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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254646, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360224

ABSTRACT

Chronic stress (CS) can contribute to dysfunction in several organs including liver and kidney. This study was performed to investigate the changes in serum biochemistry, histological structure, as well as in localization of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins (TyrPho) and Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp-70) in liver and kidney tissues of CS rats induced by two stressors (restrained and force swimming) for 60 consecutive days. Samples of blood, liver, and kidney were collected from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in each group. Our results showed that serum biochemical parameters including corticosterone, blood sugar, urea nitrogen, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase in CS group were significantly different from that in normal group in both liver and kidney tissues. Although histological structure was not changed. TyrPho expression was significantly increased in liver lysate but significantly decreased in kidney. Hsp-70 expression in liver increased whereas in kidney decreased. In conclusion, CS can induce changes in liver and kidney functions.


O estresse crônico (SC) pode contribuir para a disfunção em vários órgãos, incluindo fígado e rim. Este estudo foi realizado para investigar as alterações na bioquímica sérica, estrutura histológica, bem como na localização de proteínas tirosina fosforiladas (TyrPho) e proteína de choque térmico 70 (Hsp-70) em tecidos hepáticos e renais de ratos CS induzidas por dois estressores (restrito e natação forçada) por 60 dias consecutivos. Amostras de sangue, fígado e rim foram coletadas de ratos Sprague-Dawley machos adultos em cada grupo. Nossos resultados mostraram que os parâmetros bioquímicos séricos, incluindo corticosterona, glicemia, nitrogênio ureico, creatinina, colesterol, triglicerídeos, HDL-C, LDL-C, ALT, AST, fosfatase alcalina no grupo CS foram significativamente diferentes do grupo normal em ambos os fígados e tecidos renais. Embora a estrutura histológica não tenha sido alterada, a expressão de TyrPho aumentou significativamente no lisado hepático, mas diminuiu significativamente no rim. A expressão de Hsp-70 no fígado aumentou, enquanto que no rim diminuiu. Em conclusão, a CS pode induzir alterações nas funções hepáticas e renais.


Subject(s)
Rats , Stress, Physiological , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Liver/anatomy & histology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1004-1008, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514328

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: For the purposes of teaching anatomy, the use of cadaver preparations is considered the most efficient way of ensuring that students retain knowledge. Nevertheless, in Ecuador the use of animal specimens in universities must comply with the internationally accepted principles of replacement, reduction and refinement (3Rs). Plastination is an alternative technique which allows organs to be conserved in the long term and complies with the 3Rs. The object of the present work was to use cold-temperature silicone plastination with Biodur® products to obtain long-lasting, easy-to-handle canine organs for use as tools for the teaching of animal anatomy. Six canine cadavers were obtained from local animal protection charities. The hearts, brains and kidneys of the cadavers were dissected and fixed with formaldehyde 10 %. They were then dehydrated with acetone at -20 °C. The specimens were impregnated with Biodur® S10:S3 (-20 °C) and finally cured with Biodur® S6. We plastinated six hearts, twelve kidneys, four brains and one encephalic slice of canine. The application of cold-temperature plastination to canine organs followed the parameters established for the conventional protocol, enabling us to obtain organs of brilliant appearance, free of odours, in which the anatomical form was preserved. Thus the technique helped us to comply with the 3Rs, as we obtained easy-to-handle teaching models to replace fresh or formaldehyde-fixed samples for the teaching-learning of the canine anatomy.


En la enseñanza de la Anatomía, el uso de preparaciones cadavéricas se considera el método que permite a los estudiantes retener el conocimiento de una forma más eficiente. No obstante, en Ecuador, el uso de especímenes animales en las universidades se debe realizar bajo el principio internacional de reemplazo, reducción y refinamiento (3Rs). La técnica de plastinación es una técnica alternativa que permite preservar órganos a largo plazo y que se adapta al principio de las 3Rs. El objetivo del trabajo fue utilizar la técnica de plastinación en silicona al frío con productos Biodur® para obtener órganos caninos duraderos y manejables útiles como herramienta para la enseñanza de la anatomía animal. Se obtuvieron seis cadáveres de caninos de fundaciones locales para la protección animal. Se realizaron disecciones de corazones, cerebros y riñones de los cadáveres caninos. Los órganos se fijaron con formalina al 10 %. A continuación, se llevó a cabo la deshidratación con acetona a -20 °C. Los especímenes fueron impregnados con S10:S3 Biodur® (-20 °C) y al final fueron curados con Biodur® S6. Se lograron plastinar seis corazones, doce riñones, cinco encéfalos y un tallo encefálico de canino. La técnica de plastinación al frío utilizada para obtener órganos de canino conservó los parámetros empleados en el protocolo convencional y permitió obtener órganos que presentaron aspecto brillante, ausencia de olores y mantuvieron la forma anatómica. Por lo que, la técnica facilitó cumplir con el principio de las 3Rs al obtenerse modelos didácticos fáciles de manipular que pueden reemplazar muestras frescas o formolizadas en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la anatomía del canino.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Organ Preservation/methods , Cryopreservation , Plastination , Anatomy, Veterinary/education , Silicones , Tissue Preservation/methods , Cold Temperature , Cerebrum/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Kidney/anatomy & histology
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 333-342, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440309

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Changes in the microcirculation of multiple tissues and organs have been implicated as a possible mechanism in physiological aging. In particular, vascular endothelial growth factor is a secretory protein responsible for regulating angiogenesis via altering endothelial proliferation, survival, migration, extracellular matrix degradation and cell permeability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor in the progression of morphological alterations caused by physiological aging in the heart and kidney and to examine its relation to changes in capillary density. We used two age groups of healthy Wistar rats - 6- and 12-month- old. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was examined through immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and assessed semi-quantitatively. Changes in capillary density were evaluated statistically and correlated with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. We reported stronger immunoreactivity for vascular endothelial growth factor in the left compared to the right ventricle and also observed an increase in its expression in both ventricles in older animals. Contrasting results were reported for the renal cortex and medulla. Capillary density decreased statistically in all examined structures as aging progressed. The studied correlations were statistically significant in the two ventricles in 12-month-old animals and in the renal cortex of both age groups. Our results shed light on some changes in the microcirculation that take place as aging advances and likely contribute to impairment in the function of the examined organs.


Los cambios en la microcirculación de múltiples tejidos y órganos se han implicado como un posible mecanismo en el envejecimiento fisiológico. En particular, el factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular es una proteína secretora responsable de regular la angiogénesis mediante la alteración de la proliferación endotelial, la supervivencia, la migración, la degradación de la matriz extracelular y la permeabilidad celular. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el papel del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular en la progresión de las alteraciones morfológicas causadas por el envejecimiento fisiológico en el corazón y riñón y examinar su relación con los cambios en la densidad capilar. Utilizamos dos grupos de ratas Wistar sanas: 6 y 12 meses de edad. La expresión del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular se examinó mediante inmunohistoquímica e inmunofluorescencia y se evaluó semicuantitativamente. Los cambios en la densidad capilar se evaluaron estadísticamente y se correlacionaron con la expresión del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular. Informamos una inmunorreactividad más fuerte para el factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular en el ventrículo izquierdo en comparación con el derecho y también observamos un aumento en su expresión en ambos ventrículos en animales mayores. Se informaron resultados contrastantes para la corteza renal y la médula. La densidad capilar disminuyó estadísticamente en todas las estructuras examinadas a medida que avanzaba el envejecimiento. Las correlaciones estudiadas fueron estadísticamente significativas en los dos ventrículos en animales de 12 meses y en la corteza renal de ambos grupos de edad. Nuestros resultados arrojan luz sobre algunos cambios en la microcirculación que tienen lugar a medida que avanza el envejecimiento y probablemente contribuyan a un deterioro en la función de los órganos examinados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aging , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Kidney/blood supply , Capillaries/anatomy & histology , Immunohistochemistry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rats, Wistar , Coronary Vessels/physiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/metabolism , Heart/physiology , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/physiology , Microcirculation
4.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(3): 1-14, sept. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292471

ABSTRACT

The accuracy of internal organ volume estimation done with ultrasound (US) was found to be multifactorial. Hence, we aimed to describe and validate the volume assessment of ultrasound and standard volume estimation formulae for different shaped intra-abdominal organs using spleens and kidneys.Dissected cadaveric kidneys (n=25) and spleens (n=29) were scanned to obtain linear measurements and ultrasound auto-generated volumes (USV). Linear measurements were used to calculate the volumes manually with ellipsoid, prolate, and Lambert volume estimating formulae. The actual volumes (AV) of organs were obtained by the water displacement method. Volume assessment accuracy of USV and different formulae were compared by comparing bias, precision and Bland-Altman plot analysis. The US linear and volume measurement procedure was reliable with high inter and intra-observer agreements (linear: Chronbach's α=0.983 to 0.934; volumes: Chronbach's α=0.989). USV estimates were accurate with a high correlation to AV and low estimation bias (-5.9%). Also, prolate (bias=-0.75%) and ellipsoid formulae (bias=-3.75%) were reliable with a negligible bias in estimated volumes. Contrary, the Lambert formula was unreliable due to a high bias (41.6%). For all evaluated methods, the estimation error found to be related to the organ size (T=3.483; p=0.001), mainly when the assessed organ is larger than 50 ml. Also, the shape related estimation error found to be related to the volume estimation formula used.This study has validated the USV for kidney and splenic volume assessments while describing volume-calculating formula employed, organ size and shape as significant contributors for volume estimation accuracy.


Se encontró que la precisión de la estimación del volumen de órganos internos realizada con ultrasonido (US) es multifactorial. El objetivo fue describir y validar la evaluación de volumen mediante ecografía y las fórmulas estándar de estimación de volumen para órganos intraabdominales de diferentes formas utilizando bazos y riñones.Se evaluaron riñones cadavéricos disecados (n = 25) y bazos (n = 29) para obtener medidas lineales y volúmenes autogenerados por ultrasonido (USV). Se utilizaron medidas lineales para calcular los volúmenes manualmente con fórmulas de estimación de volumen elipsoide, prolate y Lambert. Los volúmenes reales (AV) de los órganos se obtuvieron mediante el método de desplazamiento de agua. Se comparó la precisión de la evaluación del volumen de USV y diferentes fórmulas comparando el sesgo, la precisión y el análisis de la gráfica de Bland-Altman. El procedimiento de medición lineal y de volumen mediante US fue confiable con alta concordancia inter e intraobservadores (lineal: α de Chronbach = 0,983 a 0,934; volúmenes: α de Chronbach = 0,989). Las estimaciones de USV fueron precisas con una alta correlación con AV y un bajo sesgo de estimación (-5,9%). Además, las fórmulas prolate (sesgo= -0,75%) y elipsoide (sesgo = -3,75%) fueron confiables con un sesgo insignificante en los volúmenes estimados. Por el contrario, la fórmula de Lambert no fue confiable debido a un alto sesgo (41,6%). Para todos los métodos evaluados, se encontró que el error de estimación estaba relacionado con el tamaño del órgano (T = 3.483; p = 0.001), principalmente cuando el órgano evaluado es mayor de 50 ml. Además, se encontró que el error de estimación de forma está relacionado con la fórmula de estimación de volumen utilizada.Este estudio ha validado el USV para evaluaciones de volumen renal y esplénico al mismo tiempo que describe la fórmula de cálculo de volumen empleada, el tamaño y la forma de los órganos como contribuyentes significativos de la precisión de la estimación de volumen.


Subject(s)
Spleen/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Organ Size , Spleen/anatomy & histology , Kidney/anatomy & histology
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(4): 1200-1211, ago. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385429

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study aimed to describe the morphology, histology, and histochemistry of the kidneys and the sexual segment of the kidney (SSK) in Chamaeleo calyptratus (Yemen chameleons or veiled chameleons) collected during the active reproductive season. To achieve this objective, a total of 7 mature male Chamaeleo calyptratus were captured from their natural habitats from different areas in the Aseer region of Saudi Arabia and transferred to the reptilian laboratory where their kidneys were dissected out. Next, a morphological examination was conducted on the kidneys and the SSK was processed for light microscopic examinations with the primary focus placed on the morphology and histology of the SSK. The results of the study showed that Chamaeleo calyptratus possess two, reddish-brown, attenuated kidneys divided into lobes and lobules (lobulated). The histological study showed that the chameleons had no distinct limits between the cortex and medulla of the kidneys. In general, similar with other reptiles, this lizard demonstrated that the kidneys have few nephrons, do not show any nephron loop (loop of Henle), and display few glomeruli. The nephron is generally composed of standard components: renal corpuscle, glomerulus surrounded by a double-walled, the glomerular capsule (Bowman's capsule) and renal tubules (six renal tubular segments differentiated as the ciliated neck segment [between the glomerulus and the proximal segment], proximal segment, ciliated intermediate segment instead of nephron loop that connects proximal and distal, distal segment, terminal segment or sexual segment, and all segments emptying into the collecting ducts. The epithelial tissues lining the lumen of these segments vary from simple cuboidal cells to columnar and tall columnar cells in the SSK. Mature male Chamaeleo calyptratus possess hypertrophied parts of the distal renal segments, which are called the SSK. Histologically, the active SSK consists of simple tall columnar epithelial cells with rounded basal nuclei with clear centralized nucleoli and numerous apical coarse secretory granules which are released from the cells by an apocrine process. Histochemically, the secretory granules stain positively for proteins with mercuric bromophenol blue and react intensely to periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) for neutral carbohydrates. This is the first report about the histology of the SSK of the Chamaeleo calyptratus, and this study adds to the knowledge of the reproductive biology, biodiversity, and reproductive strategies of chameleons. Further studies are required to investigate the ultrastructure of the kidneys and SSK.


RESUMEN: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir la morfología, histología e histoquímica de los riñones y el segmento sexual en el riñón (SSK) del Chamaeleo calyptratus (camaleones de Yemen o camaleones con velo) recolectados durante la temporada reproductiva. Un total de 7 machos maduros de Chamaeleo calyptratus fueron capturados en su hábitat natural de diferentes áreas en la región de Aseer de Arabia Saudita y transferidos al laboratorio de reptiles donde fueron disecados los riñones. Posteriormente, se llevó a cabo un examen morfológico de los riñones y se procesó la SSK para exámenes con microscopio óptico con el enfoque principal puesto en la morfología y la histología. Los resultados del estudio mostraron que Chamaeleo calyptratus posee dos riñones atenuados de color marrón rojizo divididos en lóbulos (lobulados). En el estudio histológico se observó que los riñones de los camaleones no tenían límites definidos entre la corteza y la médula. En general, y similar a otros reptiles, este lagarto demostró que los riñones tienen pocas nefronas, no muestran ningún asa de Henle y presentan pocos glomérulos. La nefrona está compuesta por componentes estándar: corpúsculo renal (glomérulo rodeado por una pared de doble pared). Cápsula de Bowman y túbulos renales (seis segmentos tubulares renales diferenciados como el segmento del cuello ciliado [entre el glomérulo y el segmento proximal], segmento proximal, segmento intermedio ciliado en lugar del asa de Henle que conecta proximal y distal, segmento distal, segmento terminal o segmento sexual y todos los segmentos que desembocan en los conductos colectores Los tejidos epiteliales que recubren la luz de estos segmentos varían desde células cuboidales simples hasta células columnares y columnares altas en la SSK. Los machos maduros de Chamaeleo calyptratus poseen partes hipertrofiadas de los segmentos renales distales, denominados SSK. Histológicamente, la SSK activa consiste en células epiteliales cilíndricas altas simples con núcleos basales redondeados, nucléolos centralizados claros y gránulos secretores gruesos apicales que se liberan de las células por un proceso apocrino. Histoquímicamente, los gránulos secretores se tiñen positivamente para las proteínas con azul de bromofenol mercúrico y reaccionan intensamente al ácido periódico-Schiff (PAS) para obtener carbohidratos neutros. Este es el primer informe sobre la histología de la SSK de Chamaeleo calyptratus, y se suma al conocimiento de la biología reproductiva, la biodiversidad y las estrategias reproductivas de los camaleones. Se requieren más estudios para investigar la ultraestructura de los riñones y la SSK.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Genitalia, Male/anatomy & histology , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Lizards/anatomy & histology
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(3): 759-765, jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385410

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The histo-morphology and biometry of liver, lung and kidney of goat were studied. The obtained samples were divided into two groups. One set of tissue was processed for paraffin embedding after formalin fixation. The other set was indigenously plastinated. The plastinates were embedded with paraffin without deplastination. Both the non plastinated and plastinated tissues were sectioned and processed for routine staining. The tissues were examined under light microscope for histological architectures and quantitatively assessed the biometric parameters. The non plastinated and plastinated samples yielded mostly similar histological architectures. But plastinated liver showed alterations and artifacts with enlargement of the central vein and hepatic sinusoidal space. Plastinated lung revealed enlarged alveolar sac. Lack of nuclear clarity was observed for all the plastinated samples. The plastinated kidney revealed compactness of the cellular structures and shrinkage induced artifacts with clear renal corpuscles structure and obvious glomerular capsule (Bowman's capsule). The biometric measurements of central vein of liver, alveolar sac of lung, glomerulus and glomerular space of kidney of both plastinated and non plastinated tissue were also performed using calibrated stage micrometer. Comparison was done between the biometric data for both plastinated and non plastinated tissue. No significant difference was found in the obtained biometric data of liver and lung. Only a significant difference was observed between the width of glomerulus of non plastinated kidney and width of glomerulus of plastinated kidney. The morphological and biometric study of non plastinated and plastinated organs of goat can conclude that histological slides can be made from indigenously plastinated organs with well preserved histological architectures of the tissues with some rare exceptions. Plastination does not affect the biometric characteristics of the organs. In addition, the comparative morphologic and biometric study of plastinated and non plastinated organs of goat will be useful in education and research.


RESUMEN: En este estudio se analizó la histomorfología y biometría de hígado, pulmón y riñón de cabra. Las muestras obtenidas se dividieron en dos grupos: una cohorte de tejido fue procesada para su inclusión en parafina después de la fijación con formalina. La siguiente cohorte fue plastinada localmente. Tanto los tejidos no plastinados como los plastinados fueron seccionados y procesados para tinción de rutina. Los tejidos se examinaron con un microscopio óptico en busca de arquitecturas histológicas y se evaluaron cuantitativamente los parámetros biométricos. Las muestras no plastinadas y plastinadas produjeron arquitecturas histológicas en su mayoría similares. El hígado plastinado mostró alteraciones y artefactos con un aumento de la vena central y del espacio sinusoidal hepático. El pulmón plastinado reveló aumento del saco alveolar. Se observó falta de claridad nuclear en todas las muestras plastinadas. El riñón plastinado reveló compacidad de las estructuras celulares y artefactos inducidos por contracción con estructura clara de corpúsculos renales y obvia cápsula glomerular (cápsula de Bowman). Las mediciones biométricas de la vena central del hígado, el saco alveolar del pulmón, el glomérulo y el espacio glomerular del riñón de tejido plastinado y no plastinado también se realizaron utilizando un micrómetro de platina calibrado. Se realizó una comparación entre los datos biométricos del tejido plastinado y no plastinado. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en los datos biométricos obtenidos de hígado y pulmón. Se observó una diferencia significativa entre el ancho del glomérulo del riñón no plastinado y el ancho del glomérulo del riñón plastinado. En el estudio morfológico y biométrico de órganos de cabra no plastinados y plastinados se puede concluir que es posible hacer portaobjetos histológicos a partir de órganos plastinados naturales con arquitecturas histológicas de los tejidos bien conservadas, con algunas excepciones. La plastinación no afecta las características biométricas de los órganos. Además, el estudio comparativo morfológico y biométrico de órganos plastinados y no plastinados de cabra será de utilidad en la educación y la investigación.


Subject(s)
Animals , Goats/anatomy & histology , Plastination , Ruminants/anatomy & histology , Biometry , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Liver/anatomy & histology , Lung/anatomy & histology
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(3): 890-895, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385423

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Water metabolism in kidney is critical for organisms living in arid environments. In this study, the kidney structure and the expression of AQP1 and AQP2 in Phrynocephalus vlangalii and Camelus bactrianus were studied. It was found that the Phrynocephalus vlangalii has fewer renal corpuscle but developed kidney tubules, and AQP1 and AQP2 were mainly expressed in the kidney tubules. Camelus bactrianus has a large diameter of glomerulus, thick bulbar membrane, and long and dense urinary tract. AQP1 was highly expressed in the proximal convoluted tubule, proximal straight tubule, and Ansa nephroni (Henle´s loop), and AQP2 was also highly expressed in the collecting tubule and distal convoluted tubule. In the long-term evolutionary adaptation, the morphological structure of animal kidney is consistent with its environment. In addition to structural and functional adaptation, aquaporin also participates in the adaptation to water scarcity environment, and may also play a key role.


RESUMEN: El metabolismo del agua en los riñones es fundamental para los organismos que viven en ambientes áridos. En este estudio, se estudió la estructura renal y la expresión de AQP1 y AQP2 en Phrynocephalus vlangalii y Camelus bactrianus. Se encontró que Phrynocephalus vlangalii tiene menos corpúsculos renales. pero desarrolló túbulos renales, y AQP1 y AQP2 se expresaron principalmente en los túbulos renales. Camelus bactrianus tiene un glomérulo de gran diámetro, una membrana bulbar gruesa y un tracto urinario largo y denso. AQP1 se expresó en gran medida en el túbulo contorneado proximal, el túbulo recto proximal y el Ansa nephroni o asa nefrónica (asa de Henle), y AQP2 también se expresó en gran medida en el túbulo colector y el túbulo contorneado distal. A largo plazo, en la adaptación evolutiva la estructura morfológica del riñón animal es coherente con su entorno. Además de la adaptación estructural y funcional, la acuaporina también es parte de la adaptación al entorno de escasez de agua y puede desempeñar un papel clave.


Subject(s)
Animals , Camelus , Aquaporins/pharmacokinetics , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1295-1304, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131466

ABSTRACT

No presente estudo, foram analisados os efeitos do estanozolol, associado ou não à atividade física, sobre o hemograma, o peso ponderal, a ingestão líquida e sólida, a urinálise, a expressão do VEGF-A renal e o glicogênio hepático, além da histopatologia hepática e renal em ratos Wistar. Foram utilizados 32 ratos Wistar, machos, jovens, separados em quatro grupos: GC (grupo controle); GCE (grupo controle-exercício); GT (grupo tratamento-esteroide); GTE (grupo tratamento-esteroide-exercício). Os animais dos grupos GT e GTE (n=16) foram submetidos a injeções subcutâneas, cinco dias/semana, durante 30 dias, na concentração de 5mg/kg de estanozolol diluído em 1mL de óleo de gergelim, utilizado como veículo. A natação foi definida como exercício físico. Houve aumento no peso dos animais submetidos ao estanozolol e ao exercício a partir da terceira semana de uso e aumento da excreção urinária a partir da quinta semana; os demais parâmetros da urinálise foram semelhantes entre os grupos. O uso de estanozolol associado ou não à atividade física promoveu redução da expressão do VEGF-A nos rins e do glicogênio hepático, além de alterações histopatológicas nesses órgãos. Quanto à hematologia, houve uma diminuição dos leucócitos no GTE em relação aos grupos GT e GCE. Quanto aos linfócitos, houve um aumento no GT e uma diminuição no GTE, e, em relação ao número de plaquetas, houve diminuição no GTE quando comparado ao GT e ao GCE Assim, conclui-se que estanozolol na dose de 5,0mg/kg causa alterações renais e hepáticas em ratos Wistar, podendo levar à falência dos rins e do fígado.(AU)


The goal of this study was to determine the effect of stanozolol (ST) on kidney and liver of Wistar rats. Thirty-two male animals were divided into the following four groups: control group (CG); Control group-exercise (GCE); Group-steroid treatment (GT); Group treatment-steroid-exercise (GTE). Swimming was defined as exercise. The animals GT and GTE was submitted to subcutaneous injections, five days/week for 30 days, at a concentration of 5mg/kg ST diluted in 1mL/kg of sesame oil. The results showed an increase in weight gain in all animals submitted to ST and exercise from the 3rd week of use and increase in urinary excretion from the 5th week and the other urinalysis parameters were similar. The ST associated or not with physical activity reduced VEGF-A expression in the kidneys and hepatic glycogen, as well as histopathological changes in these organs. Regarding hematology, there was a decrease in leukocytes in the GTE. As for lymphocytes there was an increase in GT and a decrease in GTE, and in relation to the number of platelets, there was a decrease in GTE. In conclusion, the administration of stanozolol at 5.0mg/kg caused a structural change of kidney and liver in treated animals.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Stanozolol/administration & dosage , Swimming , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Liver/drug effects , Rats, Wistar/physiology , Anabolic Agents/administration & dosage , Kidney Function Tests/veterinary
9.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 26(1): 4-6, ene.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1126997

ABSTRACT

'Salud' es un término complejo que engloba aspectos sociológicos, filosóficos, económicos, biológicos y hasta políticos. Cuando se analiza la definición de la OMS, se encuentra que consideran la salud como un estado completo de bienestar físico, mental y social. Se puede considerar que tal definció es una utopía puesto que exige un estado completo, lo cual implica un concepto "estático", también abarca demasiados aspectos del desarrollo del ser humano, lo cual hace todavía más compleja su aplicación


Health' is a complex term that encompasses sociological, philosophical, economic, biological and even political aspects. When analysing the WHO definition, one finds that health is considered to be a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being. Such a definition can be considered utopian since it requires a complete state, which implies a "static" concept, and it also encompasses too many aspects of human development, which makes its application even more complex.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Health , Human Development , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Biological Products , Health/classification , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
10.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(1): 3-6, jan./mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1491658

ABSTRACT

O interesse pelo estudo de animais silvestres vem crescendo consideravelmente nos últimos anos, seja em decorrência do riscode extinção ou visando o controle de doenças, especialmente as zoonoses. A ordem Rodentia apresenta o maior número deespécies da classe Mammalia. Apesar de ampla distribuição e importância, dados sobre sua anatomia vascular renal são escassosna literatura. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o aparecimento de variação numérica na artéria renal esquerda em Sphiggurusvillosus com enfoque nas possibilidades de implicações clínico-cirúrgicas, como, anastomoses cirúrgicas, estudos imaginológicos,nefrectomias e planejamento pré-operatório para redução de riscos e complicações como hemorragia. O cadáver foi devidamenteformolizado no Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Morfologia de Animais Domésticos e Selvagens e posteriormente dissecado.O rim esquerdo apresentou três artérias renais, uma cranial, uma intermediaria e outra caudal, ambas posicionadas em nível de L2emergindo de forma impar lateralmente da aorta abdominal. A primeira artéria, mais cranial, apresentou 10,52 mm de comprimentoe se dirigiu diretamente para o hilo renal, emitindo ramo para adrenal, diafragma e musculatura sublombar. A segunda artéria,intermediária, mediu 7,77 mm, emitiu ramo cranial e caudal para o hilo renal e ramo ureteral. A terceira artéria, caudal, mediu10,11 mm e se dirigiu para o hilo renal. A veia renal esquerda era única e apresentou 9,25 mm de comprimento, posicionada emnível de L1. Este é o primeiro relato de artéria renal tripla em mamífero silvestre.


Interest in the study of wild animals has grown considerably in recent years, either due to the risk of extinction or to control diseases,especially zoonoses. The order Rodentia has the largest number of species in the Mammalia class. Despite its wide distributionand importance, data on its renal vascular anatomy are scarce in the literature. The aim of this paper is to report the appearanceof numerical variation in the left renal artery in porcupine focusing on the possibilities of clinical and surgical implications, suchas surgical anastomoses, imaging studies, nephrectomies and preoperative planning to reduce risks and complications such asbleeding. The animal was duly formalized in the Laboratory of Teaching and Research in Morphology of Domestic and Wild Animalsand subsequently dissected. The left kidney had three renal arteries, one cranial, one intermediate, and one caudal, both positionedat L2 level, emerging unevenly laterally from the abdominal aorta. The first more cranial artery was 10.52 mm long and directeddirectly into the renal hilum, emitting a branch to the adrenal, diaphragm and sub lumbar muscles. The second intermediate arterymeasured 7.77 mm, emitting a cranial and caudal branch to the renal hilum and ureteral branch. The third caudal artery measured10.11 mm and headed straight for the renal hilum. The left renal vein was unique, measured 9.25 mm long, and positioned at L1level. This is the first report of triple renal artery in wild mammals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Renal Artery/anatomy & histology , Porcupines/anatomy & histology , Porcupines/classification , Kidney/anatomy & histology
11.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(1): 3-6, jan./mar. 2020. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1379086

ABSTRACT

O interesse pelo estudo de animais silvestres vem crescendo consideravelmente nos últimos anos, seja em decorrência do risco de extinção ou visando o controle de doenças, especialmente as zoonoses. A ordem Rodentia apresenta o maior número de espécies da classe Mammalia. Apesar de ampla distribuição e importância, dados sobre sua anatomia vascular renal são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o aparecimento de variação numérica na artéria renal esquerda em Sphiggurusvillosus com enfoque nas possibilidades de implicações clínico-cirúrgicas, como, anastomoses cirúrgicas, estudos imaginológicos, nefrectomias e planejamento pré-operatório para redução de riscos e complicações como hemorragia. O cadáver foi devidamente formolizado no Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Morfologia de Animais Domésticos e Selvagens e posteriormente dissecado. O rim esquerdo apresentou três artérias renais, uma cranial, uma intermediaria e outra caudal, ambas posicionadas em nível de L2 emergindo de forma impar lateralmente da aorta abdominal. A primeira artéria, mais cranial, apresentou 10,52 mm de comprimento e se dirigiu diretamente para o hilo renal, emitindo ramo para adrenal, diafragma e musculatura sublombar. A segunda artéria, intermediária, mediu 7,77 mm, emitiu ramo cranial e caudal para o hilo renal e ramo ureteral. A terceira artéria, caudal, mediu 10,11 mm e se dirigiu para o hilo renal. A veia renal esquerda era única e apresentou 9,25 mm de comprimento, posicionada em nível de L1. Este é o primeiro relato de artéria renal tripla em mamífero silvestre.


Interest in the study of wild animals has grown considerably in recent years, either due to the risk of extinction or to control diseases, especially zoonoses. The order Rodentia has the largest number of species in the Mammalia class. Despite its wide distribution and importance, data on its renal vascular anatomy are scarce in the literature. The aim of this paper is to report the appearance of numerical variation in the left renal artery in porcupine focusing on the possibilities of clinical and surgical implications, such as surgical anastomoses, imaging studies, nephrectomies and preoperative planning to reduce risks and complications such as bleeding. The animal was duly formalized in the Laboratory of Teaching and Research in Morphology of Domestic and Wild Animals and subsequently dissected. The left kidney had three renal arteries, one cranial, one intermediate, and one caudal, both positioned at L2 level, emerging unevenly laterally from the abdominal aorta. The first more cranial artery was 10.52 mm long and directed directly into the renal hilum, emitting a branch to the adrenal, diaphragm and sub lumbar muscles. The second intermediate artery measured 7.77 mm, emitting a cranial and caudal branch to the renal hilum and ureteral branch. The third caudal artery measured 10.11 mm and headed straight for the renal hilum. The left renal vein was unique, measured 9.25 mm long, and positioned at L1 level. This is the first report of triple renal artery in wild mammals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Renal Artery/anatomy & histology , Renal Veins/anatomy & histology , Porcupines/anatomy & histology , Dissection/veterinary , Anatomic Variation , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Aorta, Abdominal/anatomy & histology , Animals, Wild/anatomy & histology
12.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1729-1732, abr.-maio 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482392

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho objetivou identificar lesões em rins bovinos provenientes de matadouros. A taxa de condenação foi 1,34% (17/1268), onde 50% por cisto urinário, 12,5% tuberculose, 12,5% congestão, 6,25% hipoplasia, 6,25% cálculo renal, 6,25% palidez do órgão e 6,25% uronefrose. No estudo histológico dos rins condenados, todos apresentaram infiltrado mononuclear, sendo 60% em zona cortical, 20% zona medular e 20% zona cortical e medular, com intensidade 40% leve, 30% moderada e 30% intensa. Nos rins não condenados, 31/48 amostras apresentaram infiltração mononuclear onde 51,61% foram classificadas como leve, 45,16% moderada e 3,23% intensa; distribuída em 50% córtex, 25% medula e 25% em córtex e medula. Análises complementares podem contribuir para um diagnóstico mais seguro visando reduzir enfermidades e desperdícios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Abattoirs , Kidney Diseases/veterinary , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/injuries , Animal Culling
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(1): 150-160, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989962

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the renal parenchymal area in human fetuses, providing a descriptive analysis on the renal area development by demographic factors during the second gestational trimester. Material and Methods: We analyzed 84 fetuses (44 males and 40 females), for a total of 168 renal units evaluated in terms of longitudinal length, superior pole width, inferior pole width and thickness. Renal volume was calculated by ellipsoid formula. After renal pelvis dissection, length and width were evaluated; as pelvis is free of urine, we considered thickness as 1mm. Renal pelvis volume was also calculated by ellipsoid formula. Renal parenchymal area was assessed by excluding the volume of the renal pelvis from the total renal volume. We performed the statistical analysis by simple linear regression assessing the association between the variables analyzed with the fetal age. Results: Gestational age ranged from 12 to 23 weeks post conception. Mean renal parenchymal area of the right kidney was 666.22mm3 (45.86 to 2375.35mm3) and for the left kidney was 606.76mm3 (68.63 to 2402.57mm3). No statistical difference was observed between the sides (p-value = 0.3456) or genders (p-value = 0.07429). Linear regression between renal parenchymal volume and gestational age was positive for right kidney (y = 133.74x-1479.94 / r2 = 0.4009) and left kidney (y = 149.53x-1761.59 / r2 = 0.4591). Conclusions: The linear regression analysis indicated that renal parenchymal area correlated significantly and positively with fetal age, weight and crown-rump length with no statistical differences between gender or laterality. These growth curves provide a reference for functional volume of the kidney during fetal period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Fetus/anatomy & histology , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/embryology , Organ Size , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Reference Values , Gestational Age
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(5): 952-957, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975629

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been introduced as a novel technique to produce 3D objects. We tried to evaluate the clinical usefulness of 3D-printed renal model in performing partial nephrectomy (PN) and also in the education of medical students. Materials and Methods: We prospectively produced personalized renal models using 3D-printing methods from preoperative computed tomography (CT) images in a total of 10 patients. Two different groups (urologist and student group) appraised the clinical usefulness of 3D-renal models by answering questionnaires. Results: After application of 3D renal models, the urologist group gave highly positive responses in asking clinical usefulness of 3D-model among PN (understanding personal anatomy: 8.9 / 10, preoperative surgical planning: 8.2 / 10, intraoperative tumor localization: 8.4 / 10, plan for further utilization in future: 8.3 / 10, clinical usefulness in complete endophytic mass: 9.5 / 10). The student group located each renal tumor correctly in 47.3% when they solely interpreted the CT images. After the introduction of 3D-models, the rate of correct answers was significantly elevated to 70.0% (p < 0.001). The subjective difficulty level in localizing renal tumor was also significantly low (52% versus 27%, p < 0.001) when they utilized 3D-models. Conclusion: The personalized 3D renal model was revealed to significantly enhance the understanding of correct renal anatomy in patients with renal tumors in both urologist and student groups. These models can be useful for establishing the perioperative planning and also education program for medical students.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Education, Medical, Graduate , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/surgery , Nephrectomy/education , Prospective Studies , Middle Aged , Models, Anatomic
15.
ABCS health sci ; 42(3): 170-173, 11 dez. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-876238

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Variações anatômicas são pequenas diferenças morfológicas congênitas que aparecem nos diferentes sistemas orgânicos, as quais não acarretam prejuízo ou distúrbio funcional para o indivíduo. No que diz respeito aos vasos sanguíneos, alterações no desenvolvimento embriológico podem gerar duplicidade de vasos, agenesia ou ocasionar o surgimento de artérias e o desembocar de veias fora da descrição anatômica padrão. RELATO DE CASO: Foi observada dupla variação anatômica vascular em um indivíduo durante uma dissecação de rotina no Laboratório de Anatomia do Centro Universitário São Camilo. A artéria renal principal tinha origem na parte abdominal da artéria aorta seguindo até sua entrada no hilo renal, porém, em vez de um trajeto retilíneo a partir da aorta, a mesma possuía um trajeto descendente e bem angulado. A partir da artéria renal principal surgia uma artéria polar aberrante que entrava no polo inferior do rim direito. Em um nível mais inferior, na altura da bifurcação da aorta, originava-se outra artéria polar aberrante que entrava no hilo renal, seguindo um trajeto retilíneo até o polo inferior do rim direito. A artéria hepática comum originava-se no tronco celíaco seguindo até sua entrada na porta do fígado. A artéria mesentérica superior possuía origem no tronco celíaco. A artéria hepática direita originava-se na artéria mesentérica superior. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo das variações anatômicas constitui-se tarefa árdua em virtude das inúmeras expressões diferentes que ocorrem no corpo humano, porém, o conhecimento dessas variações é de extrema valia para a clínica e o planejamento cirúrgico, garantindo a precisão e evitando complicações pós-cirúrgicas ou diagnósticos errôneos.


INTRODUCTION: Anatomical variations are small congenital morphological differences that appear in different organ systems, which do not result in damage or functional disturbance for the individual. When it comes to blood vessels, alterations in embryological development may lead to the duplicity and the agenesis of vessels, or cause the emergence of arteries and the disembogue of vessels not according to the standard anatomical description. CASE REPORT: Dual anatomical variation in an individual was observed during a routine dissection in the Laboratory of Anatomy of the Centro Universitário São Camilo. The main renal artery originated in the abdominal part of the aorta artery, following its path until its entry in the renal hilum. However, instead of a rectilinear path from the aorta, it had a descending and well-angulated path. From the main renal artery, an aberrant polar artery emerged, that entered the inferior pole of the right kidney. At a lower level, on the same level as the bifurcation of the aorta, another aberrant polar artery emerged, which entered the renal hilum following a straight path to the inferior pole of the right kidney. The common hepatic artery was originated in the celiac trunk, following its path until its entrance in the porta hepatis. The superior mesenteric artery was originated in the celiac trunk. The right hepatic artery was originated in the superior mesenteric artery. CONCLUSION: The study of anatomical variations is an arduous task due to the innumerable different expressions that occur in the human body. However, the knowledge of these variations is extremely valuable for medicine and surgical planning,assuring accuracy and avoiding postoperative complications or erroneous diagnoses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Artery/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Kidney/anatomy & histology
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(6): 1666-1670, nov./dec. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966531

ABSTRACT

Two renal arteries supply the human kidneys: one to the right kidney and another to the left kidney, both branches of the abdominal aortic. Renal artery duplication is an anatomical variation, which is a normal flexibility of the topography and morphology in body structures. Functionally, it does not impair the body, as the blood supply is vital to tissue survival. In this context, the case study has great importance, once knowing the variations of the renal vessels assist when structuring surgeries and radiological studies in humans. Variations in vascular anatomy are often found in humans. Several authors characterize it: the prevalence of multiple vessels occurs in approximately 20-50% of cases. This is an observational study; we aimed to describe the anatomical variations concerning the duplicity of the renal artery in human cadavers, focusing on possible implications to clinical and surgical procedures. We dissected and analyzed four urinary block systems in adult cadavers, male, with focus on the vascularization. In these, two right kidneys present double renal arteries. Thus, we can infer that this knowledge can be used to improve surgical interventions, such as transplants.


Os rins são supridos por duas artérias renais, uma para o rim direito e outra para o rim esquerdo, ramos da aorta abdominal. A duplicidade de artéria renal é uma variação anatômica definida como uma flexibilidade normal na topografia e morfologia das estruturas do corpo, que em termos funcionais não há prejuízo do órgão, uma vez que a irrigação arterial do mesmo é um fator vital para a sobrevivência dos tecidos. Neste contexto, o estudo de caso tem grande importância, sendo que o conhecimento das variações dos vasos renais auxilia na estruturação da anatomia cirúrgica e em estudos radiológicos e clínicos para humanos. Às variações na anatomia vascular são frequentemente encontradas, no homem, é caracterizada por vários autores, com uma prevalência de vasos múltiplos que ocorre em cerca de 20-50% dos casos. Este trabalho trata-se de um estudo observacional, cujo objetivo é descrever variações anatômicas de duplicidade da artéria renal em cadáveres humanos, com enfoque nas possibilidades de implicação clínico-cirúrgica desta variação anatômica. Foram dissecados e analisados 04 blocos de sistema urinário em cadáveres adultos, do sexo masculino, com enfoque na vascularização. Observou-se que destes blocos, dois rins direitos apresentavam artérias renais duplas. Sendo assim, podemos inferir que o conhecimento das variações anatômicas em humanos pode servir como subsídio para aprimoramento de intervenções cirúrgicas como em transplantes e cirurgias renais.


Subject(s)
Renal Artery , Cadaver , Kidney/anatomy & histology
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(5): 1206-1214, set.-out. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-878684

ABSTRACT

Renal ischemia can be associated with some urological procedures, such as renovascular surgery or kidney transplantation, that are often followed by acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to verify the E-cadherin and ß-catenin localization in canine kidney in different times of renal ischemia and reperfusion after chlorpromazine application. Twelve dogs were randomly distributed equally into two groups. GroupA with ischemia and reperfusion without chlorpromazine and groupB with ischemia and reperfusion treated by chlorpromazine. GroupB received intravenous chlorpromazine, 15 min before the artery obstruction, which lasted 1 hour. After this period, the clamps in the renal arteries were released and the organ remained in reperfusion for 2 hours. In each group, anti-E-cadherin and anti-ß-catenin antibodies were made in six tissue samples from renal parenchyma. E-cadherin and ß-catenin are differentially expressed in segments from cortex and medulla in dog's kidneys and the use of chlorpromazine did not alter the expression of both proteins. Occlusion of the left renal artery in dogs causes morphological alterations mainly in proximal convoluted tubules, beginning 30min after the start of ischemia and being aggravated after two hours of reperfusion. These results reveal that chlorpromazine did not change kidneys' histological aspect nor E-cadherin and ß-catenin expression.(AU)


A lesão renal isquêmica pode estar associada a procedimentos urológicos, tais como cirurgia renovascular, cirurgia renal extracorpórea ou transplante renal. Essa injúria, muitas vezes, é seguida de insuficiência renal aguda. O objetivo deste trabalho foi observar a localização da E-caderina e da ß-catenina em rim de cães, além de relacionar a expressão dessas proteínas das junções de aderência em diferentes tempos de isquemia e reperfusão com ou sem a aplicação de clorpromazina. Para tanto, foram utilizados 12 cães, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de seis indivíduos: grupo A, com isquemia e reperfusão sem tratamento por clorpromazina, e o grupo B, com isquemia e reperfusão tratado por clorpromazina. No procedimento cirúrgico, foi realizada uma incisão paracostal esquerda para identificação e isolamento do rim esquerdo e da artéria renal esquerda. Após o isolamento da artéria, os animais de todos os grupos tiveram o vaso ocluído. Os animais do grupo B receberam clorpromazina via endovenosa, na dose de 5mg/kg, 15min antes da clampagem do vaso, que durou uma hora. Após este período, as artérias renais foram desobstruídas e os órgãos permaneceram em reperfusão por duas horas. Em cada grupo, foram extraídas seis amostras de parênquima renal, com utilização de agulha tru-cut, para marcação com anticorpos anti-E-caderina e anti-ß-catenina por meio de imunoistoquímica. E-caderina e ß-catenina são diferencialmente expressas em segmentos do córtex e da medula em rim de cães e o uso da clorpromazina não alterou a expressão das duas proteínas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , beta Catenin/analysis , Cadherins/analysis , Ischemia/veterinary , Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute/veterinary , Renal Insufficiency/veterinary , Cell Adhesion , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Kidney/anatomy & histology
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(5): 1137-1144, set.-out. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-827887

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to characterize the renal morphology and anatomical variations of the renal pedicle in domestic shorthaired cats. Dissections were performed in 40 adult cats, obtained from the necropsy unit without macroscopic renal pathology. Kidney dimensions (length, width, and thickness) and the length and origin of the renal arteries and main branches were measured. The length, width and thickness of the right kidney (cm) were 3.83±0.46, 2.42±0.22, and 2.22±0.33 in males, and 3.61±0.53, 2.28±0.38, and 2.13±0.40 in females, respectively. In the left kidney, these measures were 3.82±0.32, 2.48±0.31, and 2.37±0.32 in males, and 3.48±0.47, 2.39±0.26, and 2.15±0.34 in females, respectively. The left kidneys of males were significantly bigger than those of females. There was a positive linear correlation between the rostrum-sacral length and ellipsoid volume of the left kidney only in males. Most of the kidneys were situated ventrally between the third to fifth lumbar vertebras. The right renal artery was situated ventrally to third lumbar vertebra and the left artery to the fourth. The results of the present study contribute to the field of comparative and applied anatomy.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a morfologia renal e as variações anatômicas do pedículo renal em gatos de pelo curto brasileiro. As dissecções foram realizadas em 40 gatos adultos, obtidos de necropsias sem evidência de patologia renal macroscópica. Medidas renais (comprimento, largura e espessura), comprimento e origem das artérias renais e ramos principais foram obtidos. O comprimento, a largura e a espessura do rim direito (cm) foram 3,83 ± 0,46, 2,42 ± 0,22 e 2,22 ± 0,33 em machos e 3,61 ± 0,53, 2,28 ± 0,38 e 2,13 ± 0,40 em fêmeas, respectivamente. No rim esquerdo, essas medidas foram 3,82 ± 0,32, 2,48 ± 0,31 e 2,37 ± 0,32 em machos e 3,48 ± 0,47, 2,39 ± 0,26 e 2,15 ± 0,34 em fêmeas, respectivamente. O rim esquerdo dos machos foi maior do que o das fêmeas. Houve correlação linear positiva entre o comprimento rostrossacral e o volume elipsoide do rim esquerdo apenas em machos. A maioria dos rins estão situados ventralmente entre a terceira e quinta vértebras lombares. A artéria renal direita está situada ventralmente na terceira vértebra lombar, e a artéria renal esquerda na quarta. Os resultados do presente estudo contribuem para a anatomia comparada e aplicada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/blood supply , Body Weights and Measures/veterinary
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(6): 545-550, jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-792609

ABSTRACT

There is no standardization in the literature of kidney length in sheep at different ages, as there are few studies about the access with the Doppler triplex ultrasound for the renal vascularization in this species. Eighty healthy sheep of three age groups of Ile de France and White Dorper breed were used: 20 lambs, 30 yearlings and 30 adults (8 rams and 22 ewes). Renal healthiness of the animals was confirmed by serum biochemical tests of urea and creatinine, and by observation of renal architecture with conventional ultrasound, besides measurement of vital parameters. A portable ultrasound (My LabTM30 Vet Gold Esaote®, Esaote Healthcare) device was used, with a convex transducer with 3.5MHz frequency. After identification of the kidneys in two-dimensional mode, the measurement of length in the sagittal section was performed in all sheep (n=80). Then color Doppler was activated for visualization of renal and interlobar arteries of the right kidney, and the resistivity index (RI) of the yearlings (n=30) and ewes (n=22) was measured. Biochemical tests remained within normal limits and renal architecture was preserved. The values ​​of the right and left renal length were different between the groups, increasing with age (4.34cm and 4.31cm in lambs; 6.08cm and 6.23cm in yearlings; 7.57cm and 7.37cm in adults, respectively). Median values of RI of the renal artery were statistically different (p<0.05) between the groups of yearlings (0.57) and ewes (0.52). The median RI of the interlobar artery was similar in yearlings (0.58) and ewes (0.54).(AU)


Não há na literatura padronização do comprimento renal de ovinos, em diferentes idades, assim como existem poucos trabalhos sobre a vascularização renal nesta espécie. Utilizaram-se no total 80 ovinos hígidos de três faixas etárias, das raças Ile de France e White Dorper: 20 cordeiros, 30 borregos e 30 adultos (8 carneiros e 22 ovelhas). A higidez renal dos animais foi comprovada por exames bioquímicos séricos de ureia e creatinina e pela observação da arquitetura renal. Utilizou-se aparelho de Ultrassom portátil (My LabTM30 Vet Gold Esaote®, Esaote Healthcare), com transdutor convexo de frequência de 3,5MHz. Após identificação dos rins no modo bidimensional, foi realizada a mensuração do comprimento no corte sagital em todos os ovinos. Em seguida, Doppler colorido foi ativado para visualização das artérias renal e interlobar do rim direito, e mensurou-se o índice de resistividade dos borregos (n=30) e ovelhas (n=22). Os exames bioquímicos permaneceram dentro da normalidade e a arquitetura renal estava preservada. Os valores do comprimento renal direito e esquerdo foram diferentes entre os grupos, sendo crescente conforme a idade (4,34 e 4,31 em cordeiros, 6,08 e 6,23 em borregos, 7,57 e 7,37 em adultos). As medianas do IR da artéria renal foi estatisticamente diferente (p<0,05) entre os grupos dos borregos (0,57) e ovelhas (0,52). A mediana do IR da artéria interlobar não apresentou diferença entre borregos (0,58) e ovelhas (0,54).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Creatinine/blood , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/blood supply , Sheep/anatomy & histology , Urea/blood , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color/veterinary
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