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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887969

ABSTRACT

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface film-forming method was used to prepare hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis decoction pieces with stable effect.The preparation process of modified Indigo Naturalis was optimized and its microscopic properties,hydrophilicity,antipyretic efficacy,and safety were systematically evaluated.With equilibrium contact angle as assessment index,the influence of modifier type,modifier dosage,dispersant dosage,and co-grinding time on water solubility of Indigo Naturalis was investigated by single factor test.The results showed that the optimal preparation process was as follows.The 6%PEG6000 is dissolved in 10%anhydrous ethanol solution by sonification and then the mixture is ground with Indigo Naturalis for 2 min.The resultant product is dried on a square tray in an oven at 60℃to remove ethanol and thereby the PEG-modified hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis decoction pieces are yielded.The morphological observation under scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that the modified Indigo Naturalis had smoother surface than Indigo Naturalis,and energy spectrometer measurement showed that the nitrogen (N),calcium(Ca),oxygen (O),and silicon (Si) on the surface of modified Indigo Naturalis powder were less than those of Indigo Naturalis powder.Modified Indigo Naturalis had the equilibrium contact angle 18.96°smaller,polar component 22.222 m J·m~(-2)more,and nonpolar component 7.277 m J·m~(-2)smaller than the Indigo Naturalis powder.Multiple light scattering technique was employed to evaluate the dispersion in water and the result demonstrated that the transmittance of Indigo Naturalis and modified Indigo Naturalis was about85%and 75%,respectively,suggesting the higher dispersity of modified Indigo Naturalis.The suspension rate of modified Indigo Naturalis in water was determined by reflux treatment.The result showed that 57%of Indigo Naturalis was not wetted after refluxing for1 h,while the modified Indigo Naturalis was all wetted and dispersed into water.The dissolution of indigo and indirubin of modified Indigo Naturalis increased and the process was more stable.Then,rats were randomized into the blank group,model group,acetaminophen group,Indigo Naturalis group,and hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis group.The temperature changes of rats were observed after administration and the concentration of IL-1βand TNF-αin serum and IL-1βand PGE_2in hypothalamus was measured.The results indicated that the temperature of Indigo Naturalis group and hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis group dropped and the IL-1βlevel of the hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis group decreased (P<0.05) as compared with those in the model group.Thus,both Indigo Naturalis and hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis had antipyretic effect,particularly the hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis.The acute toxicity test of hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis verified that it had no toxicity to rats.In this study,the hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis decoction pieces were prepared with the PEG surface film-forming method,and the antipyretic efficacy and safety were evaluated,which expanded the technological means of powder modification for Chinese medicine and provided a method for clinical use of Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Polyethylene Glycols , Rats
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887968

ABSTRACT

As an effective antipyretic medicine,Indigo Naturalis has a long history of application in the field of Chinese medicine.The content of organics,mainly indigo and indirubin,is about 10%. However,the active ingredients and mechanism of its antipyretic effect have not yet been fully elucidated. In view of this,they were investigated in this study with the rectal temperature change as an indicator and 2,4-dinitrophenol-induced fever rats as subjects. The content of PGE2 and c AMP in the hypothalamus and the serum levels of TNF-α,IL-1β and IL-6 were determined by ELISA. Moreover,the plasma samples of fever rats were analyzed by metabonomics in combination with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS for the exploration of potential biomarkers and the discussion on the antipyretic mechanism of Indigo Naturalis and its active ingredients. The results showed that the rising trend of rectal temperature in rats was suppressed 0. 5 h after the treatment with Indigo Naturalis,organic matter,indigo or indirubin as compared with the rats of model group( P < 0. 05),among which Indigo Naturalis and organic matter had better antipyretic effect. ELISA results showed that organic matter and indigo can inhibit the expression of PGE2 and c AMP( P<0. 01),while Indigo Naturalis and organic matter were effective in curbing the increase in TNF-α( P<0. 05). A total of 21 endogenous metabolites were identified from the plasma samples of the Indigo Naturalis,organic matter,indigo and indirubin groups,which were mainly involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
2,4-Dinitrophenol , Animals , Antipyretics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Rats
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887967

ABSTRACT

Indigo Naturalis( IN) is mainly composed of 10% organic matter and 90% inorganic matter,with a poor wettability and strong hydrophobicity. Indigo,indirubin and effective ingredients are almost insoluble in water. And how it exerts its effect after oral administration still needs to be revealed. For this reason,this study put forward the hypothesis that " Indigo Naturalis forms a slightly soluble calcium carbonate carrier in a strong acid environment of gastric fluid,and organic substances are solubilized in the bile environment of intestinal fluid",and then verified the hypothesis. First,the dissolution apparatus was used to simulate the change process of IN in different digestive fluid,and the effects of low-dose and normal bile on the dissolution of inorganic substances and the release of organic substances were compared. After the surface morphology and element changes of IN in different digestive fluid were observed,it was found that bile is the key to promoting the dissolution of organic and inorganic substances in IN. Furthermore,the rat fever model induced by 2,4-dinitrophenol was used to study the antipyretic effect of IN in normal rats and bile duct ligation rats. It was found that the antipyretic effect of IN on normal rats was better than that of bile duct ligation rats. The above results indicated that after oral administration of IN,the calcium carbonate carrier was transformed into a slightly soluble state in acidic gastric fluid,and a small amount of organic matter was released. When IN entered the intestinal fluid mixed with bile,the carrier dissolved in a large amount,and indigo and indirubin were dissolved in a large amount,so as to absorb the blood and exert the effect. This study has a certain significance for guiding clinical application of IN. For patients with insufficient bile secretion( such as bile duct resection),oral administration with IN may not be effective and shall be paid attention.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Plant Extracts , Rats
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887966

ABSTRACT

Indigo Naturalis has a long history of medicinal use with particularity and complexity in its processing. Before the Ming dynasty,Indigo Naturalis was extracted from the top layer of zymotic fluid,called " purified Indigo Naturalis". In modern processing,the precipitate " crude Indigo Naturalis" is dried to produce Indigo Naturalis after impurity removal. The form of Indigo Naturalis slices has undergone significant changes in ancient and modern times. In view of this,the quality comparison between crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis was conducted in this study with modern analytical techniques. Firstly,chemical composition was analyzed with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS,and the chemical composition of scent with HS-SPME/GC-MS/MS. The content of indigo,indirubin,total ash,and water-soluble extract was determined as well as the inorganic composition in crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis. Then,their microscopic morphology was observed and the surface element composition was investigated. Finally,the antipyretic activities of crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis were compared in the fever rat model induced by lipopolysaccharide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The results demonstrated that the purified Indigo Naturalis had a faster and more lasting antipyretic effect,while the crude Indigo Naturalis had almost no antipyretic effect. This study is of great significance to the research on processing technology of Indigo Naturalis and provides reference for the formulation of its quality standards,production specifications and calibration procedures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Plant Extracts , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887965

ABSTRACT

The soaking and fermentation of Baphicacanthus cusia( Nees),the important intermediate link of Indigo Naturalis processing,facilitates the synthesis of indigo and indirubin precursors and the dissolution of endogenous enzymes and other effective components,while the role of microorganisms in the fermentation is ignored. The present study investigated the changes of microbial community structure in Indigo Naturalis processing based on 16 S amplicon sequencing and bioinformatics. Meanwhile,the contents of indigo,indirubin,isatin,tryptanthrin,indole glycoside,etc. were determined to explore the correlation between the microorganisms and the alterations of the main components. As demonstrated by the results,the microbial diversity decreased gradually with the fermentation,which bottomed out after the addition of lime. Proteobacteria,Bacteroidetes,and Firmicutes were the main dominant communities in the fermentation. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria declined gradually with the prolongation of fermentation time,and to the lowest level after the addition of lime. The relative abundance of Firmicutes increased,and that of Bacteroidetes decreased first and then increased. The contents of effective substances in Indigo Naturalis also showed different variation tendencies. As fermentation went on,indole glycoside decreased gradually; indigo first increased and then decreased; indirubin and isatin first decreased and then increased; tryptanthrin gradually increased. Those changes were presumedly related to the roles of microorganisms in the synthesis of different components. This study preliminarily clarified the important role of microorganisms in the soaking and fermentation and provided a scientific basis for the control of Indigo Naturalis processing and the preparation of high-quality Indigo Naturalis.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Indoles , Microbiota
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887964

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) processing is a traditional pharmaceutical technology unique to China,which is an important means to ensure the safety and effectiveness of clinical medication. As China' s intangible cultural heritage,it contains a wealth of wisdom. With the evolution and optimization of processing methods,Indigo Naturalis,an ancient dye,has gradually become an effective medicine for the treatment of high fever in children,colitis,psoriasis,and leukemia. However,the quality of Indigo Naturalis pieces is difficult to be fundamentally improved due to the unique traditional processing method,complex technology,unclear principle,and outdated equipment. After spending 20 years in exploring the inheritance,innovation,and transformation of ancient lawtheory-principle-technology-equipment-quality control in Indigo Naturalis processing,our research group has basically expounded the processing principle and realized the modern expression and industrial transformation of traditional technology. As China enters a new era,the TCM industry has begun to undergo the high-quality transformation. It is urgent to carry out new excavations and improve the processing,quality,and clinical application of Indigo Naturalis pieces,to better inherit and innovate traditional processing technologies and meet people's demand for high-quality TCM health services.


Subject(s)
Child , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Psoriasis
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200503, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345485

ABSTRACT

Abstract The textile industry demonstrates a polluting potential from the planting of cotton to the release of wastewater. The presence of dyes in water bodies decreases the passage of sun rays and directly affects the photosynthetic organisms and the ecosystem. Fungi have potential in the treatment of wastewater containing dyes with complex organic structures due to enzymes that they produce. This study evaluated the use of Phanerochaete chrisosporium in the treatment of synthetic effluent from textile industry containing indigo carmine (20 mg/L). The fungus was immobilized in a semibatch reactor. Glucose was the cosubstrate employed in the experiment and it was used in the system at 1g/L at the beginning of the process and 0.5 g /L after 24 hours of reaction. Average dye removal was 84±10% and chemical oxygen demand removal was 79±14%. For nitrogen compounds, the removal efficiencies were 87±11%, 81±11% and 91±9% for ammonia, nitrite and nitrate, respectively. The pH of the medium remained in the acidic range (2.57 to 5.00) throughout the process, with the lowest values recorded in the effluent of each cycle, justified by the release of organic acids from fungi metabolism. There was contamination of the medium by bacteria (710,000 CFU/mL), but the colonies count showed a predominance of fungi (1,365,000 CFU/mL). With the use of the semibatch system after reading of glucose it was observed that the efficiency of dye removal evolved from 72±17% to 84±10%, producing a final effluent with 3.35±1.99 mg/L of indigo, which proves that treatment configuration analyzed is satisfactory for dye removal.


Subject(s)
Phanerochaete , Environmental Restoration and Remediation , Glucose , Indigo Carmine
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(9): e202000901, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130681

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To evaluate the effects of treatment with Indigo Carmine (IC) on rat livers subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods The animals were subdivided into 4 groups: 1.SHAM group(SH) - saline; 2.SHAM group with IC-2mg/Kg(SHIC); 3.IR group - rats submitted to ischemia and reperfusion with saline(IR); 4.IR group with IC-2mg/Kg(IRIC). The IR protocol consists of liver exposure and administration of drug or saline intravenously, followed by 60 minutes of ischemia and 15 of reperfusion. Liver samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Results State 3 of mitochondrial respiration showed a significant worsening of the IRIC group in relation to all others. State 4 showed a difference between IRIC and SHIC. The Respiratory Control Ratio showed statistical decrease in IR and IRIC versus Sham. The osmotic swelling showed significant difference between SHxIR; SHICxIRIC and SHxIRIC. There was a significant increase in ALT in the IRIC group in relation to all the others. Concerning the nitrate dosage, there was a decrease in the group treated with IC(IRxIRIC). There was no difference regarding the dosage of Malondialdehyde. Conclusion IC was not able to protect mitochondria from IR injury and proved to be a potentiating agent, acting in synergy with the IR injury promoting damage to the hepatocyte membranes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Indigo Carmine/therapeutic use , Ischemia/prevention & control , Ischemia/drug therapy , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Rats, Wistar
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8853, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089343

ABSTRACT

Anaphylactic shock can be defined as an acute syndrome, and it is the most severe clinical manifestation of allergic diseases. Anaphylactoid reactions are similar to anaphylactic events but differ in the pathophysiological mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibitors during anaphylaxis suggest that NO might decrease the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis but exacerbate associated vasodilation. Therefore, blocking the effects of NO on vascular smooth muscle by inhibiting the guanylate cyclase (GC) would be a reasonable strategy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of NO/cGMP pathway inhibitors methylene blue (MB), Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), and indigo carmine (IC) in shock induced by compound 48/80 (C48/80) in rats. The effect was assessed by invasive blood pressure measurement. Shock was initiated by C48/80 intravenous bolus injection 5 min before (prophylactic) or after (treatment) the administration of the inhibitors MB (3 mg/kg), L-NAME (1 mg/kg), and IC (3 mg/kg). Of the groups that received drugs as prophylaxis for shock, only the IC group did not present the final systolic blood pressure (SBP) better than the C48/80 group. Regarding shock treatment with the drugs tested, all groups had the final SBP similar to the C48/80group. Altogether, our results suggested that inhibition of GC and NO synthase in NO production pathway was not sufficient to revert hypotension or significantly improve survival.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cyclic GMP/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anaphylaxis/drug therapy , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Indigo Carmine/administration & dosage , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage
10.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1498-1514, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760259

ABSTRACT

Image-guided localization materials are constantly evolving, providing options for the localization of small pulmonary nodules to guide minimally invasive thoracic surgery. Several preoperative methods have been developed to localize small pulmonary lesions prior to video-assisted thoracic surgery. These localization techniques can be categorized into 4 groups according to the materials used: localization with metallic materials (hook-wire, microcoil, or spiral coil), localization with dye (methylene blue or indigo carmine), localization with contrast agents (lipiodol, barium, or iodine contrast agents), and radiotracers (technetium-99m). However, the optimal localization method has not yet been established. In this review article, we discuss the various localization techniques and the advantages and disadvantages of localization techniques as well as the available safety and efficacy data on these techniques.


Subject(s)
Barium , Coloring Agents , Contrast Media , Indigo Carmine , Iodine , Lung , Methods , Plants , Thoracic Surgery , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography
11.
Intestinal Research ; : 144-148, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740021

ABSTRACT

The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rapidly increasing worldwide. Indigo naturalis is known to have an antiinflammatory effect. Indigo naturalis has been traditionally used in the treatment of IBD in China and Japan. Currently, it is used as a primary or adjunctive drug in patients with ulcerative colitis. There are some reports of the effects of indigo naturalis when used in patients with ulcerative colitis. However, its usage has been associated with adverse events, including liver dysfunction, headache, gastrointestinal disturbance, and pulmonary hypertension. Pancreatitis as an adverse event during treatment using indigo naturalis has not yet been reported. We report a case of recurrent events of pancreatitis that occurred briefly after starting medication with indigo naturalis in a child with severe Crohn’s disease. The pancreatitis improved after indigo naturalis was discontinued in 2 events. This is the first case to report the association between pancreatitis and indigo naturalis in the English literature.


Subject(s)
Child , China , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Headache , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Incidence , Indigo Carmine , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Japan , Liver Diseases , Medicine, Kampo , Pancreatitis
12.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 527-533, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717977

ABSTRACT

There have been many advances in endoscopic imaging technologies. Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging is an innovative optical technology that enables the precise discrimination of structural changes on the mucosal surface. Several studies have demonstrated its usefulness and superiority for tumor detection and differential diagnosis in the stomach as compared with conventional endoscopy. Furthermore, magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging has the potential to predict the invasion depth and tumor margins during gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection. Classifications of the findings of magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging based on microvascular and pit patterns have been proposed and have shown excellent correlations with invasion depth confirmed by microscopy. In terms of tumor margin prediction, magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging offers superior delineation of gastric tumor margins compared with traditional chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine. The limitations of narrow-band imaging, such as the need for considerable training, long procedure time, and lack of studies about its usefulness in undifferentiated cancer, should be resolved to confirm its value as a complementary method to endoscopic submucosal dissection. However, the role of magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging is expected to increase steadily with the increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection for the treatment of gastric tumors.


Subject(s)
Classification , Diagnosis, Differential , Discrimination, Psychological , Endoscopy , Indigo Carmine , Methods , Microscopy , Narrow Band Imaging , Stomach
13.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 534-540, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717976

ABSTRACT

From dye-assisted conventional chromoendoscopy to novel virtual chromoendoscopy, image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) is continuously evolving to meet clinical needs and improve the quality of colonoscopy. Dye-assisted chromoendoscopy using indigo carmine or crystal violet, although slightly old-fashioned, is still useful to emphasize the pit patterns of the colonic mucosa and predict the histological structures of relevant lesions. Equipment-based virtual chromoendoscopy has the advantage of being relatively easy to use. There are several types of virtual chromoendoscopy that vary depending on the manufacturer and operating principle. IEE plays distinctive roles with respect to histologic characterization of colorectal polyps and prediction of the invasion depth of colorectal cancers. In addition, the newest models of IEE have the potential to increase adenoma and polyp detection rates in screening colonoscopy.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Colon , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gentian Violet , Image Enhancement , Indigo Carmine , Mass Screening , Mucous Membrane , Polyps
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(6): 1084-1091, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892917

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the staining intensity of the upper urinary tract (UUT) urothelium among three UUT delivery methods in an in vivo porcine model. Materials and methods: A fluorescent dye solution (indigo carmine) was delivered to the UUT via three different methods: antegrade perfusion, vesico-ureteral reflux via in-dwelling ureteric stent and retrograde perfusion via a 5F open-ended ureteral catheter. Twelve renal units were tested with 4 in each method. After a 2-hour delivery time, the renal-ureter units were harvested en bloc. Time from harvesting to analysis was also standardised to be 2 hours in each arm. Three urothelium samples of the same weight and size were taken from each of the 6 pre-defined points (upper pole, mid pole, lower pole, renal pelvis, mid ureter and distal ureter) and the amount of fluorescence was measured with a spectrometer. Results: The mean fluorescence detected at all 6 predefined points of the UUT urothelium was the highest for the retrograde method. This was statistically significant with p-value less than <0.05 at all 6 points. Conclusions: Retrograde infusion of UUT by an open ended ureteral catheter resulted in highest mean fluorescence detected at all 6 pre-defined points of the UUT urothelium compared to antegrade infusion and vesico-ureteral reflux via indwelling ureteric stents indicating retrograde method ideal for topical therapy throughout the UUT urothelium. More clinical studies are needed to demonstrate if retrograde method could lead to better clinical outcomes compared to the other two methods.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Administration, Intravesical , Urothelium , Coloring Agents/administration & dosage , Indigo Carmine/administration & dosage , Swine , Urinary Catheterization , Models, Animal
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17918

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the feasibility and detection rates and clarify the most effective combination of injected tracer types for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in uterine cervical cancer in patients who have undergone laparoscopic surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: A total of 119 patients with cervical cancer underwent SLN biopsy at radical hysterectomy using three types of tracers. The various factors related to side-specific detection rate, sensitivity, and false negative (FN) rate were analyzed. RESULTS: The SLN detection rates using 99m-technetium ((99m)Tc)-tin colloid, indigo carmine, and indocyanine green (ICG) were 85.8%, 20.2%, and 61.6%, respectively. The patients with ≥2-cm-diameter tumors and those who received NAC had lower detection rates than those with <2-cm-diameter tumors (75.7% vs. 91.5%, p<0.01) and those who did not receive NAC (67.9% vs. 86.3%, p<0.01), respectively. Laparoscopic procedures had a higher detection rate than laparotomy (100.0% vs. 77.1%, p<0.01). No factors significantly affected the sensitivity; however, the patients with ≥2-cm-diameter tumors (86.0% vs. 1.4%, p<0.01), NAC (19.4% vs. 2.2%, p<0.01), and those who underwent laparotomy (7.4% vs. 0%, p<0.01) had an unfavorable FN rate. CONCLUSION: Among the examined tracers, (99m)Tc had the highest detection of SLN mapping in patients with uterine cervical cancer. Patients with local advanced cervical cancer with/without NAC treatment might be unsuited for SLN mapping. SLN mapping is feasible and results in an excellent detection rate in patients with <2-cm-diameter cervical cancer. Laparoscopic surgery is the best procedure for SLN detection in patients with early-stage disease.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Colloids , Drug Therapy , Humans , Hysterectomy , Indigo Carmine , Indocyanine Green , Laparoscopy , Laparotomy , Lymph Nodes , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337402

ABSTRACT

The phenylacetone monooxygenase, isolated from Thermobifida fusca, mainly catalyzes Baeyer-Villiger oxidation reaction towards aromatic compounds. Met446 plays a vital role in catalytic promiscuity, based on the structure and function of phenylacetone monooxygenase. Mutation in Met446 locus can offer enzyme new catalytic feature to activate C-H bond, oxidizing indole to finally generate indigo and indirubin, but the yield was only 1.89 mg/L. In order to further improve the biosynthesis efficiency of the whole-cell catalyst, metabolic engineering was applied to change glucose metabolism pathway of Escherichia coli. Blocking glucose isomerase gene pgi led to pentose phosphate pathway instead of the glycolytic pathway to become the major metabolic pathways of glucose, which provided more cofactor NADPH needed in enzymatic oxidation of indole. Engineering the host E. coli led to synthesis of indigo and indirubin efficiency further increased to 25 mg/L. Combination of protein and metabolic engineering to design efficient whole-cell catalysts not only improves the synthesis of indigo and indirubin, but also provides a novel strategy for whole-cell catalyst development.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli , Genetics , Metabolism , Glucose , Metabolism , Indigo Carmine , Metabolism , Indoles , Metabolism , Industrial Microbiology , Methods , Metabolic Engineering , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Protein Engineering
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) and tumor ablation using ethanol are very common procedures, and the utility of these therapies has already been reported in prominent journals. However, their effectiveness appears temporary and insufficient, especially EUS-CPN. We therefore have to consider new reagents for improving the results. The present study examined the best concentration of ethanol and povidone iodine mixed with atelocollagen for more effective therapies. METHODS: The effects of the new reagents were confirmed in three live pigs. At first, we injected three kinds of reagents (including indigo carmine) in three separate areas of para-aortic tissue under EUS guidance in one pig. At more than 4 hours after injection, we checked ethanol injection sites after dissection. In next study, we performed EUS-guided injection of a total of six kinds of reagents (two kinds of ethanol, three kinds of povidone iodine, and control atelocollagen) into the livers of two living pigs. After 2 weeks, we examined tissue damage to the liver in the two pigs. RESULTS: The 75% ethanol (absolute ethanol 3.75 mL + 1% atelocollagen 1.25 mL + a very small amount of indigo carmine) was seen like blue gel, and still remained in the para-aortic tissue. Brownish areas of povidone iodine mixed with 3% atelocollagen exhibited clear, regular borders with greatly reduced infiltration into surrounding tissue compared to others. CONCLUSION: We concluded that 75% ethanol mixed with 1% atelocollagen appears optimal for EUS-CPN. Povidone iodine mixed with 3% atelocollagen may be suitable for small tumor ablation therapy.


Subject(s)
Celiac Plexus , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Endosonography , Ethanol , Indicators and Reagents , Indigo Carmine , Liver , Povidone-Iodine , Swine
18.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 466-475, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55045

ABSTRACT

Despite the remarkable progress recently made to enhance the resolution of white-light endoscopy, detection, and diagnosis of premalignant lesions, such as adenomas and subtle early-stage cancers, remains a great challenge. As for example, although chromoendoscopy, such as endoscopy using indigo carmine, is useful for the early diagnosis of subtle lesions, the technique presents various disadvantages ranging from the time required for spray application of the dye and suctioning of excess dye to the increased difficulty in identifying lesions in the presence of severe inflammation and obstruction of visual field due to the pooling of solution in depressed-type lesions. To overcome these diagnostic problems associated with chromoendoscopy, research has focused on the development of endoscopes based on new optical technologies. Several types of image-enhanced endoscopy methods have recently been presented. In particular, image-enhanced endoscopy has emerged as a new paradigm for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. Image-enhanced endoscopes provide high-contrast images of lesions by means of optical or electronic technologies, including the contrast enhancement of the mucosal surface and of blood vessels. Chromoendoscopy, narrow-band imaging, i-SCAN, and flexible spectral imaging color enhancement are representative examples of image-enhanced endoscopy discussed in this paper.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Blood Vessels , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Endoscopes , Endoscopy , Indigo Carmine , Inflammation , Narrow Band Imaging , Suction , Visual Fields
19.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 184-187, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110215

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous bloody nipple discharge from a single duct is a significant clinical problem. When performing preoperative marking of the discharging duct, it is sometimes difficult to identify the duct owing to intermittent discharge. Precise preoperative marking of the discharging duct and intraductal lesions is very important to avoid unnecessary wide excision of breast tissue or failure to remove the cause of nipple discharge. We herein present a case of preoperative ultrasound-guided indigo carmine staining in a patient with no discharge on the day of surgery. When a dilated duct is visualized on ultrasound, the targeted duct can be localized using indigo carmine staining, and it is possible to perform a precise minimal volume microdochectomy.


Subject(s)
Breast , Humans , Indigo Carmine , Nipples , Ultrasonography
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