteins. Step 1 employs PredictNLS and NucPred to identify genes predicted to target eukaryotic nuclei. Step 2 uses GOLink to identify proteins of epigenetic function based on Gene Ontology terms. This resulted in 611 putative nuclear localised proteins with predicted epigenetic functions. Step 3 filtered for secretory proteins using SignalP, SecretomeP, and experimental data. This identified 57 of the 611 putative epigenetic proteins as likely to be secreted. The pipeline is freely available online, uses open access tools and software with user-friendly Perl scripts to automate and manage the results, and is readily adaptable to undertake any such in silico search for genes contributing to particular functions.


Subject(s)
Toxoplasma/genetics , Computer Simulation , Cell Nucleus/parasitology , Proteome/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Toxoplasma/physiology
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 629-637, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897012

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is widely distributed in nature, circulating between triatomine bugs and sylvatic mammals, and has large genetic diversity. Both the vector species and the genetic lineages of T. cruzi present a varied geographical distribution. This study aimed to verify the influence of sympatry in the interaction of T. cruzi with triatomines. Methods: The behavior of the strains PR2256 (T. cruzi II) and AM14 (T. cruzi IV) was studied in Triatoma sordida (TS) and Rhodnius robustus (RR). Eleven fifth-stage nymphs were fed by artificial xenodiagnosis with 5.6 × 103 blood trypomastigotes/0.1mL of each T. cruzi strain. Every 20 days, their excreta were examined for up to 100 days, and every 30 days, the intestinal content was examined for up to 120 days, by parasitological (fresh examination and differential count with Giemsa-stained smears) and molecular (PCR) methods. Rates of infectivity, metacyclogenesis and mortality, and mean number of parasites per insect and of excreted parasites were determined. RESULTS: Sympatric groups RR+AM14 and TS+PR2256 showed higher values of the four parameters, except for mortality rate, which was higher (27.3%) in the TS+AM14 group. General infectivity was 72.7%, which was mainly proven by PCR, showing the following decreasing order: RR+AM14 (100%), TS+PR2256 (81.8%), RR+PR2256 (72.7%) and TS+AM14 (36.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Our working hypothesis was confirmed once higher infectivity and vector capacity (flagellate production and elimination of infective metacyclic forms) were recorded in the groups that contained sympatric T. cruzi lineages and triatomine species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Arthropod Vectors/physiology , Rhodnius/physiology , Triatoma/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Sympatry , Arthropod Vectors/genetics , Arthropod Vectors/pathogenicity , Rhodnius/genetics , Rhodnius/pathogenicity , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Triatoma/genetics , Triatoma/pathogenicity , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Blood/parasitology , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Xenodiagnosis/methods , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Intestines/parasitology , Mice
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(4): 478-483, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886989

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Histological and mycological changes during itraconazole use have not been totally established in chromoblastomycosis. Objectives: To evaluate tissue modifications in chromoblastomycosis carriers under itraconazole treatment. Methods: A histological retrospective study of 20 cases of chromoblastomycosis seen at the university hospital at the south of Brazil, during itraconazole 400 mg daily treatment. Patients were classified into two groups: plaque or tumor lesions, and underwent periodic evaluations every four months during three years. Hematoxylin-eosin stain was used to analyze epidermal modifications, inflammatory infiltrate and fibrosis, and Fontana-Masson stain for parasite evaluation. Results: Fontana-Masson stain was superior to hematoxylin-eosin stain in fungal count in the epidermis (mean difference=0.14; p<0.05). The most distinct mycosis tissue responses were registered in the dermis. Epidermal thinning, granulomatous infiltrate decrease or disappearance, fibrosis increase and quantitative/morphological changes occurred during treatment. Study limitations: Patients could not be located to have their current skin condition examined. Conclusion: Parasitic and tissue changes verified in this study can reflect the parasite-host dynamics under itraconazole action.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Skin/pathology , Chromoblastomycosis/drug therapy , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/microbiology , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Silver Nitrate , Skin/microbiology , Biopsy , Retrospective Studies , Chromoblastomycosis/microbiology , Chromoblastomycosis/pathology , Subcutaneous Tissue , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/pathology , Fungi/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology
10.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 953-963, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886700

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The degradation and homogenization of natural habitats is considered a major cause of biotic homogenization. Many studies have been undertaken on the effects of dams on aquatic wildlife, in particular fish assemblages. But how do dams affect the parasitic fauna of such fish? The aim of the present study was to examine parasitic similarity, comparing the diversity and structure of parasite communities of Leporinus friderici (Characiformes, Anostomidae) in three upstream tributaries under the influence of the Jurumirim Dam on the Upper Paranapanema River in southeastern Brazil. The present study did not find any significant differences in parasite communities among populations of L. friderici in the three upstream tributaries. This result highlights that dams promote and facilitate the dispersal of organisms between localities, and therefore the spatial homogenization of parasite communities. Overall, the results suggest that fish parasite assemblages can provide suitable data for evaluating biotic homogenization caused by dams.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Rivers , Characiformes/parasitology , Species Specificity , Water Movements , Brazil , Population Dynamics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(1): 31-43, Jan. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841752

ABSTRACT

A pleiotropic response to the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 was detected in the tomato parasite Phytomonas serpens. Ultrastructural studies revealed that MDL28170 caused mitochondrial swelling, shortening of flagellum and disruption of trans Golgi network. This effect was correlated to the inhibition in processing of cruzipain-like molecules, which presented an increase in expression paralleled by decreased proteolytic activity. Concomitantly, a calcium-dependent cysteine peptidase was detected in the parasite extract, the activity of which was repressed by pre-incubation of parasites with MDL28170. Flow cytometry and Western blotting analyses revealed the differential expression of calpain-like proteins (CALPs) in response to the pre-incubation of parasites with the MDL28170, and confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed their surface location. The interaction of promastigotes with explanted salivary glands of the insect Oncopeltus fasciatus was reduced when parasites were pre-treated with MDL28170, which was correlated to reduced levels of surface cruzipain-like and gp63-like molecules. Treatment of parasites with anti-Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) calpain antibody also decreased the adhesion process. Additionally, parasites recovered from the interaction process presented higher levels of surface cruzipain-like and gp63-like molecules, with similar levels of CALPs cross-reactive to anti-Dm-calpain antibody. The results confirm the importance of exploring the use of calpain inhibitors in studying parasites’ physiology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Salivary Glands/parasitology , Heteroptera/parasitology , Cysteine/drug effects , Cysteine/metabolism , Euglenozoa/drug effects , Euglenozoa/enzymology , Euglenozoa/ultrastructure , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Microscopy, Electron , Blotting, Western , Flow Cytometry , Lethal Dose 50
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 787-795, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785051

ABSTRACT

Abstract Thirty-one morphotypes of insect galls and two flower damages were found on 16 families, 22 genera and 24 plant species in Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of insect galls (4 and 6 morphotypes, respectively), and the greatest number of galled plants (four and three species, respectively). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (77% and 10%, respectively). The galling insects are represented by Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. The majority of the galls (81%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera).


Resumo Foram encontrados 31 morfotipos de galhas de insetos e dois danos em flores em 16 famílias, 22 gêneros e 24 espécies de plantas, na Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae e Myrtaceae foram as famílias de plantas com maior riqueza de galhas (4 e 6 morfotipos, respectivamente) e maior número de espécies com galhas (quatro e três espécies, respectivamente). As galhas predominaram nas folhas e caules (77% e 10%, respectivamente). Os insetos galhadores estão representados por Diptera, Lepidoptera e Hemiptera. A maioria das galhas (81%) foi induzida por Cecidomyiidae (Diptera).


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Tumors/parasitology , Plants/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Insecta/physiology , Plant Tumors/classification , Brazil , Plant Stems/parasitology , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Myrtaceae/parasitology , Diptera/classification , Diptera/physiology , Hemiptera/classification , Hemiptera/physiology , Insecta/classification , Fabaceae/parasitology , Lepidoptera/classification , Lepidoptera/physiology
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 782-786, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785032

ABSTRACT

Abstract Clinodiplosis agerati, a new galling species that induces stem galls on Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall) based on material collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is compared with the other Neotropical species. This is the first record of the Clinodiplosis in Ageratum.


Resumo Clinodiplosis agerati, uma nova espécie cecidógena que induz galhas caulinares em Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) é descrita e ilustrada (larva, pupa, macho, fêmea e galha) com base em material coletado em Minas Gerais, Brasil. A nova espécie é comparada com as outras espécies neotropicais. Este é o primeiro registro de Clinodiplosis em Ageratum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Plant Tumors/parasitology , Ageratum/parasitology , Diptera/classification , Diptera/physiology , Pupa , Brazil , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Larva
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(3): 181-191, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777374

ABSTRACT

To date, 21 species of the genus Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) have been reported around the world, 15 of which are parasites of rodents. In this study, new host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp in sigmodontine rodents from Argentina, with an updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment, are provided. Records of Angiostrongylus costaricensis from Akodon montensis andAngiostrongylus morerai from six new hosts and geographical localities in Argentina are reported. The gross and histopathologic changes in the lungs of the host species due to angiostrongylosis are described. Published records of the genus Angiostrongylus from rodents and patterns of host specificity are presented. Individual Angiostrongylusspecies parasitise between one-19 different host species. The most frequent values of the specificity index (STD) were between 1-5.97. The elevated number of host species (n = 7) of A. morerai with a STD = 1.86 is a reflection of multiple systematic studies of parasites from sigmodontine rodents in the area of Cuenca del Plata, Argentina, showing that an increase in sampling effort can result in new findings. The combination of low host specificity and a wide geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus spp indicates a troubling epidemiological scenario although, as yet, no human cases have been reported.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Angiostrongylus/physiology , Heart/parasitology , Host Specificity/physiology , Lung/parasitology , Rodent Diseases/parasitology , Sigmodontinae/parasitology , Argentina , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Lung/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Rodentia/parasitology , Sampling Studies , Species Specificity
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(5): 644-661, 19/08/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720429

ABSTRACT

Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Life Cycle Stages/physiology , Plasmodium/growth & development , Anopheles/classification , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Insect Vectors/classification , Malaria/transmission , Plasmodium/physiology
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(1): 61-69, 02/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703640

ABSTRACT

Fibrocytes are important for understanding the progression of many diseases because they are present in areas where pathogenic lesions are generated. However, the morphology of fibrocytes and their interactions with parasites are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the morphology of peripheral blood fibrocytes and their interactions with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis . Through ultrastructural analysis, we describe the details of fibrocyte morphology and how fibrocytes rapidly internalise Leishmania promastigotes. The parasites differentiated into amastigotes after 2 h in phagolysosomes and the infection was completely resolved after 72 h. Early in the infection, we found increased nitric oxide production and large lysosomes with electron-dense material. These factors may regulate the proliferation and death of the parasites. Because fibrocytes are present at the infection site and are directly involved in developing cutaneous leishmaniasis, they are targets for effective, non-toxic cell-based therapies that control and treat leishmaniasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fibroblasts/parasitology , Leishmania/physiology , Leishmaniasis/physiopathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/parasitology , Analysis of Variance , Flow Cytometry , Fibroblasts/ultrastructure , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Mesoderm/cytology , Mice, Inbred BALB C/parasitology , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Primary Cell Culture , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(4): 1891-1900, oct.-dic. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703935

ABSTRACT

The joint interpretation of phenology and nutritional metabolism provides important data on plant tissues reactivity and the period of gall induction. A population of Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae with leaf galls induced by a Pseudophacopteron sp. Psylloidea was studied in Goiás state, Brazil. Assuming the morphological similarity between host leaves and intralaminar galls, a gradient from non-galled leaves towards galls should be generated, establishing a morpho-physiological continuum. The phenology, infestation of galls, and the carbohydrate and nitrogen contents were monthly evaluated in 10-20 individuals, from September 2009 to September 2010. Our objective was to analyze the nutritional status and the establishment of a physiological continuum between the galls and the non-galled leaves of A. macrocarpon. The period of leaf flushing coincided with the highest levels of nitrogen allocated to the new leaves, and to the lowest levels of carbohydrates. The nutrients were previously consumed by the growing leaves, by the time of gall induction. The levels of carbohydrates were higher in galls than in non-galled leaves in time-based analyses, which indicateed their potential sink functionality. The leaves were infested in October, galls developed along the year, and gall senescence took place from March to September, together with host leaves. This first senescent leaves caused insect mortality. The higher availability of nutrients at the moment of gall induction was demonstrated and seems to be important not only for the establishment of the galling insect but also for the responsiveness of the host plant tissues.


La interpretación conjunta de la fenología y el metabolismo nutricional proporciona datos importantes sobre la reacción de tejidos vegetales y el período de inducción de agallas. En el estado de Goiás, Brasil se estudió una población de Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae con agallas foliares inducidas por un Pseudophacopteron sp. Psylloidea. Suponiendo que la similitud morfológica entre las hojas del hospedero y las agallas intralaminares genera un gradiente de hojas sin agallas hacia hojas con agallas, se establece un continuo morfo-fisiológico. La fenología, la infestación de las agallas y el contenido de carbohidratos y nitrógeno se evaluaron mensualmente en 10-20 individuos, de septiembre 2009 a septiembre 2010. El objetivo fue analizar el estado nutricional y el establecimiento de un continuo fisiológico entre las hojas que producen agallas y las hojas sin agallas de A. macrocarpon. El período de emergencia de hojas coincidió con los niveles más altos de nitrógeno en las hojas nuevas, y los niveles más bajos de carbohidratos.Los nutrientes se consumieron previamente por las hojas en crecimiento, en el momento de inducción de las agallas. Los niveles de carbohidratos fueron más altos en las hojas con agallas que en aquellas sin agallas, en análisis basados en tiempo, lo que indica su ciclo de funcionalidad potencial. Las hojas hospederas se infestaron en octubre, el desarrollo y la senescencia de las agallas se llevó a cabo entre marzo y septiembre, en las hojas hospederas. Estas primeras hojas senescentes causaron mortalidad de insectos. Hay mayor disponibilidad de nutrientes en el momento de la inducción de las agallas y parece ser importante no sólo para el establecimiento del insecto que produce agallas, sino también para la capacidad de respuesta de los tejidos de la planta hospedera.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apocynaceae/parasitology , Hemiptera/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Plant Tumors/parasitology , Apocynaceae/chemistry
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(7): 854-864, 1jan. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696012

ABSTRACT

Triatominae are widely recognised for their role as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi. One of the main biological characteristics of this subfamily is their obligate haematophagous condition. However, previous studies on Belminus herreri and Belminus ferroae suggested that cockroaches are their principal hosts in domiciles. Due to this peculiar behaviour, the aim of this study was to analyse several demographic and reproductive parameters of B. ferroae fed on three different hosts (mice, cockroaches and Rhodnius prolixus) and relate B. ferroae fitness to these alternative hosts. The cohorts were reared under constant conditions. The egg hatching rate was similar for cohorts fed on cockroaches (69.4%) and R. prolixus (63.8%), but was much lower for the cohort fed on mice (16%). The development time from the nymph to adult stage and the average age of first reproduction (α) presented lower values in the cohort fed on cockroaches, which is consistent with the higher population growth rate associated with this host. Demographic parameters [intrinsic rate of natural increase, finite rate of population growth, net reproductive rate and damping ratio] showed statistically significant differences between the cohorts. Analysis of the life history of B. ferroae revealed a higher fitness related to the cockroach. The implications of these results for the origin of the subfamily are discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Triatominae/physiology , Cockroaches , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Life Cycle Stages , Reproduction , Sex Ratio , Triatominae/growth & development
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 73(2): 239-243, maio 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680003

ABSTRACT

The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) isolated from soil in Alcalá, Valle del Cauca (Colombia) was characterised ecologically using Galleria mellonella larvae (L) (Pyralidae: Galleriinae) as hosts. The effect of temperature on the viability, infectivity and reproduction, and of moisture on infectivity and storage in liquid were evaluated in infective juveniles (IJs). Significant differences were found in the viability, infectivity and reproduction of the IJs at different temperatures. No nematodes were recovered at 5 °C and 10 °C, and at 35 °C no infectivity was observed. Average daily nematode recovery was best at 25 °C, and survival of the IJs was low in substrates presenting 13% moisture. The optimal storage temperature for Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 was between 20 °C and 30 °C, keeping its infectivity for up to 8 weeks.


O nematoide entomopatogênico colombiano Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708, isolado do solo de Alcalá, Valle del Cauca (Colombia), foi caracterizado ecologicamente utilizando-se como hospedeiro lagartas de Galleria mellonella (L) (Pyralidae:Galleriinae). O efeito da temperatura na viabilidade, na infecção e na reprodução, e da umidade na infecção e do armazenamento em líquido foi avaliado em juvenis infectantes (JIs). Diferenças significativas na viabilidade, na infecção e na reprodução dos JIs foram observadas nas diferentes temperaturas. Não foram recuperados nematoides a 5 °C e 10 °C, e não se observou infecção a 35 °C. A maior média diária de recuperação de nematoides foi a 25 °C. Por outro lado, a sobrevivência dos JIs foi baixa nos substratos com unidades de 13% e a melhor temperatura de armazenamento para SL0708 foi entre 20 °C e 30 °C, mantendo a infecção até oito semanas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Lepidoptera/parasitology , Rhabditida/pathogenicity , Colombia , Larva/parasitology , Soil/parasitology
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