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Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1198-1206, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340028


ABSTRACT Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a previous standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) on the outcomes of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). Materials and Methods: Outcomes of RIRS performed from January 2017 to January 2020 in adult patients with residual stone fragments ≤20mm after a standard PCNL (Post-PCNL) and symptomatic adult patients with kidney stones ≤20mm (Control) were prospectively studied. Stone-free rate (SFR) was evaluated on a postoperative day 90 non-contrast computed tomography. Surgical complications based on Clavien-Dindo classification during the 90 days of follow-up were recorded. Results: Outcomes of 55 patients and 57 renal units of the post-PCNL group were compared to 92 patients and 115 renal units of the control group. SFR was lower in post-PCNL group than in control (28/57, 49.1% vs. 86/115, 74.8%, p <0.001). Overall complications were more frequent in post-PCNL group (p=0.004). Infundibula strictures were identified and incised with laser in 15/57 (26.3%) renal units of the post-PCNL group. Thirteen renal units had infundibulum stricture at the site of previous percutaneous tract (13/15; 86.7%, p=0.004) and one renal unit had three infundibula strictures. Postoperative complications were not affected by the treatment of infundibula strictures (p=0.198). Conclusions: Previous standard PCNL significantly impairs the outcomes of RIRS. Infundibula strictures can be found in 26.3% of the patients with residual stone fragments after standard PCNL for large burden kidney stones. The main site of infundibulum stricture after standard PCNL is the infundibulum of the entry calyx.

Humans , Adult , Nephrostomy, Percutaneous/adverse effects , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Kidney/surgery , Kidney/diagnostic imaging
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(3): 1-14, sept. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292471


The accuracy of internal organ volume estimation done with ultrasound (US) was found to be multifactorial. Hence, we aimed to describe and validate the volume assessment of ultrasound and standard volume estimation formulae for different shaped intra-abdominal organs using spleens and kidneys.Dissected cadaveric kidneys (n=25) and spleens (n=29) were scanned to obtain linear measurements and ultrasound auto-generated volumes (USV). Linear measurements were used to calculate the volumes manually with ellipsoid, prolate, and Lambert volume estimating formulae. The actual volumes (AV) of organs were obtained by the water displacement method. Volume assessment accuracy of USV and different formulae were compared by comparing bias, precision and Bland-Altman plot analysis. The US linear and volume measurement procedure was reliable with high inter and intra-observer agreements (linear: Chronbach's α=0.983 to 0.934; volumes: Chronbach's α=0.989). USV estimates were accurate with a high correlation to AV and low estimation bias (-5.9%). Also, prolate (bias=-0.75%) and ellipsoid formulae (bias=-3.75%) were reliable with a negligible bias in estimated volumes. Contrary, the Lambert formula was unreliable due to a high bias (41.6%). For all evaluated methods, the estimation error found to be related to the organ size (T=3.483; p=0.001), mainly when the assessed organ is larger than 50 ml. Also, the shape related estimation error found to be related to the volume estimation formula used.This study has validated the USV for kidney and splenic volume assessments while describing volume-calculating formula employed, organ size and shape as significant contributors for volume estimation accuracy.

Se encontró que la precisión de la estimación del volumen de órganos internos realizada con ultrasonido (US) es multifactorial. El objetivo fue describir y validar la evaluación de volumen mediante ecografía y las fórmulas estándar de estimación de volumen para órganos intraabdominales de diferentes formas utilizando bazos y riñones.Se evaluaron riñones cadavéricos disecados (n = 25) y bazos (n = 29) para obtener medidas lineales y volúmenes autogenerados por ultrasonido (USV). Se utilizaron medidas lineales para calcular los volúmenes manualmente con fórmulas de estimación de volumen elipsoide, prolate y Lambert. Los volúmenes reales (AV) de los órganos se obtuvieron mediante el método de desplazamiento de agua. Se comparó la precisión de la evaluación del volumen de USV y diferentes fórmulas comparando el sesgo, la precisión y el análisis de la gráfica de Bland-Altman. El procedimiento de medición lineal y de volumen mediante US fue confiable con alta concordancia inter e intraobservadores (lineal: α de Chronbach = 0,983 a 0,934; volúmenes: α de Chronbach = 0,989). Las estimaciones de USV fueron precisas con una alta correlación con AV y un bajo sesgo de estimación (-5,9%). Además, las fórmulas prolate (sesgo= -0,75%) y elipsoide (sesgo = -3,75%) fueron confiables con un sesgo insignificante en los volúmenes estimados. Por el contrario, la fórmula de Lambert no fue confiable debido a un alto sesgo (41,6%). Para todos los métodos evaluados, se encontró que el error de estimación estaba relacionado con el tamaño del órgano (T = 3.483; p = 0.001), principalmente cuando el órgano evaluado es mayor de 50 ml. Además, se encontró que el error de estimación de forma está relacionado con la fórmula de estimación de volumen utilizada.Este estudio ha validado el USV para evaluaciones de volumen renal y esplénico al mismo tiempo que describe la fórmula de cálculo de volumen empleada, el tamaño y la forma de los órganos como contribuyentes significativos de la precisión de la estimación de volumen.

Spleen/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Organ Size , Spleen/anatomy & histology , Kidney/anatomy & histology
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(2): 464-467, Mar.-Apr. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154453


ABSTRACT Purpose: To report a case of successful removal of right staghorn renal calculi in a 3-year-old girl with Arnold-Chiari malformation and multiple urogenital anomalies. Case report: A 3-year-old female child with the diagnosis of Arnold-Chiari type 2 malformation was referred to our clinic due to presence of 9 kidney stones with a total volume of 10743mm3. The total of the longest diameters of all stones was calculated as 11.4cm. The patient had a urogenital septum, bifid bladder, and duplicated collecting system on the right side. An 18F Amplatz sheath was placed and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy was performed successfully by laser and pneumatic lithotripter. Any residual urinary tract stones or urinary tract infection were not detected during the 6th-month follow-up. Conclusion: Urolithiasis requires a thorough understanding of the underlying causes, as well as an effective and minimally invasive treatment. It is important for urologists to understand the complexity of the optimal stone management in pediatric patients in order to maximize treatment efficacy and minimize morbidity. We conclude that it is essential to treat urolithiasis in a single session in children with urogenital anomalies and accompanying congenital anomalies who have past surgical history.

Humans , Child , Nephrostomy, Percutaneous , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Kidney Calculi/diagnostic imaging , Solitary Kidney , Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous , Kidney Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Kidney/surgery , Kidney/diagnostic imaging
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 642-648, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887906


Arterial spin labeling is a noninvasive,quantitative method for perfusion imaging,which does not need any contrast media.This technique has been used in the renal perfusion analysis.In this article,we briefly introduced this technique and summarized its application in healthy volunteers,acute kidney injury,chronic kidney diseases,renovascular diseases,renal tumors,and renal transplantation.

Humans , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Perfusion , Perfusion Imaging , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Spin Labels
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(4): 461-466, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154643


Abstract Introduction: The role of single Doppler-derived renal resistive index (RI) in renal allograft management is still a controversial issue, however detection of changes in serial duplex scanning has been reported as more valuable. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that early change in RI following transplantation may be related to factors associated with delayed graft function (DGF). Material and methods: 113 patients were included, in whom two RI measurements were performed within 30 days post-transplant. According to an RI change (equal to or more than 10%) in the second measurement, patients were assigned to decrease (Group I), no change (Group II), or increase (Group III) group. Results: 30 subjects had a decrease, 55 had no change, and 28 had an increase in the second RI measurement. The donors were younger in Group III in comparison to Group II. In comparison to Group I, Group III had a higher frequency of deceased donor, DGF, and presence of tubular necrosis and tubular vacuolization in peri-implantation biopsies. Conclusion: the increase of RI during the first weeks of the postoperative period seems to be associated with DGF and with tubular necrosis / tubular vacuolization in peri-implantation biopsies, likely related to ischemia reperfusion injury.

Resumo Introdução: O papel do índice de resistividade renal (IR) derivado de varredura por Doppler no manejo de aloenxertos renais, em exame isolado, ainda é uma questão controversa; no entanto, em exames seriados, a detecção de alterações nas imagens duplex tem sido relatada como mais relevante. Material e métodos: 113 pacientes foram incluídos, nos quais duas medidas de IR foram realizadas dentro de 30 dias após o transplante. De acordo com uma alteração do IR (igual ou superior a 10%) na segunda medida, os pacientes foram classificados em redução (Grupo I), nenhuma alteração (Grupo II) ou aumento (Grupo III). Resultados: 30 indivíduos tiveram redução, 55 não tiveram alterações e 28 tiveram aumento na segunda medição do IR. Os doadores eram mais jovens no Grupo III em comparação ao Grupo II. Em comparação ao Grupo I, o Grupo III apresentou maior frequência de doador falecido, FTE, presença de necrose tubular e vacuolização tubular nas biópsias peri-implantares. Conclusão: o aumento do IR durante as primeiras semanas no período pós-operatório parece estar associado à FTE e à necrose tubular/vacuolização tubular nas biópsias peri-implantares, provavelmente relacionadas à lesão por isquemia-reperfusão.

Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Postoperative Period , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Allografts , Kidney/diagnostic imaging
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(2): e1070, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126750


Introducción: El ultrasonido prenatal aporta una magnífica forma de introducirnos en la patofisiología renal humana, pero es incapaz de detectar todas las anomalías. Objetivos: Identificar las principales anomalías de riñón y tracto urinario en pacientes con diagnóstico prenatal o posnatal de estas anomalías. Métodos: Se incluyeron en el estudio todos los pacientes que llegaron remitidos al servicio de Nefrología del Hospital Pediátrico Docente William Soler entre el 1ero. de octubre de 2015 y el 30 de septiembre de 2017, por haberse detectado alteraciones en el ultrasonido prenatal durante el seguimiento de un embarazo normal y aquellos en los que después del nacimiento se comprobó alguna anormalidad en forma incidental o por síntomas relacionados. Se programó seguimiento clínico, imagenológico y terapéutico de acuerdo con la anomalía detectada. Resultados: El estudio incluyó 81 pacientes, 65 con diagnóstico prenatal y 16 con hallazgo posnatal. El sexo masculino estuvo representado por el 66,7 por ciento y la anomalía más frecuente estudiada resultó la displasia renal multiquística (23,4 por ciento). En segundo lugar, el diagnóstico morfológico correspondió a dilataciones del tracto urinario, que en su estudio posnatal se clasificaron como hidronefrosis (20,9 por ciento), pielectasias (17,4 por ciento) y reflujo vesicoureteral (7,4 por ciento). Conclusiones: El ultrasonido prenatal para la detección de anomalías de riñón y tracto urinario es un proceder diagnóstico de gran utilidad porque permite prepararnos para enfrentar estas anomalías antes que presente síntomas relacionados y además puede proporcionar una adecuada información a los padres. No todas las anomalías congénitas se detectan mediante ecografía prenatal(AU)

Introduction: The prenatal ultrasound provides a great way to introduce us to the human renal pathophysiology, but is unable to detect all of the anomalies. Objectives: To identify the main anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in patients with prenatal or postnatal diagnosis of those. Methods: There were included in the study all the patients who were referred to the Nephrology Service of William Soler Pediatric Teaching Hospital from October 1, 2015 to September 30, 2017 being detected alterations in the prenatal ultrasound during the follow-up of a normal pregnancy and those in which after birth any abnormality was found incidentally or by related symptoms. Clinical, imaging and therapeutic follow-up were scheduled in accordance with the anomaly detected. Results: The study included 81 patients, 65 with prenatal diagnosis and 16 with post-natal finding. The male sex was represented by the 66.7 percent and the most common anomaly studied was the multicystic dysplastic kidney (23.4 percent). Secondly, the morphological diagnosis corresponded to dilations of the urinary tract, which in the post-natal study were classified as hydronephrosis (20.9 percent), pyelectasis (17.4 percent) and vesicoureteral reflux (7.4 percent). Conclusions: The prenatal ultrasound for the detection of kidney and urinary tract´s anomalies is a diagnosis of great utility because it allows us to prepare to face these anomalies before they present related symptoms and it can also provide adequate information to parents. Not all congenital anomalies are detected by prenatal ultrasound(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Urinary Tract/abnormalities , Urinary Tract/diagnostic imaging , Kidney/abnormalities , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Postnatal Care/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(1): e472, ene.-mar. 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126691


Introducción: La ectopia renal cruzada fusionada, es una anomalía congénita infrecuente, que acontece durante la migración fisiológica de dichos órganos en la etapa embrionaria. Objetivo: Describir detalles clínicos e imaginológicos de un nuevo caso de ectopia renal cruzada fusionada. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 48 años de edad, con antecedentes de hiperplasia prostática, con tratamiento de terazosina. Presentó retención completa de orina por lo cual se le colocó sonda uretral. El ultrasonido abdominal reportó que el riñón izquierdo era de ecoestructura, tamaño y posición normales, pero el derecho no estaba en la localización normal y se sospechó que estaba situado en la región del mesogastrio. La vejiga era normal y la próstata tenía un volumen de 87 cm3. La tomografía axial computarizada abdominal contrastada, confirmó que se trataba de una ectopia renal derecha cruzada fusionada, en el polo inferior del riñón ortotópico, en forma de "J". Se intentó retirar la sonda uretral en dos ocasiones y volvía a obstruirse, por lo cual se decidió la terapéutica quirúrgica definitiva. En el chequeo preoperatorio todos los estudios de la analítica sanguínea fueron normales. Al paciente se le realizó la adenomectomía retropúbica. Evolucionó satisfactoriamente. El estudio histopatológico de la pieza quirúrgica informó hiperplasia prostática. Conclusiones: La ectopia renal cruzada fusionada es infrecuente. El diagnóstico de certeza se obtiene mediante la tomografía axial computarizada abdominal contrastada(AU)

Introduction: Crossed-fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly, which occurs during the physiological migration of these organs in the embryonic stage. Objective: To describe clinical and imaginological details of a new case of crossed-fused renal ectopia. Case report: 48-year-old male patient, with a history of prostatic hyperplasia, with terazosin treatment. He had complete retention of urine for which urethral catheter was placed. Abdominal ultrasound reported that the left kidney was of normal structure, size and echo, but the right one was not in the normal location and was suspected of being located in the mesogastrium region. The bladder was normal and the prostate had a volume of 87 cm3. Contrast abdominal computed tomography confirmed that it was a fused right renal ectopia, in the lower pole of the orthotopic kidney, in the form of "J". An attempt was made to remove the urethral catheter twice and it became blocked again, so the definitive surgical therapy was decided. In the preoperative check-up, all blood test studies were normal. The patient underwent retropubic adenomectomy. It evolved satisfactorily. Histopathological study of the surgical specimen reported prostatic hyperplasia. Conclusions: Crossed-fused renal ectopia is uncommon. The diagnosis of certainty is obtained by contrasted abdominal computed tomography(AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Congenital Abnormalities , Urinary Bladder , Tomography , Urinary Catheters , Kidney/diagnostic imaging
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5576, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133778


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate anatomic factors and radiologist's experience in the detection of solid renal masses on ultrasonography. Methods: We searched for solid renal masses diagnosed on cross-sectional imaging from 2007 to 2017 that also had previous ultrasonography from the past 6 months. The following features were evaluated: nodule size, laterality, location and growth pattern, patient body mass index and radiologist's experience in ultrasound. In surgically resected cases, pathologic reports were evaluated. Unpaired t test and χ2 test were used to evaluate differences among subgroups, using R-statistics. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The initial search of renal nodules on cross-sectional imaging resulted in 428 lesions and 266 lesions were excluded. Final cohort included 162 lesions and, of those, 108 (67%) were correctly detected on ultrasonography (Group 1) and 54 (33%) were missed (Group 2). Comparison of Groups 1 and 2 were as follows, respectively: body mass index (27.7 versus 27.1; p=0.496), size (2.58cm versus 1.74cm; p=0.003), laterality (54% versus 59% right sided; p=0.832), location (27% versus 22% upper pole; p=0.869), growth pattern (25% versus 28% endophytic; p=0.131) and radiologist's experience (p=0.300). From surgically resected cases, histology available for Group 1 was clear cell (n=11), papillary (n=15), chromophobe (n=2) renal cell carcinoma, oncocytoma (n=1), and, for Group 2, clear cell (n=7), papillary (n=5) renal cell carcinoma, oncocytoma (n=2), angiomyolipoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, and interstitial pyelonephritis (n=1, each). Conclusion: Size was the only significant parameter related to renal nodule detection on ultrasound.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores anatômicos e a experiência do radiologista na detecção de massas renais sólidas na ultrassonografia. Métodos: Buscamos massas renais sólidas diagnosticadas em imagens seccionais, de 2007 a 2017, que também tivessem ultrassonografia prévia nos últimos 6 meses. As seguintes características foram avaliadas: tamanho do nódulo, lateralidade, localização e padrão de crescimento, índice de massa corporal do paciente e experiência do radiologista em ultrassonografia. Nos casos com ressecção cirúrgica, os laudos de patologia foram analisados. O teste t não pareado e o teste χ2 foram utilizados para avaliar as diferenças entre os subgrupos, usando R-statistics. A significância estatística foi estabelecida em p<0,05. Resultados: A pesquisa inicial de nódulos renais achados em imagens seccionais resultou em 428 lesões, com 266 exclusões. A coorte final incluiu 162 lesões e, destas, 108 (67%) foram detectadas corretamente na ultrassonografia (Grupo 1), e 54 (33%) não foram identificadas (Grupo 2). A comparação dos Grupos 1 e 2 mostrou índice de massa corporal (27,7 versus 27,1; p=0,496), tamanho (2,58cm versus 1,74cm; p=0,003), lateralidade (54% versus 59% no lado direito; p=0,832), localização (27% versus 22% no polo superior; p=0,869), padrão de crescimento (25% versus 28% endofítico; p=0,131) e experiência do radiologista (p=0,300). A histologia disponível para o Grupo 1 foi carcinoma renal de células claras (n=11), papilar (n=15), cromófobo (n=2), oncocitoma (n=1), e, para o Grupo 2, carcinoma renal de células claras (n=7), papilar (n=5), oncocitoma (n=2), angiomiolipoma, cromófobo e pielonefrite intersticial (n=1, cada). Conclusão: O tamanho foi o único parâmetro significativo relacionado à detecção de nódulos renais no ultrassom.

Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Radiologists , Kidney/pathology
Acta cir. bras ; 35(12): e351208, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152684


Abstract Purpose: To describe the anatomy of the swine urinary system using computed tomography and to discuss the role of this animal as an experimental model for urological procedures. Methods: Three male Landrace pigs underwent computed tomography and the anatomy of the urinary system and renal circulation was analyzed and described. Results: In all animals, 2 kidneys, 2 ureters and one bladder were identified. Each kidney presented a single renal artery vascularization, with a mean diameter on the right of 4.45 and 5.31 mm on the left (p < 0.0001) and single renal vein drainage, with a mean diameter on the right of 5.78 and 5.82 mm on the left (p = 0.0336). The average renal length was 9.85 cm on the right and 10.30 cm on the left (p < 0.0001). The average renal volume was 113.70 cm3 on the right and 109.70 cm3 on the left (p < 0.0001). The average length of the ureter was 19.78 cm on the right and 22.08 cm on the left (p < 0.0001). The average bladder volume was 423.70 cm3. Conclusions: The data obtained show similarities with human anatomy, suggesting the viability of the swine model for planning preclinical trials, basic research, refinement in experimental surgery and surgical training for urological procedures.

Animals , Ureter , Renal Artery , Urologic Surgical Procedures , Swine , Urinary Bladder/surgery , Urinary Bladder/diagnostic imaging , Kidney/surgery , Kidney/diagnostic imaging
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 580-584, Out.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056602


Abstract In kidney biopsies reviews, scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is characterized by vascular endothelial injuries, C4d deposits on peritubular vessels, and acute and chronic injuries coexisting on the same biopsy. The clinical signs of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) are described in systemic sclerosis (SSc), nevertheless, it has not been related to acute injuries described on kidney biopsies. We report a case of SRC in a patient with scleroderma-dermatomyositis overlap syndrome, which also showed clinical and histopathological data of TMA. On fundus examination, a severe acute hypertensive retinopathy was found. The kidney biopsy showed severe endothelial damage with widening of mucoid cells at the level of the intima, focal concentric proliferation on most small arterioles, and C3, C4d, and IgM deposits along the capillary walls. The genetic study of complement only showed the presence of membrane cofactor protein (MCP) risk haplotypes, without other genetic complement disorders. We understand that in a patient with TMA and SSc, the kidney damage would be fundamentally endothelial and of an acute type; moreover, we would observe clear evidence of complement activation. Once further studies correlate clinical-analytical data with anatomopathological studies, it is likely that we will be forced to redefine the SRC concept, focusing on the relationship between acute endothelial damage and complement activation.

Resumo Nas revisões de biópsias renais, a crise renal esclerodérmica (CRE) é caracterizada por lesões endoteliais vasculares, depósitos de C4d em vasos peritubulares e lesões agudas e crônicas que coexistem na mesma biópsia. Os sinais clínicos de microangiopatia trombótica (MAT) são descritos na esclerose sistêmica (ES); no entanto, não foram relacionados às lesões agudas descritas nas biópsias renais. Relatamos um caso de CRE em um paciente com síndrome de superposição de esclerodermia-dermatomiosite, que também apresentou dados clínicos e histopatológicos de MAT. No exame de fundo do olho, foi encontrada uma retinopatia hipertensiva aguda grave. A biópsia renal mostrou lesão endotelial grave com alargamento das células mucoides ao nível da íntima, proliferação concêntrica focal na maioria das pequenas arteríolas e depósitos de C3, C4d e IgM ao longo das paredes dos capilares. O estudo genético do complemento mostrou apenas a presença de haplótipos de risco da proteína cofator de membrana (PCM), sem outros distúrbios genéticos do complemento. Entendemos que em um paciente com MAT e ES, o dano renal seria fundamentalmente endotelial e do tipo agudo; além disso, observaríamos evidências claras de ativação do complemento. Uma vez que novos estudos correlacionam dados clínico-analíticos com estudos anatomopatológicos, é provável que sejamos forçados a redefinir o conceito de CRE, enfocando a relação entre dano endotelial agudo e ativação do complemento.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Raynaud Disease/complications , Vision Disorders/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Kidney/blood supply , Capillaries/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunohistochemistry , Papilledema/pathology , Dermatomyositis/complications , Dermatomyositis/immunology , Hypertensive Retinopathy/diagnosis , Hypertensive Retinopathy/pathology , Hypertensive Retinopathy/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic/etiology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/diagnostic imaging
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(5): 1022-1032, Sept.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040074


ABSTRACT Purpose This hybrid retrospective and prospective study performed on 200 consecutive patients undergoing renal CTA, investigates the opacification of renal vasculature, radiation dose, and reader confidence. Materials and Methods 100 patients were assigned retrospectively to protocol A and the other 100 were allocated prospectively to protocol B. Both protocols implemented a contrast material and saline flow rate of 4.5 mL/sec. Protocol A utilized a 100 mL of low-osmolar nonionic IV contrast material (Ioversol 350 mg I/mL) while protocol B employed a patient-tailored contrast media formula using iso-osmolar non-ionic (Iodixanol 320 mg I/mL). Results Arterial opacification in the abdominal aorta and in the bilateral main proximal renal arteries demonstrated no statistical significance (p>0.05). Only the main distal renal artery of the left kidney in protocol B was statistically significant (p<0.046). In the venous circulation, the IVC demonstrated a significant reduction in opacification in protocol B (59.39 HU ± 19.39) compared to A (87.74 HU ± 34.06) (p<0.001). Mean CNR for protocol A (22.68 HU ± 13.72) was significantly higher than that of protocol B (14.75 HU ± 5.76 p< 0.0001). Effective dose was significantly reduced in protocol B (2.46 ± 0.74 mSv) compared to A (3.07 ± 0.68 mSv) (p<0.001). Mean contrast media volume was reduced in protocol B (44.56 ± 14.32 mL) with lower iodine concentration. ROC analysis demonstrated significantly higher area under the ROC curve for protocol B (p< 0.0001), with inter-reader agreement increasing from moderate to excellent in renal arterial visualization. Conclusion Employing a patient-tailored contrast media injection protocol shows a significant refinement in the visualization of renal vasculature and reader confidence during renal CTA.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media/administration & dosage , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Kidney/blood supply , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Radiation Dosage , Reference Values , Renal Veins/diagnostic imaging , Triiodobenzoic Acids/administration & dosage , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Computed Tomography Angiography/standards , Middle Aged
Rev. medica electron ; 41(3): 681-697, mayo.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094076


RESUMEN Las glomerulopatías agrupan varias nefropatías con lesiones fundamentalmente del corpúsculo renal y que se expresan principalmente por proteinuria, hematuria, edemas e hipertensión arterial. La presentación clínica varía en dependencia del tipo de enfermedad de que se trate. Constituye la causa más frecuente de enfermedad renal crónica en adultos jóvenes, por lo que su estudio resulta imprescindible sobre todo para el nivel primario de salud. El propósito fue actualizar consideraciones pertinentes sobre la conducta diagnóstica y terapéutica integral ante una glomerulopatía y valorar emisión de recomendaciones al respecto. Se realizó una búsqueda, análisis y síntesis de información a través de Bases de datos ScieLO Cuba, ScieLO regional, Pubmed, Cumed, Clinical Key en el período 2012-2017 con las palabras clave: síndrome nefrótico, glomerulonefritis, diagnóstico, terapéutica, atención integral. El abordaje en las glomerulopatías es integral, multidisciplinario e individualizado. En Cuba constituyen la cuarta causa de enfermedad renal crónica y predomina el síndrome nefrítico agudo postinfeccioso. El método clínico juega en ello un papel trascendental a la hora de reconocer y registrar sus aspectos clínicos, su etiología, su fisiopatología, y los exámenes complementarios que confirman su presencia o sus complicaciones, así como un tratamiento oportuno que garanticen el perfeccionamiento asistencial. El arma más poderosa ante el reto de los trastornos glomerulares es la visión integradora y con enfoque individual y social protagonizado por el médico ante este grupo de nefropatías en adultos.

ABSTRACT Glomerulopathies encompass a group of several renal disorders with lesions, mainly in the renal corpuscle, expressed in proteinuria, hematuria, edemas and arterial hypertension. Their clinical manifestations change in dependence of the kind of disease. They are the most frequent cause of chronic renal disease in young adults; therefore their study is very important above all in the health care primary level. The aim was updating pertinent considerations on the diagnostic behavior and comprehensive therapy in the case of glomerulopathy, and evaluating the emission of recommendations regarding to them. A search, analysis and synthesis of information was carried out in the databases ScieLO Cuba, ScieLO regional, Pubmed, Cumed, and Clinical Key in the period 2012-2017, using the key words nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, diagnosis, therapeutics, comprehensive care. The approach to glomerulopathies is comprehensive, multidisciplinary and individualized. They are the fourth cause of chronic renal disease; the acute post-infectious nephritic syndrome predominates. The clinical method plays a transcendental role at the moment of recognizing and registering their clinical characteristics, etiology and physiopathology, while complementary tests confirm their presence or complications, and therefore an opportune treatment guarantying the healthcare improvement. The most powerful weapon against the challenge of the glomerular disorders is the integrated vision with an individual and social approach led by the physician in the case of these nephropathies in adults.

Humans , Young Adult , Urination Disorders , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Glomerulonephritis/complications , Glomerulonephritis/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis/etiology , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Glomerulonephritis/blood , Glomerulonephritis/therapy , Glomerulonephritis/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Kidney/physiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Glomerulus/physiopathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Nephrotic Syndrome/diagnosis , Nephrotic Syndrome/etiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/pathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/blood , Nephrotic Syndrome/therapy , Nephrotic Syndrome/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Nephrosis, Lipoid
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 172-175, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012543


ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this study was to analyze the presentation and management of major grade renal trauma in children. Method: A retrospective study was performed including data collected from the patients who were admitted in Pediatric surgery with major grade renal injury (grade 3 and more) from January 2015 to August 2018. Demography, clinical parameters, management, duration of hospital stay and final outcome were noted. Results: Out of 13 children (9 males and 4 females), with age range 2-12 years (mean of 8 years), reported self-fall was the commonest mode of injury followed by road traffic accident. The majority (10/13, 75%) had a right renal injury. Eight children had a grade IV injury, one had a grade V injury, and four children had grade III injury. Duration of hospital stay varied from 3 to 28 (mean of 11.7) days. Three children required blood transfusion. One child required image guided aspiration twice and two required pigtail insertion for perinephric collection. All the 13 children improved without readmission or need for any other surgical intervention. Conclusion: Children with major grade renal trauma due to blunt injury can be successfully managed without surgical intervention and minimal intervention may only be needed in select situations.

RESUMO Introdução: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a apresentação e tratamento de grande trauma renal em crianças. Método: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo incluindo dados coletados dos pacientes que foram internados na cirurgia pediátrica com lesão renal de grau importante (grau 3 ou mais) de janeiro de 2015 a agosto de 2018. Coletamos dados a respeito de demografia, parâmetros clínicos, manejo, tempo de internação e resultado final. Resultados: Das 13 crianças (9 homens e 4 mulheres) com faixa etária de 2-12 anos (média de 8 anos), a queda auto-relatada foi o modo de lesão mais comum seguido de acidente de trânsito. A maioria (10/13, 75%) apresentou lesão renal direita. Oito crianças tiveram uma lesão grau IV, uma apresentou uma lesão grau V e quatro crianças apresentaram lesão grau III. A duração da internação hospitalar variou de 3 a 28 (média de 11,7) dias. Três crianças necessitaram de transfusão de sangue. Uma criança necessitou de aspiração guiada por imagem duas vezes e duas inserções de dreno pigtail exigidas para coleções perinefréticas. Todas as 13 crianças melhoraram sem re-internação ou necessidade de qualquer outra intervenção cirúrgica. Conclusão: Crianças com trauma renal de alto grau devido a lesão contusa podem ser manejadas com sucesso sem intervenção cirúrgica, e intervenção mínima pode ser necessária apenas em situações selecionadas.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/pathology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/therapy , Early Medical Intervention , Conservative Treatment , Kidney/injuries , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/diagnostic imaging , Blood Transfusion , Accidental Falls , Injury Severity Score , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hospitals, University , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Length of Stay