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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8853, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089343

ABSTRACT

Anaphylactic shock can be defined as an acute syndrome, and it is the most severe clinical manifestation of allergic diseases. Anaphylactoid reactions are similar to anaphylactic events but differ in the pathophysiological mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibitors during anaphylaxis suggest that NO might decrease the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis but exacerbate associated vasodilation. Therefore, blocking the effects of NO on vascular smooth muscle by inhibiting the guanylate cyclase (GC) would be a reasonable strategy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of NO/cGMP pathway inhibitors methylene blue (MB), Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), and indigo carmine (IC) in shock induced by compound 48/80 (C48/80) in rats. The effect was assessed by invasive blood pressure measurement. Shock was initiated by C48/80 intravenous bolus injection 5 min before (prophylactic) or after (treatment) the administration of the inhibitors MB (3 mg/kg), L-NAME (1 mg/kg), and IC (3 mg/kg). Of the groups that received drugs as prophylaxis for shock, only the IC group did not present the final systolic blood pressure (SBP) better than the C48/80 group. Regarding shock treatment with the drugs tested, all groups had the final SBP similar to the C48/80group. Altogether, our results suggested that inhibition of GC and NO synthase in NO production pathway was not sufficient to revert hypotension or significantly improve survival.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cyclic GMP/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anaphylaxis/drug therapy , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Indigo Carmine/administration & dosage , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage
2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1498-1514, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760259

ABSTRACT

Image-guided localization materials are constantly evolving, providing options for the localization of small pulmonary nodules to guide minimally invasive thoracic surgery. Several preoperative methods have been developed to localize small pulmonary lesions prior to video-assisted thoracic surgery. These localization techniques can be categorized into 4 groups according to the materials used: localization with metallic materials (hook-wire, microcoil, or spiral coil), localization with dye (methylene blue or indigo carmine), localization with contrast agents (lipiodol, barium, or iodine contrast agents), and radiotracers (technetium-99m). However, the optimal localization method has not yet been established. In this review article, we discuss the various localization techniques and the advantages and disadvantages of localization techniques as well as the available safety and efficacy data on these techniques.


Subject(s)
Barium , Coloring Agents , Contrast Media , Indigo Carmine , Iodine , Lung , Methods , Plants , Thoracic Surgery , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography
3.
Intestinal Research ; : 144-148, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740021

ABSTRACT

The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rapidly increasing worldwide. Indigo naturalis is known to have an antiinflammatory effect. Indigo naturalis has been traditionally used in the treatment of IBD in China and Japan. Currently, it is used as a primary or adjunctive drug in patients with ulcerative colitis. There are some reports of the effects of indigo naturalis when used in patients with ulcerative colitis. However, its usage has been associated with adverse events, including liver dysfunction, headache, gastrointestinal disturbance, and pulmonary hypertension. Pancreatitis as an adverse event during treatment using indigo naturalis has not yet been reported. We report a case of recurrent events of pancreatitis that occurred briefly after starting medication with indigo naturalis in a child with severe Crohn’s disease. The pancreatitis improved after indigo naturalis was discontinued in 2 events. This is the first case to report the association between pancreatitis and indigo naturalis in the English literature.


Subject(s)
Child , China , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Headache , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Incidence , Indigo Carmine , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Japan , Liver Diseases , Medicine, Kampo , Pancreatitis
4.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 527-533, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717977

ABSTRACT

There have been many advances in endoscopic imaging technologies. Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging is an innovative optical technology that enables the precise discrimination of structural changes on the mucosal surface. Several studies have demonstrated its usefulness and superiority for tumor detection and differential diagnosis in the stomach as compared with conventional endoscopy. Furthermore, magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging has the potential to predict the invasion depth and tumor margins during gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection. Classifications of the findings of magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging based on microvascular and pit patterns have been proposed and have shown excellent correlations with invasion depth confirmed by microscopy. In terms of tumor margin prediction, magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging offers superior delineation of gastric tumor margins compared with traditional chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine. The limitations of narrow-band imaging, such as the need for considerable training, long procedure time, and lack of studies about its usefulness in undifferentiated cancer, should be resolved to confirm its value as a complementary method to endoscopic submucosal dissection. However, the role of magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging is expected to increase steadily with the increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection for the treatment of gastric tumors.


Subject(s)
Classification , Diagnosis, Differential , Discrimination, Psychological , Endoscopy , Indigo Carmine , Methods , Microscopy , Narrow Band Imaging , Stomach
5.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 534-540, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717976

ABSTRACT

From dye-assisted conventional chromoendoscopy to novel virtual chromoendoscopy, image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) is continuously evolving to meet clinical needs and improve the quality of colonoscopy. Dye-assisted chromoendoscopy using indigo carmine or crystal violet, although slightly old-fashioned, is still useful to emphasize the pit patterns of the colonic mucosa and predict the histological structures of relevant lesions. Equipment-based virtual chromoendoscopy has the advantage of being relatively easy to use. There are several types of virtual chromoendoscopy that vary depending on the manufacturer and operating principle. IEE plays distinctive roles with respect to histologic characterization of colorectal polyps and prediction of the invasion depth of colorectal cancers. In addition, the newest models of IEE have the potential to increase adenoma and polyp detection rates in screening colonoscopy.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Colon , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gentian Violet , Image Enhancement , Indigo Carmine , Mass Screening , Mucous Membrane , Polyps
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(6): 1084-1091, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892917

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the staining intensity of the upper urinary tract (UUT) urothelium among three UUT delivery methods in an in vivo porcine model. Materials and methods: A fluorescent dye solution (indigo carmine) was delivered to the UUT via three different methods: antegrade perfusion, vesico-ureteral reflux via in-dwelling ureteric stent and retrograde perfusion via a 5F open-ended ureteral catheter. Twelve renal units were tested with 4 in each method. After a 2-hour delivery time, the renal-ureter units were harvested en bloc. Time from harvesting to analysis was also standardised to be 2 hours in each arm. Three urothelium samples of the same weight and size were taken from each of the 6 pre-defined points (upper pole, mid pole, lower pole, renal pelvis, mid ureter and distal ureter) and the amount of fluorescence was measured with a spectrometer. Results: The mean fluorescence detected at all 6 predefined points of the UUT urothelium was the highest for the retrograde method. This was statistically significant with p-value less than <0.05 at all 6 points. Conclusions: Retrograde infusion of UUT by an open ended ureteral catheter resulted in highest mean fluorescence detected at all 6 pre-defined points of the UUT urothelium compared to antegrade infusion and vesico-ureteral reflux via indwelling ureteric stents indicating retrograde method ideal for topical therapy throughout the UUT urothelium. More clinical studies are needed to demonstrate if retrograde method could lead to better clinical outcomes compared to the other two methods.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Administration, Intravesical , Urothelium , Coloring Agents/administration & dosage , Indigo Carmine/administration & dosage , Swine , Urinary Catheterization , Models, Animal
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17918

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the feasibility and detection rates and clarify the most effective combination of injected tracer types for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in uterine cervical cancer in patients who have undergone laparoscopic surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: A total of 119 patients with cervical cancer underwent SLN biopsy at radical hysterectomy using three types of tracers. The various factors related to side-specific detection rate, sensitivity, and false negative (FN) rate were analyzed. RESULTS: The SLN detection rates using 99m-technetium ((99m)Tc)-tin colloid, indigo carmine, and indocyanine green (ICG) were 85.8%, 20.2%, and 61.6%, respectively. The patients with ≥2-cm-diameter tumors and those who received NAC had lower detection rates than those with <2-cm-diameter tumors (75.7% vs. 91.5%, p<0.01) and those who did not receive NAC (67.9% vs. 86.3%, p<0.01), respectively. Laparoscopic procedures had a higher detection rate than laparotomy (100.0% vs. 77.1%, p<0.01). No factors significantly affected the sensitivity; however, the patients with ≥2-cm-diameter tumors (86.0% vs. 1.4%, p<0.01), NAC (19.4% vs. 2.2%, p<0.01), and those who underwent laparotomy (7.4% vs. 0%, p<0.01) had an unfavorable FN rate. CONCLUSION: Among the examined tracers, (99m)Tc had the highest detection of SLN mapping in patients with uterine cervical cancer. Patients with local advanced cervical cancer with/without NAC treatment might be unsuited for SLN mapping. SLN mapping is feasible and results in an excellent detection rate in patients with <2-cm-diameter cervical cancer. Laparoscopic surgery is the best procedure for SLN detection in patients with early-stage disease.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Colloids , Drug Therapy , Humans , Hysterectomy , Indigo Carmine , Indocyanine Green , Laparoscopy , Laparotomy , Lymph Nodes , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337402

ABSTRACT

The phenylacetone monooxygenase, isolated from Thermobifida fusca, mainly catalyzes Baeyer-Villiger oxidation reaction towards aromatic compounds. Met446 plays a vital role in catalytic promiscuity, based on the structure and function of phenylacetone monooxygenase. Mutation in Met446 locus can offer enzyme new catalytic feature to activate C-H bond, oxidizing indole to finally generate indigo and indirubin, but the yield was only 1.89 mg/L. In order to further improve the biosynthesis efficiency of the whole-cell catalyst, metabolic engineering was applied to change glucose metabolism pathway of Escherichia coli. Blocking glucose isomerase gene pgi led to pentose phosphate pathway instead of the glycolytic pathway to become the major metabolic pathways of glucose, which provided more cofactor NADPH needed in enzymatic oxidation of indole. Engineering the host E. coli led to synthesis of indigo and indirubin efficiency further increased to 25 mg/L. Combination of protein and metabolic engineering to design efficient whole-cell catalysts not only improves the synthesis of indigo and indirubin, but also provides a novel strategy for whole-cell catalyst development.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli , Genetics , Metabolism , Glucose , Metabolism , Indigo Carmine , Metabolism , Indoles , Metabolism , Industrial Microbiology , Methods , Metabolic Engineering , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Protein Engineering
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) and tumor ablation using ethanol are very common procedures, and the utility of these therapies has already been reported in prominent journals. However, their effectiveness appears temporary and insufficient, especially EUS-CPN. We therefore have to consider new reagents for improving the results. The present study examined the best concentration of ethanol and povidone iodine mixed with atelocollagen for more effective therapies. METHODS: The effects of the new reagents were confirmed in three live pigs. At first, we injected three kinds of reagents (including indigo carmine) in three separate areas of para-aortic tissue under EUS guidance in one pig. At more than 4 hours after injection, we checked ethanol injection sites after dissection. In next study, we performed EUS-guided injection of a total of six kinds of reagents (two kinds of ethanol, three kinds of povidone iodine, and control atelocollagen) into the livers of two living pigs. After 2 weeks, we examined tissue damage to the liver in the two pigs. RESULTS: The 75% ethanol (absolute ethanol 3.75 mL + 1% atelocollagen 1.25 mL + a very small amount of indigo carmine) was seen like blue gel, and still remained in the para-aortic tissue. Brownish areas of povidone iodine mixed with 3% atelocollagen exhibited clear, regular borders with greatly reduced infiltration into surrounding tissue compared to others. CONCLUSION: We concluded that 75% ethanol mixed with 1% atelocollagen appears optimal for EUS-CPN. Povidone iodine mixed with 3% atelocollagen may be suitable for small tumor ablation therapy.


Subject(s)
Celiac Plexus , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Endosonography , Ethanol , Indicators and Reagents , Indigo Carmine , Liver , Povidone-Iodine , Swine
10.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 466-475, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55045

ABSTRACT

Despite the remarkable progress recently made to enhance the resolution of white-light endoscopy, detection, and diagnosis of premalignant lesions, such as adenomas and subtle early-stage cancers, remains a great challenge. As for example, although chromoendoscopy, such as endoscopy using indigo carmine, is useful for the early diagnosis of subtle lesions, the technique presents various disadvantages ranging from the time required for spray application of the dye and suctioning of excess dye to the increased difficulty in identifying lesions in the presence of severe inflammation and obstruction of visual field due to the pooling of solution in depressed-type lesions. To overcome these diagnostic problems associated with chromoendoscopy, research has focused on the development of endoscopes based on new optical technologies. Several types of image-enhanced endoscopy methods have recently been presented. In particular, image-enhanced endoscopy has emerged as a new paradigm for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. Image-enhanced endoscopes provide high-contrast images of lesions by means of optical or electronic technologies, including the contrast enhancement of the mucosal surface and of blood vessels. Chromoendoscopy, narrow-band imaging, i-SCAN, and flexible spectral imaging color enhancement are representative examples of image-enhanced endoscopy discussed in this paper.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Blood Vessels , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Endoscopes , Endoscopy , Indigo Carmine , Inflammation , Narrow Band Imaging , Suction , Visual Fields
11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 184-187, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110215

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous bloody nipple discharge from a single duct is a significant clinical problem. When performing preoperative marking of the discharging duct, it is sometimes difficult to identify the duct owing to intermittent discharge. Precise preoperative marking of the discharging duct and intraductal lesions is very important to avoid unnecessary wide excision of breast tissue or failure to remove the cause of nipple discharge. We herein present a case of preoperative ultrasound-guided indigo carmine staining in a patient with no discharge on the day of surgery. When a dilated duct is visualized on ultrasound, the targeted duct can be localized using indigo carmine staining, and it is possible to perform a precise minimal volume microdochectomy.


Subject(s)
Breast , Humans , Indigo Carmine , Nipples , Ultrasonography
13.
Intestinal Research ; : 60-65, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-113277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hood cap-assisted chromocolonoscopy using indigocarmine is expected to improve the detection rate of colorectal polyps, especially adenomatous polyps. Therefore, aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of hood cap-assisted chromocolonoscopy in routine colonoscopic examinations. METHODS: From January, 2013 through March, 2013, a total of 86 patients were enrolled (M:F=33:53, mean age=60 years). For each patient, hood cap-assisted colonoscopic examination was performed, followed by hood cap-assisted chromocolonoscopy using 0.2% indigocarmine from the cecum to the hepatic flexure. Total numbers and characteristics of polyps were compared before and after indigo carmine dye spraying. RESULTS: Prior to dye spraying, 48 polyps were found in 37 patients, and after dye spraying, 53 additional polyps were found in 34 patients. Of these undetected polyps, 45 (85%) were small sized polyps (< or =0.5 cm). Histologically, 19 (36%) were adenomatous polyps, and of these, 15 (28%) were tubular adenomas and 4 (8%) were serrated adenomas. As for the polyp detection rate, there was no difference between the expert and the non-expert groups. CONCLUSION: Hood cap-assisted chromocolonoscopic examination using indigocarmine was helpful in detecting cecum and ascending colon polyps, especially small sized polyps (<0.5 cm) and neoplastic polyps.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Adenomatous Polyps , Cecum , Colon, Ascending , Colonoscopy , Humans , Indigo Carmine , Polyps
14.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 127-128, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25970

ABSTRACT

Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Hypotension , Indigo Carmine , Indoles , Injections, Intradermal , Mastectomy, Segmental , Nitriles , Pyrethrins , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1148-1155, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-259500

ABSTRACT

The hydrophilicity of the normal decoction pieces (NDP) of Indigo Naturalis is not good, therefore, it is not suit for decoctions. In this paper, powder modification technology is used and some NDP and alcohol are ground together in the vibromill to prepare the hydrophilic decoction pieces (HDP) of Indigo Naturalis. Initially, the properties of NDP, ultrafine decoction pieces (UDP) and HDP are compared, the hydrophilicity of UDP was promoted slightly, that of HDP is promoted dramatically. Then, three batches of Indigo Naturalis are prepared to HDP separately, but there is no obvious difference in the contact angle. Furthermore, the size distribution, surface area and micro-shape of HDP are bigger than that of UDP and smaller than NDP. The contents of indigo and indirubin in three decoction pieces are the same, as well as the species of inorganic substance, although there is a little difference in the proportion of five inorganic substances. The fact suggests the change of physical state and the qualitative and quantitative change of organism and inorganic substances are not the main factors to influence the hydrophilicity. In addition, hydroxyl, methylene and methyl can be identified at the wavenumber of 3 356 cm(-1) and 1 461 cm(-1) in infrared spectrum; the content of alcohol in HDP is 0.67% measured by gas chromatogram. The stability of HDP in the heating condition is studied, the fact suggests the hydrophilic effect of HDP at 40 degrees C is relatively stable. All above research suggests that the alcohol is the main factor to influence the hydrophilicity and maybe the intermolecular force which fixed alcohol molecule on the surface of Indigo Naturalis is the basic principle to produce the hydrophilicity.


Subject(s)
Acanthaceae , Chemistry , Alcohols , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Indigo Carmine , Chemistry , Indoles , Isatis , Chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Particle Size , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Polygonum , Chemistry , Powders , Surface Properties , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Methods , X-Ray Diffraction
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50947

ABSTRACT

Indigo carmine (sodium indigotindisulfonate) is a safe, biologically inactive blue dye routinely administered intravascularly during urologic and gynecologic procedures to localize the ureteral orifices and to identify severed ureters and fistulous communications. We report a case of hypotension, cardiac arrest, and cerebral ischemia after the administration of indigo carmine in a patient under total laparoscopic hysterectomy.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Heart Arrest , Humans , Hypotension , Hysterectomy , Indigo Carmine , Indoles , Ureter
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321554

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To prospectively evaluate the clinical value of different magnifying chromoendoscopy(MCE) methods in screening gastric precancerous lesions and early cancers.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Between March 2010 and October 2011, among all the patients aged over 40 who received esophagogastroduodenoscopy at Zhongshan hospital, Fudan University, suspicious lesion was detected in 699 patients, who were randomly assigned to three groups: epinephrine dye(n=240), indigo carmine dye(n=246), and acetic acid-indigo carmine mixture dye(n=213). Diagnosis was made according to surface patterns and microvessels of the lesion. Pathological diagnosis was used as the gold standard. The concordance between endoscopic diagnosis and pathological diagnosis was evaluated through the agreement(Kappa) test. McNemar Paired chi-square test was used to compare the concordance of three MCE methods, regular white light, magnification alone, and NBI magnifier before and after MCE.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Pathological examination showed inflammatory lesions in 415 patients, intestinal metaplasia in 190, low grade intra-epithelial neoplasia in 17, and high grade intra-epithelial neoplasia or early cancer in 77. The percentage of patients with consistent endoscopic and pathological diagnosis was 77.1%(185/240) for epinephrine dye, 80.5%(198/246) for indigo carmine dye, and 81.2%(173/213) for acetic acid-indigo carmine mixture dye. Kappa values were 0.579, 0.502, and 0.667 respectively(all P<0.01). For the screening of high grade intra-epithelial neoplasia or early cancer, the diagnostic sensitivities were 84.0%, 83.3%, and 92.9%, respectively, and the specificities were 98.6%, 97.3%, and 98.4%. All the three chromoendoscopy methods improved the diagnostic accuracy for precancerous lesions compared with conventional gastroscopic observation with white light(all P<0.01). Indigo carmine and acid-indigo carmine mixture dye improved the diagnostic accuracy of magnification alone(both P<0.05). There was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between each MCE method and magnifying NBI observation(all P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>NBI magnification and all the three MCE methods may improve the diagnostic accuracy of early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coloring Agents , Epinephrine , Female , Gastroscopy , Methods , Humans , Indigo Carmine , Male , Middle Aged , Precancerous Conditions , Diagnosis , Pathology , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Staining and Labeling , Methods , Stomach Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Pathology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172264

ABSTRACT

Indigo carmine has been used for eight decades with few adverse effects. Several of our patients, however, experienced severe hypotensive episodes after indigo carmine administration within a period of one month. Analysis of the raw materials used to formulate the preparation of indigo carmine we used showed that they contained impurities. Following recall of these impure materials, none of our patients experienced further hypotensive episodes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypotension , Indigo Carmine , Indoles
20.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 155-161, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82474

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic utility of a frozen section biopsy in patients undergoing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric neoplasms with obscure margins even with chromoendoscopy using acetic acid and indigo carmine (AI chromoendoscopy). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The lateral spread of early gastric neoplasms was unclear even following AI chromoendoscopy in 38 patients who underwent ESD between June 2007 and May 2011. Frozen section biopsies were obtained by agreement of the degree of lateral spread between two endoscopists. Thus, frozen section biopsies were obtained from 23 patients (FBx group) and not in the other 15 patients (AI group). RESULTS: No significant differences were observed for size, histology, invasive depth, and location of lesions between the AI and FBx groups. No false positive or false negative results were observed in the frozen section diagnoses. Adenocarcinoma was revealed in three patients and tubular adenoma in one, thereby changing the delineation of lesion extent and achieving free lateral margins. The rates of free lateral resection margins and curative resection were significantly higher in the FBx group than those in the AI group. CONCLUSIONS: Frozen section biopsy can help endoscopists perform more safe and accurate ESD in patients with early gastric neoplasm.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Adenocarcinoma , Adenoma , Biopsy , Frozen Sections , Humans , Indigo Carmine , Indoles , Stomach Neoplasms
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