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1.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 741-762, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007375

ABSTRACT

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a class of targeted biological agents that link cytotoxic drugs to monoclonal antibodies through linkers. The monoclonal antibody targets tumor cells and transports small-molecule cytotoxic drugs for specific delivery and minimal off-target side effects. September 30, 2022, 14 anti-tumor ADC drugs have been approved for marketing in the world, and four ADCs have been approved in China. With the improvement of the clinical accessibility of ADC drugs, clinicians urgently need to understand the molecular characteristics and mechanisms of ADCs, and clarify the indications for rational use of drugs. Patients' survival mainly depends on the appropriate dose and course of treatment and also on proper management of adverse reactions. In view of this, on the basis of the "Expert Consensus on the Clinical Application of Antibody-drug Conjugates for the Treatment of Malignant Tumors (2020 edition)" , Professional Committee on Clinical Research of Oncology Drugs, Chinese Anti-Cancer Association fully combines the existing clinical research evidence and the feasibility of current ADC drugs in China to update the consensus content. This consensus aims to provide a systematic overview of ADC drugs, so as to provide practical and effective suggestions and references for clinicians to apply and manage ADC drugs more accurately.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Consensus , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
2.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 214-218, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928800

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is one of the malignant tumors with the highest morbidity and mortality in the world. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most important pathological types of lung cancer. The prognosis of advanced NSCLC is poor and medical treatment is still the main treatment option. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are the kind of potentially new anti-tumor drugs, consisting of monoclonal antibodies conjugated to the cytotoxic payloads via the synthetic linkers. They have a broad application prospect in solid tumors such as lung cancer. This article focuses on the mechanism of action and research progress of ADCs in advanced NSCLC.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
3.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 468-476, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939733

ABSTRACT

Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are a novel class of anti-cancer drugs, which combined the specificity of monoclonal antibodies with the cytotoxic palyload via the linkers. Many ADCs have not only verified impressive activity in a variety of cancers, including breast cancer and hematological system tumors, but also in lung cancer. The aim of this study was to provide informations for practice by summarizing the mechanism of action, clinical application and problems and challenges of ADCs.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 261-267, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921259

ABSTRACT

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) combine the high specificity of monoclonal antibodies with the high anti-tumor activity of small molecular cytotoxic payloads. The anti-tumor activity of ADCs is mainly achieved by the direct blocking of the receptor by monoclonal antibodies, direct action and bystander effect of cytotoxic drugs, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. ADCs have been used in adjuvant therapy and rescue treatment of human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, greatly improving the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Several ongoing clinical trials of ADC for breast cancer and other solid tumors proved the potential of ADCs will provide more promising treatment options for patients with malignant tumors. This review introduces the mechanism and latest clinical progress of ADC drugs approved for HER2-positive breast cancer to guide clinical practice and conduct research.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Receptor, ErbB-2
5.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 78-91, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877499

ABSTRACT

Antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) is a type of targeted biological agent which connect cytotoxic drug to monoclonal antibody by a connector head, which enables monoclonal antibody acted as a carrier to efficiently transport small molecular cytotoxic drugs to target tumor cells. It is very important for clinicians to have an in-depth understanding of the molecular characteristics and mechanism of ADC drugs, rationally choose the appropriate dose, course of treatment and manage adverse reactions according to the indications during the clinical application of ADC drugs, which may even affect the survival of patients. Therefore, the consensus aims to conduct a systematic overview of commercially available ADC drugs, provide effective recommendations and references for clinicians to better apply and manage ADC drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Consensus , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy
6.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(3): 229-236, may.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249899

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los anticuerpos terapéuticos son proteínas recombinantes empleadas en el tratamiento del cáncer. Existe una nueva generación de anticuerpos monoclonales con actividad contra las células cancerosas, conocidos como anticuerpos conjugados a fármacos. Estas moléculas están integradas por tres elementos: un anticuerpo monoclonal, un fármaco citotóxico con alta potencia y un enlazador químico que los une. El anticuerpo reconoce antígenos tumorales, por lo que permite la entrega dirigida del agente citotóxico hacia las células cancerosas. Tras el reconocimiento de su antígeno, el anticuerpo conjugado a fármaco es endocitado por las células blanco, donde se induce la degradación lisosomal de la fracción proteica y se libera el fármaco citotóxico. En el presente artículo se revisan las características generales de los anticuerpos conjugados a fármacos y se describe la evidencia clínica de la eficacia y seguridad de los primeros cuatro aprobados por las agencias reguladoras de Estados Unidos y Europa.


Abstract Therapeutic antibodies are recombinant proteins used in the treatment of cancer. There is a new generation of monoclonal antibodies with activity against cancer cells, known as antibody-drug conjugates. These molecules are made up of three elements: a monoclonal antibody, a highly potent cytotoxic drug, and a chemical linker that binds them together. The antibody recognizes tumor antigens, thereby allowing targeted delivery of the cytotoxic agent to cancer cells. After recognizing its antigen, the antibody-drug conjugate is endocytosed by the target cells, where the protein fraction is degradated into lysosomes, releasing the cytotoxic drug. This article reviews antibody-drug conjugates general characteristics and describes the clinical evidence of efficacy and safety of the first four approved by regulatory agencies in the United States and Europe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunoconjugates/administration & dosage , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Biotechnology , Immunoconjugates/adverse effects , Immunoconjugates/pharmacology , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
7.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 797-804, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941891

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate inhibitory activities of a homogenous anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-antibody drug conjugate (ADC) on the proliferation of nine tumor cell lines with different levels of HER2 expressions, and its activities on the tumor growth of five xenograft mouse models.@*METHODS@#The HER2 expression levels of BT-474, Calu-3, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, SK-BR-3, SK-OV-3, HCC1954, NCI-N87 tumor cell lines were measured using QIFI KIT. For the in vitro anti-proliferation assay, serial diluted anti-HER2-ADC, ado-trastuzumab emtansine, AS269, pAF-AS269 and paclitaxel were added to the seeded cells, and after 72 or 96 hours of incubation, the cell proliferation was analyzed. For the in vivo activity, 5-6 weeks old mice were inoculated with four HER2 positive tumor cell lines HCC1954, BT-474, SK-OV-3, NCI-N87 or one HER2 negative tumor cell line MDA-MB-468. Different amounts of anti-HER2-ADC, ado-trastuzumab emtansine, trastuzumab, paclitaxel and phosphate buffered saline control were injected after the tumor volume reached a certain size, then the tumor growth inhibition was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The expression levels of the six high HER2-expression cell lines SK-OV-3, NCI-N87, SK-BR-3, Calu-3, HCC1954, BT-474 were between 430 000 to 800 000 receptors per cell, which were 50 times higher than those of the other three low HER2 expression tumor cell lines MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, MDA-MB-468. Anti-HER2-ADC had inhibition effects on cell lines with high level of HER2 expression in the in vitro anti-proliferation assay. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations of anti-HER2-ADC on SK-OV-3, NCI-N87, SK-BR-3, Calu-3, HCC1954, BT-474 tumor cell lines were 46 pmol/L, 17 pmol/L, 17 pmol/L, 161 pmol/L, 125 pmol/L, 50 pmol/L, respectively. Anti-HER2-ADC had a dose dependent antitumor activity in vivo in all the HER2 positive xenograft mouse models. In NCI-N87 xenograft tumor model, the same dose of anti-HER2-ADC showed better anti-tumor activity compared with trastuzumab and ado-trastuzumab emtansine, and its relative tumor proliferation rates were about 1/30 to 1/20 of the two. In HCC1954 xenograft tumor model, the complete regression of the tumor was observed. As expected, anti-HER2-ADC had no tumor inhibitory effects on MDA-MB-468 xenograft models with low HER2 expression. The antitumor activities of anti-HER2-ADC in HER2 positive xenograft tumor models were the same as or better than the activities of ado-trastuzumab emtansine.@*CONCLUSION@#The homogenous site-specific anti-HER2-ADC obtained using unnatural amino acid technology can inhibit the growth of high HER2-expression tumor cells with high potency both in vivo and in vitro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Amino Acids , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Line, Tumor , Immunoconjugates , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Trastuzumab , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 557-562, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690950

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effects of blocking TCR-CD3 and B7-CD28 signals on immune function of mice with chronic GVHD by using TJU103 and CTLA4-Ig.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>On the basis of foregoing murine model of chronic GVHD, according to interference modes after infusion 6×10 spleen cells of donor mice, the recipients were divided into 5 groups: blank control, cGVHD, TJU103 interference, CTLA4-Ig interference and TJU103+CTLA4-Ig interference groups. The score of clinical manifestation and tissue histopathology were used to evaluate the effects of all the interferences on chronic GVHD.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>TJU103 and CTLA4-Ig could not influence the formation of the mouse chimera. The analysis of Kaplan survival curve of mice with chronic GVHD showed that the CTLA4-Ig and TJU103+CTLA4-Ig reduced the incidence of chronic GVHD, the TJU103 could delay the occurrence of chronic GVHD, but all the interference factors could not change the severity of chronic GVHD.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TJU103 can delay the onset time of chronic GVHD, and the CTLA4-Ig can reduce the incidences of cGVHD, the combining use of TJU103 and CTLA4-Ig can significantly reduce the incidence of chronic GVHD, but can not change the severity of chronic GVHD.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Abatacept , Antigen-Presenting Cells , Antigens, CD , Antigens, Differentiation , CTLA-4 Antigen , Chronic Disease , Graft vs Host Disease , Immunoconjugates , Mice, Inbred C57BL , T-Lymphocytes
9.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 33-46, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757376

ABSTRACT

The antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), a humanized or human monoclonal antibody conjugated with highly cytotoxic small molecules (payloads) through chemical linkers, is a novel therapeutic format and has great potential to make a paradigm shift in cancer chemotherapy. This new antibody-based molecular platform enables selective delivery of a potent cytotoxic payload to target cancer cells, resulting in improved efficacy, reduced systemic toxicity, and preferable pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) and biodistribution compared to traditional chemotherapy. Boosted by the successes of FDA-approved Adcetris and Kadcyla, this drug class has been rapidly growing along with about 60 ADCs currently in clinical trials. In this article, we briefly review molecular aspects of each component (the antibody, payload, and linker) of ADCs, and then mainly discuss traditional and new technologies of the conjugation and linker chemistries for successful construction of clinically effective ADCs. Current efforts in the conjugation and linker chemistries will provide greater insights into molecular design and strategies for clinically effective ADCs from medicinal chemistry and pharmacology standpoints. The development of site-specific conjugation methodologies for constructing homogeneous ADCs is an especially promising path to improving ADC design, which will open the way for novel cancer therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Amino Acids , Metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Chemistry , Metabolism , Antigens , Metabolism , Genetic Engineering , Immunoconjugates , Chemistry , Metabolism
10.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 86-120, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756941

ABSTRACT

As of May 1, 2017, 74 antibody-based molecules have been approved by a regulatory authority in a major market. Additionally, there are 70 and 575 antibody-based molecules in phase III and phase I/II clinical trials, respectively. These total 719 antibody-based clinical stage molecules include 493 naked IgGs, 87 antibody-drug conjugates, 61 bispecific antibodies, 37 total Fc fusion proteins, 17 radioimmunoglobulins, 13 antibody fragments, and 11 immunocytokines. New uses for these antibodies are being discovered each year. For oncology, many of the exciting new approaches involve antibody modulation of T-cells. There are over 80 antibodies in clinical trials targeting T cell checkpoints, 26 T-cell-redirected bispecific antibodies, and 145 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) cell-based candidates (all currently in phase I or II clinical trials), totaling more than 250 T cell interacting clinical stage antibody-based candidates. Finally, significant progress has been made recently on routes of delivery, including delivery of proteins across the blood-brain barrier, oral delivery to the gut, delivery to the cellular cytosol, and gene- and viral-based delivery of antibodies. Thus, there are currently at least 864 antibody-based clinical stage molecules or cells, with incredible diversity in how they are constructed and what activities they impart. These are followed by a next wave of novel molecules, approaches, and new methods and routes of delivery, demonstrating that the field of antibody-based biologics is very innovative and diverse in its approaches to fulfill their promise to treat unmet medical needs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antibodies, Bispecific , Metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems , Immunoconjugates , Metabolism , Protein Engineering , Methods , T-Lymphocytes , Metabolism
11.
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e482s, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952842

ABSTRACT

This review will discuss the contributions of marine natural molecules, a source only recently found to have pharmaceutical prospects, to the development of anticancer drugs. Of the seven clinically utilized compounds with a marine origin, four are used for the treatment of cancer. The development of these drugs has afforded valuable knowledge and crucial insights to meet the most common challenges in this endeavor, such as toxicity and supply. In this context, the development of these compounds will be discussed herein to illustrate, with successful examples provided by cytarabine, trabectedin, eribulin and brentuximab vedotin, the steps involved in this process as well as the scientific advances and technological innovation potential associated with developing a new drug from marine resources.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Aquatic Organisms/chemistry , Drug Development/methods , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Oceans and Seas , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Immunoconjugates/pharmacology , Immunoconjugates/chemistry , Cytarabine/chemistry , Drug Discovery , Trabectedin/chemistry , Furans/chemistry , Brentuximab Vedotin , Ketones/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(4): e170039, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889426

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Scientific innovations in diagnostic methods are important drivers of cancer control and prevention. Noninvasive imaging of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in head-and-neck squamous, cell carcinoma and colorectal cancer could be valuable to select patients for EGFR-targeted therapy, as well as to monitor the efficacy and occurrence of resistance to immunotherapy. In order to develop the first Brazilian radioimmunoconjugate for diagnosis, Cetuximab has been conjugated to p-SCN-Bn-DTPA chelator and radiolabeled with Indium-111. The conjugation methodology was optimized using different mAb:DTPA molar ratios, time was then reduced for immunoconjugate preparation, besides the protein recovery' percentage increased after purification (m = 83.8 ± 0.91 %). The stability of Cetuximab-DTPA at - 20 oC was evaluated for six months, and its integrity was greater than 90% (m =93.9 ± 1.5%, N = 24). The radioimmunoconjugate with specific activity of 185 MBq/mg showed radiochemical purity above 95% (m=96.8 ± 1.31 %, N = 15). We conclude that the radioimmunoconjugate 111In-DTPA-cetuximab is stable and may be applied to the diagnosis of EGFR-positive tumors.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Immunoconjugates/analysis , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cetuximab/therapeutic use
13.
Invest. clín ; 57(2): 158-175, jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841108

ABSTRACT

It was designed and characterized a reporter system to be captured by antibodies bound to ELISA plates. The system was designed with the rK346 from Leishmania infantum, a highly antigenic and specific protein. The rK346 was coupled to the horseradish peroxidase C (HRPc) from Armoracia rusticana using glutaraldehyde or sulfo-SMCC. Glutaraldehyde conjugation was performed in two steps. Separation of conjugates was carried out using a Sepharose S-200 in size exclusion chromatography (SEC); fractions were analyzed via HRPc activity and through ELISA plates sensitized with polyclonal anti-rK346 IgG purified from rabbit serum. A heterogeneous population of conjugates rK346-HRPc was obtained with molecular weights ranging between 109.7 ± 16.5 to 67.6 ± 10.1 kDa; with rK346-HRPc stoichiometries of 1:2; 2:1; 3:1; and 2:2. Conjugation using sulfo-SMCC was carried out first by introducing -SH groups onto the HRPc using the SATA reagent and the antigen was modified with sulfo-SMCC during 45 min. Separation and analysis of conjugates was performed similarly as with glutaraldehyde, resulting in a heterogeneous population of conjugates rK346-HRPc with molecular weights between 150.5 ± 22.6 to 80.0 ± 12.0 kDa; with rK346-HRPC stoichiometries of 2:1; 1:2; 2:2; and 1:3, with an increased conjugation efficiency in comparison with glutaraldehyde. This enables sulfo-SMCC to be used as a potential reagent for coupling the antigen to the HRPc, to design an economic, specific and easy method to apply as a reporter system, available to assess individuals at risk and/or at early and late stages of visceral leishmaniasis.


Se diseñó y caracterizó un sistema reportero para ser capturado por anticuerpos enlazados a placas de ELISA. El sistema fue diseñado con una proteína altamente antigénica y específica, la rK346 de Leishmania infantum. La rK346 fue acoplada a la peroxidasa C de rábano picante (HRPc) de Armoracia rusticana usando glutaraldehido o sulfo-SMCC. La conjugación con glutaraldehido fue realizada en dos pasos. La separación de los conjugados fue llevada a cabo a través de una cromatografía de exclusión molecular sefarosa S-200 (CES), las fracciones fueron analizadas midiendo la actividad HRPc y por placas ELISA sensibilizadas con inmunoglobulina G policlonal anti-rK346, purificada desde suero de conejo. Se obtuvo una población heterogénea de conjugados rK346-HRPc en un rango de pesos moleculares entre 109,7 ± 16,5 a 67,6 ± 10,1 kDa; con estequiometria rK346-HRPc de 1:2; 2:1; 3:1; y 2:2. La conjugación usando sulfo-SMCC se llevó a cabo primero introduciendo grupos -SH en la HRPc usando el reactivo SATA; el antígeno se modificó con sulfo-SMCC. La separación y el análisis de los conjugados se realizaron de forma similar que con el glutaraldehido, resultando en una población heterogénea de conjugados rK346-HRPc con un rango de pesos moleculares entre 150,5 ± 22,6 a 80,0 ± 12,0 kDa; con estequiometria rK346-HRPC de 2:1; 1:2; 2:2 y 1:3, y con una eficiencia de conjugación incrementada en comparación con glutaraldehido. De esta forma, se habilitó al sulfo-SMCC como un reactivo potencial para acoplar antígenos a la HRPc, como método para el diseño de un sistema reportero económico, especifico y fácil de aplicar, útil en la evaluación de individuos en riesgo y/o en estados tempranos o avanzados de leishmaniasis visceral.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Protozoan/isolation & purification , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Horseradish Peroxidase , Antigens, Protozoan , Immunoconjugates
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(3): 231-235, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751314

ABSTRACT

Objective Haemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) is routinely used for monitoring glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Hb A1c seasonal fluctuations can be directly related to different biological, geographical and cultural influences. Our purpose was to evaluate seasonal variation of Hb A1c in a hospital-based adult population over a period of 5 years.Materials and methods We analyzed retrospectively monthly Hb A1c mean values (DCCT, %) based on all the assays performed to adult patients at a tertiary care university Portuguese hospital between 2008-2012.Results We obtained 62,384 Hb A1c valid measurements, with a peak level found in January-February (7.1%), a trough in August-October (6.8%) and an average peak-to-trough amplitude value of 0.3%. This trend was observed in both genders and age subgroups evaluated.Conclusions There is a Hb A1c circannual seasonal pattern with peak levels occurring in winter months in this Portuguese population. This finding should be recognized in daily clinical practice to warrant better clinical and epidemiological interpretation of Hb A1c values. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(3):231-5.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Diarrhea/etiology , Enterocytes/pathology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome
15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1203-1209, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320100

ABSTRACT

Antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) is a new class of therapeutics composed of a monoclonal antibody and small cytotoxin moieties conjugated through a chemical linker. ADC molecules bind to the target antigens expressed on the tumor cell surfaces guided by the monoclonal antibody component. The binding ADC molecules can be internalized and subsequently the toxin moieties can be released within the tumor cells via chemical and/or enzymatic reactions to kill the target cells. The conjugation combines the merits of both components, i.e., the high target specificity of the monoclonal antibody and the highly potent cell killing activity of the cytotoxin moieties. However, such complexities make the pharmacokinetic and metabolic studies of ADCs highly challenging. The major challenges should include characterization of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, investigation of underlying mechanisms, assessment of pharmacokinetic- pharmacodynamic relationship, and analytical method development of ADC drugs. This review will discuss common pharmacokinetic issues and considerations, as well as tools and strategies that can be utilized to characterize the pharmacokinetic and metabolic properties of ADCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Pharmacokinetics , Cytotoxins , Pharmacokinetics , Immunoconjugates , Pharmacokinetics , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1225-1231, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320097

ABSTRACT

Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are an emerging class of targeted therapeutics with the potential to improve therapeutic index over the traditional chemotherapy. However, it is difficult to control the site and stoichiometry of conjugation in mAb, typically resulting in heterogeneous mixtures of ADCs that are difficult to optimize. New methods for site-specific drug attachment allow development of more homogeneous conjugates and control of the site of drug attachment. In this article, the new literature on development of ADCs and site-specific ADCs is reviewed. In addition, we summarized the various strategies in production of site-specific ADCs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Chemistry , Antibody Specificity , Binding Sites, Antibody , Immunoconjugates , Chemistry
17.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 575-577, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-281979

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the clinical efficacy and side effects of brentuximab vedotin (BV) plus chlormethine hydrochloride (CH) in patients with relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) after failure with BV alone.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From March, 2014 to December, 2014, 6 patients who failed with BV monotherapy were enrolled in this study. The chemotherapy regimen consisted of BV (1.2-1.8 mg/kg, iv. gtt, d1) and CH (6 mg/m2, iv. gtt, d1) was given for 3 weeks as one course, and all patients received about 3-8 courses of chemotherapy, with an median of 4 courses. Clinical efficacy and adverse events were assessed and observed by radiographic examination and serological detection.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 6 patients, the overall response rate was 100% with 2 complete remission and 4 partial remission. The main adverse events were grade I (2 patients) and IV (2 patients) bone marrow depression, grade II (2 patients)gastrointestinal reaction, grade I (1 patient) increase of transaminase and myocardial enzyme and grade I (1 patient) mouth ulcers.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The combination of BV and CH in the treatment of relapsed and refractory HL after failure with BV alone was high effective and the toxicities were well tolerable.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating , Therapeutic Uses , Hodgkin Disease , Drug Therapy , Immunoconjugates , Therapeutic Uses , Mechlorethamine , Therapeutic Uses
18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 516-520, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251748

ABSTRACT

Tumor surface antigen human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) is a type I receptor tyrosine kinase, which belongs to human epidermal growth factor receptor family. Her2-overexpression is associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. Due to significant clinical effects, Her2-targeted cancer therapy especially therapeutic antibody has become the hot spot in the field of cancer treatment. Anti-Her2 antibody drugs include monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, bispecific antibodies and emerging "two in one" antibody. Based on structure and function of Her2, this review focuses on recent advances in active mechanisms and clinical researches of these antibodies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Bispecific , Therapeutic Uses , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Therapeutic Uses , Immunoconjugates , Therapeutic Uses , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Allergy and Immunology
19.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 54(2): 102-109, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-710219

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Com o crescimento do uso de drogas imunobiológicas (IBD) ampliamos o conhecimento sobre sua eficácia e segurança. Objetivo: Analisar as reações infusionais imediatas (RII) às IBD endovenosas - infliximabe (IFX), rituximabe (RTX), abatacepte (ABT) e tocilizumabe (TCZ) - no tratamento de doenças autoimunes. Método: Avaliamos 2.126 infusões feitas no CID (Centro de Infusão) em 268 pacientes. A droga usada, a indicação clínica, o tempo de infusão e o uso de pré-medicação foram determinados pelo médico prescritor. Foram consideradas RII todas as intercorrências apresentadas durante a infusão e/ou período observacional de 30 minutos. A conduta adotada nas RII seguiu os protocolos do CID. Resultados: Em relação ao tipo de IBD, as infusões foram distribuídas em: IFX (1.584; 74,5%), TCZ (226; 10,63%), RTX (185; 8,7%) e ABT (131; 6,16%). As RII foram descritas em 87 procedimentos (4,09%): 77 no grupo IFX e 10 no grupo RTX. Não foram descritas RII nos grupos de ABT e TCZ. A maioria foi considerada leve (n = 5; 41,17%) ou moderada (n = 50; 58,81%) e não houve reações graves. Das infusões interrompidas, 79 (92,9%) foram reiniciadas e concluídas com êxito. Apenas seis (0,28%) não foram concluídas por causa das RII. Conclusão: Apesar da diferença entre o número de procedimentos por droga, trata-se de uma análise de "vida real", na qual a incidência de RII foi semelhante à descrita na literatura. A baixa incidência de RII corrobora os dados de segurança tanto de forma quantitativa como qualitativa e ressalta a importância do acompanhamento médico especializado durante a infusão. .


Introduction: With the increasing use of immunobiological drugs (IBD), the knowledge about their effectiveness and safety has increased. Objective: To analyze the immediate infusional reactions (IIR) to intravenous IBD: infliximab (IFX), rituximab (RTX), abatacept (ABT) and tocilizumab (TCZ) on the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Method: 2126 infusions performed in the Infusion Centre - CID in 268 patients were analyzed. The used drug, its clinical indication, infusion time, and use of premedication were determined by the prescribing physician. All intercurrences presented during infusion and/or during a thirty minutes observation period were considered as IIR. The approach adopted in IIR followed the protocols of the Infusion Centre - CID. Results: Regarding the type of IBD, the infused drugs given were: IFX (1584, 74.5%), TCZ (226, 10.63%), RTX (185, 8.7%) and ABT (131, 6,16%). IIR were described in 87 procedures (9.4%): 77 - IFX group and 10 - RTX group. IIR were not described in ABT and TCZ groups. Most were considered as mild (n = 5; 41.17%) or moderate (n = 50, 58.81%) reactions; there were no serious reactions. Regarding to discontinue infusions, 79 (92.9%) were resumed and completed successfully. Only six (0.28% of infusions) were not completed because of IIR. Conclusion: Despite the differences between the number of procedures per drug, ours is a "real life" analysis, where the incidence of IIR was similar to that described in the literature. The low incidence of IIR corroborates the safety data, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and underscores the importance of specialized medical support during infusion. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Abatacept , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Infliximab , Infusions, Intravenous , Immunoconjugates/administration & dosage , Immunoconjugates/adverse effects , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Rituximab , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
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