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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1527-1536, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521022

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The 12C6+ heavy ion beam irradiation can cause bystander effects. The inflammatory cytokines, endocrine hormones and apoptotic proteins may be involved in 12C6+ irradiation-induced bystander effects. This study characterized the protective effects and mechanisms of Huangqi decoction (HQD) against 12C6+ radiation induced bystander effects. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation model, and high-dose/medium-dose/low-dose HQD groups. HE staining assessed the pathological changes of brain and kidney. Peripheral blood chemical indicators as well as inflammatory factors and endocrine hormones were detected. Apoptosis was measured with TUNEL. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was determined with real-time PCR and Western blot.Irradiation induced pathological damage to the brain and kidney tissues. After irradiation, the numbers of white blood cells (WBC) and monocyte, and the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and PCNA decreased. The damage was accompanied by increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as well as increased neuronal apoptosis. These effects were indicative of radiation-induced bystander effects. Administration of HQD attenuated the pathological damage to brain and kidney tissues, and increased the numbers of WBC, neutrophils, lymphocyte and monocytes, as well as the expression of IL-2, CRH and PCNA. It also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, CORT and ACTH as well as neuronal apoptosis. HQD exhibits protective effects against 12C6+ radiation-induced bystander effects. The underlying mechanism may involve the promotion of the production of peripheral blood cells, inhibition of inflammatory factors and apoptosis, and regulation of endocrine hormones.


La irradiación con haz de iones pesados 12C6+ puede provocar efectos secundarios. Las citoquinas inflamatorias, las hormonas endocrinas y las proteínas apoptóticas pueden estar involucradas en los efectos secundarios inducidos por la irradiación 12C6+. Este estudio caracterizó los efectos y mecanismos protectores de la decocción de Huangqi (HQD) contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. Las ratas Wistar se dividieron aleatoriamente en grupos control, modelo de irradiación de iones pesados 12C6+ y grupos de dosis alta/media/baja de HQD. La tinción con HE evaluó los cambios patológicos del cerebro y el riñón. Se detectaron indicadores químicos de sangre periférica, así como factores inflamatorios y hormonas endocrinas. La apoptosis se midió con TUNEL. La expresión del antígeno nuclear de células en proliferación (PCNA) se determinó mediante PCR en tiempo real y transferencia Western blot. La irradiación indujo daños patológicos en los tejidos cerebrales y renales. Después de la irradiación, disminuyó el número de glóbulos blancos (WBC) y monocitos, y la expresión de interleucina (IL)-2, hormona liberadora de corticotropina (CRH) y PCNA. El daño estuvo acompañado por una mayor expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterona (CORT) y hormona adrenocorticotrópica (ACTH), así como un aumento de la apoptosis neuronal. Estas alteraciones fueron indicativas de efectos inducidos por la radiación. La administración de HQD atenuó el daño patológico a los tejidos cerebrales y renales, y aumentó el número de leucocitos y monocitos, así como la expresión de IL-2, CRH y PCNA. También disminuyó la expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, CORT y ACTH, así como la apoptosis neuronal. HQD exhibe mecanismos protectores contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. El mecanismo subyacente puede implicar la promoción de la producción de células sanguíneas periféricas, la inhibición de factores inflamatorios y la apoptosis y la regulación de hormonas endocrinas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Heavy Ions/adverse effects , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry , Brain/drug effects , Brain/radiation effects , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Endocrine System/drug effects , Endocrine System/radiation effects , Immunologic Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/radiation effects
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 975-984, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514313

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The toxic effects of acetaminophen appear primarily in the liver and kidney. The protective effect of blue green alga Arthrospira platensis on hepato-renal toxicity caused by acetaminophen was evaluated in male rats. The obtained results showed that subcutaneous injection of acetaminophen at a dose 120 &240 սl acetaminophen/kg by weight resulted in an observed elevation in the enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum total lipids, total cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, urea, nitric oxide (NO), L- malondialdehyde (MDA) and interleukins (IL-2 &IL-6). However, there is a decrease in the serum total protein, albumin and loss in antioxidant enzyme activities in liver including; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GSH). This effect was found to be dose and time dependent. In spite of, pre- oral administration of Arthrospira platensis 1000 mg/kg .b. wt. prior acetaminophen injection succeeded to modulate the effect of the observed abnormalities caused by acetaminophen. Moreover, there were no remarkable changes in serum biomarkers of rats received Arthrospira platensis only at a dose of 1000 mg/kg by weight (group 2). The histopathological findings confirm the biochemical results that indicates the safety use of Arthrospira platensis at the selected dose in this study. Therefore, the present results clarified the protective effect of blue green alga Arthrospira platensis on oxidative stress, hepatic and nephrotoxicity induced by acetaminophen in male Wister rats.


Los efectos tóxicos del paracetamol aparecen principalmente en el hígado y el riñón. Se evaluó en ratas macho Wistar el efecto protector del alga verde azulada Arthrospira platensis sobre la toxicidad hepatorrenal causada por paracetamol. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que la inyección subcutánea de paracetamol a dosis de 120 y 240 µl de paracetamol/kg, resultó en una elevación en las actividades enzimáticas de la aspartato aminotransferasa (AST), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y fosfatasa alcalina (ALP), lípidos séricos totales, colesterol total, creatinina, bilirrubina total, urea, óxido nítrico (NO), L- malondialdehído (MDA) e interleucinas (IL-2 e IL-6). Sin embargo, hay una disminución en la proteína sérica total, albúmina y pérdida en las actividades de las enzimas antioxidantes en el hígado, incluyendo; superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa (CAT) y glutatión reductasa (GSH). Se encontró que este efecto era dependiente de la dosis y el tiempo. A pesar de la administración preoral de Arthrospira platensis 1000 mg/kg, la inyección previa de acetaminofeno logró modular el efecto de las anormalidades observadas causadas por el acetaminofeno. Además, no hubo cambios notables en los biomarcadores séricos de ratas que recibieron Arthrospira platensis solo a una dosis de 1000 mg/kg (Grupo 2). Los hallazgos histopatológicos confirman los resultados bioquímicos que indican la seguridad del uso de Arthrospira platensis a la dosis seleccionada en este estudio. Por lo tanto, los presentes resultados aclararon el efecto protector del alga verde azulada Arthrospira platensis sobre el estrés oxidativo, la toxicidad hepática y la nefrotoxicidad inducida por paracetamol en ratas Wistar macho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Preparations/administration & dosage , Spirulina , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Superoxide Dismutase , Lipid Peroxidation , Interleukins , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 368-373, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440329

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: To investigate if the administration of boric acid (BA) would exert any protective effect against possible nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by the exposure to acrylamide (ACR) in rats. In our study, we used a total of 28 rats that were divided into four equal groups. Group 1: the control group which was not treated with any procedure. Group 2: the ACR group that was administered ACR 50 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal (i.p) route for 14 days. Group 3: the BA group that was administered BA 200 mg/kg/ day via gavage via peroral (p.o) route for 14 days. Group 4: the ACR+BA group that was administered BA simultaneously with ACR. Total antioxidant and oxidant (TAS/TOS) capacities were measured in all groups at the end of the experiment. In addition, the specimens obtained were evaluated with histopathological examination. Studies showed that the ACR and ACr+BA groups were not significantly different in terms of hepatic TAS level while the TOS level was higher in the ACR group than the ACR+BA group. The groups did not show any significant difference regarding renal TAS and TOS levels. In the histopathological examination of the hepatic tissue, the histopathological injury score of the ACR group was significantly higher than those of the other groups whereas it was significantly lower in the ACR+BA group than the ACR group. Our study concluded that Boric acid had a protective effect against acrylamide- induced hepatotoxicity, but not against nephrotoxicity.


El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar si la administración de ácido bórico (BA) ejercería algún efecto protector frente a la posible nefrotoxicidad y hepatotoxicidad inducida por la exposición a acrilamida (ACR) en ratas. En nuestro estudio, utilizamos un total de 28 ratas que se dividieron en cuatro grupos iguales. Grupo 1: grupo control que no fue tratado. Grupo 2: grupo ACR al que se le administró ACR 50 mg/kg/día por vía intraperitoneal (i.p) durante 14 días. Grupo 3: grupo BA al que se le administró BA 200 mg/kg/día por sonda por vía peroral (p.o) durante 14 días. Grupo 4: grupo ACR+BA al que se administró BA simultáneamente con ACR. Las capacidades antioxidantes y oxidantes totales (TAS/TOS) se midieron en todos los grupos al final del experimento. Además, los especímenes obtenidos fueron evaluados con examen histopatológico. Los estudios demostraron que los grupos ACR y ACr+BA no fueron significativamente diferentes en términos del nivel hepático de TAS, mientras que el nivel de TOS fue mayor en el grupo ACR que en el grupo ACR+BA. Los grupos no mostraron ninguna diferencia significativa con respecto a los niveles renales de TAS y TOS. En el examen histopatológico del tejido hepático, la puntuación de lesión histopatológica del grupo ACR fue significativamente mayor que la de los otros grupos, mientras que fue significativamente menor en el grupo ACR+BA que en el grupo ACR. Nuestro estudio concluyó que el ácido bórico tiene un efecto protector contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por acrilamida, pero no contra la nefrotoxicidad.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Boric Acids/administration & dosage , Acrylamide/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Biochemistry , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/physiopathology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. graf, ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468874

ABSTRACT

Thimerosal is an organomercurial compound, which is used in the preparation of intramuscular immunoglobulin, antivenoms, tattoo inks, skin test antigens, nasal products, ophthalmic drops, and vaccines as a preservative. In most of animal species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites for mercurial compounds deposition and target organs for toxicity. So, the current research was intended to assess the thimerosal induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were categorized into four groups. The first group was a control group. Rats of Group-II, Group-III, and Group-IV were administered with 0.5µg/kg, 10µg/kg, and 50µg/kg of thimerosal once a day, respectively. Thimerosal administration significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and protein content while increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels dose-dependently. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, urinary albumin and creatinine clearance was reduced dose-dependently in thimerosal treated groups. The results demonstrated that thimerosal significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities, DNA and histopathological damages dose-dependently. So, the present findings ascertained that thimerosal exerted nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.


O timerosal é um composto organomercurial, utilizado na preparação de imunoglobulina intramuscular, antivenenos, tintas de tatuagem, antígenos de teste cutâneo, produtos nasais, gotas oftálmicas e vacinas como conservante. Na maioria das espécies animais e nos humanos, o rim é um dos principais locais de deposição de compostos de mercúrio e órgãos-alvo de toxicidade. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a nefrotoxicidade induzida pelo timerosal em ratos machos. Vinte e quatro ratos albinos machos adultos foram categorizados em quatro grupos. O primeiro grupo era um grupo de controle. Ratos do Grupo II, Grupo III e Grupo IV receberam 0,5µg / kg, 10µg / kg e 50µg / kg de timerosal uma vez ao dia, respectivamente. A administração de timerosal diminuiu significativamente as atividades de catalase (CAT), superóxido dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutationa redutase (GR), glutationa (GSH) e conteúdo de proteína, enquanto aumentou as substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS) e peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2) níveis dependentes da dose. Os níveis de nitrogênio ureico no sangue (BUN), creatinina, urobilinogênio, proteínas urinárias, molécula de lesão renal-1 (KIM-1) e lipocalina associada à gelatinase de neutrófilos (NGAL) aumentaram substancialmente. Em contraste, a albumina urinária e a depuração da creatinina foram reduzidas de forma dependente da dose nos grupos tratados com timerosal. Os resultados demonstraram que o timerosal aumentou significativamente os indicadores de inflamação, incluindo fator nuclear kappaB (NF-κB), fator de necrose tumoral-α (TNF-α), interleucina-1β (IL-1β), níveis de interleucina-6 (IL-6) e atividades da ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2), DNA e danos histopatológicos dependentes da dose. Portanto, os presentes achados verificaram que o timerosal exerceu nefrotoxicidade em ratos albinos machos.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Kidney/drug effects , Thimerosal/adverse effects , Thimerosal/toxicity , Rats, Wistar
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468888

ABSTRACT

The study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Zizyphus oxyphyla leaves methanolic (ZOX-LME), on serum liver, kidney and hematology along with other serum parameters in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rabbits. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, six rabbits in each. These were: group NC (normal control), group, TC (toxic control) and group ST i.e. silymarine administered group at dose rate (50) mg/kg body weight (BW). Group ET1 and group ET2 treated with (ZOX-LME) at dose 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW. CCl4 administration caused significant (P> 0.05) impairment in serum liver enzymes, blood factors and other serum indices. Treatment with (ZOX-LME) significantly (P<0.05) reduced and normalized the levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hematological indices. Also significant (P< 0.05) reduction was observed in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and albumin and glucose concentrations. The altered levels of lipid profile and serum electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K, and P) were significantly (P<0.05) change toward normal levels with (ZOX-LME) feeding. In addition (ZOX-LME) ingestion caused significant improvement in GSH, GST and CAT levels, while reducing the TBARS levels, exhibited antioxidant capacity. Also (ZOX-LME) showed increase inhibition against percent scavenging of 2, 2-diphenile-1-picrylehydrazyle (DPPH) free radical. Significant (P<0.05) normalizing effects were observed with high dose 400 mg/kg BW of (ZOX-LME and were equivalent to silymarine administered groups. The histological study of liver supported the hepatoprotective and renal curative activity of (ZOX-LME).


O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos terapêuticos das folhas metanólicas de Zizyphus oxyphyla (ZOX-LME) no fígado, rim e hematologia séricos, juntamente com outros parâmetros séricos em coelhos intoxicados com tetracloreto de carbono (CCl4). Os animais experimentais foram divididos em cinco grupos, seis coelhos em cada. Estes foram: grupo NC (controle normal), grupo TC (controle tóxico) e grupo ST, isto é, grupo administrado com silimarina na taxa de dose (50) mg / kg de peso corporal (PC). Grupo ET1 e grupo ET2 tratado com (ZOX-LME) na dose de 200 mg / kg de peso corporal e 400 mg / kg de peso corporal. A administração de CCl4 causou prejuízo significativo (P > 0,05) nas enzimas hepáticas séricas, fatores sanguíneos e outros índices séricos. O tratamento com (ZOX-LME) reduziu significativamente (P < 0,05) e normalizou os níveis de alanina transaminase (ALT), aspartato transaminase (AST) e fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e os índices hematológicos. Também foi observada redução significativa (P < 0,05) nas concentrações de creatinina, ureia, ácido úrico, nitrogênio ureico no sangue (BUN), albumina e glicose. Os níveis alterados de perfil lipídico e eletrólitos séricos (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K e P) foram significativamente (P < 0,05) mudando em direção aos níveis normais com a alimentação (ZOX-LME). Além disso, a ingestão de (ZOX-LME) causou melhora significativa nos níveis de GSH, GST e CAT, enquanto reduzia os níveis de TBARS, exibindo capacidade antioxidante. Também (ZOX-LME) mostrou inibição aumentada contra a eliminação percentual do radical livre 2, 2-difenila-1-picrilehidrazila (DPPH). Efeitos de normalização significativos (P < 0,05) foram observados com altas doses de 400 mg / kg de peso corporal de (ZOX-LME) e foram equivalentes aos grupos administrados com silimarina. O estudo histológico do fígado confirmou a atividade hepatoprotetora e curativa renal de (ZOX-LME).


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Biomarkers/blood , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Phytotherapy , Liver/drug effects , Kidney/drug effects , Ziziphus , Rabbits
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469005

ABSTRACT

Excessive intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as, diclofenac sodium (DS) may lead to toxicity in the rats. In this work, we aimed to examine the protective impact of lentil extract (LE) and folic acid (FA) on the hematological markers, the kidney tissue oxidative stress and the renal function against diclofenac sodium (DS) in male albino rats. The rats (120-150 g) were divided into four equal groups randomly, the first group kept as the untreated control. The second group was administrated with DS (11.6 mg/kg b.wt. orally once/day). The third group was received DS+FA (11.6 mg/kg b.wt.+76.9 microgram/kg b.wt.) orally once/day. The fourth group was treated with DS+LE (11.6 mg/kg b.wt.+500 mg/kg b.wt.) orally once/day. After four weeks, the results revealed that DS produced a significant decrease in the values of red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (HCT) and white blood cells (WBCs). On the other hand, there was a significant increase in the platelets count. Also, DS induced a renal deterioration; this was evidenced by the significant increase in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, Na, Ca, Mg as well as the nitric oxide (NO) level in the kidney tissue. Also, there were a significant reduction in the serum levels of potassium (K) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the kidney homogenates. Moreover, the findings in the rats treated by DS+LE or DS+FA showed a potential protection on the hematological markers, oxidative stress in the kidney tissue and the renal function disturbed by DS. LE and FA could play a potent role for the prevention the adverse hematological, the kidney tissue oxidative stress and the renal dysfunction caused by DS via their anti-oxidative and bioactive phytochemicals.


A ingestão excessiva de anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais, como o diclofenaco de sódio (DS), pode causar toxicidade em ratos. Neste trabalho, objetivamos examinar o impacto protetor do extrato de lentilha (LE) e ácido fólico (AF) em marcadores hematológicos, no estresse oxidativo do tecido renal e na função renal contra o diclofenaco de sódio (DS) em ratos albinos machos. Os ratos (120-150 g) foram divididos em quatro grupos iguais aleatoriamente, sendo o primeiro grupo mantido como controle não tratado. O segundo grupo foi administrado com DS (11,6 mg / kg de peso corporal por via oral uma vez / dia). O terceiro grupo recebeu DS + FA (76,9 mg / kg de peso corporal por via oral uma vez / dia). O quarto grupo foi tratado com DS + LE (500 mg / kg de peso corporal por via oral uma vez / dia). Após quatro semanas, os resultados revelaram que o DS produziu uma diminuição significativa nos valores de glóbulos vermelhos (RBCs), concentração de hemoglobina (Hb), hematócrito (HCT) e glóbulos brancos (WBCs). Por outro lado, houve um aumento significativo na contagem de plaquetas. Além disso, o DS induziu uma deterioração renal; isso foi evidenciado pelo aumento significativo dos níveis séricos de ureia, creatinina, ácido úrico, Na, Ca, Mg e também do nível de óxido nítrico no tecido renal. Além disso, houve uma redução significativa nos níveis séricos de potássio (K) e glutationa reduzida (GSH) nos homogenatos renais. Além disso, os achados nos ratos tratados com DS + LE ou DS + FA mostraram uma proteção potencial sobre os marcadores hematológicos, estresse oxidativo no tecido renal e função renal perturbada pelo DS. LE e AF podem desempenhar um papel potente na prevenção do estresse hematológico adverso, do estresse oxidativo do tecido renal e da disfunção renal causada pelo DS por meio de seus fitoquímicos antioxidantes e bioativos.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Diclofenac/toxicity , Oxidative Stress , Lens Plant , Kidney/drug effects , Hematologic Tests , Folic Acid/pharmacology
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 808-816, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385645

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common complication of diabetes. Several studies have been done in a trial to protect against this problem at the ultrastructure level. This study investigates the protective effect of oral administration of Acacia senegal (AS) against the development of DN. Sixty male albino rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, Acacia senegal control, Diabetic untreated, diabetic insulin-treated, Diabetic AS treated, and Diabetic insulin and AS combined treated groups. Plasma glucose, HbA1c, serum Albumin, creatinine, urine creatinine was measured using specific kits. Determinations of creatinine clearance and blood pressure were done. The renal tissues of both kidneys were prepared to investigate under both light (LM) and electron microscope (EM). Ultrastructure examination of renal rats tissue of diabetic untreated rats showed the destruction of the glomerular basement membrane and endothelial cells together with hemorrhage in glomerular capsules (Bowman's capsules). On the other side, both LM and EM revealed improving the endothelial cells and the other glomerular capsules structures, especially with the combined treated group, which confirmed the improvement of the biochemical investigation in the study. In conclusion, from the present study, using the oral AS together with SC insulin could be protected against the development of DN.


RESUMEN: La nefropatía diabética (ND) es la complicación más común de la diabetes. Se han realizado varios estudios de ensayo para abordar esta dificultad a nivel de ultraestructura. Este estudio investiga el efecto protector de la administración oral de Acacia senegal (AS) contra el desarrollo de la ND. Se dividieron sesenta ratas albinas machos aleatoriamente en seis grupos: control, control de Acacia senegal, diabéticos no tratados, diabéticos tratados con insulina, diabéticos tratados con AS y grupos tratados con compuesto de insulina diabética + AS. Se midieron utilizando kits específicos, glucosa plasmática, HbA1c, albúmina sérica, creatinina en sangre y en orina. Se registraron la creatinina y la presión arterial. Los tejidos renales de ambos riñones se prepararon para investigar tanto con microscopio óptico (MO) como electrónico (ME). El examen de la ultraestructura del tejido renal de ratas diabéticas no tratadas mostró la destrucción de la membrana basal glomerular y las células endoteliales junto con hemorragia en las cápsulas glomerulares (cápsulas de Bowman). Por otro lado, tanto MO como ME revelaron una mejora de las células endoteliales y las estructuras capsulares glomerulares, en el grupo tratado con el compuesto, lo que confirmó la mejora de la investigación bioquímica. En conclusión, el uso de AS oral en combinación con insulina podría proteger contra el desarrollo de ND.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Acacia , Gum Arabic/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers , Administration, Oral , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Kidney/ultrastructure
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 256-267, mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395304

ABSTRACT

Gentamicin induced acute nephrotoxicity (GIAN) is considered as one of the important causes of acute renal failure. In recent years' great effort has been focused on the introduction of herbal medicine as a novel therapeutic agent for prevention of GIAN. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) on GIAN in rats. Results of the present study showed that rat groups that received oral GCBE for 7 days after induction of GIAN(by a daily intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin for 7days), reported a significant improvement in renal functions tests when compared to the GIAN model groups. Moreover, there was significant amelioration in renal oxidative stress markers (renal malondialdehyde, renal superoxide dismutase) and renal histopathological changes in the GCBE-treated groups when compared to GIAN model group. These results indicate that GCBE has a potential role in ameliorating renal damage involved in GIAN.


La nefrotoxicidad aguda inducida por gentamicina (GIAN) se considera una de las causas importantes de insuficiencia renal aguda. En los últimos años, el gran esfuerzo se ha centrado en la introducción de la medicina herbal como un nuevo agente terapéutico para la prevención de GIAN. Por lo tanto, el estudio actual fue diseñado para investigar el efecto del extracto de grano de café verde (GCBE) sobre la GIAN en ratas. Los resultados del presente estudio mostraron que los grupos de ratas que recibieron GCBE oral durante 7 días después de la inducción de GIAN (mediante una inyección intraperitoneal diaria de gentamicina durante 7 días), informaron una mejora significativa en las pruebas de función renal en comparación con los grupos del modelo GIAN. Además, hubo una mejora significativa en los marcadores de estrés oxidativo renal (malondialdehído renal, superóxido dismutasa renal) y cambios histopatológicos renales en los grupos tratados con GCBE en comparación con el grupo del modelo GIAN. Estos resultados indican que GCBE tiene un papel potencial en la mejora del daño renal involucrado en GIAN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Gentamicins/toxicity , Coffea/chemistry , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Coffee , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Function Tests , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
9.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 603-611, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939787

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of Schisandra chinensis oil (SCEO) against aristolochic acid I (AA I)-induced nephrotoxicity in vivo and in vitro and elucidate the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups according to a random number table, including control group, AA I group, and AA I +SCEO (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) groups (n=5 per group). Pretreatment with SCEO was done for 2 days by oral administration, while the control and AA I groups were treated with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. Mice of all groups except for the control group were injected intraperitoneally with AA I (5 mg/kg) from day 3 until day 7. Histopathological examination and apoptosis of kidney tissue were observed by hematoxylin and eosin and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (SCr), as well as renal malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione, r-glutamyl cysteingl+glycine (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expressions of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1A2, and nad(p)hquinonedehydrogenase1 (NQO1) were analyzed using ELISA, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot, respectively. In vitro, SCEO (40 µ g/mL) was added 12 h before treatment with AA I (40 µ mol/mL for 48 h) in human renal proximal tubule cell line (HK-2), then apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed by flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#SCEO 0.5 and 1 g/kg ameliorated histopathological changes and TUNEL+ staining in the kidney tissues of mice with AA I-induced nephrotoxicity, and reduced serum levels of ALT, AST, BUN and SCr (P<0.01 or P<0.05). SCEO 0.5 and 1 g/kg alleviated the ROS generation in kidney, containing MDA, GSH and SOD (P<0.01 or P<0.05). SCEO 1 g/kg increased the expressions of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 and decreased NQO1 level in the liver tissues (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Besides, in vitro studies also demonstrated that SCEO 40 µ g/mL inhibited apoptosis and ROS generation (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#SCEO can alleviate AA I-induced kidney damage both in vivo and in vitro. The protective mechanism may be closely related to the regulation of metabolic enzymes, thereby inhibiting apoptosis and ROS production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Apoptosis , Aristolochic Acids/toxicity , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Schisandra , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
10.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 255-259, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935787

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the expulsion effect of sodium dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS) on mercury in different organs of mercury poisoning and the therapeutic effect of glutathione (GSH) combined with antioxidant therapy on mercury poisoning. Methods: In February 2019, 50 SPF male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, 10 rats in each group: A (saline negative control group) , B (HgCL2 positive control group) , treatment group (C: intramuscular injection of DMPS 15 mg/kg treatment, D: intramuscular injection of DMPS30 mg/kg treatment, E: intramuscular injection of DMPS 15 mg/kg and intraperitoneal injection of GSH200 mg/kg treatment) . Rats in group B, C, D and E were subcutaneously injected with mercury chloride solution (1 mg/kg) to establish a rat model of subacute mercury poisoning kidney injury. Rats in group A were subcutaneously injected with normal saline. After the establishment of the model, rats in the treatment group were injected with DMPS and GSH. Rats in group A and group B were injected with normal saline. At 21 d (treatment 7 d) and 28 d (treatment 14 d) after exposure, urine and blood samples of 5 rats in each group were collected. Blood biochemistry, urine mercury, urine microalbumin and mercury content in renal cortex, cerebral cortex and cerebellum were detected. Results: After exposure to mercury, the contents of mercury in renal cortex, cerebrum and cerebellum of rats in group B, C, D and E increased, and urine microalbumin increased. Pathology showed renal tubular injury and renal interstitial inflammation. Compared with group B, urinary mercury and renal cortex mercury in group C, D and E decreased rapidly after DMPS treatment, and there was no significant decrease in mercury levels in cerebellum and cerebral cortex of rats, accompanied by transient increase in urinary albumin after DMPS treatment (P<0.05) ; the renal interstitial inflammation in group E was improved after GSH treatment. There was a positive correlation between urinary mercury and the contents of mercury in renal cortex, cerebral cortex and cerebellum (r=0.61, 0.47, 0.48, P<0.05) . Conclusion: DMPS mercury expulsion treatment can significantly reduce the level of metal mercury in the kidney, and there is no significant change in the level of metal mercury in the cortex and cerebellum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain/drug effects , Glutathione , Inflammation , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Mercuric Chloride/therapeutic use , Mercury/urine , Mercury Poisoning/drug therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saline Solution/therapeutic use , Unithiol/therapeutic use
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 874-879, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405255

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetes and hypertension account for the majority of chronic kidney injury cases that can lead to renal failure. The link between the leukocytes common antigen (CD45) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) with and without metformin incorporation in an animal model has not been investigated before. Therefore, we sought to assess the extent of leukocytes infiltration into kidney tissues 10 weeks following the induction of diabetes in rats treated with metformin. In addition, we monitored blood and urine parameters associated with diabetes. The model group of rats received streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg) injection after being fed for 14 days on a high-fat diet (HFD) and continuously fed a HFD until they were culled, at week 12. The protective group was treated in the same way except that these animals were put from day 1 on metformin (200 mg/kg) until being culled, on week 12. Kidneys were immunostained with CD45 as a marker of leukocytes infiltration and examined by light microscopy. Urine samples were tested for urine albumin and collected blood was analyzed for sugar, urea, creatinine, and oxidative stress and antioxidants biomarkers. Kidney injury secondary to diabetes was developed as demonstrated by (i) increased blood glucose, urea, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation; and (ii) kidney tissue damage and marked increase in kidney tissues expressing CD45 positive cells. The above markers were inhibited (p0.0006) by metformin. Also, a significant correlation was observed between CD45 score and glycemia, urea, MDA, and the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD). Thus, our data demonstrate an association between the infiltration of CD45+ inflammatory cells into kidney tissues and biomarkers of kidney damage in a rat model of DKD, which was effectively protected by metformin.


RESUMEN: La diabetes y la hipertensión representan la mayoría de los casos de lesión renal crónica que pueden provocar insuficiencia renal. El vínculo entre el antígeno común de los leucocitos (CD45) y la enfermedad renal diabética (DKD) con y sin incorporación de metformina en un modelo animal no se había anteriormente investigado. El objetivo fue evaluar el grado de infiltración de leucocitos en los tejidos renales 10 semanas después de la inducción de diabetes en ratas tratadas con metformina. Además, monitoreamos los parámetros de sangre y orina asociados con la diabetes. El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una inyección de estreptozotocina (STZ; 50 mg/kg) después de ser alimentadas durante 14 días con una dieta alta en grasas (HFD) y continuamente alimentadas con un HFD hasta que fueron sacrificadas, en la semana 12. El grupo protector fue tratado de la misma manera excepto que estos animales fueron recibieron desde el día 1 metformina (200 mg/kg) hasta ser sacrificados, en la semana 12. Los riñones fueron inmunoteñidos con CD45 como marcador de infiltración de leucocitos y examinados por microscopía óptica. Las muestras de orina se analizaron en busca de albúmina y la sangre recolectada se analizó en busca de glucosa, urea, creatinina y biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo y antioxidantes. La lesión renal secundaria a la diabetes se desarrolló como lo demuestra (i) el aumento de la glucosa en sangre, la urea y el malondialdehído (MDA) como marcador de la peroxidación lipídica; y (ii) daño del tejido renal y marcado aumento en los tejidos renales que expresan células positivas para CD45. Los marcadores anteriores fueron inhibidos (p≤0.0006) por metformina. Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre la puntuación de CD45 y la glucemia, la urea, la MDA y la superóxido dismutasa antioxidante (SOD). Por lo tanto, nuestros datos demuestran una asociación entre la infiltración de células inflamatorias CD45+ en los tejidos renales y biomarcadores de daño renal en un modelo de rata con DKD, que fue protegido de manera efectiva por metformina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Metformin/administration & dosage , Biomarkers , Leukocyte Common Antigens , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Kidney/drug effects , Metformin/therapeutic use
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(2): 480-488, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385631

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent inducing liver and kidney damage. In this study, we intended to investigate the impact of kefir beverage, an essential probiotic and functional food, on liver and kidney damage induced by cisplatin. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: Control, Cisplatin (single dose of 7 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), Kefir (2 ml/d, 7 d, oral gavage), and Cisplatin+Kefir (CK). At the end of day 7, animals were euthanized. Blood, kidney, and liver tissue samples were collected. For both tissues, biochemically ALT, AST, Urea, Creatine; histomorphologically, hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's Trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining of caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, were performed. Serum urea and creatinine levels of the Cisplatin group were significantly higher than the Control group (p<0.05). In the CK group, kefir consumption decreased urea and creatinin levels approached to Control and Kefir groups. Cisplatin resulted in higher ALT and AST activities, indicating hepatocellular damage, compared to the Control group (p<0.05). Kefir consumption decreased ALT activities approached to both the Control and Kefir group. Histomorphological observations were in agreement biochemical results. In liver and kidney tissues, structural damage was observed with an increase in collagen fibers in the Cisplatin group, and Caspase-3 activity was immunohistochemically higher than in the other groups. In the CK group, collagen fiber increase, structural damage, and Caspase-3 activities were less than in the Cisplatin group. Kefir consumption alleviated liver and kidney damage. However, more research is required to understand such effect of kefir better.


RESUMEN: El cisplatino es un agente quimioterapéutico que induce daño hepático y renal. En este estudio, intentamos investigar el efecto del kéfir, un alimento funcional y probiótico esencial, en el daño hepático y renal inducido por el cisplatino. Se dividieron ratas albinas Wistar en cuatro grupos: control, cisplatino (dosis única de 7 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), kéfir (2 ml/día, 7 días, sonda oral) y cisplatino + kéfir (CK). Al final del día 7, los animales fueron sacrificados. Se recolectaron muestras de sangre, riñón y tejido hepático. Se determinó ALT, AST, Urea y Creatina; Para el análisis histomorfológico, se realizaron tinciones con hematoxilina-eosina, tricrómico de Masson y para inmunohistoquímica, caspasa-3, un marcador de apoptosis. Los niveles séricos de urea y creatinina del grupo de cisplatino fueron significativamente más altos que los del grupo de control (p<0,05). En el grupo CK, el consumo de kéfir disminuyó los niveles de urea y creatinina acercándose a los grupos Control y Kéfir. El cisplatino resultó en actividades más altas de ALT y AST, lo que indica daño hepatocelular, en comparación con el grupo Control (p<0.05). El consumo de kéfir disminuyó las actividades de ALT tanto en el grupo Control como en el de Kéfir. Las observaciones histomorfológicas coincidieron con los resultados bioquímicos. En tejidos hepáticos y renales se observó daño estructural con aumento de fibras colágenas en el grupo de Cisplatino, y la actividad de Caspasa-3 fue inmunohistoquímicamente mayor que en los otros grupos. En el grupo de CK, el aumento de las fibras colágenas, el daño estructural y las actividades de Caspasa-3 fueron menores que en el grupo Cisplatino. El consumo de kéfir mejoró el daño hepático y renal. Sin embargo, se requiere más investigación para comprender mejor el efecto del kéfir.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cisplatin/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Kefir , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Urea/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Creatinine/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Caspase 3 , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 339-350, jul. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349507

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to explore the comparative efficacy of cinnamon bark extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced oxidative stress. Cinnamon bark extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol were utilized or in-vivo analysis. From the results of in-vitro screening tests, cinnamon ethanolic extract was selected for in-vivo study in mouse model. For this, Balb/c albino mice were treated with cinnamon ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg), cinnamaldehyde (10 mg/kg) and kaempferol (10 mg/kg) orally for 14 days followed by single intraperitoneal administration of APAP during 8 hours. Blood and organ samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis. The results showed that cinnamon bark ethanolic extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol ameliorated APAP-induced oxidative stress and organ toxicity in mice. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol possess comparable antioxidant potential even at 20-times less dose as compared to cinnamon bark ethanolic extract suggesting therapeutic potential in oxidative stress-related disorders.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo explorar la eficacia comparativa del extracto de corteza de canela, cinamaldehído y kaempferol contra el estrés oxidativo inducido por acetaminofén (APAP). Se utilizaron extracto de corteza de canela, cinamaldehído y kaempferol para el análisis in vivo. De los resultados de las pruebas de detección in vitro, se seleccionó el extracto etanólico de canela para estudio in vivo en modelo de ratón. Para ello, los ratones albinos Balb/c fueron tratados con extracto etanólico de canela (200 mg/kg), cinamaldehído (10 mg/kg) y kaempferol (10 mg/kg) por vía oral durante 14 días, seguido de la administración intraperitoneal única de APAP durante 8 horas. Se recogieron muestras de sangre y órganos para análisis bioquímicos e histopatológicos. Los resultados mostraron que el extracto etanólico de la corteza de canela, el cinamaldehído y el kaempferol mejoraron el estrés oxidativo inducido por APAP y la toxicidad orgánica en ratones. En conclusión, el cinamaldehído y el kaempferol poseen un potencial antioxidante comparable, incluso a una dosis 20 veces menor en comparación con el extracto etanólico de la corteza de canela, lo que sugiere un potencial terapéutico en los trastornos relacionados con el estrés oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acrolein/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Kaempferols/chemistry , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Acrolein/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Disease Models, Animal , Phytochemicals , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Mice, Inbred BALB C
14.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 303-314, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343478

ABSTRACT

In this study, against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diapetic nephropathy (DN); it is aimed to investigate the use of thymoquinone (TQ) and ß-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) and to compare the effects of these agents. With random selection of 35 male rats, five groups (seven rats in each group) were constituted as follows: Control, STZ, STZ + TQ, STZ + BAIBA, STZ + TQ + BAIBA. In the STZ group; body weight, glutathione (GSH) and insulin levels decreased, relative kidney weight, malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) levels were increased. Also, in kidney tissue; histopathological changes (such as thickening of the capsular, glomerular and tubular basement membranes, increased mesangial matrix amount, increased cytoplasmic vacuolization in some of the tubular epithelial cells, increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression, and inflammatory cell infiltrations in interstitial tissue) were detected. It was observed that these changes occurring after diabetes mellitus (DM) reversed significantly in TQ, BAIBA and TQ + BAIBA groups.


En este estudio, contra la nefropatía diapética (ND) inducida por estreptozotocina (STZ); tiene como objetivo investigar el uso de timoquinona (TQ) y ácido ß-aminoisobutírico (BAIBA) y comparar los efectos de estos agentes. Con la selección aleatoria de 35 ratas macho, se constituyeron cinco grupos (siete ratas en cada grupo) como sigue: Control, STZ, STZ + TQ, STZ + BAIBA, STZ + TQ + BAIBA. En el grupo STZ; el peso corporal, los niveles de glutatión (GSH) y de insulina disminuyeron, el peso relativo de los riñones, el malondialdehído (MDA), la glucosa, el nitrógeno ureico en sangre (BUN) y los niveles de creatinina (Cr) aumentaron. Además, en tejido renal; se detectaron cambios histopatológicos (como engrosamiento de las membranas basales capsular, glomerular y tubular, aumento de la cantidad de matriz mesangial, aumento de la vacuolización citoplasmática en algunas de las células epiteliales tubulares, aumento de la expresión del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α) e infiltraciones de células inflamatorias en tejido intersticial). Se observó que estos cambios que ocurren después de la diabetes mellitus (DM) se revirtieron significativamente en los grupos TQ, BAIBA y TQ + BAIBA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Benzoquinones/administration & dosage , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Aminoisobutyric Acids/administration & dosage , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Body Weight , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress , Creatinine/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Glucose/analysis , Glutathione/analysis , Kidney/drug effects
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(2): 612-618, abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385340

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of this study is to determine the potential therapeutic effects of CAPE in CP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Cisplatin (CP) is an antineoplastic chemotherapeutic used for treatment of many cancer types but its applications may induce nephrotoxicity. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active component of propolis and it has several important physiological activities. Rats were divided into four groups: Control, CAPE (10 µmol/kg/i.p), CP (7 mg/kg/i.p), and CP+CAPE (7 mg/kg/i.p, CP and 10 µmol/kg/i.p, CAPE). After administrations, animals were sacrificed, and kidney tissues were extracted. Histopathological changes were evaluated and TNF-α and IL-6 immunostaining were performed. Moreover, tissue SOD, CAT and MDA levels were measured by ELISA assay to assessment of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. CP group showed histopathological deterioration compared to the Control group and CAPE treatment attenuated this damage. When compared with Control and CAPE group, an increase in TNF-α and IL-6 immunoreactivities and tissue MDA levels were observed in the CP group while a decrease in tissue SOD and CAT levels were detected. Furthermore, an improvement was observed in the CP+CAPE compared to the CP group. We suggest that CAPE can be used as a therapeutic agent to attenuate the toxic effects of cisplatin, thanks to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los posibles efectos terapéuticos de éster fenetílico del ácido cafeico (EFAC) en la nefrotoxicidad inducida por cisplatino (CP) en ratas. El CP es un quimioterapéutico antineoplásico utilizado para el tratamiento de muchos tipos de cáncer, sin embargo sus aplicaciones pueden inducir nefrotoxicidad. El EFAC es un componente activo del propóleo y tiene varias actividades fisiológicas importantes. Para el estudio las ratas se dividieron en cuatro grupos: Control, EFAC (10 µmol / kg / ip), CP (7 mg / kg / ip) y CP + EFAC (7 mg / kg / ip, CP y 10 µmol / kg / ip, EFAC). Después de las administraciones, se sacrificaron los animales y se extrajeron los tejidos renales. Se evaluaron los cambios histopatológicos y se realizó inmunotinción de TNF-α e IL-6. Además, los niveles tisulares de SOD, CAT y MDA se midieron mediante un ensayo ELISA para evaluar el estrés oxidativo y la peroxidación lipídica. El grupo CP mostró deterioro histopatológico en comparación con el grupo Control y el tratamiento con EFAC atenuó este daño. En comparación con el grupo de control y EFAC, se observó un aumento en las inmunorreactividades de TNF-α e IL-6 y los niveles de MDA en el tejido en el grupo de CP, mientras que se detectó una disminución en los niveles de SOD y CAT en los tejidos. Además, se observó una mejora en el CP + EFAC en comparación con el grupo CP. Sugerimos que EFAC puede utilizarse como agente terapéutico para atenuar los efectos tóxicos del cisplatino, gracias a sus propiedades antioxidantes y antiinflamatorias.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Cisplatin/toxicity , Kidney/drug effects , Phenylethyl Alcohol/pharmacology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Inflammation , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 876-881, Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124869

ABSTRACT

Acetaminophen (also called paracetamol, or APAP) causes acute kidney injury after accidental or intentional ingestion of a toxic dose of the drug. We tested whether the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, quercetin (QUR) given alone can protect against acute nephrotoxicity induced by APAP overdose in a rat model of APAP-induced acute kidney injury. Rats were either given a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg) before being sacrificed after 24 hours or were pre-treated for 7 days with QUR (50 mg/kg) before being given a single dose of APAP and then sacrificed 24 hours post APAP ingestion. Kidneys were examined by light microscopy after staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and collected blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and kidney injury. H&E stained sections of kidney from the model group of rats (APAP) showed substantial damage to the kidney architecture as demonstrated by widening of Bowman's space, tubular dilatation, vacuolization of tubular epithelium, and congested dilated blood vessels, which were partially protected by QUR. In addition, APAP significantly (p<0.05) increased blood levels of urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by QUR. These results indicate that quercetin partially protects against APAP-induced acute kidney injury in rats, which is associated with the inhibition of biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation and kidney injury.


El acetaminofeno (también llamado paracetamol o DCI) causa daño renal agudo después de la ingestión accidental o intencional de una dosis tóxica del medicamento. En el estudio analizamos si el agente antioxidante y antiinflamatorio, la quercetina (QUR) administrada sola, puede proteger contra la nefrotoxicidad aguda inducida por sobredosis de DCI en un modelo de rata. Las ratas recibieron una dosis única de DCI (2 g / kg) antes de ser sacrificadas después de 24 horas o fueron pretratadas durante 7 días con QUR (50 mg / kg) antes de recibir una dosis única de DCI y luego sacrificadas 24 horas post ingestión. Los riñones se examinaron mediante microscopía óptica después de la tinción con hematoxilina y eosina (H&E) y las muestras de sangre recolectadas se analizaron para detectar biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo, inflamación y daño renal. Las secciones de riñón teñidas con H&E del grupo modelo de ratas (DCI) mostraron un daño sustancial a la arquitectura del riñón, como lo demuestra la ampliación del espacio de Bowman, la dilatación tubular, la vacuolización del epitelio tubular y los vasos sanguíneos dilatados congestionados, que estaban parcialmente protegidos por QUR. Además, DCI aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) los niveles sanguíneos de la urea, creatinina, malondialdehído (MDA), factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-a) e interleucina-6 (IL-6), los que fueron reducidos significativamente (p < 0,05) por QUR. Estos resultados indican que la quercetina protege parcialmente contra la lesión renal aguda inducida por DCI en ratas, asociada con la inhibición de biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo, inflamación y lesión renal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Quercetin/pharmacology , Biomarkers/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Protective Agents , Creatinine , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation , Kidney/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 919-923, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124877

ABSTRACT

Letrozole (Letro) is a drug commonly used for breast cancer treatment since it can decrease estrogen level. In experimental animal, the Letro has been used to induce the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) model. Tyrosine phosphorylation (TyrPho) is an essential process in various biological functions both normal and abnormal conditions especially reproduction. Although some side effects of Letro are reported, the alterations of TyrPho responsible for liver and kidney functions have never been demonstrated. In this study, the blood serum, liver, and kidney of control and PCOS rats induced with Letro (orally, 1 mg/ KgBW) for consecutive 21 days were used to determine the serum biochemical components and to investigate the TyrPho expression using western blot analysis. Histopathology of such tissues was observed by Masson's trichrome staining. The results showed that Letro did not affect histological structures but significantly increased the serum levels of urea nitrogen, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, ALT, AST, and alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, the TyrPho protein expressions of 32 and 27 kDas in liver and of 55 and 43 kDas in kidney were increased while of a kidney 26 kDa was decreased as compared to those of control. In conclusion, this recent study indicated that the changes of TyrPho proteins in liver and kidney induced with Letro associated with their functions by alteration of serum biochemical levels.


El letrozol (Letro) es un medicamento utilizado comúnmente para el tratamiento del cáncer de mama, debido a que puede disminuir el nivel de estrógeno. En animales de experimentación, el Letro se ha utilizado para inducir el modelo de síndrome de ovario poliquístico (PCOS). La fosforilación de tirosina (TyrPho) es un proceso esencial en diversas funciones biológicas, tanto en condiciones normales como anormales, especialmente en la reproducción. A pesar de informes que indican algunos efectos secundarios de Letro, no se han demostrado las alteraciones de TyrPho responsables de las funciones hepáticas y renales. En este estudio, el suero sanguíneo, el hígado y el riñón control y las ratas PCOS inducidas con Letro (por vía oral, 1 mg / KgBW) durante 21 días consecutivos se usaron para determinar los componentes bioquímicos del suero y para investigar la expresión de TyrPho usando análisis de transferencia Western. La histopatología de los tejidos se observó mediante la tinción tricrómica de Masson. Los resultados mostraron que Letro no afectó las estructuras histológicas, pero aumentó significativamente los niveles séricos de urea, colesterol, triglicéridos, HDL, LDL, ALT, AST y fosfatasa alcalina. Además, las expresiones de la proteína TyrPho de 32 y 27 kDas en el hígado y de 55 y 43 kDas en el riñón aumentaron mientras que en un riñón disminuyeron 26 kDa en comparación con el control. En conclusión, este estudio indicó que los cambios de las proteínas TyrPho en el hígado y los riñones inducidos con Letro se asociaron con sus funciones mediante la alteración de los niveles bioquímicos en suero.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/chemically induced , Letrozole/adverse effects , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Phosphorylation/physiology , Tyrosine/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1003-1009, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124889

ABSTRACT

This study was set to investigate the effect of gum Arabic (G.A.) on diabetic kidney disease. We divided sixty male Sprague rats randomly into six groups. Normal control, normal rats treated with G.A., untreated diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with insulin, diabetic rats treated with G.A., and diabetic rats treated with both insulin and G.A. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Forty eight hr post injections. Insulin was injected subcutaneously (1.6/IU/100g/day). We provided G.A. in drinking water (10 %w/ v).). At the end of the twelve weeks, blood was drawn for measurement of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), serum lipids, serum creatinine, and blood urea. Renal tissue oxidative stress (O.S.) was assessed by measuring the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). For histological assessments, sections from segments of kidneys were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for assessment under the light microscope. STZinduced diabetes caused an elevation of blood glucose, HbA1c, urea and creatinine, triglycerides LDL and cholesterol, MDA with reduction of HDL, GSH level, and CAT and SOD activities. Histologically, kidneys from diabetic rats showed marked glomerular and tubular changes. Administration of G.A. alone to diabetic rats had a significant hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effect, although the levels achieved remained significantly abnormal compared with the untreated group with no effect on urea and creatinine levels. Co-administration of G.A. with insulin reversed the impact of D.M. on all parameters evaluated including the histological changes and led to normal urea and creatinine levels. We concluded that G.A., in combination with insulin, improves chemically-induced diabetes and its renal complications, possibly by modulation of oxidative stress.


En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la goma arábiga (GA) en la enfermedad renal diabética. Dividimos sesenta ratas macho Sprague Dawley al azar en seis grupos. Control normal, ratas normales tratadas con GA, ratas diabéticas no tratadas, ratas diabéticas tratadas con insulina, ratas diabéticas tratadas con GA y ratas diabéticas tratadas con insulina y GA. La diabetes fue inducida por una sola inyección intraperitoneal de STZ. Cuarenta y ocho horas después se inyectó insulina por vía subcutánea (1,6 / UI / 100 g / día). A los animales se les dió GA en agua potable (10 % p / v)). Al final de las doce semanas, se extrajo sangre para medir la glucosa, la hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1C), los lípidos en suero, la creatinina en suero y la urea en sangre. El estrés oxidativo del tejido renal (SO) se evaluó midiendo las actividades de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y la catalasa (CAT), y las concentraciones de glutatión reducido (GSH) y malondialdehído (MDA). Para las evaluaciones histológicas, se procesaron secciones de segmentos de riñones y se tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina (H & E) para análisis bajo microscopio óptico. La diabetes inducida por STZ causó una elevación de la glucosa en sangre, HbA1c, urea y creatinina, triglicéridos LDL y colesterol, MDA con reducción de las actividades de HDL, GSH y CAT y SOD. Histológicamente, los riñones de ratas diabéticas mostraron marcados cambios glomerulares y tubulares. La administración de GA solo en las ratas diabéticas tuvo un efecto hipoglucémico, hipolipidémico y antioxidante significativo, aunque los niveles alcanzados permanecieron significativamente anormales en comparación con el grupo no tratado, sin ningún efecto sobre los niveles de urea y creatinina. La dministración conjunta de GA con insulina revirtió el impacto de DM en todos los parámetros evaluados, incluidos los cambios histológicos y condujeron a niveles normales de urea y creatinina. Concluimos que GA en combinación con insulina, mejora la diabetes inducida químicamente y sus complicaciones renales, posiblemente mediante la modulación del estrés oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Gum Arabic/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Gum Arabic/pharmacology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
19.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(4): e3048, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139171

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la Insuficiencia renal crónica es un problema de salud pública, por lo que surge la necesidad de incrementar las acciones dirigidas a su prevención, diagnóstico e intervenciones terapéuticas eficaces; estudios recientes emplean el Factor de crecimiento epidérmico para evaluar su efecto reno-protector en variables funcionales; sin embargo se carece de estudios relacionados con los efectos de este producto sobre las características histológicas de riñones insuficientes. Objetivo: determinar los posibles efectos protectores y/o reparadores del Factor de crecimiento epidérmico humano recombinante sobre las características histológicas de riñones con insuficiencia renal crónica. Material y métodos: se trabajó con tres series, formadas por un grupo control y uno experimental cada una, de cinco animales, a los grupos experimentales se les realizó ablación quirúrgica de 5/6 de la masa renal. La serie A se conformó por animales controles, la B por los tratados con Factor de crecimiento epidérmico 24 horas antes del procedimiento y la C por los tratados con el bioproducto 24 horas después. Pasados 56 días del acto operatorio a los animales se les practicó la eutanasia y se procedió al estudio histológico del riñón. Resultados: en los animales de la serie A se observaron alteraciones histológicas en los corpúsculos y túbulos renales, en la serie B se observó que la mayor parte del parénquima renal presentó características normales y los de la serie C mostraron un daño renal incrementado. Conclusiones: El Factor de crecimiento epidérmico humano recombinante posee efecto reno-protector, sin embargo, no ofrece efecto reno-reparador(AU)


Introduction: Chronic Kidney Failure is a public health problem; therefore, the need for actions aimed at its prevention, diagnosis and effective therapeutic interventions is a most. Recent studies use the Epidermal Growth Factor to evaluate its reno-protective effect on functional variables; however, there are no studies related to the effects of this product on histological features of kidney in chronic failure. Objective: To determine the possible protective and / or repair effects of recombinant human epidermal growth factor on the histological features of kidneys in chronic renal failure. Material and methods: We worked with three series, each consisting of a control group and an experimental group of five animals. The experimental groups underwent 5/6 surgical ablation of the renal mass. Series A consisted of control animals, series B included those animals treated with Epidermal Growth Factor 24 hours before the procedure and series C was made up of those animals treated with the bioproduct 24 hours after the procedure. Fifty-six days after surgical act, euthanasia was practiced on the animals and the kidneys were histologically studied. Results: Histological alterations were observed in the renal corpuscles and tubules in the animals included in series A; in series B it was observed that most of the renal parenchyma presented normal characteristics and those in series C showed increased kidney damage. Conclusions: Recombinant human epidermal growth factor has a reno-protective effect; however, it does not offer a repair effect of acute kidney(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Epidermal Growth Factor/pharmacology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Kidney/drug effects
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 461-471, abr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056463

ABSTRACT

This experiment was designed to study the administration of normal doses of one of recent antimalarial drug and coadministration of vitamin E on the kidney tissue. A total twenty-four adult male albino rats were used and divided into four groups: the first one served as a control, the second received artemether orally for three days consecutively. The rats of the third and fourth groups received the same dose of artemether concomitantly with 50 and 100 mg/kg vitamin E orally daily for 2 weeks. After the last dose, the rats were sacrificed and the kidney tissues with blood samples obtained and processed for light, electron microscopic and biochemical analysis. Histologically, artemether treated kidneys showed atrophied glomeruli with widened urinary space and kidney tubules were degenerated with disturbed contour and some vacuoles inside it. Ultrastructurally, the glomeruli of this group showed hypertrophic endothelial cells, irregularity of its basement membrane, disrupted foot processes and filtration slits. The kidney tubule cells showed loss of basal infoldings, cytoplasmic vacuolation, polymorphic damaged swollen mitochondria a loss of its microvilli towards its capillary lumen. Artemether plus vitamin E of the rat kidney groups showed improvement of morphological changes compared to the changes seen in artemether alone. These data were confirmed by biochemical findings with marked improvement of blood urea and creatinine levels and increase of anti-oxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the vitamin E treated groups. The results of this study revealed that vitamins E can improve the adverse changes of artemether of rat renal tissue.


Este proyecto fue diseñado para estudiar la administración de dosis normales de uno de los medicamentos antipalúdicos y de la administración de vitamina E en el tejido renal. Se utilizaron 24 ratas albinas machos adultas divididas en cuatro grupos: el primero sirvió como control, el segundo recibió arteméter por vía oral durante tres días consecutivos. Las ratas del tercer y cuarto grupos recibieron la misma dosis de arteméter concomitantemente con 50 y 100 mg / kg de vitamina E por vía oral diariamente durante 2 semanas. Después de la última dosis, las ratas fueron sacrificadas y se obtuvo el tejido renal de cada muestra los cuales fueron procesados para análisis con microscopías de luz y electrónica, además de exámenes bioquímicos. Histológicamente, los riñones tratados con arteméter mostraron atrofia glomerular con espacio urinario ensanchado y túbulos renales degenerados con contorno alterado y algunas vacuolas en su interior. Ultraestructuralmente, los glomérulos de este grupo mostraron células endoteliales hipertróficas, irregularidad de su membrana basal, procesos alterados del pie y hendiduras de filtración. Las células del túbulo renal mostraron pérdida de inflexiones basales, vacuolación citoplasmática, mitocondrias dañadas y pérdida de sus microvellosidades hacia la luz capilar. Arteméter más vitamina E en los grupos de riñón de rata mostraron una mejora de los cambios morfológicos, en comparación con los cambios observados en arteméter solamente. Estos datos fueron confirmados por hallazgos bioquímicos con una marcada mejoría de los niveles de urea y creatinina en sangre y un aumento de las actividades enzimáticas antioxidantes de la glutatión peroxidasa y la superóxido dismutasa en los grupos tratados con vitamina E. Los resultados de este estudio revelaron que la vitamina E puede mejorar los cambios adversos del arteméter del tejido renal de la rata.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Artemether/toxicity , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/ultrastructure , Antimalarials/toxicity
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