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1.
Infectio ; 25(3): 189-192, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250091

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a respiratory process of acute onset, showing on X rays as bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and severe respiratory failure, Coccidiodomycosis is a unusual cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome, the incidence of coccidiomycosis in a solid organ trasplant recipientes ranges from 1.4% a 6.9%, inadecuancy of cellular inmunity is a well established risk factor for development of coccididomcosis, less than 1% of patients develop disseminaded infecction and carrying high mortality, the case that we are presenting add to the small list of reports documenting the ocasionally acute and agressive nature of the disseminated clinical form of coccidiodomycosis.


Resumen El síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (SDRA) es un proceso respiratorio de inicio agudo, que se manifiesta en las radiografías como infiltrados pulmonares bilaterales, clinicamente como insuficiencia respiratoria grave, la coccidiodomicosis es una causa inusual de síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda, la incidencia de coccidiomicosis en receptores de trasplante de órgano sólido varía desde 1.4% a 6.9%, una inadecuada inmunidad celular es un factor de riesgo bien establecido para el desarrollo de coccidomicosis, menos del 1% de los pacientes desarrollan enfermedad diseminada y alta mortalidad, el caso que presentamos se suma a la pequeña lista de informes que documentan la naturaleza ocasionalmente aguda y agresiva de la forma clínica diseminada de coccidiodomicosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Organ Transplantation , Liver Transplantation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Coccidioidomycosis , Immunity, Cellular
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1378-1385, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826839

ABSTRACT

Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is zoonotic pathogen that can cause listeriosis, and vaccine is one of the effective methods to prevent this pathogen infection. In this study, we developed a novel vaccine that is a mixture of inactivated bacteria and Montanide™ ISA 61 VG, a mineral oil adjuvant, and evaluated the safety and immune response characteristics of this vaccine. The mice immunized with the ISA 61 VG adjuvant had high safety, and it could induce significantly higher titer of anti-listeriolysin O (LLO) antibody and higher value of IgG2a/IgG1 ratio compared with the group without the adjuvant. In particular, it could provide 100% immune protection against lethal doses of Lm challenge in mice. In summary, ISA 61VG adjuvant significantly enhanced the ability of inactivated listeria vaccine to induce humoral and cellular immune responses, thereby enhanced the protective immune response in the host, and it is a potential vaccine candidate for the prevention of Lm infection in humans and animals.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Pharmacology , Animals , Hemolysin Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , Pharmacology , Immunity, Cellular , Listeria monocytogenes , Allergy and Immunology , Listeriosis , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Vaccines, Inactivated , Allergy and Immunology
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1440-1449, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826832

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus core protein can self-assemble into icosahedral symmetrical viral-like particles (VLPs) in vitro, and display exogenous sequences repeatedly and densely on the surface. VLPs also have strong immunogenicity and biological activity. When the nanoparticles enter the body, they quickly induce specific humoral and cellular immune responses to exogenous antigens. In this study, we designed an HBc-VLPs that can be coupled with antigens at specific sites, and developed a set of efficient methods to prepare HBc-VLPs. Through site-specific mutation technology, the 80th amino acid of peptide was changed from Ala to Cys, a specific cross-linking site was inserted into the main immunodominant region of HBc-VLPs, and the prokaryotic expression vector pET28a(+)-hbc was constructed. After expression and purification, high purity HBc(A80C) monomer protein was assembled into HBc-VLPs nanoparticles in Phosphate Buffer. The results of particle size analysis show that the average particle size of nanoparticles was 29.8 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that HBc-VLPs formed spherical particles with a particle size of about 30 nm, and its morphology was similar to that of natural HBV particles. The influenza virus antigen M2e peptide as model antigen was connected to Cys residue of HBc-VLPs by Sulfo-SMCC, an amino sulfhydryl bifunctional cross-linking agent, and M2e-HBc-VLPs model vaccine was prepared. The integrity of HBc-VLPs structure and the correct cross-linking of M2e were verified by cell fluorescence tracing. Animal immune experiments showed that the vaccine can effectively stimulate the production of antigen-specific IgG antibody in mice, which verified the effectiveness of the vaccine carrier HBc-VLPs. This study lays a foundation for the research of HBc-VLPs as vaccine vector, and help to promote the development of HBc-VLPs vaccine and the application of HBc-VLPs in other fields.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hepatitis B Core Antigens , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Allergy and Immunology , Immunoglobulin G , Blood , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
4.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(2): 145-153, maio-ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-996728

ABSTRACT

A coqueluche é uma doença infecciosa aguda, transmissível, com predileção pelo trato respiratório, caracterizada por paroxismos de tosse seca e considerada uma importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade infantil. A resposta imunológica humoral e celular do hospedeiro promove a contenção da infecção, pois essas respostas se caracterizam como importantes linhas de defesa durante a infecção e colonização da bactéria. Dessa forma, esta revisão bibliográfica procurou descrever os mecanismos mais eficazes de resposta imune contra Bordetella pertussis e abordar os mecanismos de evasão utilizados pelo patógeno.


Pertussis is a transmissible infectious disease with a predilection for the respiratory tract characterized by paroxysms of dry cough. It is considered an important cause of child morbidity and mortality. The humoral and cellular immune responses of the host promote the containment of the infection, and these responses are characterized as important lines of defense during infection and colonization of the bacterium. Thus, this literature review sought to describe the most effective immune response mechanisms against Bordetella pertussis and to address the avoidance mechanisms used by the pathogen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bordetella pertussis , Whooping Cough , Bacteria , Dendritic Cells , Vaccines , Mortality , Cough/diagnosis , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Immunity, Cellular , Macrophages , Neutrophils , Noxae
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(1): 52-55, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983741

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Pityriasis rosea is a common papulosquamous disorder. However, its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Objective: We investigate the types of inflammatory cells infiltrating the lesional skin of pityriasis rosea and demonstrate whether T-cell-mediated immunity is involved in the pathogenesis of this condition or not. Methods: The biopsies were taken from the lesional skin of 35 cases of patients diagnosed with pityriasis rosea. The specimens were prepared in paraffin sections, then submitted to routine immunohistochemistry procedures using monoclonal antibodies directed against CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD45RO and horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-human antibodies. The positive sections were determined by the ratio and staining intensity of positive inflammatory cells. Results: The mean score of positive CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD45RO staining was respectively 3.74±3.88, 5.67±4.40, 2.94±3.42 and 7.68±4.33 in these pityriasis rosea patients (P<0.001). The percentage of positive staining was 54.29% (19/35), 69.7% (23/33), 40% (14/35) and 79.41% (27/34) (P<0.05). However, the staining of CD20 was negative in all samples. The mean score of CD3 staining in patients with time for remission ≤60 days (4.90±4.21) was higher than that in patients with time for remission >60 days (2.00±2.5) (P<0.05), whereas no statistical difference in the mean score of CD4, CD8 and CD45RO staining was observed. study liMitations: The sample size and the selected monoclonal antibody are limited, so the results reflect only part of the cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of pityriasis rosea. Conclusion: Our findings support a predominantly T-cell mediated immunity in the development of pityriasis rosea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/pathology , Pityriasis Rosea/pathology , Reference Values , Staining and Labeling , Time Factors , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Pityriasis Rosea/immunology , Leukocyte Common Antigens/analysis , CD3 Complex/analysis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Immunity, Cellular
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719488

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause serious respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia, asthma, and bronchiolitis in infants and elderly or immunocompromised individuals. An RSV vaccine has yet to be developed; only prophylactic anti-RSV antibody is commercially available. So, we investigated whether our vaccine candidate is able to induce type 1 CD4+ T helper (Th1), CD8+ T-cell responses, and protective immunity without vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) against RSV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used RSV G protein fragment (Gcf A) with recombinant baculovirus capable of expressing the RSV M2 protein (Bac M2) as a vaccine candidate, and injected this vaccine (Gcf A/Bac M2) intramuscularly, and challenged with RSV intranasally into mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, plaque assay, and weight measurement were performed to confirm humoral immunity, cellular immunity, and protective immunity. RESULTS: The Gcf A/Bac M2 formulation induced a stronger IgG response to Gcf A than Gcf A inoculation alone, and the ratio of IgG1/IgG2a indicated that the responses shifted predominantly to Th1. In addition, both RSV G-specific Th1 responses and RSV M2-specific CD8+ T-cell responses were induced, and G protein-associated eosinophilic infiltration was suppressed compared to the control group. Moreover, the Gcf A/Bac M2 group showed effective protection after an RSV challenge. CONCLUSION: Bac M2 could serve as a vaccine with intrinsic adjuvant activity, and the Gcf A/Bac M2 shows promise as a vaccine candidate for inducing protective immunity without inciting VED.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Asthma , Baculoviridae , Bronchiolitis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophils , Flow Cytometry , GTP-Binding Proteins , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Mice , Pneumonia , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , T-Lymphocytes
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1794-1798, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781395

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression of CD44, CD87 and CD123 in acute leukemia and its correlation with cellular immune markers.@*METHODS@#A total of 166 patients with acute leukemia (AL) admitted from May 2014 to February 2017 were enrolled in AL groups. Among these patients, 100 patients suffered from acute myeloid leukemia, 50 patients suffered from acute lymphoid leukemia, and 16 patients showed B/medullary phenotype. At the same time 50 patients with non-acute leukemia were enrolled in the control group. 5 ml of fasting venous blood collected from the patients in each group, and the percentage of CD44, CD87 and CD123 cells was determined by three-color flow cytometry. Symptomatic chemotherapy was given to the patients with confirmed acute leukemia, and the remission was evaluated after 2 treatmen courses. The Complete remission (CR) was recorded and the percentage of CD44, CD87 and CD123 cells under different curative efficacy were recorded. The correlation of the prognosis patients with CD44, CD87 and CD123 was analyzed by SPSS Pearson correlation analysis software.@*RESULTS@#The positive rates of CD44, CD87 and CD123 in AL group were all higher than those in the control group (P<0. 05). The positive rates of CD44 and CD123 in acute myeloid leukemia group were higher than those in acute lymphoblastic leukemia group and B/myeloid phenotype group (P<0. 05). The positive rate of CD44 in acute lymphoid leukemia group was higher than that in B/medullary double phenotype group (P<0.05). The treatment in the patients of AL group was successfully completed. 132 patients reachel to CR and 34 patients to PR+NR after 2 courses. The positive rates of CD44, CD87 and CD123 in CR patients were lower than those in PR+NR patients (P<0.05). The results of SPSS Pearson correlation analysis showed that the prognosis of patients with acute leukemia negatively correlated with CD44 and CD87 (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The expression of CD44, CD87 and CD123 in different phenotype of acute leukemia are different, which correlateds with prognosis. The determination of CD44, CD87 and CD123 can be used to evaluate the prognosis of patients for the reference of clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyaluronan Receptors , Allergy and Immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Interleukin-3 Receptor alpha Subunit , Allergy and Immunology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Prognosis , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Allergy and Immunology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774112

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the correlation of galectin-3 level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) load and cellular immunity of neutrophils and macrophages in the airway in children with refractory MP pneumonia (RMPP).@*METHODS@#A total of 64 children with RMPP who were hospitalized from January 2013 to January 2017 were enrolled. In addition to the conservative medical treatment, all the 64 children with RMPP were given bronchoalveolar lavage in the acute stage (5-7 days after admission) and 48 out of the 64 children were given bronchoalveolar lavage in the recovery stage (10-14 days after admission). Four milliliters of BALF of the affected lung lobe or segment were collected. ELISA was used to measure the level of galectin-3 in BALF supernatant. RT-PCR was used to measure MP load. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to measure the percentage of neutrophils and macrophages. Six children with bronchial foreign bodies were enrolled as the control group.@*RESULTS@#The RMPP group had a significantly higher level of galectin-3 in BALF in both the acute and recovery stages than the control group (P0.05). The RMPP group had a significantly higher MP load in BALF in both the acute and recovery stages than the control group (P<0.01), and the MP load in the acute stage was significantly higher than in the recovery stage (P<0.01). In the children with RMPP, galectin-3 level in BALF in the acute stage was positively correlated with MP load and the percentage of neutrophils (r=0.789 and 0.726 respectively; P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Galectin-3 is involved in the process of airway inflammation in children with RMPP, and the level of galectin-3 in BALF is positively correlated with MP load. RMPP is a cellular immune inflammatory lesion with the increase of neutrophils and the reduction in macrophages. Galectin-3 is closely associated with neutrophil chemotaxis and luminal infiltration in children with RMPP. MP load gradually decreases with the recovery from RMPP, but it is not completely eliminated by the immune system in the recovery stage. MP infection can increase the consumption of macrophages in children with RMPP.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Child , Galectin 3 , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to characterize the diagnostic and vaccine potential of a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv0674.@*METHODS@#To evaluate the diagnostic potential and antigenicity of Rv0674, IgG was evaluated using ELISA and interferon (IFN)-γ was done by using ELISpot assay among TB patients and healthy donors. For immunogenicity evaluation, BALB/c mice were immunized with Rv0674. Cytokine production was determined by cytokine release assay using an ELISA kit, and the antibodies were tested using ELISA.@*RESULTS@#The results of serum Elisa tests showed that Rv0674 specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response was higher in TB patients than negative controls. And Rv0674 had good performance in serological test with sensitivity and specificity of 77.1% and 81.1%, respectively. While it shows poor sensitivity and specificity of 26.23% and 79.69% for IFN-γ tests. In BALB/c mice, Rv0674 adjuvant by DDA/Poly I:C could also induce a high level of IFN-γ, interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 as well as a high IgG titer in both high- and low-dose groups indicating that Rv0674 is essential in humoral and cellular immunity. Moreover, the cytokine profile and IgG isotype characterized Rv0674 as a Th1/Th2-mixed-type protective immunity with the predominance of Th1 cytokines.@*CONCLUSION@#Rv0674 may be a good potential candidate for the development of TB serological diagnosis and a new TB vaccine.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Animals , Antigens, Bacterial , Allergy and Immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Young Adult
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760186

ABSTRACT

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, progressive, and fatal central nervous system disorder resulting from persistent measles virus infection. Long-term data are scarce, with a maximum follow-up period of 10 years. Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a protein that exerts its antiviral activity via enhancement of cellular immune response and is reported to be an effective drug for the treatment of SSPE. However, there is currently no consensus regarding the optimal duration of IFN-α therapy. Here, we present a case report of a patient with SSPE treated with long-term intraventricular IFN-α therapy, which facilitated clinical improvement and neurological stabilization without causing serious adverse effects. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the longest follow-up studies investigating a patient with SSPE receiving intraventricular INF-α treatment. Further studies are necessary to validate the benefits and safety of long-term intraventricular IFN-α treatment in patients with SSPE.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Consensus , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Interferon-alpha , Measles , Measles virus , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Survivors
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758914

ABSTRACT

Porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) caused by Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) is a global cause for substantial economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we constructed live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (ST) mutant strains expressing and secreting 4 selected immunogenic LI antigens, namely, optA, optB, Lawsonia flagellin (LfliC), and Lawsonia hemolysin (Lhly); the resultant recombinant strains were designated Sal-optA, Sal-optB, Sal-LfliC, or Sal-Lhly, respectively. Using the BALB/c mouse model, we demonstrate that mice vaccinated once orally, either with a mixture of all 4 recombinant strains or with an individual recombinant strain, show significant (p < 0.05) production of LI-specific systemic immunoglobulin (Ig) G and mucosal IgA responses compared to the Salmonella alone group. Upon restimulation of vaccinated splenocytes with the LI-specific antigens, significant (p < 0.05) and comparable production of interferon-γ responses are found in all vaccinated groups, except the Sal-Lhly group, which shows non-significant levels. Challenge studies were performed in C57BL/6 vaccinated mice. On challenge with the LI (10(6.9) 50% tissue culture infectious dose) 14 days post-vaccination, 20% (1/5) of mice in all vaccinated groups, except Sal-Lhly group, show the presence of the LI-specific genomic DNA (gDNA) in stool samples. In contrast, 40% (2/5) and 60% (3/5) of mice vaccinated with the Sal-Lhly strain and the attenuated Salmonella alone, respectively, were found positive for the LI-specific gDNA. Furthermore, 0% mortality was observed in mice vaccinated against the ST challenge compared to the 30% mortality observed in the unvaccinated control group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the Salmonella-based LI-vaccines induce LI-specific humoral and cell-mediated immunities, and encompass the potential to offer dual protection against PPE and salmonellosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA , Flagellin , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulins , Lawsonia Bacteria , Mice , Mortality , Salmonella Infections , Salmonella typhimurium , Salmonella , Swine
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739564

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, which occurs frequently in liver transplant recipients with impaired cellular immunity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for HZ after adult liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: In our institution, 993 patients underwent adult LT from January 1997 to December 2013. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence rate of HZ and risk factors for HZ after LT. RESULTS: Of 993 LT recipients, 101 (10.2%) were diagnosed with HZ. The incidence of HZ at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years was 6.6%, 9.1%, 10.0%, and 11.9%, respectively. Therefore, we observed that the incidence of HZ after LT was 16.3 per 1,000 person-years. Older age (≥50 years) at LT and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) exposure were independent risk factors of HZ infection after adult LT. CONCLUSION: Patients older than 50 years or with MMF exposure are considered to be at high risk for HZ. Therefore, adult liver recipients with such factors should not be given strong immunosuppression treatments.


Subject(s)
Adult , Herpes Zoster , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunosuppression , Incidence , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Transplant Recipients
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180254, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985162

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance has been reported in the drugs used for the treatment of typhoid fever. The immunomodulatory substance β-glucan can be used as an alternative therapy as it potentiates host immunity. The aims of this study are to observe the effect of Candida albicans cell wall (CCW) extract towards host immunity (TCD8+ and TCD4+ cells in spleen, intestinal sIgA) and its capacity to kill Salmonella in the intestine and liver of typhoid fever mice models. METHODS: Typhoid fever mice models were created by infecting mice with S. Typhimurium orally. Mice were divided into four groups: the Non-Infected, Infected, CCW (infected mice treated with 300 µg CCW extract/mouse once a day), and Ciprofloxacin groups (infected mice treated with 15 mg/kg BW ciprofloxacin twice a day). RESULTS: Secretory IgA (sIgA) concentrations of mice in the CCW group remained unchanged. However, their TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells increased substantially compared to those in the Non-Infected group. In the Ciprofloxacin group, sIgA concentrations increased markedly compared to those in the Non-Infected and CCW groups; TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells also increased significantly compared to those in the Infected Group, but not significant compared to those in the CCW group. Colonization of S. Typhimurium in the intestine and liver decreased significantly in the CCW and Ciprofloxacin groups compared to that in the Infected group, with the lowest reduction being found in the Ciprofloxacin group. CONCLUSIONS The inhibition of S. Typhimurium colonization by CCW is associated with the increase in TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/microbiology , Candida albicans/chemistry , beta-Glucans/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Ciprofloxacin , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Wall , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Disease Models, Animal , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Intestines/microbiology , Liver/microbiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
14.
Sci. med. (Porto Alegre, Online) ; 28(3): ID30555, jul-set 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-909860

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Despite the existence of effective preventive vaccines for human papillomavirus (HPV), therapeutic vaccines that trigger cell-mediated immune responses are required to treat established infections and malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potency of HPV-16 E7 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccine alone and with interleukin (IL)-18. METHODS: In vitro expressions of IL-18 were performed on human embryonic kidney 293 cells and confirmed it by Western blotting methods. DNA vaccine was available from a previous study. A total of 45 female C57BL/6 mice divided into five groups (DNA vaccine, DNA vaccine adjuvanted with IL-18, pcDNA3.1, and phosphate buffer saline) were inoculated with murine tissue culture-1 cell line of HPV related carcinoma, expressing HPV-16 E6/E7 antigens. They were then immunized subcutaneously twice at a seven-day interval. The antitumor and antigen specific-cellular immunity were assessed by lymphocyte proliferation (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide: MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase release assay, IL-4 assay and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay. Tumor size was followed for 62 days. RESULTS: MTT assay, which measures the lymphocyte proliferation in response to the specific antigen, increased in the co-administration and the DNA vaccine groups as compared to control and genetic adjuvant groups (p<0.001). The mice immunized with the co-administration generated significantly more IFN-γ and IL-4 than other immunized mice (p<0.001). Reduction of the tumor size in the co-administration and the DNA vaccine groups was significantly more pronounced than in the control and genetic adjuvant groups (p<0.001), but no statistically significant difference between DNA vaccine and co-administration groups (p=0.15) occurred. CONCLUSIONS: IL-18 as a genetic adjuvant and E7 DNA vaccine alone enhanced immune responses in mouse model systems against cervical cancer. However, using of IL-18 as a genetic adjuvant with E7 DNA vaccine had no significant synergistic effect on the immune responses in vivo.


OBJETIVOS: Apesar da existência de vacinas preventivas eficazes contra o papilomavírus humano (HPV), são necessárias vacinas terapêuticas que desencadeiem respostas imunes mediadas por células para tratar infecções e malignidades estabelecidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a potência terapêutica da vacina de ácido desoxirribonucleico (DNA) HPV-16 E7 isolada e com interleucina (IL)-18. MÉTODOS: Expressões in vitro de IL-18 foram realizadas em células renais embrionárias humanas 293 e confirmadas por Western blotting. A vacina de DNA foi disponibilizada em um estudo anterior. Um total de 45 camundongos fêmeas C57BL/6 divididos em cinco grupos (vacina de DNA, vacina de DNA adjuvada com IL-18, pcDNA3.1 e solução salina tamponada com fosfato) e foram inoculados com linhagem murina-1 de carcinoma relacionado ao HPV, expressando antígenos E6 / E7 do HPV-16. Os animais foram então imunizados por via subcutânea duas vezes no intervalo de sete dias. A imunidade antitumoral e antígeno-celular específica foi avaliada pela proliferação de linfócitos (ensaio de brometo de 3- [4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il] -2,5-difeniltetrazólio: MTT), ensaio de liberação de lactato desidrogenase, ensaio de IL-4 e ensaio de interferon-gama [IFN-γ]. O tamanho do tumor foi seguido por 62 dias. RESULTADOS: O ensaio MTT, que mede a proliferação de linfócitos em resposta ao antígeno específico, aumentou nos grupos de coadministração e de vacina de DNA em comparação aos grupos controle e adjuvante genético (p <0,001). Os camundongos imunizados com a coadministração geraram significativamente mais IFN-γ e IL-4 do que os outros camundongos imunizados (p<0,001). A redução do tamanho do tumor nos grupos de coadministração e de vacina de DNA foi significativamente mais acentuada do que nos grupos controle e adjuvante genético (p<0,001), mas não houve nenhuma diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos vacina de DNA e coadministração (p=0,15). CONCLUSÕES: A IL-18 como adjuvante genético e a vacina de DNA E7 aumentaram as respostas imunes em sistemas modelo de camundongos contra o câncer cervical. No entanto, o uso de IL-18 como adjuvante genético com a vacina de DNA E7 não teve efeito sinérgico significativo nas respostas imunes in vivo.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Cellular , Immunotherapy , Papillomaviridae , Interleukin-18 , Oncogene Proteins , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(2): 191-202, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959181

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vaccination against Anaplasma marginale has been considered an important control strategy for bovine anaplasmosis. Recently, mice immunized with rMSP1 a linked to carbon nanotubes (MWNT) showed significant immune responses, generating a new possibility for use of an inactivated vaccine. The objective of this study was to investigate the cellular and humoral responses in calves immunized with MWNT+rMSP1a , associated with inactivated vaccine of A. marginale produced in vitro, and evaluate the toxic effects of the MWNT on renal and hepatic function. rMSP1a was covalently linked to MWNT. Inactivated vaccine (AmUFMG2) was produced by cultivating A. marginale in IDE8 cells. Twenty-four Holstein calves were divided (four groups) and immunized subcutaneously with PBS and non-carboxylated MWNT (control, G1), AmUFMG2 (G2), MWNT+rMSP1a (G3), and AmUFMG2 with MWNT+rMSP1a (G4). Blood samples were collected for total leukocyte counts, biochemical profiling and evaluation of the cellular and humoral response. Immunization with MWNT+rMSP1a induced increase in the total number of leukocytes, NK cells, in the lymphocyte populations and higher levels of antibodies compared to calves immunized only with AmUFMG2. Furthermore, MWNT did not induce changes in the biochemical profile. These data indicate that MWNT+rMSP1a were able to induce the immune responses more efficiently than AmUFMG2 alone, without generating toxicity.


Resumo Vacinação contra Anaplasma marginale tem sido considerada uma importante estratégia de controle da anaplasmose bovina. Recentemente, camundongos imunizados com rMSP1a funcionalizada à nanotubos de carbono (MWNT) apresentaram resposta imune significante, gerando nova possibilidade para o uso da vacina inativada. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar a resposta celular e humoral em bezerros imunizados com MWNT+rMSP1a, associado com a vacina inativada de A. marginale produzida in vitro, e avaliar os efeitos tóxicos dos MWNT nas funções hepática e renal. rMSP1 a foi ligada covalentemente aos MWNT. Vacina inativada (AmUFMG2) foi produzida através do cultivo de A. marginale em células IDE8. Vinte e quatro bezerros Holandeses foram divididos (quatro grupos) e imunizados subcutaneamente com: PBS e MWNT não-carboxilados (controle, G1), AmUFMG2 (G2), MWNT+rMSP1 a (G3), e AmUFMG2 com MWNT+rMSP1a (G4). Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para contagem de leucócitos, perfil bioquímico e avaliação da resposta celular e humoral. Imunização com MWNT+rMSP1a induziu aumento dos leucócitos totais, células NK, na população de linfócitos e altos níveis de anticorpos comparado com animais imunizados apenas com AmUFMG2. Além disso, MWNT não induziu alterações no perfil bioquímico. Esses dados indicam que MWNT+rMSP1a foram capazes de induzir eficientemente a resposta imune comparado com AmUFMG2 sozinho, sem gerar toxicidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Drug Carriers , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Nanotubes, Carbon , Anaplasma marginale/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Anaplasmosis/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Cellular
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 142-145, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039213

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The HIV-1 initial viral infection may present diverse clinical and laboratory course and lead to rapid, intermediate, or long-term progression. Among the group of non-progressors, the elite controllers are those who control the infection most effectively, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this paper, the TH1, TH2 and TH17 cytokines profiles are described, as well as clinical and laboratory aspects of an HIV-infected patient with undetectable viral load without antiretroviral therapy. Production of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17 was detected; in contrast IL-4 was identified. Host-related factors could help explain such a level of infection control, namely the differentiated modulation of the cellular immune response and a non-polarized cytokine response of the TH1 and TH2 profiles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , HIV-1 , HIV Long-Term Survivors , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/virology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Immunity, Cellular/immunology
17.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 52(1): 79-87, mar. 2018. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-886164

ABSTRACT

El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar alteraciones en el recuento de leucocitos en sangre periférica, generadas por la exposición a perclorato de amonio, en ratones de la cepa ICR, evaluando diferentes concentraciones de exposición y diferenciando dichas alteraciones en machos y hembras. Se realizó mediante un trabajo de diseño analítico tipo experimental. Se utilizaron 60 ratones de la cepa ICR, 30 machos y 30 hembras de los cuales 50 fueron expuestos a perclorato de amonio. La manipulación se llevó a cabo de acuerdo con lo establecido en la resolución 008430 de 1993, artículo 87 del Ministerio de Salud de la República de Colombia. Un 70% de los ratones hembra y un 83% de los ratones macho expuestos a perclorato de amonio presentaron alteraciones en el recuento celular de la línea blanca. Los machos presentaron mayor alteración leucocitaria, en especial linfocitopenia. Por otro lado, el peso en los ratones expuestos disminuyó considerablemente hacia la tercera semana de administración de perclorato de amonio, lo cual podría indicar que esta sustancia tóxica genera un estado de inmunosupresión. Se evidenció leucopenia, específicamente neutropenia, neutrofilia y linfocitopenia como principales alteraciones en el recuento de leucocitos en ratones de la cepa ICR, expuestos a perclorato de amonio.


The objective of this work was to identify the changes in the leukocyte counts in peripheral blood by ammonium perchlorate in ICR strain mice, evaluating the different exposure concentrations and differentiating the changes between males and females. Through an analytic experimental investigation, 60 ICR strain mice, 30 males and 30 females were used, 50 of which were exposed to ammonium perchlorate. This study was carried out by Resolution 008430/93, article 87 of Ministry of Health of Colombia. A total of 70% females and 83% males had changes in the leukocyte counts, especially lymphocytopenia in males, further, weight decreased the third week of treatment, and probably that toxic substance induces a state of immunosuppression. The main changes in the leukocyte counts in peripheral blood by ammonium perchlorate in ICR strain was leukopenia.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as alterações na contagem de leucócitos em sangue periférico, geradas pela exposição a perclorato de amônio em camundongos da linhagem ICR, avaliando diferentes concentrações de exposição e diferenciando estas alterações entre machos e fêmeas. Isto foi realizado através de um trabalho de desenho analítico tipo experimental. Foram utilizados 60 camundongos da linhagem ICR, sendo 30 machos e 30 fêmeas, dos quais 50 foram expostos ao perclorato de amônio. O manuseio foi realizado conforme a resolução 008430 de 1993, artigo 87 do Ministério da Saúde da Colômbia. 70% dos camundongos fêmea e 83% dos machos apresentaram alterações na contagem celular dos leucócitos, especialmente a linfocitopenia em machos. Além disso, o peso nos camundongos expostos diminuiu en forma considerável para a terceira semana de tratamento com perclorato de amônio, o qual poderia indicar que esta substância tóxica gera um estado de imunossupressão. Houve evidência de leucopenia, especificamente neutropenia, neutrofilia e linfocitopenia como principais alterações na contagem de leucócitos em camundongos da linhagem ICR, expostos a perclorato de amônio.


Subject(s)
Mice , Immunity, Cellular , Immunosuppression , Leukocytes , Perchlorates , Toxicity , Ammonium Chloride
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(1): 123-125, Jan.-Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887166

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Brazil is a country with a high prevalence of infectious diseases such as leprosy and leishmaniasis. However, coinfection of these diseases is still poorly understood. We report a case of a patient who presented with lepromatous leprosy and cutaneous-mucosal leishmaniasis at the same period. After clinical, laboratory, and histopathological diagnosis, the treatment was introduced and the patient showed important clinical improvement. He was followed in our outpatient clinic. Both pathologies play an important role in the immune system. Depending on the immune response profile of the host, diseases may present themselves in different ways. In this case, the patient showed a divergent immune response for each disease. We hypothesized that this response is specific for each pathogen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Leprosy, Lepromatous/complications , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/complications , Coinfection/complications , Leprosy, Lepromatous/immunology , Leprosy, Lepromatous/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/pathology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/pathology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology
19.
Immune Network ; : e14-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740198

ABSTRACT

T lymphocytes rely on several metabolic processes to produce the high amounts of energy and metabolites needed to drive clonal expansion and the development of effector functions. However, many of these pathways result in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have canonically been thought of as cytotoxic agents due to their ability to damage DNA and other subcellular structures. Interestingly, ROS has recently emerged as a critical second messenger for T cell receptor signaling and T cell activation, but the sensitivity of different T cell subsets to ROS varies. Therefore, the tight regulation of ROS production by cellular antioxidant pathways is critical to maintaining proper signal transduction without compromising the integrity of the cell. This review intends to detail the common metabolic sources of intracellular ROS and the mechanisms by which ROS contributes to the development of T cell-mediated immunity. The regulation of ROS levels by the glutathione pathway and the Nrf2-Keap1-Cul3 trimeric complex will be discussed. Finally, T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases exacerbated by defects in ROS regulation will be further examined in order to identify potential therapeutic interventions for these disorders.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmunity , Cytotoxins , DNA , Glutathione , Immunity, Cellular , Metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Second Messenger Systems , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Impaired local cellular immunity contributes to persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands PD-ligand-1 (L1) and PD-L2 are negative regulators of T cell activity in various cancers, but few studies exist. The aim of this study was to determine the clinicopathologic and immunologic parameters (PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2) related to the persistence/recurrence of CIN after conization. METHODS: Medical records of 652 patients diagnosed with CIN and underwent conization were reviewed. The associations between clinicopathologic parameters (e.g., age, parity, initial HPV load, etc.) and persistence/recurrence of CIN were analyzed. Expression of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 was assessed on 100 conization specimens by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in women matched for propensity-score (50 with persistence/recurrence and 50 without). RESULTS: Initial HPV load (>1,000 relative light unit) and positive margin were shown to be significantly associated with CIN persistence/recurrence (p=0.012 and p < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that margin status was an independent predictor of persistence/recurrence (hazard ratio=8.86; 95% confidence interval=1.67–16.81; p < 0.001). On IHC analysis, none of the patients expressed PD-L1. PD-1+ T cells were observed in 25 of 100 patients. Also, PD-1+ T cells were significantly correlated with increasing grade of CIN (p=0.031). In addition, patients with persistence/recurrence had increased expression of PD-1 compared with those without (36% vs. 14%, respectively; p=0.020). Although PD-L2 expression did not differ between 2 groups, it was significantly higher in patients with high-grade CIN compared to low-grade (34.7% vs. 12%, respectively; p=0.041). CONCLUSION: Positive surgical margin and expression of PD-1+ T cells were associated with CIN persistence/recurrence after conization.


Subject(s)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Conization , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunohistochemistry , Ligands , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Papillomaviridae , Parity , Recurrence , T-Lymphocytes
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