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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254552, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360202


Anti-tuberculosis drugs are reported to cause hepatotoxicity, which varies from asymptomatic rise of the hepatic enzymes. Hepatoprotective plants plays important role to protect liver. This study investigated the hepatoprotective potential of the Solanum lycopersicum in rats intoxicated with Isoniazid and Rifampicin (INH+RIF) to induce hepatotoxicity. Thirty wistar albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 rats were kept control while groups II, III, IV and V were administered with INH+RIF (75+150 mg/kg) orally, for seven consecutive days. For treatment, rats in group III received silymarin while animals in group IV and V were provided with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of Solanum lycopersicum extract, respectively. On day 0 and 8th blood samples were collected for the analysis of hepatic biomarkers. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's post hoc test for statistical analysis. Hepatotoxicity induced by INH+RIF resulted in significant elevation of serum hepatic enzymes including Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin while decreased the albumin level. The Solanum lycopersicum at dose of 80 mg/kg significantly reduced the hepatic enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin while the albumin level was significantly increased. The treatment had non-significant effect on body and liver weight. Drug induced hepatotoxicity can be effectively treated with Solanum lycopersicum at 80 mg/kg dose.

As drogas antituberculose são relatadas como causadoras de hepatotoxicidade, ocasionando o aumento assintomático das enzimas hepáticas. As plantas hepatoprotetoras desempenham um papel importante na proteção do fígado. Este estudo investigou o potencial hepatoprotetor de Solanum lycopersicum em ratos que foram intoxicados com isoniazida e rifampicina (INH + RIF) para induzir hepatotoxicidade. Trinta ratos wistar albinos foram divididos em cinco grupos de seis animais cada. Os ratos do grupo 1 representaram o grupo controle, enquanto os ratos dos grupos II, III, IV e V receberam INH + RIF (75 + 150 mg/kg) por via oral, por sete dias consecutivos. Para o tratamento, os ratos do grupo III receberam silimarina, enquanto os animais do grupo IV e V receberam 40 mg/kg e 80 mg/kg de extrato de S. lycopersicum, respectivamente. Nos dias 0 e 8, foram coletadas amostras de sangue para análise de biomarcadores hepáticos. Os dados foram submetidos a teste unilateral (ANOVA) e post hoc de Bonferroni para análise estatística. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por INH + RIF resultou em elevação significativa das enzimas hepáticas séricas, incluindo aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e bilirrubina total, enquanto houve a diminuição do nível de albumina. O S. lycopersicum, na dose de 80 mg / kg, reduziu significativamente as enzimas hepáticas AST, ALT, ALP e bilirrubina, enquanto o nível de albumina aumentou de forma significativa. O tratamento não teve efeito significativo no peso corporal e hepático. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por drogas pode ser tratada de forma eficaz com S. lycopersicum na dose de 80 mg/kg.

Animals , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Solanum lycopersicum , Liver/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 975-984, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514313


SUMMARY: The toxic effects of acetaminophen appear primarily in the liver and kidney. The protective effect of blue green alga Arthrospira platensis on hepato-renal toxicity caused by acetaminophen was evaluated in male rats. The obtained results showed that subcutaneous injection of acetaminophen at a dose 120 &240 սl acetaminophen/kg by weight resulted in an observed elevation in the enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum total lipids, total cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, urea, nitric oxide (NO), L- malondialdehyde (MDA) and interleukins (IL-2 &IL-6). However, there is a decrease in the serum total protein, albumin and loss in antioxidant enzyme activities in liver including; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GSH). This effect was found to be dose and time dependent. In spite of, pre- oral administration of Arthrospira platensis 1000 mg/kg .b. wt. prior acetaminophen injection succeeded to modulate the effect of the observed abnormalities caused by acetaminophen. Moreover, there were no remarkable changes in serum biomarkers of rats received Arthrospira platensis only at a dose of 1000 mg/kg by weight (group 2). The histopathological findings confirm the biochemical results that indicates the safety use of Arthrospira platensis at the selected dose in this study. Therefore, the present results clarified the protective effect of blue green alga Arthrospira platensis on oxidative stress, hepatic and nephrotoxicity induced by acetaminophen in male Wister rats.

Los efectos tóxicos del paracetamol aparecen principalmente en el hígado y el riñón. Se evaluó en ratas macho Wistar el efecto protector del alga verde azulada Arthrospira platensis sobre la toxicidad hepatorrenal causada por paracetamol. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que la inyección subcutánea de paracetamol a dosis de 120 y 240 µl de paracetamol/kg, resultó en una elevación en las actividades enzimáticas de la aspartato aminotransferasa (AST), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y fosfatasa alcalina (ALP), lípidos séricos totales, colesterol total, creatinina, bilirrubina total, urea, óxido nítrico (NO), L- malondialdehído (MDA) e interleucinas (IL-2 e IL-6). Sin embargo, hay una disminución en la proteína sérica total, albúmina y pérdida en las actividades de las enzimas antioxidantes en el hígado, incluyendo; superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa (CAT) y glutatión reductasa (GSH). Se encontró que este efecto era dependiente de la dosis y el tiempo. A pesar de la administración preoral de Arthrospira platensis 1000 mg/kg, la inyección previa de acetaminofeno logró modular el efecto de las anormalidades observadas causadas por el acetaminofeno. Además, no hubo cambios notables en los biomarcadores séricos de ratas que recibieron Arthrospira platensis solo a una dosis de 1000 mg/kg (Grupo 2). Los hallazgos histopatológicos confirman los resultados bioquímicos que indican la seguridad del uso de Arthrospira platensis a la dosis seleccionada en este estudio. Por lo tanto, los presentes resultados aclararon el efecto protector del alga verde azulada Arthrospira platensis sobre el estrés oxidativo, la toxicidad hepática y la nefrotoxicidad inducida por paracetamol en ratas Wistar macho.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Preparations/administration & dosage , Spirulina , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Superoxide Dismutase , Lipid Peroxidation , Interleukins , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 362-367, abr. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440327


SUMMARY: Liver transplantation is the only available method to treat liver failure induced by chronic liver injury. We sought to determine whether the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, can inhibit the development of chronic liver injury induced by the hepatotoxic agent thioacetamide (TAA) in association with the suppression of inflammation (hsCRP, TNF-α, and IL-6) / hypoxia- inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) / profibrosis (TIMP-1, MMP-9, and α-SMA) axis that mediates liver injury. Therefore, the model group of rats was injected for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg TAA starting at week two. The protective group was pretreated with 150 mg/ kg captopril daily for two weeks prior to TAA injections and continued receiving both capropril and TAA agents until being humanely scrificed at week 10. We observed a substantial damage to liver tissue in the model group as demonstrated by a significant (p<0.0001) increase in blood and hepatic tissue levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α), interleukin- 6 (L-6), HIF-1α, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). All these parameters were significantly (p<0.0244) protected by captopril. Also, a significant (p<0.0001) positive correlation was observed between a-SMA (profibrosis) and the serum and tissue levels of hsCRP, TNF-α, HIF-1α, TIMP-1, MMP-9, and ALT. Thus, these findings suggest that the induction of chronic liver injury by the hepatotoxic compound, TAA is associated with the upregulation of inflammation/HIF-1α/profibrosis, with captopril exhibiting beneficial hepatic pleotropic effects.

El trasplante de hígado es el único método disponible para tratar la insuficiencia hepática inducida por una lesión hepática crónica. Buscamos determinar si el inhibidor de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina, captopril, puede inhibir el desarrollo de lesión hepática crónica inducida por el agente hepatotóxico tioacetamida (TAA) en asociación con la supresión de la inflamación (hsCRP, TNF-α e IL-6) / factor inducible por hipoxia 1-alfa (HIF-1α) / profibrosis (TIMP-1, MMP-9 y α- SMA) eje que media la lesión hepática. Por lo tanto, al grupo modelo de ratas se le inyectó durante ocho semanas 200 mg/kg de TAA a partir de la semana dos. El grupo protector fue pretratado con 150 mg/kg de captopril al día durante dos semanas antes de las inyecciones de TAA y continuó recibiendo capropril y agentes TAA hasta que fue sacrificado en la semana 10. Observamos un daño sustancial en el tejido hepático en el grupo modelo, como lo demuestra un aumento significativo (p<0,0001) de los niveles en sangre y tejido hepático de proteína C reactiva de alta sensibilidad (hsCRP), factor de necrosis tumoral-α (TNF-a), interleucina-6 (L-6), HIF-1α, inhibidor tisular de metaloproteinasas-1 (TIMP-1), metaloproteinasa de matriz-9 (MMP-9), actina de músculo liso alfa (α-SMA), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). Todos estos parámetros estaban significativamente (p<0,0244) protegidos por captopril. Además, se observó una correlación positiva significativa (p<0,0001) entre α-SMA (profibrosis) y los niveles séricos y tisulares de hsCRP, TNF-α, HIF-1α, TIMP- 1, MMP-9 y ALT. Por lo tanto, estos hallazgos sugieren que la inducción de daño hepático crónico por el compuesto hepatotóxico, TAA, está asociada con la regulación al alza de la inflamación/HIF-1α/profibrosis, con captopril exhibiendo efectos pleotrópicos hepáticos beneficiosos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Thioacetamide/toxicity , Captopril/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Fibrosis , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Actins , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Disease Models, Animal , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors , Inflammation , Liver/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 368-373, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440329


SUMMARY: To investigate if the administration of boric acid (BA) would exert any protective effect against possible nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by the exposure to acrylamide (ACR) in rats. In our study, we used a total of 28 rats that were divided into four equal groups. Group 1: the control group which was not treated with any procedure. Group 2: the ACR group that was administered ACR 50 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal (i.p) route for 14 days. Group 3: the BA group that was administered BA 200 mg/kg/ day via gavage via peroral (p.o) route for 14 days. Group 4: the ACR+BA group that was administered BA simultaneously with ACR. Total antioxidant and oxidant (TAS/TOS) capacities were measured in all groups at the end of the experiment. In addition, the specimens obtained were evaluated with histopathological examination. Studies showed that the ACR and ACr+BA groups were not significantly different in terms of hepatic TAS level while the TOS level was higher in the ACR group than the ACR+BA group. The groups did not show any significant difference regarding renal TAS and TOS levels. In the histopathological examination of the hepatic tissue, the histopathological injury score of the ACR group was significantly higher than those of the other groups whereas it was significantly lower in the ACR+BA group than the ACR group. Our study concluded that Boric acid had a protective effect against acrylamide- induced hepatotoxicity, but not against nephrotoxicity.

El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar si la administración de ácido bórico (BA) ejercería algún efecto protector frente a la posible nefrotoxicidad y hepatotoxicidad inducida por la exposición a acrilamida (ACR) en ratas. En nuestro estudio, utilizamos un total de 28 ratas que se dividieron en cuatro grupos iguales. Grupo 1: grupo control que no fue tratado. Grupo 2: grupo ACR al que se le administró ACR 50 mg/kg/día por vía intraperitoneal (i.p) durante 14 días. Grupo 3: grupo BA al que se le administró BA 200 mg/kg/día por sonda por vía peroral (p.o) durante 14 días. Grupo 4: grupo ACR+BA al que se administró BA simultáneamente con ACR. Las capacidades antioxidantes y oxidantes totales (TAS/TOS) se midieron en todos los grupos al final del experimento. Además, los especímenes obtenidos fueron evaluados con examen histopatológico. Los estudios demostraron que los grupos ACR y ACr+BA no fueron significativamente diferentes en términos del nivel hepático de TAS, mientras que el nivel de TOS fue mayor en el grupo ACR que en el grupo ACR+BA. Los grupos no mostraron ninguna diferencia significativa con respecto a los niveles renales de TAS y TOS. En el examen histopatológico del tejido hepático, la puntuación de lesión histopatológica del grupo ACR fue significativamente mayor que la de los otros grupos, mientras que fue significativamente menor en el grupo ACR+BA que en el grupo ACR. Nuestro estudio concluyó que el ácido bórico tiene un efecto protector contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por acrilamida, pero no contra la nefrotoxicidad.

Animals , Rats , Boric Acids/administration & dosage , Acrylamide/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Biochemistry , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/physiopathology
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 237-245, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430520


SUMMARY: We aimed to investigate the protective effect of linoleic acid on liver toxicity induced by methotrexate. The study was carried out in partnership with the Department of Anatomy and Department of Medical Pharmacology of Çukurova University Faculty of Medicine, using the laboratory facilities of the Department of Medical Pharmacology. Human hepatocyte cell line (CRL- 11233) cells obtained from the American Type Culture Collection Organization (ATCC) were used. Expressions of apoptotic pathway markers, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), BAX, BCL 2, GADD 153, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), and CASPASE-3 were evaluated. All analyzes were examined in four groups (Group 1; control, Group 2; linoleic acid given, Group 3; methotrexate given and Group 4; linoleic acid and methotrexate given). The mean ± standard error values of the obtained results as nanogram / milliliter (ng / ml) are in Group I, Group II, Group III and Group IV, respectively; AIF values, 0.4150 ± 0.1208, 0.3633 ± 0.2389, 1.792 ± 0.3611 and 1.077 ± 0.1646, BAX values, 0.900 ± 0.1864, 1.002 ± 0.2098, 8.352 ± 1.467 and 4.295 ± 1.522, BCL 2 values, 13.93 ± 1.198, 13.92 ± 1.739, 2.938 ± 1.059 and 9.250 ± 1.492, GADD 153, 0.7333 ± 0.1751, 0.7067 ± 0.2115, 1.650 ± 0.2950 and 1.237 ± 0.1805, GRP78, 0.4767 ± 0.1804, 0.5233 ± 0.1590, 2.183 ± 0.2639 and 1.112 ± 0.2693, CASPASE-3 values , 1.127 ± 0.2033, 0.8317 ± 0.3392, 13.50 ± 1.871 and 8.183 ± 1.030. It was determined that linoleic acid has a protective effect on methotrexate-induced liver toxicity.

Nuestro objetivo fue investigar el efecto protector del ácido linoleico sobre la toxicidad hepática inducida por metotrexato. El estudio se llevó a cabo en colaboración con el Departamento de Anatomía y el Departamento de Farmacología Médica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Çukurova, utilizando las instalaciones del laboratorio del Departamento de Farmacología Médica. Se usaron células de la línea celular de hepatocitos humanos (CRL-11233) obtenidas de la American Type Culture Collection Organisation (ATCC). Se evaluaron las expresiones de marcadores de vías apoptóticas, factor inductor de apoptosis (AIF), BAX, BCL 2, GADD 153, proteína regulada por glucosa de 78 kDa (GRP78) y CASPASE-3. Todos los análisis se examinaron en cuatro grupos (Grupo 1; control, Grupo 2; se administró ácido linoleico, Grupo 3; se administró metotrexato y Grupo 4; se administró ácido linoleico y metotrexato). Los valores medios ± error estándar de los resultados obtenidos como nanogramo/mililitro (ng/ml) se encuentran en el Grupo I, Grupo II, Grupo III y Grupo IV, respectivamente; Valores de AIF, 0,4150 ± 0,1208, 0,3633 ± 0,2389, 1,792 ± 0,3611 y 1,077 ± 0,1646, valores de Bax, 0,900 ± 0,1864, 1,002 ± 0,2098, 8,352 ± 1,467 y 4,295 ± 1,522, BCL 2 valores, 13,93 ± 1,199. 2,938 ± 1,059 y 9,250 ± 1,492, GADD 153, 0,7333 ± 0,1751, 0,7067 ± 0,2115, 1,650 ± 0,2950 y 1,237 ± 0,1805, Grp78, 0,4767 ± 0,1804, 0,5233 ± 0,1590, 2,183, ± 1,263. 1,127 ± 0,2033, 0,8317 ± 0,3392, 13,50 ± 1,871 y 8,183 ± 1,030. Se determinó que el ácido linoleico tiene un efecto protector sobre la toxicidad hepática inducida por metotrexato.

Humans , Methotrexate/toxicity , Linoleic Acid/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cells, Cultured , Protective Agents , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Apoptosis Inducing Factor , Caspase 3 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP , Liver/cytology , Liver/drug effects , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/toxicity
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468888


The study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Zizyphus oxyphyla leaves methanolic (ZOX-LME), on serum liver, kidney and hematology along with other serum parameters in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rabbits. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, six rabbits in each. These were: group NC (normal control), group, TC (toxic control) and group ST i.e. silymarine administered group at dose rate (50) mg/kg body weight (BW). Group ET1 and group ET2 treated with (ZOX-LME) at dose 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW. CCl4 administration caused significant (P> 0.05) impairment in serum liver enzymes, blood factors and other serum indices. Treatment with (ZOX-LME) significantly (P<0.05) reduced and normalized the levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hematological indices. Also significant (P< 0.05) reduction was observed in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and albumin and glucose concentrations. The altered levels of lipid profile and serum electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K, and P) were significantly (P<0.05) change toward normal levels with (ZOX-LME) feeding. In addition (ZOX-LME) ingestion caused significant improvement in GSH, GST and CAT levels, while reducing the TBARS levels, exhibited antioxidant capacity. Also (ZOX-LME) showed increase inhibition against percent scavenging of 2, 2-diphenile-1-picrylehydrazyle (DPPH) free radical. Significant (P<0.05) normalizing effects were observed with high dose 400 mg/kg BW of (ZOX-LME and were equivalent to silymarine administered groups. The histological study of liver supported the hepatoprotective and renal curative activity of (ZOX-LME).

O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos terapêuticos das folhas metanólicas de Zizyphus oxyphyla (ZOX-LME) no fígado, rim e hematologia séricos, juntamente com outros parâmetros séricos em coelhos intoxicados com tetracloreto de carbono (CCl4). Os animais experimentais foram divididos em cinco grupos, seis coelhos em cada. Estes foram: grupo NC (controle normal), grupo TC (controle tóxico) e grupo ST, isto é, grupo administrado com silimarina na taxa de dose (50) mg / kg de peso corporal (PC). Grupo ET1 e grupo ET2 tratado com (ZOX-LME) na dose de 200 mg / kg de peso corporal e 400 mg / kg de peso corporal. A administração de CCl4 causou prejuízo significativo (P > 0,05) nas enzimas hepáticas séricas, fatores sanguíneos e outros índices séricos. O tratamento com (ZOX-LME) reduziu significativamente (P < 0,05) e normalizou os níveis de alanina transaminase (ALT), aspartato transaminase (AST) e fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e os índices hematológicos. Também foi observada redução significativa (P < 0,05) nas concentrações de creatinina, ureia, ácido úrico, nitrogênio ureico no sangue (BUN), albumina e glicose. Os níveis alterados de perfil lipídico e eletrólitos séricos (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K e P) foram significativamente (P < 0,05) mudando em direção aos níveis normais com a alimentação (ZOX-LME). Além disso, a ingestão de (ZOX-LME) causou melhora significativa nos níveis de GSH, GST e CAT, enquanto reduzia os níveis de TBARS, exibindo capacidade antioxidante. Também (ZOX-LME) mostrou inibição aumentada contra a eliminação percentual do radical livre 2, 2-difenila-1-picrilehidrazila (DPPH). Efeitos de normalização significativos (P < 0,05) foram observados com altas doses de 400 mg / kg de peso corporal de (ZOX-LME) e foram equivalentes aos grupos administrados com silimarina. O estudo histológico do fígado confirmou a atividade hepatoprotetora e curativa renal de (ZOX-LME).

Animals , Rabbits , Biomarkers/blood , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Phytotherapy , Liver/drug effects , Kidney/drug effects , Ziziphus , Rabbits
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468980


The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra against lipid peroxidation in goat brain and liver homogenates. The formation of free radicals, highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a normal metabolic process for cellular signaling and countering the antigens. However, they may cause serious damage if they produced at amplified tolls. In addition, metabolic disorders also serve as sources of these reactive species. Although the issue can be addressed through supplements and other phytochemicals. In this study, two plant species were evaluated for their biological potential by employing a spectrum of antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity was performed by lipid peroxidation assay. The water extract prepared from leaves of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra showed significant (P<0.05) inhibition as compared to control i.e., 522.6±0.06 and 659.97±0.03 µg/mL against iron-induced lipid peroxidation in goat brain homogenate while the inhibitions were 273.54±0.04 and 309.18±0.05 µg/mL against nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation of the brain. The iron and nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also significantly inhibited by leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra in liver homogenates such as 230.63±0.52 and 326.91±0.01 µg/mL (iron-induced) while 300.47±0.07 and 300.47±0.07 µg/mL (nitroprusside induced), respectively. The extracts of Cannabis sativa extract showed promising activity (96.04±0.060%) against DPPH radicals while Morus nigra showed a moderate activity (34.11±0.120%). The results suggest that different accessions of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra are a potential source of antioxidants and have a therapeutic effect against disease induced by oxidative stress and hence can be used for novel drug discovery and development.

O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e o efeito inibitório de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra contra a peroxidação lipídica em homogenatos de cérebro e fígado de cabras. A formação de radicais livres, espécies altamente reativas de oxigênio (ROS) e espécies reativas de nitrogênio (RNS), é um processo metabólico normal para sinalização celular e combate aos antígenos. No entanto, eles podem causar sérios danos se forem produzidos em portagens ampliadas. Além disso, distúrbios metabólicos também servem como fontes dessas espécies reativas, embora o problema possa ser resolvido por meio de suplementos e outros fitoquímicos. Neste estudo, duas espécies de plantas foram avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial biológico, empregando um espectro de ensaios antioxidantes. A atividade antioxidante foi realizada por ensaio de peroxidação lipídica. O extrato de água preparado a partir de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra mostrou inibição significativa (P < 0,05) em comparação com o controle, ou seja, 522,6 ± 0,06 e 659,97 ± 0,03 µg / mL contra peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro em homogenato de cérebro de cabra, enquanto as inibições foram 273,54 ± 0,04 e 309,18 ± 0,05 µg / mL contra a peroxidação lipídica do cérebro induzida por nitroprussiato. A peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro e nitroprussiato também foi significativamente inibida por extratos de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra em homogenatos de fígado, como 230,63 ± 0,52 e 326,91 ± 0,01 µg / mL (induzida por ferro), enquanto 300,47 ± 0,07 e 300,47 ± 0,07 µg / mL (induzida por nitroprussiato), respectivamente. Os extratos do extrato de Cannabis sativa apresentaram atividade promissora (96,04 ± 0,060%) contra os radicais DPPH enquanto Morus nigra apresentou atividade moderada (34,11 ± 0,120%). Os resultados sugerem que diferentes acessos de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra são uma fonte potencial de antioxidantes e têm efeito terapêutico [...].

Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Goats , Cannabis/chemistry , Cerebrum/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Morus/chemistry
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421796


SUMMARY: Acrylamide (AA) is a widely used chemical and an important monomer in various industrial and laboratory processes. In addition, AA is formed during processing of starchy food at high temperature. The aim of our study was to examine effects of subchronic AA treatment on adult rat liver using histological, stereological and biochemical methods. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with AA at doses of 25 mg/kg b.w. and 50 mg/kg b.w. for three weeks. Stereological analysis showed decrease of volume density of hepatocyte cytoplasm, and increase of volume density of hepatocyte nuclei and nucleocytoplasmic ratio in AA50mg group. Immunohistochemical analysis of the liver sections showed that treatment with AA50mg increase the percentage of PCNA positive cells, while the percentage of caspase 3 positive cells was not affected by AA. PAS-staining showed that glycogen content in hepatocytes was not affected by AA. Serological examination revealed increase of lipid peroxidation in AA50mg group, while total protein concentration, protein thiol group level, as well as, paraoxonase 1 activity were not changed in AA-exposed animals. Stereological and immunohistochemical analyses of adult liver sections suggest increase of proliferation in AA50mg group, while increase of lipid peroxidation in serum of AA50mg group indicates oxidative stress induction.

La acrilamida (AA) es un químico ampliamente utilizado y un monómero importante en varios procesos industriales y de laboratorio. Además, la AA se forma durante el procesamiento de alimentos ricos en almidón a altas temperaturas. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue examinar los efectos del tratamiento con AA subcrónica en el hígado de rata adulta utilizando métodos histológicos, estereológicos y bioquímicos. Se trataron ratas Wistar macho adultas con AA a dosis de 25 mg/kg p.v. y 50 mg/kg de peso corporal por tres semanas. El análisis estereológico mostró una disminución de la densidad del volumen del citoplasma de los hepatocitos y un aumento de la densidad del volumen de los núcleos de los hepatocitos y la relación nucleocitoplasmática en el grupo de 50 mg de AA. El análisis inmunohistoquímico de las secciones de hígado mostró que el tratamiento con 50 mg de AA aumentó el porcentaje de células positivas para PCNA, mientras que el porcentaje de células positivas para caspasa 3 no se vio afectado por AA. La tinción con PAS mostró que el contenido de glucógeno en los hepatocitos no se vio afectado por AA. El examen serológico reveló un aumento de la peroxidación de lípidos en el grupo de 50 mg de AA, mientras que la concentración de proteína total, el nivel del grupo tiol de proteína y la actividad de paraoxonasa 1 no cambiaron en los animales expuestos a AA. Los análisis estereológicos e inmunohistoquímicos de secciones de hígado adulto sugieren un aumento de la proliferación en el grupo AA50 mg, mientras que el aumento de la peroxidación lipídica en suero del grupo AA50 mg indica inducción de estrés oxidativo.

Animals , Male , Rats , Acrylamide/administration & dosage , Liver/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1466-1474, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421816


SUMMARY: Fifty male Wistar albino rats were divided into 5 groups; Group 1 as a sham group. Group 2 as a control group, Group 3 as 100 mg/kg CDP-choline administered group, Group as 200 mg/kg CDP-choline administered group, and Group 5 as sepsis group. The sepsis model was performed by ligating and perforating the caecum of rats. Liver and small intestine tissues were assessed either histologically or quantitatively and qualitatively. There was a significant difference between the sepsis and CDP-choline groups for liver and intestinal damage evaluated in tissue samples. (p <0.001). CDP-choline treatment partially improved dose-dependent the clinical parameters of sepsis and septic shock, reversed micro-anatomical damage caused by sepsis.

Cincuenta ratas albinas Wistar macho se dividieron en 5 grupos; Grupo 1 como grupo control simulador, el grupo 2 como grupo de control, el grupo 3 como grupo al que se administró 100 mg/kg de CDP-colina, el grupo 4 como grupo al que se administró 200 mg/kg de CDP-colina y el grupo 5 como grupo con sepsis. El modelo de sepsis se realizó ligando y perforando el intestino ciego de las ratas. Los tejidos del hígado y del intestino delgado se evaluaron histológicamente o cuantitativa y cualitativamente. Hubo una diferencia significativa entre los grupos de sepsis y CDP-colina para el daño hepático e intestinal evaluado en muestras de tejido (p<0,001). El tratamiento con CDP-colina mejoró parcialmente, según la dosis, los parámetros clínicos de sepsis y shock séptico y revirtió el daño micro anatómico causado por la sepsis.

Animals , Rats , Sepsis/drug therapy , Cytidine Diphosphate Choline/administration & dosage , Intestine, Small/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Cytidine Diphosphate Choline/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Intestine, Small/pathology , Liver/pathology
Int. j. morphol ; 40(2): 480-488, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385631


SUMMARY: Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent inducing liver and kidney damage. In this study, we intended to investigate the impact of kefir beverage, an essential probiotic and functional food, on liver and kidney damage induced by cisplatin. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: Control, Cisplatin (single dose of 7 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), Kefir (2 ml/d, 7 d, oral gavage), and Cisplatin+Kefir (CK). At the end of day 7, animals were euthanized. Blood, kidney, and liver tissue samples were collected. For both tissues, biochemically ALT, AST, Urea, Creatine; histomorphologically, hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's Trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining of caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, were performed. Serum urea and creatinine levels of the Cisplatin group were significantly higher than the Control group (p<0.05). In the CK group, kefir consumption decreased urea and creatinin levels approached to Control and Kefir groups. Cisplatin resulted in higher ALT and AST activities, indicating hepatocellular damage, compared to the Control group (p<0.05). Kefir consumption decreased ALT activities approached to both the Control and Kefir group. Histomorphological observations were in agreement biochemical results. In liver and kidney tissues, structural damage was observed with an increase in collagen fibers in the Cisplatin group, and Caspase-3 activity was immunohistochemically higher than in the other groups. In the CK group, collagen fiber increase, structural damage, and Caspase-3 activities were less than in the Cisplatin group. Kefir consumption alleviated liver and kidney damage. However, more research is required to understand such effect of kefir better.

RESUMEN: El cisplatino es un agente quimioterapéutico que induce daño hepático y renal. En este estudio, intentamos investigar el efecto del kéfir, un alimento funcional y probiótico esencial, en el daño hepático y renal inducido por el cisplatino. Se dividieron ratas albinas Wistar en cuatro grupos: control, cisplatino (dosis única de 7 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), kéfir (2 ml/día, 7 días, sonda oral) y cisplatino + kéfir (CK). Al final del día 7, los animales fueron sacrificados. Se recolectaron muestras de sangre, riñón y tejido hepático. Se determinó ALT, AST, Urea y Creatina; Para el análisis histomorfológico, se realizaron tinciones con hematoxilina-eosina, tricrómico de Masson y para inmunohistoquímica, caspasa-3, un marcador de apoptosis. Los niveles séricos de urea y creatinina del grupo de cisplatino fueron significativamente más altos que los del grupo de control (p<0,05). En el grupo CK, el consumo de kéfir disminuyó los niveles de urea y creatinina acercándose a los grupos Control y Kéfir. El cisplatino resultó en actividades más altas de ALT y AST, lo que indica daño hepatocelular, en comparación con el grupo Control (p<0.05). El consumo de kéfir disminuyó las actividades de ALT tanto en el grupo Control como en el de Kéfir. Las observaciones histomorfológicas coincidieron con los resultados bioquímicos. En tejidos hepáticos y renales se observó daño estructural con aumento de fibras colágenas en el grupo de Cisplatino, y la actividad de Caspasa-3 fue inmunohistoquímicamente mayor que en los otros grupos. En el grupo de CK, el aumento de las fibras colágenas, el daño estructural y las actividades de Caspasa-3 fueron menores que en el grupo Cisplatino. El consumo de kéfir mejoró el daño hepático y renal. Sin embargo, se requiere más investigación para comprender mejor el efecto del kéfir.

Animals , Rats , Cisplatin/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Kefir , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Urea/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Creatinine/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Caspase 3 , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 339-350, jul. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349507


This study was aimed to explore the comparative efficacy of cinnamon bark extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced oxidative stress. Cinnamon bark extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol were utilized or in-vivo analysis. From the results of in-vitro screening tests, cinnamon ethanolic extract was selected for in-vivo study in mouse model. For this, Balb/c albino mice were treated with cinnamon ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg), cinnamaldehyde (10 mg/kg) and kaempferol (10 mg/kg) orally for 14 days followed by single intraperitoneal administration of APAP during 8 hours. Blood and organ samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis. The results showed that cinnamon bark ethanolic extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol ameliorated APAP-induced oxidative stress and organ toxicity in mice. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol possess comparable antioxidant potential even at 20-times less dose as compared to cinnamon bark ethanolic extract suggesting therapeutic potential in oxidative stress-related disorders.

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo explorar la eficacia comparativa del extracto de corteza de canela, cinamaldehído y kaempferol contra el estrés oxidativo inducido por acetaminofén (APAP). Se utilizaron extracto de corteza de canela, cinamaldehído y kaempferol para el análisis in vivo. De los resultados de las pruebas de detección in vitro, se seleccionó el extracto etanólico de canela para estudio in vivo en modelo de ratón. Para ello, los ratones albinos Balb/c fueron tratados con extracto etanólico de canela (200 mg/kg), cinamaldehído (10 mg/kg) y kaempferol (10 mg/kg) por vía oral durante 14 días, seguido de la administración intraperitoneal única de APAP durante 8 horas. Se recogieron muestras de sangre y órganos para análisis bioquímicos e histopatológicos. Los resultados mostraron que el extracto etanólico de la corteza de canela, el cinamaldehído y el kaempferol mejoraron el estrés oxidativo inducido por APAP y la toxicidad orgánica en ratones. En conclusión, el cinamaldehído y el kaempferol poseen un potencial antioxidante comparable, incluso a una dosis 20 veces menor en comparación con el extracto etanólico de la corteza de canela, lo que sugiere un potencial terapéutico en los trastornos relacionados con el estrés oxidativo.

Animals , Mice , Acrolein/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Kaempferols/chemistry , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Acrolein/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Disease Models, Animal , Phytochemicals , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Mice, Inbred BALB C
Int. j. morphol ; 39(3): 876-885, jun. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385415


SUMMARY: The present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of date palm hydroalcoholic extract (DP)in diabetic rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches. Diabetes was induced by administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. In this analysis 32 adult rats were randomly divided into four groups; group 1: non-diabetic control whic received 0.1 mL normal saline, group 2:served as non-diabetic control which treated with 270 mg/kg of DP, group 3: served as untreated diabetic, and group 4: diabetic rats treated with 270 mg/kg of DP. Diabetic rats treated with the DP extracts exhibited lower hepatic oxidative stress and lower hepatic enzymes level. Extract treatment decreased the level of malondealdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation. Stereological estimations revealed a significant increase in the liver volume in diabetic rats which was reduced in DP-treated rats. Immunofluorescence staining showed high synthesis of acrolein as a byproduct of lipid proxidation. While, optical density measurement revealed significant decrease in acrolein after DP administration. Histopathological examination showed severe changes in untreated diabetic liver tissue manifested by dilated portal vein, leukocytic infiltration, fatty degeneration and necrotic nuclei, whereas, DP treatment attenuated the adverse effects of diabetes on the liver represented by relatively healthy hepatocytes and sinusoids. The obtained results indicated that date pam extract was beneficial in the prevention of diabetes-induced hepatotoxicity due to its natural antioxidant constituents. Further preclinical and clinical studies are needed for considering this plant in management of prediabetes and diabetes hepatic complications.

RESUMEN: El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos hepatoprotectores del extracto hidroalcohólico (DP) de la palmera datilera en ratas diabéticas utilizando enfoques bioquímicos e histopatológicos. La diabetes fue inducida mediante la administración de 60 mg / kg de estreptozotocina por vía intraperitoneal. Se dividieron al azar 32 ratas adultas en cuatro grupos; grupo 1: control no diabético que recibió 0,1 mL de solución salina normal, grupo 2: control no diabético tratado con 270 mg / kg de DP, grupo 3: fue separado como diabético no tratado, y grupo 4: ratas diabéticas tratadas con 270 mg / kg de DP mg / kg de DP. Las ratas diabéticas tratadas con los extractos de DP mostraron menor estrés oxidativo hepático y menor nivel de enzimas hepáticas. El tratamiento con extracto disminuyó el nivel de malondealdehído (MDA) como marcador de la proxidación de lípidos. Las estimaciones estereológicas revelaron un aumento significativo en el volumen del hígado en ratas diabéticas que se redujo en las ratas tratadas con DP. La tinción por inmunofluorescencia mostró una alta síntesis de acroleína como subproducto de la proxidación de lípidos. Mientras que, la medición de la densidad óptica reveló una disminución significativa de la acroleína después de la administración de DP. El examen histopatológico mostró cambios significativos en el tejido hepático diabético no tratado manifestados por vena porta dilatada, infiltración leucocítica, degeneración grasa y núcleos necróticos, mientras que el tratamiento con DP atenuó los efectos adversos de la diabetes en el hígado representados por hepatocitos y sinusoides relativamente sanos. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que el extracto de palmera datilera fue beneficioso en la prevención de la hepatotoxicidad inducida por diabetes debido a sus constituyentes antioxidantes naturales. Se necesitan más estudios clínicos para considerar esta planta en el manejo de la prediabetes y las complicaciones hepáticas de la diabetes.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Diabetes Complications , Phoeniceae , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/drug therapy , Acrolein , Immunohistochemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/drug effects , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
Int. j. morphol ; 39(2): 407-415, abr. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385337


SUMMARY: Amiodarone (AMD), an orally powerful antidysrhythmic medication that has caused hepatotoxicity on long-term administration, is commonly used across the world. Silymarin ameliorative effects (SLM); this research elucidated the magnitude of the damage to the liver tissue in AMD. We divided 24 albino rats evenly into four groups given daily doses by gastric tube for eight weeks as follows; the 1st group acted as a control group; the 2nd group received SLM; the 3rd group received AMD; and the 4th group received AMD parallel to SLM. Liver tissues prepared for light, electron microscopic and serum samples screened for biomarkers (I)liver injury enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST); (II) oxidative and antioxidant stress, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD); and (III) inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The findings showed that AMD caused hepatic histological changes that included congestion of the blood vessels, leucocytic infiltration and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Ultrastructural degeneration of the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum swelling, nuclear pyknosis and increased fat droplets and lysosomes were observed. The biochemical findings showed an increase in the AMD group's ALT and AST activities. The group of rats treated with AMD and SLM, increased the improvements in histology and ultrastructure, while the ALT and AST levels were reduced. Our findings collectively agreed that SLM has a protective impact on AMD hepatotoxicity which can be due to its antioxidant properties.

RESUMEN: La amiodarona (AMD) es un fuerte medicamento antiarrítmico administrado por vía oral que ha causado hepatotoxicidad en la administración a largo plazo utilizado con frecuencia en todo el mundo. Efectos de mejora de la silimarina (SLM); esta investigación analizó la magnitud del daño al tejido hepático en la DMAE. Dividimos 24 ratas albinas de manera uniforme en cuatro grupos que recibieron dosis diarias por sonda gástrica durante ocho semanas de la siguiente manera; el primer grupo fue designado como grupo control; el segundo grupo recibió SLM; el tercer grupo recibió AMD; y el cuarto grupo recibió AMD en paralelo a SLM. Se prepararon tejidos hepáticos para muestras de suero, microscopía de luz y electrónica y se analizaron para biomarcadores (I) enzimas de daño hepático, alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST); (II) estrés oxidativo y antioxidante, malondialdehído (MDA) y superóxido dismutasa (SOD); y (III) marcadores inflamatorios, factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-a) e interleucina-6 (IL-6). Los hallazgos mostraron que la DMAE genera cambios histológicos hepáticos que incluyen congestión de los vasos sanguíneos, infiltración leucocítica y vacuolación citoplásmica. Se observó una degeneración ultraestructural de las mitocondrias, aumento del retículo endoplásmico, picnosis nuclear y aumento de gotitas de grasa y lisosomas. Los hallazgos bioquímicos mostraron un aumento en las actividades de ALT y AST del grupo AMD. El grupo de ratas tratadas con AMD y SLM, aumentó las mejoras en histología y ultraestructura, mientras que se redujeron los niveles de ALT y AST. Nuestros hallazgos coincidieron colectivamente en que SLM tiene un impacto protector sobre la hepatotoxicidad de AMD debido a sus propiedades antioxidantes.

Animals , Female , Rats , Silymarin/administration & dosage , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Amiodarone/toxicity , Liver/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Rats, Inbred Strains , Silymarin/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase , Microscopy, Electron , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Oxidative Stress , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Liver/enzymology , Liver/ultrastructure , Malondialdehyde , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/toxicity
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1826, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363758


Bortezomib, an inhibitor of 26S proteasome, is an anti-cancer therapeutic agent used in different cancer types. It leads to the arrest of the cancerous cell cycle by inhibiting angiogenesis and inducing apoptosis. Liver is the vital organ for detoxification and excretion of toxic products. The treatment with chemotherapy is a challenge, drugs are used to destroy cancer cells, but healthy cells can be affected during cancer treatment as well. The main objective of this study was to analyze the histopathological and biochemical effects of bortezomib on liver. Twenty-four female C57BL/6 mice were distributed into 4 groups, bortezomib injected treatment groups (Btz1, Btz2) and saline injected control groups (C1, C2). Bortezomib and saline were treated twice per week for 6 weeks and sacrificed at the end of one day (Btz1, C1) and 4 weeks (Btz2, C2) after the last injection. Liver samples were examined for histopathological analysis and the serum samples processed for biochemical analysis. Tissue samples were fixed, routinely processed, sectioned, and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS), Sudan Black staining and Masson's trichrome histochemical staining methods were performed to characterize the lesions. Histopathological analysis of the Btz1 and Btz2 groups revealed acute hepatic morphological changes such as hepatocellular swelling (cloudy swelling), necro-inflammatory reaction, and increased mononuclear polyploidy. Based on the negative staining with PAS and Sudan Black staining, hepatocellular swelling was diagnosed as hydropic degeneration. Necro-inflammatory reaction observed in the form of acute hepatitis was composed of mainly mononuclear cell infiltration accompanied by multifocal necrotic foci. Kupffer cell proliferation was observed in parallel with degenerative and necrotic changes. An Increase in hepatocellular mononuclear polyploidy visualized as hepatocytes with a single enlarged nucleus was detected in all liver sections of Btz1 and Btz2 groups. Individual cases of cholestasis (n = 1) and mild hepatic fibrosis (n = 1) were also reported. Significant elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were detected in bortezomib treated groups. Few clinical cases reported liver injury related to bortezomib used for cancer treatment. However, the liver was not considered as a target for bortezomib treatment. Our data suggesting that bortezomib caused liver damage and induces elevations in serum levels. The reported hepatic lesions including hepatocellular swelling, acute hepatitis and mononuclear polyploidy were mainly mild and moderate in severity. The increase of polyploidy in liver tissue of mice treated with bortezomib in this study was explained as a reaction of the liver facing the drug-induced hepatic damage. The mechanism leading to the hepatotoxicity of bortezomib treatment is not known but the production of a toxic metabolite through its metabolism in the liver can be suggested. Moreover, no recovery was also observed in histopathological and biochemical analyses suggesting that the bortezomib effect is non-reversible four weeks after the drug was withdrawn. Patients should be informed about the possibility of acute drug-induced hepatitis and hepatotoxicity of this chemotherapeutic agent after the treatment.(AU)

Animals , Female , Mice , Biochemical Phenomena/drug effects , Proteasome Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Bortezomib , Liver/drug effects , Mice
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 1107-1114, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942305


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate evodiamine (EVO)-induced hepatotoxicity and the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#HepG2 cells were treated with EVO (0.04-25 μmol/L) for different time intervals, and the cell survival rate was examined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method. After HepG2 cells were treated with EVO (0.2, 1 and 5 μmol/L) for 48 h, the alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and total bilirubin (TBIL) content of supernatant were detected. A multifunctional microplate reader was used to detect the intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in HepG2 cells to evaluate the level of cell lipid peroxidation damage. The interactions between EVO and apoptosis, autophagy or ferroptosis-associated proteins were simulated by molecular docking. The HepG2 cells were stained by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) fluorescent probe (JC-10) and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (Annexin V-FITC/PI), and MMP and apoptosis in HepG2 cells were detected by flow cytometry. The protein expression levels of caspase-9, caspase-3, bile salt export pump (BSEP) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#The cell survival rate was significantly reduced after the HepG2 cells were exposed to EVO (0.04-25 μmol/L) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the HepG2 cells treated with EVO for 24, 48 and 72 h were 85.3, 6.6 and 4.7 μmol/L, respectively. After exposure to EVO (0.2, 1 and 5 μmol/L) for 48 h, the ALT, AST, LDH, ALP activities and TBIL content in the HepG2 cell culture supernatant, and the MDA content in the cells were increased, and SOD enzyme activity was decreased. Molecular docking results showed that EVO interacted with apoptosis-associated proteins (caspase-9 and caspase-3) better. JC-10 and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assays demonstrated that EVO could decrease MMP and promote apoptosis in the HepG2 cells. Western blot results indicated that the protein expressions of cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 were upregulated in the HepG2 cell treated with EVO for 48 h. In contrast, the protein expressions of pro-caspase-3, BSEP and MRP2 were downregulated.@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggested that 0.2, 1 and 5 μmol/L EVO had the potential hepatotoxicity, and the possible mechanism involved lipid peroxidation damage, cell apoptosis, and cholestasis.

Humans , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 11 , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Cholestasis , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver/drug effects , Molecular Docking Simulation , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 , Quinazolines/toxicity
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(4): 200-205, DEZ 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361602


Objetivo: Verificar a frequência de efeitos adversos em pacientes em uso de drogas antituberculose de primeira linha, além dos fatores de risco associados aos efeitos adversos e à hepatotoxicidade. Métodos: Estudo transversal, envolvendo 196 pacientes portadores de tuberculose em Maceió (AL), de agosto de 2017 a junho de 2018. Os efeitos adversos foram classificados de acordo com o Manual de Recomendações para Controle da Tuberculose de 2011, do Ministério da Saúde, em efeitos menores (queixas gastrintestinais, cutâneos, articulares e neurológicos) e maiores (psicose e hepatotoxicidade). Os fatores de risco avaliados foram: idade superior a 40 anos, etilismo, sexo feminino, anemia, doença hepática anterior, diabetes e infecção por HIV. Resultados: Foram observados efeitos adversos às drogas antituberculose em 85 pacientes (43,4%); destes, 40,8% eram menores e 8,2%, maiores. Os mais frequentes foram distúrbios gastrintestinais (25,5%) e cutâneos (15,3%). Identificaram-se como fatores de risco anemia, diabetes e doença hepática anterior. Hepatotoxicidade foi diagnosticada em 15 pacientes (10,6%), dos quais 80% eram sintomáticos, sendo fatores de risco doença hepática anterior e diabetes. Houve suspensão da terapia em todos os casos de hepatotoxicidade com modificação do esquema em 80% dos casos. Conclusão: Demonstrou-se frequência elevada de efeitos adversos às drogas antituberculose, associada à doença hepática anterior e ao diabetes. A hepatotoxicidade representou o efeito adverso mais grave, responsável pela suspensão e pela adequação do esquema terapêutico.

Objective: To determine the adverse effects frequency in patients on first-line antituberculosis drugs, as well as the risk factors associated with adverse effects and hepatotoxicity. Methods: Cross-sectional study, involving 196 tuberculosis patients in Maceió (AL), from August 2017 to June 2018. Adverse effects were classified according to the Manual de Recomendações para Controle da Tuberculose, of the Brazilian Health Ministry, in minor effects (gastrointestinal, cutaneous, articular, neurologic complaints) and major effects (psychosis and hepatotoxicity). The risk factors evaluated were age over 40 years, alcoholism, female sex, anemia, previous hepatic disease, diabetes, and infection by HIV. Results: Adverse effects to the antituberculosis drugs were observed in 85 patients (43.4%) and, among those, 40.8% were minor and 8.2% were major effects. The most frequent were gastrointestinal (25.5%) and skin (15.3%) disorders. Risk factors were identified as anemia, diabetes, and previous hepatic disease. Hepatotoxicity was diagnosed in 15 patients (10.6%), from which 80% were symptomatic, with previous hepatic disease and diabetes being the risk factors. Therapy was discontinued in all cases of hepatotoxicity with regimen modification in 80% of cases. Conclusion: An elevated frequency of adverse effects to antituberculosis drugs was demonstrated. Hepatotoxicity represented the most severe adverse effect, being responsible for the discontinuation and adaptation of the therapeutic regimen.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Liver/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Psychotic Disorders , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Morbidity , Age Factors , HIV , Diabetes Mellitus , Alcoholism , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/blood , Anemia , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1767-1778, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134510


SUMMARY: Acrylamide (ACR) is a cytotoxic and carcinogenic material. It is a product of a Maillard reaction during the cooking of many types of fried fast food, e.g. potato chip fries, and chicken nuggets. ACR has a severe toxic effect on different body organs. This study investigates the hepatotoxic effect of ACR, and the protective effect of ascorbic acid and silymarin. For this purpose, forty adult, male, albino rats were divided into four groups and received the following treatments for fourteen days: Group I: (the control) normal saline; Group II: ACR only; Group III: ACR and ascorbic acid; and Group IV: ACR and silymarin. Under a light microscope, the liver from rats treated with ACR only presented disturbed liver architecture, degenerated hepatocytes, reduced glycogen contents, congested central vein, and increased collagen fibres with areas of fibrosis. Immunohistochemical examination revealed an increased mean number of CD68-, and α-SMA-positive cells. This indicates the presence of large numbers of stellate macrophages (Kupffer cells) and Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The combination of ACR with either ascorbic acid or silymarin resulted in less hepatic degeneration, less fibrosis and fewer CD68 and α-SMA positive cells compared to the ACR only group. In conclusion, treatment with silymarin or ascorbic acid along with ACR appears to alleviate ACR-induced hepatotoxicity with more protection in silymarin treated rats.

RESUMEN: La acrilamida (ACR) es un material citotóxico y cancerígeno. Es producto de la reacción de Maillard durante la cocción de muchos tipos de comida rápida y frita, por ejemplo: papas fritas y nuggets de pollo. ACR tiene un efecto tóxico severo en diferentes órganos del cuerpo. Este estudio investigó el efecto hepatotóxico del ACR y el efecto protector del ácido ascórbico y la silimarina. Con este fin, cuarenta ratas albinas machos adultas se dividieron en cuatro grupos y recibieron los siguientes tratamientos durante catorce días: Grupo I (control), solución salina normal; Grupo II, solo ACR; Grupo III, ACR y ácido ascórbico; y Grupo IV, ACR y silimarina. Bajo microscopio óptico, el hígado de ratas tratadas con ACR solo presentó alteración de su arquitectura, entre ellos hepatocitos degenerados, contenido reducido de glucógeno, vena central congestionada y aumento de fibras de colágeno con áreas de fibrosis. El examen inmunohistoquímico reveló un aumento del número medio de células CD68 y α-SMA positivas. Esto indica la presencia de un gran número de macrófagos estrellados (células de Kupffer) y células estrelladas hepáticas (HSC). La combinación de ACR con ácido ascórbico o silimarina resultó en menos degeneración hepática, menos fibrosis y menos células positivas para CD68 y α-SMA en comparación con el grupo de ACR solo. En conclusión, el tratamiento con silimarina o ácido ascórbico junto con ACR parece aliviar la hepatotoxicidad inducida por ACR.

Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Silymarin/pharmacology , Acrylamide/toxicity , Liver/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, CD/analysis , Actins/analysis , Hepatocytes , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1444-1454, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134461


SUMMARY: Over dose or long-term clinical use of therapeutic doses of acetaminophen (APAP) causes hepatotoxicity. Various strategies attempted to ameliorate APAP-hepatotoxicity have been found to be unsuitable for clinical practice. This study was aimed to illustrate the histopathological changes induced by therapeutic dose of APAP and investigate the hepatoprotective role of oral co-administration of selenium/ Tribulus terrestris (TT) extract concurrently against hepatotoxicity induced by APAP in rats. Fifty-four healthy male albino Wistar rats were randomized into nine groups (G1-G9) of six rats each, and administered with APAP and TT orally for 30 days as follows: Control (2ml normal saline), APAP (470 mg/kg), APAP (470 mg/kg) + selenium (2 mg/kg), APAP (470 mg/kg) + TT (98 mg/kg), APAP (470 mg/kg) + selenium (2mg/kg) + TT (98 mg/kg), APAP (470 mg/kg) + silymarin (200 mg/kg), selenium (2 mg/ kg), TT (98 mg/kg) and silymarin (200 mg/kg) groups. The results demonstrated that exposure of rats to therapeutic dose of APAP for 30 days caused significant histopathological changes parallel to elevated blood chemistry parameters. Co-administration of selenium/TT extract showed significantly reduced histopathological lesions and, restored or decreased levels of the examined blood chemistry parameters. Liver histology in selenium/TT extract showed normal hepatic architecture with mild changes and silymarin treated rats showed no histopathological changes. Histochemically PAS staining, showed that APAP-induced hepatotoxicity was characterized by hepatocytes glycogen depletion. Selenium/TT co-supplementation plays a potential role in preventing APAP-induced glycogen depletion by increasing detoxification and scavenging the reactive metabolites. Selenium/TT extract oral co-administration possesses a significant hepatoprotective property and mitigates APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by enhancing its antioxidant role and improving tissue integrity. Selenium/TT supplementation could represent an effective treatment against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism underlying the protective role of TT extract.

RESUMEN: La dosis excesiva o el uso clínico a largo plazo de dosis terapéuticas de acetaminofeno (APAP) causa hepatotoxicidad. Se ha descubierto que varias estrategias que intentaron mejorar la hepatotoxicidad por APAP no son adecuadas para la práctica clínica. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo ilustrar los cambios histopatológicos inducidos por la dosis terapéutica de APAP e investigar el papel hepatoprotector de la administración conjunta de extracto de selenio / Tribulus terrestris (TT) simultá- neamente contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por APAP en ratas. Cincuenta y cuatro ratas Wistar albino machos sanas se aleatorizaron en nueve grupos (G1 - G9) de seis ratas cada una, y se administraron con APAP y TT por vía oral durante 30 días de la siguiente manera: Control (2 ml de solución salina normal), APAP (470 mg / kg), APAP (470 mg / kg) + selenio (2 mg / kg), APAP (470 mg / kg) + TT (98 mg / kg), APAP (470 mg / kg) + selenio (2 mg / kg) + TT (98 mg / kg), APAP (470 mg / kg) + silimarina (200 mg / kg), selenio (2 mg / kg), TT (98 mg / kg) y silimarina (200 mg / kg). Los resultados demostraron que la exposición de las ratas a la dosis terapéutica de APAP durante 30 días causó cambios histopatológicos significativos paralelos a parámetros elevados de química sanguínea. La administración conjunta de extracto de selenio / TT mostró lesiones histopatológicas significativamente reducidas y niveles restaurados o disminuidos de los parámetros de química sanguínea. La histología hepática en el extracto de selenio / TT mostró una arquitectura hepática normal con cambios leves y las ratas tratadas con silimarina no mostraron cambios histopatológicos. La tinción histoquímica de PAS mostró que la hepatotoxicidad inducida por APAP se caracterizó por la pérdida de glucógeno de los hepatocitos. La suplementación con selenio / TT juega un papel potencial en la prevención de la pérdida de glucógeno inducido por APAP al aumentar la desintoxicación y eliminar los metabolitos reactivos. La administración conjunta de extracto de selenio / TT posee una propiedad hepatoprotectora significativa y mitiga la hepatotoxicidad inducida por APAP al mejorar su papel antioxidante y la integridad del tejido. La suplementación con selenio / TT podría representar un tratamiento efectivo contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por APAP. Se necesitan más estudios para dilucidar el mecanismo exacto que subyace a la función protectora del extracto TT.

Animals , Male , Rats , Selenium/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Tribulus/chemistry , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Administration, Oral , Rats, Wistar , Glycogen , Liver/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 919-923, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124877


Letrozole (Letro) is a drug commonly used for breast cancer treatment since it can decrease estrogen level. In experimental animal, the Letro has been used to induce the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) model. Tyrosine phosphorylation (TyrPho) is an essential process in various biological functions both normal and abnormal conditions especially reproduction. Although some side effects of Letro are reported, the alterations of TyrPho responsible for liver and kidney functions have never been demonstrated. In this study, the blood serum, liver, and kidney of control and PCOS rats induced with Letro (orally, 1 mg/ KgBW) for consecutive 21 days were used to determine the serum biochemical components and to investigate the TyrPho expression using western blot analysis. Histopathology of such tissues was observed by Masson's trichrome staining. The results showed that Letro did not affect histological structures but significantly increased the serum levels of urea nitrogen, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, ALT, AST, and alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, the TyrPho protein expressions of 32 and 27 kDas in liver and of 55 and 43 kDas in kidney were increased while of a kidney 26 kDa was decreased as compared to those of control. In conclusion, this recent study indicated that the changes of TyrPho proteins in liver and kidney induced with Letro associated with their functions by alteration of serum biochemical levels.

El letrozol (Letro) es un medicamento utilizado comúnmente para el tratamiento del cáncer de mama, debido a que puede disminuir el nivel de estrógeno. En animales de experimentación, el Letro se ha utilizado para inducir el modelo de síndrome de ovario poliquístico (PCOS). La fosforilación de tirosina (TyrPho) es un proceso esencial en diversas funciones biológicas, tanto en condiciones normales como anormales, especialmente en la reproducción. A pesar de informes que indican algunos efectos secundarios de Letro, no se han demostrado las alteraciones de TyrPho responsables de las funciones hepáticas y renales. En este estudio, el suero sanguíneo, el hígado y el riñón control y las ratas PCOS inducidas con Letro (por vía oral, 1 mg / KgBW) durante 21 días consecutivos se usaron para determinar los componentes bioquímicos del suero y para investigar la expresión de TyrPho usando análisis de transferencia Western. La histopatología de los tejidos se observó mediante la tinción tricrómica de Masson. Los resultados mostraron que Letro no afectó las estructuras histológicas, pero aumentó significativamente los niveles séricos de urea, colesterol, triglicéridos, HDL, LDL, ALT, AST y fosfatasa alcalina. Además, las expresiones de la proteína TyrPho de 32 y 27 kDas en el hígado y de 55 y 43 kDas en el riñón aumentaron mientras que en un riñón disminuyeron 26 kDa en comparación con el control. En conclusión, este estudio indicó que los cambios de las proteínas TyrPho en el hígado y los riñones inducidos con Letro se asociaron con sus funciones mediante la alteración de los niveles bioquímicos en suero.

Animals , Female , Rats , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/chemically induced , Letrozole/adverse effects , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Phosphorylation/physiology , Tyrosine/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1295-1304, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131466


No presente estudo, foram analisados os efeitos do estanozolol, associado ou não à atividade física, sobre o hemograma, o peso ponderal, a ingestão líquida e sólida, a urinálise, a expressão do VEGF-A renal e o glicogênio hepático, além da histopatologia hepática e renal em ratos Wistar. Foram utilizados 32 ratos Wistar, machos, jovens, separados em quatro grupos: GC (grupo controle); GCE (grupo controle-exercício); GT (grupo tratamento-esteroide); GTE (grupo tratamento-esteroide-exercício). Os animais dos grupos GT e GTE (n=16) foram submetidos a injeções subcutâneas, cinco dias/semana, durante 30 dias, na concentração de 5mg/kg de estanozolol diluído em 1mL de óleo de gergelim, utilizado como veículo. A natação foi definida como exercício físico. Houve aumento no peso dos animais submetidos ao estanozolol e ao exercício a partir da terceira semana de uso e aumento da excreção urinária a partir da quinta semana; os demais parâmetros da urinálise foram semelhantes entre os grupos. O uso de estanozolol associado ou não à atividade física promoveu redução da expressão do VEGF-A nos rins e do glicogênio hepático, além de alterações histopatológicas nesses órgãos. Quanto à hematologia, houve uma diminuição dos leucócitos no GTE em relação aos grupos GT e GCE. Quanto aos linfócitos, houve um aumento no GT e uma diminuição no GTE, e, em relação ao número de plaquetas, houve diminuição no GTE quando comparado ao GT e ao GCE Assim, conclui-se que estanozolol na dose de 5,0mg/kg causa alterações renais e hepáticas em ratos Wistar, podendo levar à falência dos rins e do fígado.(AU)

The goal of this study was to determine the effect of stanozolol (ST) on kidney and liver of Wistar rats. Thirty-two male animals were divided into the following four groups: control group (CG); Control group-exercise (GCE); Group-steroid treatment (GT); Group treatment-steroid-exercise (GTE). Swimming was defined as exercise. The animals GT and GTE was submitted to subcutaneous injections, five days/week for 30 days, at a concentration of 5mg/kg ST diluted in 1mL/kg of sesame oil. The results showed an increase in weight gain in all animals submitted to ST and exercise from the 3rd week of use and increase in urinary excretion from the 5th week and the other urinalysis parameters were similar. The ST associated or not with physical activity reduced VEGF-A expression in the kidneys and hepatic glycogen, as well as histopathological changes in these organs. Regarding hematology, there was a decrease in leukocytes in the GTE. As for lymphocytes there was an increase in GT and a decrease in GTE, and in relation to the number of platelets, there was a decrease in GTE. In conclusion, the administration of stanozolol at 5.0mg/kg caused a structural change of kidney and liver in treated animals.(AU)

Animals , Rats , Stanozolol/administration & dosage , Swimming , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Liver/drug effects , Rats, Wistar/physiology , Anabolic Agents/administration & dosage , Kidney Function Tests/veterinary