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1.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 305-314, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285150

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To study the association of SLC16A11 gene variants with obesity and metabolic markers in nondiabetic Chilean adults. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study included 263 non-diabetic adults. The genotype of the rs75493593 polymorphism of SLC16A11 gene was performed by real-time PCR. It's association with adiposity markers (body weight, BMI, waist circumference and fat mass percentage), metabolic markers (glucose, insulin, HOMAIR, leptin, total cholesterol, LDLc, HDLc, triglycerides, ALT, GGT and hsCRP) and blood pressure was analyzed by linear regression. Results: The minor allele (T) of the SLC16A11 gene (rs75493593) has a frequency of 29.7% among Chileans. Risk genotypes (GT and TT) were associated with a significant 1.49 mU/l increase in plasmatic insulin for each copy of the minor allele (95% CI: 0.12, 2.87, p < 0.05). This association remained significant after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, physical activity and smoking (1.36 mU/l, 95% CI: 0.16, 2.58 p < 0.05), but was lost when BMI was included as a confounding factor. Higher BMI was also significantly associated with polymorphic genotypes in SLC16A11, independent of socio-demographic variables. Conclusion: The minor allele of the SLC16A11 gene (T) is highly prevalent among Chileans and is associated with increased insulin and BMI in nondiabetic individuals. These findings suggest that the genetic variant in SLC16A11 is not only associated with type 2 diabetes as previously shown in Mexicans, but is also related to early metabolic alterations in healthy subjects that may lead to type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Body Mass Index , Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters/genetics , Insulin/blood , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Waist Circumference
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 82-90, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153042

ABSTRACT

Essential oils (EO) such as carvacrol represent a wide range of mainly volatile aromatic plant compounds which hold antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal potential, in addition to other properties of interest to animal health, such as the ability to modulate the microbiome. Current horse care commonly involves an intensive management system with an excessive use of concentrated feed, which can lead to severe digestive and metabolic disorders. Studies with EO in horses are limited, but the use of carvacrol essential oil (CEO) can promote benefits in microbial fermentation. The objective was to investigate the effect of different quantities of CEO on the apparent total digestibility of nutrients, microbial profile in the feces and postprandial blood glucose and insulin response when added to the equine diet. Eight Mini-Horse geldings were used (42±6 months; 135±15 kg BW) and fed with a proportion of 60% concentrate and 40% grass hay. The treatments were: 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of CEO. The addition of CEO up to 300 ppm did not influence the apparent digestibility of nutrients or the postprandial plasma glucose and insulin response. The use of CEO maintained the fermentative digestive health of horses fed with concentrate diets.(AU)


Os óleos essenciais (EO), como o carvacrol, são descritos por representarem ampla gama de compostos principalmente voláteis de plantas aromáticas, com potencial antioxidante, antibacteriano, antifúngico, entre outras propriedades de interesse para a saúde animal, como a modulação do microbioma. Atualmente, os cavalos são submetidos a manejo intensivo, com uso excessivo de ração concentrada, o que pode causar graves distúrbios digestivos e metabólicos. Em cavalos, estudos com EO são limitados, mas o uso de óleo essencial de carvacrol (CEO) poderia promover benefícios na fermentação microbiana. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar o efeito de diferentes quantidades de óleo essencial de carvacrol, adicionadas à dieta de equinos, sobre a digestibilidade aparente total de nutrientes, o perfil microbiano por meio das fezes e a resposta sanguínea pós-prandial de glicose e insulina. Foram utilizados oito cavalos castrados, da raça Mini-Horse (42±6 meses), 135±15kg PV, alimentados na proporção de 60% concentrado e 40% feno de capim. Os tratamentos foram: 0, 100, 200 e 300ppm de CEO. A adição de CEO até 300ppm não influencia a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e a resposta de glicose e insulina plasmática pós-prandial. O uso de EO demonstra manter a saúde digestiva fermentativa quando os cavalos são alimentados com dieta rica em concentrado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Digestion/drug effects , Glucose , Horses/blood , Insulin/blood , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Monoterpenes
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Little is known about the effects of environmental cobalt exposure on insulin resistance (IR) in the general adult population. We investigated the association between cobalt concentration and IR.@*METHODS@#A total of 1281 subjects aged more than 20 years with complete blood cobalt data were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2015-2016 cycle. Blood cobalt levels were analyzed for their association with IR among all populations and subgroups by sex. Regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of blood cobalt concentrations in association with fasting glucose, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were estimated using multivariate linear regression after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, education level, and household income. A multivariate generalized linear regression analysis was further carried out to explore the association between cobalt exposure and IR.@*RESULTS@#A negative association between blood cobalt concentration (coefficient = - 0.125, 95% CI - 0.234, - 0.015; P = 0.026) and HOMA-IR in female adults in the age- and sex-adjusted model was observed. However, no associations with HOMA-IR, fasting glucose, or insulin were found in the overall population. In the generalized linear models, participants with the lowest cobalt levels had a 2.74% (95% CI 0.04%, 5.50%) increase in HOMA-IR (P for trend = 0.031) compared with subjects with the highest cobalt levels. Restricted cubic spline regression suggested that a non-linear relationship may exist between blood cobalt and HOMA-IR.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results provide epidemiological evidence that low levels of blood cobalt are negatively associated with HOMA-IR in female adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cobalt/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Pollutants/blood , Female , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin/blood , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Sex Factors , United States , Young Adult
4.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 4-10, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088773

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to explore the relationship between body fat percentage and metabolic markers. Subjects and methods Sedentary women were assigned to PCOS (N = 60) and CONTROL (N = 60) groups. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to body fat percentage (22-27%, 27-32% and 32-37%). The protocol consisted of assessments of glucose, insulin, androgens, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results The PCOS subgroups showed higher concentrations of androgens, LH and 17-OHP. Leptin showed direct relationship with increased body fat percentage, whereas adiponectin showed the inverse effect. However, both were unaffected by PCOS. TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in PCOS women and showed a direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Glucose showed direct relationship with body fat percentage, whereas insulin presented higher values in PCOS women and direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Conclusions Our findings indicate that PCOS and body fat percentage directly influence concentrations of insulin, TNF-α and IL-6, whereas leptin and adiponectin are influenced only by the increase in body fat percentage in these women. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):4-10


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Adipose Tissue/anatomy & histology , Metabolic Diseases/blood , Insulin Resistance , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Glucose/analysis , Androgens/blood , Insulin/blood
5.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(6): 739-745, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055502

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea, a common disease, is usually complicated by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipokine is considered to play an important role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To assess whether secreted frizzled-related protein 5, a new adipokine, is involved in untreated obstructive sleep apnea patients. Methods: Seventy-six subjects with obstructive sleep apnea and thirty-three control subjects without obstructive sleep apnea were recruited and matched in terms of body mass index and age. The fasting secreted frizzled-related protein 5 plasma concentration was tested using ELISA. In addition, the correlation between secreted frizzled-related protein 5 and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was obtained. Multiple linear regression analysis models with stepwise selection were performed to determine the independent associations between various factors and secreted frizzled-related protein 5. Results: Plasma secreted frizzled-related protein 5 levels were significantly lower in the obstructive sleep apnea group than in the control group (obstructive sleep apnea group: 28.44 ± 13.25 ng/L; control group: 34.16 ± 13.51 ng/L; p = 0.023). In addition, secreted frizzled-related protein 5 was negatively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance but positively correlated with the mean and lowest oxygen saturation with or without adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, neck circumference, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio. The multiple linear regression analysis showed there was an independent negative association between secreted frizzled-related protein 5 and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Conclusion: Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 was involved in obstructive sleep apnea and the decrease in secreted frizzled-related protein 5 was directly proportional to the severity of obstructive sleep apnea. There was an independent negative correlation between homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and secreted frizzled-related protein 5 in the obstructive sleep apnea group. Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 might be a therapeutic target for insulin resistance in obstructive sleep apnea.


Resumo Introdução: A apneia obstrutiva do sono, uma doença comum, é geralmente complicada com resistência à insulina e diabetes melito tipo 2. Acredita-se que a adipocina possa ter um papel importante no desenvolvimento de resistência à insulina e diabetes melito tipo 2 na apneia obstrutiva do sono. Objetivo: Avaliar se a proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5, uma nova adipocina, está envolvida em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono não tratada. Método: Foram recrutados 76 indivíduos com apneia obstrutiva do sono e 33 indivíduos controle sem apneia obstrutiva do sono e pareados em relação a índice de massa corporal e idade. A concentração plasmática de proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 foi testada em jejum com o teste Elisa. Além disso, obteve-se correlação entre a proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 e o modelo de avaliação da homeostase de resistência à insulina. Modelos de análise de regressão linear múltipla com seleção stepwise foram feitos para determinar as associações independentes entre vários fatores e a proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5. Resultados: Os níveis plasmáticos de proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 foram significativamente menores no grupo com apneia obstrutiva do sono do que no grupo controle (grupo com apneia obstrutiva do sono: 28,44 ± 13,25 ng/L; grupo controle: 34,16 ± 13,51 ng/L; p = 0,023). Além disso, a proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 foi correlacionada negativamente com o modelo de avaliação da homeostase de resistência à insulina, mas se correlacionou positivamente com a média e a saturação mínima de oxigênio com ou sem ajuste para idade, gênero, índice de massa corporal, circunferência do pescoço, circunferência da cintura e relação cintura-quadril. A análise de regressão linear múltipla mostrou que houve uma associação negativa independente entre a proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 e o modelo de avaliação da homeostase de resistência à insulina. Conclusões: A proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 esteve envolvida na apneia obstrutiva do sono e sua diminuição foi diretamente proporcional à gravidade da apneia obstrutiva do sono. Houve uma correlação negativa independente entre o modelo de avaliação da homeostase de resistência à insulina e a proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 no grupo da apneia obstrutiva do sono. A proteína secretada relacionada ao receptor frizzled-5 pode ser um alvo terapêutico para a resistência à insulina na apneia obstrutiva do sono.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Eye Proteins/blood , Membrane Proteins/blood , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Insulin/blood , Obesity/complications
6.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 500-503, Sep.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286550

ABSTRACT

The metabolic syndrome describes a group of signs that increase the likelihood for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. The action of insulin depends on its binding to membrane receptors on its target cells. We wonder if blood insulin could travel bound to proteins and if, in the presence of hyperinsulinemia, a soluble insulin receptor might be generated. We used young adult Wistar rats (which have no predisposition to obesity or diabetes), whose drinking water was added 20 % of sugar and that were fed a standard diet ad libitum for two and six months. They were compared with control rats under the same conditions, but that had running water for consumption. At two months, the rats developed central obesity, moderate hypertension, high triglyceride levels, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, i.e., metabolic syndrome. Electrophoresis of the rats’ plasma proteins was performed, followed by Western Blot (WB) for insulin and for the outer portion of the insulin receptor. The bands corresponding to insulin and to the receptor external part were at the same molecular weight level, 25-fold higher than that of free insulin. We demonstrated that insulin, both in control animals and in those with hyperinsulinemia, travels bound to the receptor outer portion (ectodomain), which we called soluble insulin receptor, and that is released al higher amounts in response to plasma insulin increase; in rats with metabolic syndrome and hyperinsulinemia, plasma levels are much higher than in controls. Soluble insulin receptor increase in blood might be an early sign of metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Receptor, Insulin/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Hyperinsulinism/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Hypertriglyceridemia/etiology , Rats, Wistar , Glucose Intolerance/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Disease Models, Animal , Obesity, Abdominal/etiology , Hypertension/etiology , Insulin/blood
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(9): 764-770, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040749

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to describe the dynamics of glucose and insulin curves in pregnant mares, and to evaluate the curves according to body condition score, identifying the presence of insulin resistance and correlating these values ​​with the weight, height and clinical changes of the neonates. For this, pregnant mares were evaluated and then grouped according to body condition score during the gestation length until lactation. GrM corresponds to mares with moderate body score (BCS 5-6); GrOv were mares with overweight body score (BCS 7) and GrOb were obese mares (BCS 8-9). A two-step oral sugar test (OST) was used to determine the data. Cortisol analysis was performed with 300-320 days of gestation, at foaling and after parturition. For evaluation of the neonate, a general clinical examination and, weight and height measurements were performed. The results showed hyperglycemia in response to OST with normal insulin values at foaling with a subsequent fall in both values at lactation disregarding group division. Baseline glucose was decreased in GrM compared to GrOv and GrOb with 70-100 days of gestation and with 130-160 days of gestation. With 270-300 days of gestation and post-partum GrOb had increased baseline glucose than GrM. After OST, glucose at foaling day in GrOb presented increased values than GrM. Baseline insulin values did not differ between groups. Post OST insulin levels were higher in GrOb than GrM and GrOv at parturition. No difference in cortisol between moments was identified. GrOb and GrOv maintained increased concentrations after foaling while GrM had a decrease. No correlation was found between maternal glucose and insulin values with foal weight and height, however, a lower ratio between neonatal weight and mare's weight in GrOb and GrOv was identified in relation to the GrM. At foaling, mares presented glucose dysregulation, with obese and overweight mares presenting a greater response to OST.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever a dinâmica das curvas de glicose e insulina em éguas gestantes e avaliar as curvas de acordo com o escore de condição corporal, identificando a presença de resistência insulínica e correlacionando esses valores com o peso, altura e alterações clínicas dos neonatos. Para isso, as éguas prenhes foram avaliadas em conjunto e agrupadas de acordo com o escore de condição corporal durante a gestação até o pós-parto. GrM pertenciam éguas com escore corporal moderado (EC 5-6); GrOv, grupo de éguas com escore corporal acima do peso (EC 7) e GrOb, grupo de éguas obesas (EC 8-9). O teste de glicose oral em duas etapas (OST) foi usado para determinar os dados. A análise do cortisol também foi realizada nos 300-320 dias de gestação, no dia do parto e após o parto. Para avaliação do neonato, foram realizados exame clínico geral e medidas de peso e altura. Os resultados mostraram hiperglicemia em resposta ao OST com valores normais de insulina no momento parto, com uma queda subsequente em ambas as variáveis na lactação, desconsiderando a divisão do grupo. A glicemia basal diminuiu no GrM em comparação com GrOv e GrOb com 70-100 dias de gestação e com 130-160 dias de gestação. Com 270-300 dias de gestação e no pós-parto, o GrOb apresentou aumento na glicemia basal em relação ao GrM. Após OST, a glicose no dia do parto no GrOb apresentou valores aumentados em relação ao GrM. Os valores basais de insulina não diferiram entre os grupos. Após OST níveis de insulina foram maiores no GrOb do que GrM e GrOv no momento do parto. Não houve diferença nos valores de cortisol entre os momentos. O GrOb e GrOv mantiveram cortisol aumentado após o parto enquanto o GrM diminuiu. Não foi encontrada correlação entre os valores de glicemia e insulina materna com o peso e a altura do potro, entretanto, foi identificada uma relação menor entre o peso neonatal e o peso da égua no GrOb e GrOv em relação ao GrM. No parto, as éguas apresentaram desregulação da glicose, sendo que as éguas obesas e com sobrepeso apresentaram uma resposta maior ao OST.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Blood Glucose/analysis , Weight Gain , Biometry , Hyperglycemia/veterinary , Insulin/blood , Animals, Newborn/anatomy & histology , Animals, Newborn/physiology , Horses/blood
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1187-1192, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038639

ABSTRACT

A dislipidemia é um achado comum, porém não determinante, na síndrome metabólica equina (SME). O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar a dislipidemia em animais obesos com risco de SME. Para isso, 18 éguas foram alocadas em grupos, de acordo com escore corporal (EC) de 1 a 9: no grupo ideal, animais com EC de 4,5 a 5,5 (n= 6), no grupo sobrepeso, com EC de 6 a 7 (n= 6) e no grupo obeso, animais com EC de 7,5 a 9 (n= 6). Coletaram-se amostras de sangue em jejum de concentrado para determinação de triglicerídeos, colesterol total, glicemia e concentração de insulina. Valores preditivos de sensibilidade à insulina (RISQI) e de secreção ß-pancreática (MIRG) foram calculados. O grupo obeso apresentou níveis maiores em relação aos outros grupos de triglicerídeos (P=0,001) e acima do ideal em concentrações de colesterol (P=0,012). Não foi observada diferença nas concentrações plasmáticas de glicose (P=0,53), de insulina (P=0,10) ou de RISQI (P=0,46). Houve diferença entre os grupos nos valores de MIRG (P=0,048), tendo o grupo obeso obtido resultados maiores quando comparado com o grupo ideal. O aumento do EC foi associado ao aumento das concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol e triglicerídeos, o que caracteriza um estado de dislipidemia e de elevação da secreção das células ß-pancreáticas.(AU)


Increased indicators of fat metabolites are found in Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) subjects, although these parameters are not included in the EMS definition described in the literature and in its diagnosis. The objective of this study was to characterize dyslipidemia in obese insulin resistant mares. 18 mares were allocated in three groups according to body condition score (BCS) in a 1 to 9 scale. In the Ideal group there were animals with BCS 4.5 to 5.5 (n= 6), in the Overweight group, the BCS were 6 to 7 (n= 6), and in the Obese group (n= 6), BCS 7.5 to 9. Concentrate fasting blood samples were taken to determine triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose, and insulin concentrations in plasma. Insulin sensitivity proxy (RISQI) and ß-pancreatic secretion proxy (MIRG) were calculated from glucose and insulin data. The Obese group had higher triglyceride levels (P= 0.001), compared to other groups, and higher total cholesterol compared to the Ideal Group (P= 0.012). No differences in plasma glucose (P= 0.53), insulin (P= 0.10) concentrations and insulin sensitivity (RISQI: P= 0.463) were seen among groups. The Obese Group had a higher ß-pancreatic secretion (MIRG: P= 0.048) compared to the Ideal Group. The increased BCS was related to the plasma fat metabolites a higher ß-pancreatic secretion.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Metabolic Syndrome/veterinary , Dyslipidemias/veterinary , Horses/blood , Obesity/veterinary , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cholesterol/blood , Insulin/blood
9.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 417-426, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019352

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the associations among visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body fat percentage (%), and android/gynoid ratio (A/G ratio) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and verify if the parameters representative of visceral obesity correlate with and exhibit the same frequency as body composition variables; anthropometric indices; and metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters. Subjects and methods This was a cross-sectional study that included 94 women with PCOS. Hormonal, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters were analyzed in all women. Free androgen index (FAI) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), as well as LAP, VAI, and anthropometric indices, were calculated. The regions of interest (ROIs) in body composition and body composition indices were evaluated using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Overall, 32 variables were selected as markers of body fat distribution. Results Among the 32 markers evaluated, 29 correlated with LAP, whereas 25 correlated with VAI, 19 with body fat (%), and 30 with A/G ratio. Additionally, some markers correlated with the four adiposity indices evaluated: ROIs, except for total mass and leg fat (%); body composition (body mass index, waist circumference, and hip circumference) indices; fasting insulin; and C-reactive protein. Conclusion LAP and VAI may be sensitive measures for screening and preventing metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in PCOS, with LAP being more sensitive than VAI, and the A/G ratio may be more sensitive than body fat percentage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/blood , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Body Fat Distribution , Testosterone/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Composition , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Overweight/blood , Lipid Accumulation Product , Insulin/blood
10.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 193-199, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe the frequency of albuminuria in overweight and obese children and adolescents and to relate it to the severity of obesity, pubertal staging, associated morbidities and the glomerular filtration rate. Method: Cross-sectional study including 64 overweight and obese children and adolescents between 5 and 19 years of age. Data collected: weight, height, waist circumference and systemic arterial pressure. Laboratory tests: lipid profile; glycemia and insulin, used to calculate the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR); C-reactive protein; glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and albuminuria in an isolated urine sample (cutoff <30 mg/g). Creatinine was used to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2). Results: The mean age was 11.6 ± 3.4 years, 32 (50%) and 29 (45.3%) were male and prepubertal. Forty-six (71.9%) had severe obesity. The frequency and median (min/max) of the observed values for albuminuria (> 30 mg/g) were 14 (21.9%) and 9.4 mg/g (0.70, -300.7 mg/g). The mean eGFR was 122.9 ± 24.7 mL/min/1.73 m2. There was no significant correlation between body mass index, pubertal staging, insulin and HOMA-IR with albuminuria values and neither with eGFR. Children with albuminuria tended to have higher values of diastolic blood pressure (75.0 ± 12.2 vs. 68.1 ± 12.4, p = 0.071). Conclusion: Albuminuria, although frequent in children and adolescents with obesity, was not associated with other morbidities and the glomerular filtration rate in these patients.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever a frequência de albuminúria em crianças e adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade e relacioná-la com a gravidade da obesidade, estadiamento puberal, morbidades associadas e com a taxa de filtração glomerular. Método: Estudo transversal incluindo 64 crianças e adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade entre 5 e 19 anos de idade. Dados coletados: peso, estatura, circunferência abdominal e pressão arterial sistêmica. Exames laboratoriais: perfil lipídico; glicemia e insulina, utilizados para cálculo do Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR); proteína C reativa; transaminase glutâmico-pirúvica e albuminúria em amostra isolada de urina (ponto de corte < 30 mg/g). A creatinina foi utilizada para o cálculo da taxa de filtração glomerular estimada (eTFG, mL/min/1,73m2). Resultados: A média de idade foi 11,6±3,4 anos, 32 (50%) e 29 (45,3%) eram do gênero masculino e pré-púberes. Quarenta e seis (71,9%) apresentavam obesidade grave. A frequência e a mediana (min/max) dos valores observados para albuminúria (> 30 mg/g) foram 14 (21,9%) e 9,4 mg/g (0,70; -300,7 mg/g). A média da eTFG foi 122,9±24,7 mL/min/1,73 m2. Não houve correlação significante entre o índice de massa corporal, estadiamento puberal, insulina e HOMA-IR com os valores de albuminúria e nem com a eTFG. Crianças com albuminúria tiveram tendência a valores mais elevados de pressão arterial diastólica (75,0±12,2 vs 68,1±12,4, p = 0,071). Conclusão: A albuminúria, apesar de frequente em crianças e adolescentes com obesidade, não se associou com outras morbidades e nem com a taxa de filtração glomerular nesses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Albuminuria/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Severity of Illness Index , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Morbidity , Puberty , Creatinine/blood , Insulin/blood
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(3): 220-224, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001299

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Beta-thalassemia minor, a common hereditary blood disorder in Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, is associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance, in turn, can be associated with excessively high intraocular pressure and, therefore, intraocular pressure-induced blindness. This study aimed to investigate the intraocular pressure in subjects with beta-thalassemia minor. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study comprising of 203 subjects divided into two groups: beta-thalassemia minor (103) and healthy (100).Hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed and complete blood count, blood pressures, serum fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. All subjects underwent ophthalmological examinations including intraocular pressure measurements. Results: Intraocular pressure in the subjects with beta-thalassemia minor was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects (p=0.007). Additionally, intraocular pressure was inversely correlated with hemoglobin A2 levels (p=0.001, r=-0.320). Serum insulin and systolic blood pressure were significantly higher in subjects with beta-thalassemia minor (p=0.03, p=0.009, respectively). Conclusion: Subjects with beta-thalassemia minor had lower intraocular pressure than healthy controls, suggesting beta-thalassemia minor may actually protect against high intraocular pressure.


RESUMO Objetivo: Beta-talassemia menor é uma doença hereditária comum no sangue em países mediterrâneos como a Turquia e está associada à resistência à insulina. A resistência à insulina por sua vez, pode estar associada à pressão intraocular excessivamente alta e, portanto à cegueira induzida pela pressão intraocular. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a pressão intraocular em indivíduos com beta-talassemia menor. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal compreendendo 203 indivíduos divididos em 2 grupos: beta-talassemia menor (103) e saudável (100). Eletroforese de hemoglobina foi realizada e hemograma completo, pressão arterial, glicemia em jejum e níveis de insulina medidos. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos foram submetidos a exames oftalmológicos, incluindo medidas de pressão intraocular. Resultados: A pressão intraocular nos indivíduos com beta-talassemia menor foi significativamente menor do que em indivíduos saudáveis (p=0,007). Além disso, a pressão intraocular foi inversamente correlacionada com os níveis de hemoglobina A2 (p=0,001, r=-0,320). Insulina sérica e pressão arterial sistólica foram significativamente maiores em indivíduos com beta-talassemia menor (p=0,03, p=0,009, respectivamente). Conclusão: Os indivíduos com beta-talassemia menor tiveram pressão intraocular menor do que os controles saudáveis, sugerindo que a beta-talassemia menor pode, na verdade, proteger contra a alta pressão intraocular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , beta-Thalassemia/physiopathology , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Reference Values , Tonometry, Ocular , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Pressure/physiology , Hemoglobin A2/analysis , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , beta-Thalassemia/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Insulin/blood , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(2): 121-127, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001217

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective We investigated the utility of maternal fetuin-A, N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and fasting glucose levels at 11-14 gestation weeks for predicting pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Subjects and methods This prospective cohort study included 327 low-risk pregnant women who completed antenatal follow-up at a tertiary research hospital between January and April 2014. Maternal blood samples were collected between 11-14 gestational weeks in the first trimester of pregnancy and then stored at -80 °C until further analyses. During follow-up, 29 (8.8%) women developed GDM. The study population was compared 1:2 with age- and body mass index-matched pregnant women who did not develop GDM (n = 59). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and serum fetuin-A, pro-ANP, and hs-CRP levels were measured using automated immunoassay systems. Results There was a significant negative correlation between fetuin-A and hs-CRP (CC = -0.21, p = 0.047) and a positive correlation between FPG and hs-CRP (CC = 0.251, p = 0.018). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for diagnosing GDM were 0.337 (p = 0.013), 0.702 (p = 0.002), and 0.738 (p < 0.001) for fetuin-A, hs-CRP, and FPG, respectively. The optimal cut-off values were > 4.65, < 166, and > 88.5 mg/dL for maternal hs-CRP, fetuin-A, and FPG, respectively. Conclusion Reduced fetuin-A, elevated hs-CRP, and FPG levels in women in the first trimester can be used for the early detection of GDM. Further research is needed before accepting these biomarkers as valid screening tests for GDM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Trimester, First/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Decision Support Techniques , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Insulin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diabetes, Gestational/blood
13.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(1): 28-33, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001327

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance, especially that induced by obesity, plays a central role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Although the evaluation of overweight patients is important, the nutritional assessment tools used in clinical practice have limitations. Neck circumference (NC), from this, becomes a viable and low-cost alternative, which seems to be related to the accumulation of fat in the hepatic tissue. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between NC and metabolic alterations in patients with non- alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study performed in 82 patients, of whom 76 underwent liver biopsy. We performed weight, height, abdominal circumference and NC measures. Values of NC ≥42 cm and ≥36 cm were considered as altered for men and women, respectively. Laboratory tests and liver biopsy result were collected in the participants' charts. We evaluated fasting blood glucose levels, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), ferritin, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and the HOMA-IR index. RESULTS: We evaluated eighty-two patients. Patients with altered NC had increased body mass index (P=0.043), abdominal circumference (P=0.007), insulin (P=0.003) and HOMA-IR (P=0.029) when compared to those with adequate NC. NC was significantly correlated with reduced levels of high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) in men (r= -042, P<0.05), increased insulin levels in men and female (rs=0.47; P<0.05 and rs=0.51; P<0.01, respectively), as well as higher HOMA-IR index both males (rs=0.49; P<0.01) and female (rs=0.30; P<0.05). There was no significant association between NC and liver outcomes (r=0.145; P=0.36). CONCLUSION: NC is associated with the HOMA-IR index in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. NC can be used in the screening of insulin resistance in these patients, considering that insulin resistance plays a key role in the progression of the disease.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A resistência à insulina, em especial a induzida pela obesidade, desempenha papel central no desenvolvimento da doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA). Embora seja importante a avaliação de pacientes com excesso de peso, as ferramentas de avaliação nutricional utilizadas na prática clínica apresentam limitações. A circunferência do pescoço, a partir disso, torna-se uma alternativa viável e de baixo custo, a qual parece estar relacionada ao acúmulo de gordura no tecido hepático. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre a circunferência do pescoço (CP) e as alterações metabólicas em pacientes com DHGNA. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado em 82 pacientes, dos quais 76 foram submetidos à biópsia hepática. Foram realizadas as medidas de peso, altura, circunferência abdominal e CP. Valores de CP ≥42 cm e ≥36 cm foram considerados alterados para homens e mulheres, respectivamente. Os exames laboratoriais e o resultado da biópsia hepática foram coletados dos prontuários dos participantes. Foram avaliados os níveis glicêmicos em jejum, insulina, hemoglobina glicosilada, triglicerídeos, colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-C), lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL-C), ferritina, fosfatase alcalina, gama glutamiltransferase, albumina, bilirrubina total, bilirrubina direta, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacética, transaminase glutâmico-pirúvica e o índice HOMA-IR. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 82 pacientes. Os pacientes com CP alterada apresentaram aumento do índice de massa corporal (P=0,043), circunferência abdominal (P=0,007), insulina (P=0,003) e HOMA-IR (P=0,029) quando comparados àqueles com CP adequada. A CP foi significativamente correlacionada com níveis reduzidos de colesterol de alta densidade (HDL-C) em homens (r= -042, P<0,05), aumento dos níveis de insulina em homens e mulheres (rs=0,47, P<0,05 e rs = 0,51; P<0,01, respectivamente), bem como maior índice HOMA-IR, tanto do sexo masculino (rs=0,49; P<0,01) quanto do feminino (rs=0,30; P<0,05). Não houve associação significativa entre CP e os desfechos hepáticos (r=0,145, P=0,36). CONCLUSÃO: A CP está associada com o índice HOMA-IR em pacientes com DHGNA. A CP pode ser utilizada no rastreamento da resistência à insulina nesses pacientes, considerando que a resistência à insulina desempenha um papel fundamental na progressão da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Neck/anatomy & histology , Biopsy , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Waist Circumference , Ferritins/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/physiopathology , Homeostasis/physiology , Insulin/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Liver/pathology , Middle Aged
14.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(1): 10-14, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001326

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is strongly associated with the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Currently, the prevalence in developed countries is 40%, but this value increases considerably in developing countries, which can reach rates bigger than 90%. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the mean and annual prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients from Itajaí during the period from July 1992 to April 2016, as well as the gender and age groups most affected. METHODS: After consent of the clinical director of the Gastroclinica Itajaí and confidentiality commitment about the research, the database of the Endoscopy Service of the clinic was evaluated. All the patients who underwent their first upper digestive endoscopy with urease test and/or histological analysis were included. The data were submitted to statistical analysis of prevalence by gender, age group and years of study, with subsequent correction through the confidence interval. RESULTS: The mean prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection thru all years of study was 50.07%. With the calculation of the annual prevalences, it was evident the gradual reduction of infection in the population of Itajaí, that was 81.3% in 1992, declining to 33% in the year of 2016. When classifying the prevalence of infection by gender, it was higher in males (53.59%), and gender distribution by age group showed no statistically significant difference among genders between the ages of 40 and 80 years. In relation to the age group, the highest prevalence was in the group between 40 and 49 years. CONCLUSION: Although this study is retrospective and based on endoscopic database analysis, without access to clinical data of patients such as prior use of proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics to endoscopy, its results are important because they may reflect the current panorama of Helicobacter pylori infection in the city under study, where it has been presenting a gradual reduction of prevalence over the years, with current rates similar to that of developed countries (33%). Future studies are needed to confirm our data.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A bactéria Helicobacter pylori associa-se fortemente ao desenvolvimento do adenocarcinoma gástrico. Atualmente, a prevalência em países desenvolvidos é de 40%, porém esse valor cresce consideravelmente em países em desenvolvimento, que chegam a alcançar taxas de até 90%. OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar a prevalência média e anual da infecção por Helicobacter pylori nos pacientes de Itajaí durante o período de julho de 1992 a abril de 2016, assim como o sexo e as faixas etárias mais acometidas. MÉTODOS: Após consentimento do diretor técnico da Gastroclínica Itajaí e comprometimento de sigilo em relação à pesquisa, foi avaliada a base de dados do Serviço de Endoscopia da clínica. Foram selecionados todos os pacientes que realizaram pela primeira vez o exame de endoscopia digestiva alta com teste da urease e/ou análise histológica. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística de prevalência por sexo, faixa etária e anos do estudo, com posterior correção dos dados através do intervalo de confiança. RESULTADOS: A prevalência média da infecção por Helicobacter pylori em todos os anos de estudo foi de 50,07%. Com o cálculo das prevalências anuais, ficou evidente a redução gradual da infecção na população de Itajaí, que era de 81,3% em 1992, passando a 33% no ano de 2016. Ao classificar a prevalência da infecção por gênero, foi maior no sexo masculino (53,59%) e a distribuição dos gêneros por faixa etária não mostrou diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os sexos entre as idades de 40 a 80 anos. Em relação à faixa etária, a maior prevalência foi no grupo entre 40 e 49 anos. CONCLUSÃO: Embora este estudo seja retrospectivo e baseado em análise de banco de dados de endoscopias digestivas, sem acesso a dados clínicos de pacientes como uso prévio de nibidor de bomba de próton e antibióticos à endoscopia, seus resultados são importantes, pois podem refletir o panorama atual da infecção por Helicobacter pylori no município em estudo, que vem apresentando uma redução gradual da prevalência ao longo dos anos, com taxas atuais semelhantes às dos países desenvolvidos (33%). Estudos futuros são necessários para confirmar nossos dados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Neck/anatomy & histology , Biopsy , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Waist Circumference , Ferritins/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/physiopathology , Homeostasis/physiology , Insulin/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Liver/pathology , Middle Aged
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(5): e201900506, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010876

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the serum variations of Interleukins (Il) and CPR of abdominoplasties in post-bariatric patients and, to equate the homeostasis (HOMA) from the variations of glycemia and insulin to evolute the metabolic modifications. Methods: Fourteen women were submitted to abdominoplasties with weight loss after a gastroplasty. Levels of IL4, IL6, IL10, CRP, glycemia and insulin were obtained during the pre-operative, trans-operative, 24 hours post, 7th and 14th postoperative days. Results: The IL4 was higher at 24 hours post-surgery, and after a moderate decrease, it remained high until the 14th day. The IL6 and CRP had an expressive increase during the trans-operative period. The CRP remained high, and the IL6 decreased on the 7th and 14th days. The IL10 increased during the transoperative period, and it posteriorly decreased to lower levels in comparison to the pre-operative period. The already increased glycemia during the pre-operative period was even higher during the trans-operative and then, returned to preliminary values on the 7th and 14th days after surgery. The HOMA accompanied the insulin. Conclusion: The inflammatory and glycemic serum levels decrease after abdominiplasty in obese post-bariatric patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Blood Glucose/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Interleukins/blood , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Abdominoplasty/methods , Insulin/blood , Postoperative Period , Reference Values , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Preoperative Period , Homeostasis
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(6): 585-590, Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983810

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim was to characterize blood glucose fluctuations in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1DM) at the stable stage using continuous blood glucose monitoring systems (CGMSs). Subjects and methods: Ten patients with FT1DM and 20 patients with classic type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (the control group) were monitored using CGMSs for 72 hours. Results: The CGMS data showed that the mean blood glucose (MBG), the standard deviation of the blood glucose (SDBG), the mean amplitude glycemic excursions (MAGE), the blood glucose areas and the percentages of blood glucose levels below 13.9 mmol/L were similar between the two groups. However, the percentage of blood glucose levels below 3.9 mmol/L was significantly higher in the FT1DM group compared to the T1DM group (p < 0.05). The minimum (Min) blood glucose level in the FT1DM group was significantly lower than that of the T1DM group (p < 0.05). Patients with FT1DM had severe dysfunction of the islet beta cells and alpha cells compared to patients with T1DM, as indicated by lower C-peptide values and higher glucagon/C-peptide values. Conclusion: In conclusion, patients with FT1DM at the stable stage were more prone to hypoglycemic episodes as recorded by CGMSs, and they had a greater association with severe dysfunction of both the beta and alpha islet cells compared to patients with T1DM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Reference Values , Blood Glucose/metabolism , C-Peptide/blood , Glucagon/blood , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin/blood
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(5): 733-737, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038532

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Obesity is recognized as a major risk factor for the development of several metabolic complications. However, some obese individuals have a favorable metabolic profile. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify an easy parameter for recognizing metabolically healthy obese (MHO) women. Methods: A total of 292 non-diabetic women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 were selected, and 239 composed the final cohort. We classified the participants according to their metabolic state determined by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) into MHO or metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). Both groups were compared regarding biochemical, anthropometric, and body composition characteristics. Results: The average age of the cohort was 43.9 ± 10.9 years and the average BMI was 37.2 ± 5.3 kg/m2. In total, 75.7% of the participants were classified as MHO by HOMA. A cutoff of 108.2 cm for waist circumference (WC) identified MHO participants with a sensitivity of 72.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59.8-82.3%), specificity of 66.9% (95% CI: 59.71-73.3%), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.41 (95% CI: 0.36-0.47). Additionally, a visceral adiposity index cutoff value of 99.2 identified MHO women with a sensitivity of 89.7% (95% CI: 79.2-95.2%), specificity of 48.6% (95% CI: 41.4-55.9%), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.21 (95% CI: 0.15-0.30). Conclusion: Women classified as MHO exhibited smaller WC measurements and lower body fat percentages, as well as lower blood glucose and insulin levels. WC emerged as an easy parameter for identifying MHO women.


Resumo Fundamento: A obesidade é reconhecida como um fator de risco importante no desenvolvimento de várias complicações metabólicas. Porém, alguns indivíduos obesos apresentam um perfil metabólico favorável. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar um parâmetro fácil para reconhecer mulheres obesas metabolicamente saudáveis (OMS) Métodos: Foram selecionadas 292 mulheres não diabéticas com índice de massa corporal (IMC) ≥ 30 kg/m2 e a coorte final foi composta de 239. De acordo com o estado metabólico determinado pelo modelo de avaliação da homeostase (HOMA), as participantes foram classificadas como obesas metabolicamente saudáveis (OMS) ou obesas metabolicamente não saudáveis (OMNS). Compararam-se ambos os grupos quanto às características bioquímicas, antropométricas e de composição corporal. Resultados: A idade média da coorte foi de 43,9 ± 10,9 anos e o IMC médio foi 37,2 ± 5,3 kg/m2. No total, 75,7% das participantes foram classificadas como OMS pelo HOMA. O ponto de corte para a circunferência da cintura (CC) de 108,2 identificou mulheres OMS com sensibilidade de 72,4% (intervalo de confiança [IC] de 95%: 59,8-82,3%), especificidade de 66,9% (IC 95%: 59,71-73,3%) e razão de verossimilhança negativa (RVN) de 0,41 (IC 95%: 0,36-0,47). Adicionalmente, o ponto de corte de 99,2 para o índice de adiposidade visceral (IAV) identificou mulheres OMS com sensibilidade de 89,7% (IC 95%: 79.2-95.2%), especificidade de 48,6% (IC 95%: 41,4-55,9%) e RVN de 0,21 (IC 95%: 0.15-0.30). Conclusões: Mulheres classificadas como OMS apresentaram menor CC, menor percentual de gordura corporal e menores níveis séricos de glicose e de insulina. A CC foi identificada como um parâmetro fácil para identificar mulheres OMS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Waist Circumference , Obesity/diagnosis , Phenotype , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Insulin Resistance , Biomarkers/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Sensitivity and Specificity , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Intra-Abdominal Fat/metabolism , Data Accuracy , Insulin/blood , Obesity/metabolism
18.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(3): 286-293, jul.-set. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977969

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a incidência da hiperglicemia de estresse em crianças em condição grave e investigar a etiologia da hiperglicemia com base em um modelo de avaliação da homeostasia. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo de coorte, conduzido em uma unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica da Cairo University, que incluiu 60 crianças com doença grave e 21 controles saudáveis. Utilizaram-se os níveis séricos de glicose, insulina e peptídeo C, avaliados em até 24 horas após a admissão. O modelo de avaliação da homeostasia foi utilizado para analisar a função das células beta e a sensibilidade à insulina. Resultados: A hiperglicemia foi estimada em 70% dos pacientes. Valores de glicemia ≥ 180mg/dL se associaram com desfechos piores. Os níveis de glicemia se correlacionaram de forma positiva com o Pediatric Risk for Mortality (PRISM III) e o número de órgãos com disfunção (p = 0,019 e p = 0,022, respectivamente), enquanto os níveis de insulina se correlacionaram de forma negativa com o número de órgãos com disfunção (r = -0,33; p = 0,01). O modelo de avaliação da homeostasia revelou que 26 (43,3%) das crianças em condições graves tinham baixa função de células beta e 18 (30%) baixa sensibilidade à insulina. Detectou-se patologia combinada em apenas dois (3,3%) pacientes. Baixa função de células beta se associou de forma significante com a presença de disfunção de múltiplos órgãos, disfunção respiratória, cardiovascular e hematológica, e presença de sepse. Conclusões: A disfunção de células beta pareceu ser prevalente em nossa coorte e se associou com disfunção de múltiplos órgãos.


ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to study the incidence of stress hyperglycemia in critically ill children and to investigate the etiological basis of the hyperglycemia based on homeostasis model assessment. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study in one of the pediatric intensive care units of Cairo University, including 60 critically ill children and 21 healthy controls. Serum blood glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured within 24 hours of admission. Homeostasis model assessment was used to assess β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. Results: Hyperglycemia was estimated in 70% of patients. Blood glucose values ≥ 180mg/dL were associated with a poor outcome. Blood glucose levels were positively correlated with Pediatric Risk for Mortality (PRISM III) score and number of organ dysfunctions (p = 0.019 and p = 0.022, respectively), while insulin levels were negatively correlated with number of organ dysfunctions (r = −0.33, p = 0.01). Homeostasis model assessment revealed that 26 (43.3%) of the critically ill patients had low β-cell function, and 18 (30%) had low insulin sensitivity. Combined pathology was detected in 2 (3.3%) patients only. Low β-cell function was significantly associated with the presence of multi-organ dysfunction; respiratory, cardiovascular, and hematological dysfunctions; and the presence of sepsis. Conclusions: β-Cell dysfunction appeared to be prevalent in our cohort and was associated with multi-organ dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Sepsis/complications , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , C-Peptide/blood , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Case-Control Studies , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Sepsis/epidemiology , Egypt , Insulin-Secreting Cells/pathology , Homeostasis , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Insulin/blood , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(9): 978-986, set. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978787

ABSTRACT

Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is a major public health problem in Chile. Aim: To characterize cardiometabolic risk factors in a population of schoolchildren from Carahue, Chile. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional assessment of 208 children aged 10.4 ± 1.0 years (106 women). A clinical evaluation was carried out including pubertal development according to Tanner and anthropometric parameters. A fasting blood sample was obtained to measure glucose, insulin and lipid profile. HOMA-IR and Quicki indices were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) was established according to Burrows criteria and Barja criteria, previously proposed for the Chilean pediatric population. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) was established using the modified Cook criteria. Results: Thirty eight percent of children had overweight and 33.1% obesity. MetS was only observed in obese subjects and the frequency in this subgroup was 38%. The prevalence of IR was 51% according to the Burrows criteria and 19% according to Barja criteria. It was more common in participants who were overweight, obese or had abdominal obesity. Children with insulin resistance according to Barja criteria, had worse anthropometric measures than their counterparts without resistance. When Burrows criteria was used, no differences in anthropometric measures were observed between participants with or without resistance. The frequency of MetS was 26 and 18% in children with insulin resistance according to Barja and Burrows criteria, respectively. Insulin levels and insulin sensitivity indexes were positively correlated with anthropometric parameters. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of overweight, obesity and MetS in these participants. Our results suggest that the IR criteria according to Barja allows to identify cases with higher metabolic risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Insulin/blood
20.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(3): 274-278, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973897

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health problem, that affects approximately 170 million people worldwide. Chronic HCV infection is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and an increased risk of diabetes HCV-infected patients has been well documented. OBJECTIVE: To assess the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in patients treated with direct acting antiviral (DAAs) medication in the sustained virological response (SVR), categorized by the presence or absence of cirrhosis. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. Data were collected at the beginning of treatment (t-base) and in the twelfth week after the completion of treatment (t-SVR12). The inclusion criteria were presence of: HCV infection (RNA-HCV positive), age ≥18 years, completion of DAAs' therapy, and presence of diabetes with use of oral hypoglycemic agents. All samples were collected during the study period. The exclusion criteria were: presence of HBV/HIV co-infection, hepatocellular carcinoma at baseline, diabetic patients taking insulin and transplanted patients (liver/kidney). Fibrosis was assessed by hepatic elastography or biopsy (METAVIR). Cirrhosis was determined by clinical results or imaging. HOMA-IR was calculated as fasting insulin (μU/mL) × fasting glucose (mmol/L)/22.5) The patients were divided into two groups: the general study population (all patients, including the diabetic patients) and the special population (patients with normal values of HOMA-IR, which is >2.5, and without diabetes). The delta HOMA-IR value was calculated as: HOMA-IR at t-base - HOMA-IR at t-SVR12. For the descriptive statistical analysis, the paired t-test and generalized linear model assuming the log binding function were performed. A P value of < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We included 150 patients, and 75 were cirrhotic. The mean age was 55.3±9.97 and body mass index was 27.4±5.18. Twenty-two (14.67%) were diabetic patients using oral hypoglycemic agents, and 17 (11%) were cirrhotic. In the general study population, the mean glucose and HOMA-IR values increased at t-SVR12, but insulin decreased. Delta HOMA-IR was negative at t-SVR12, but there was no significant difference. Excluding diabetic patients and those with normal HOMA-IR values (<2.5), mean glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR decreased at t-SVR12. Delta HOMA-IR decreased significantly at t-SVR12 (P: 0.02). CONCLUSION: In the general population, glucose and HOMA-IR values increased at t-SVR12, but insulin decreased. In the special population, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and Delta HOMA-IR decreased at t-SVR12.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (VHC) é um grave problema de saúde pública, que afeta aproximadamente 170 milhões de pessoas no mundo. A infecção crônica pelo VHC está associada à resistência à insulina hepática e a um risco aumentado de diabetes. Os doentes infetados pelo VHC foram bem documentados. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o modelo de avaliação da homeostase do índice de resistência à insulina (HOMA-IR) em pacientes tratados com medicação antiviral de ação direta na resposta virológica sustentada (RVS), categorizada pela presença ou ausência de cirrose. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo. Os dados foram coletados no início do tratamento (t-base) e na décima segunda semana após o término do tratamento (t-RVS12). Os critérios de inclusão foram presença de: infecção pelo VHC (RNA-VHC positivo), idade ≥18 anos, conclusão da terapia de antivirais de ação direta e presença de diabetes com uso de hipoglicemiantes orais. Todas as amostras foram coletadas durante o período do estudo. Os critérios de exclusão foram: presença de coinfecção VHB/HIV, carcinoma hepatocelular no início do estudo, pacientes diabéticos em uso de insulina e pacientes transplantados (fígado/rim). A fibrose foi avaliada por elastografia hepática ou biópsia (METAVIR). A cirrose foi determinada por resultados clínicos ou exames de imagem. O HOMA-IR foi calculado como insulinemia de jejum (μU/mL) x glicemia de jejum (mmol/L) /22,5). Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: a população geral do estudo (todos os pacientes, incluindo os diabéticos) e a população especial (pacientes com valores normais de HOMA-IR, que é <2,5 e sem diabetes). O valor do delta HOMA-IR foi calculado como: HOMA-IR no t-base - HOMA-IR no t-RVS12. Para a análise estatística descritiva, foram utilizados o teste t pareado e o modelo linear generalizado, assumindo a função de ligação logarítmica. Um valor de P<0,05 foi considerado significativo. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 150 pacientes e 75 eram cirróticos. A idade média foi de 55,3±9,97 e o índice de massa corpórea foi de 27,4±5,18. Vinte e dois (14,67%) eram pacientes diabéticos em uso de hipoglicemiantes orais e 17 (11%) eram cirróticos. Na população geral do estudo, os valores médios de glicose e HOMA-IR aumentaram na t-SVR12, mas a insulina diminuiu. O delta HOMA-IR foi negativo em t-SVR12, mas não houve diferença significativa. Excluindo pacientes diabéticos e aqueles com valores normais de HOMA-IR (<2,5), a média de glicose, insulina e HOMA-IR diminuiu no t-RVS12. O delta HOMA-IR diminuiu significativamente em t-RVS12 (P: 0,02). CONCLUSÃO: Na população geral, os valores de glicose e HOMA-IR aumentaram no t-RVS12, mas a insulina diminuiu. Na população especial, glicose, insulina, HOMA-IR e delta HOMA-IR diminuíram no t-RVS12.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/analysis , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/metabolism , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Insulin/blood , Reference Values , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Fasting/blood , Treatment Outcome , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Middle Aged
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