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1.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(11): 661-675, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529890

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To assess the loss to follow-up after emergency care and during 6-months of outpatient follow-up, and the associated variables, among adolescent sexual violence survivors. Methods This is a retrospective study with review of the medical records of 521 females, aged 10 to 18 years, who received emergency care in a referral service in São Paulo, Brazil. The variables were sociodemographic; personal history; characteristics of abuse, disclosure, and reactions triggered after abuse (physical and mental disorders as well as social changes), psychotropic prescription needs, and moment of abandonment: after emergency care and before completing 6 months of outpatient follow-up. To compare groups of patients lost to follow-up at each time point, we used the Chi-square and Fisher exact tests followed by multiple logistic regression with stepwise criterion for selection of associated variables. We calculated the odds ratio with confidence interval (OR, CI 95%). The level of significance adopted was 5%. Results A total of 249/521 (47.7%) adolescents discontinued follow-up, 184 (35.3%) after emergency care and 65 (12.4%) before completing outpatient follow-up. The variables of living with a partner (OR = 5.94 [CI 95%; 2.49-14.20]); not having a religion (OR = 2.38 [CI 95%;1.29-4.38)]), having a Catholic religion [OR = 2.11 (CI 95%; 1.17-3.78)]; and not disclosing the abuse [OR = 2.07 (CI 95%; 1.25-3.44)] were associated with loss to follow-up after emergency care. Not needing mental disorder care (OR = 2.72 [CI 95%; 1.36-5.46]) or social support (OR = 2.33 [CI 95%; 1.09-4.99]) were directly associated with loss to outpatient follow-up. Conclusion Measures to improve adherence to follow-up should be aimed at adolescents who live with a partner and those who do not tell anyone about the violence.


Resumo Objetivos Avaliar a perda de seguimento de adolescentes vítimas de violência sexual após o atendimento de emergência, durante o seguimento ambulatorial e as variáveis associadas. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo com a revisão de prontuários de 521 mulheres de 10 a 18 anos, que buscaram atendimento de emergência em um serviço de referência em São Paulo, Brasil. As variáveis foram sociodemográficas; antecedentes pessoais; características do abuso, atitude de revelação e reações desencadeadas após o abuso (distúrbios físicos, mentais e mudanças sociais), necessidades de prescrição de psicotrópicos e momento do abandono: após atendimento de emergência e antes de completar 6 meses de seguimento ambulatorial. Para comparar os grupos de perda de seguimento em cada momento, foram utilizados os testes do qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher, seguidos de regressão logística múltipla com critério stepwise para seleção das variáveis associadas. Calculamos a razão de probabilidade com intervalo de confiança (RP, IC 95%). O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados Um total de 249 (47,7%) das adolescentes descontinuaram o acompanhamento, 184 (35.3%) após o atendimento de emergência e 65 (12.4%) antes de completar o seguimento ambulatorial. As variáveis de viver com companheiro [RP = 5,94 (IC 95%; 2,49-14,20]; não ter religião [RP = 2,38 (IC 95%;1,29-4,38)], ter religião católica [RP = 2,11 (IC 95%; 1,17-3,78)] e não revelar o abuso [RP = 2,07 (IC 95%; 1,25-3,44)] foram associadas à perda de seguimento após o atendimento de emergência. Não necessitar de cuidados de saúde mental (RP = 2,72 [IC 95%; 1,36-5,46]) ou apoio social (RP = 2,33 [IC 95%; 1,09-4,99]) foram as variáveis associadas à perda do seguimento ambulatorial. Conclusão Medidas para melhorar a adesão ao seguimento devem ser direcionadas às adolescentes que vivem com parceiro e às que não revelam a violência sofrida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Rape , Sex Offenses , Retrospective Studies , Lost to Follow-Up
2.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 28: e2657, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420259

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Estudar o processo de diagnóstico audiológico de lactentes que falharam na Triagem Auditiva Neonatal Universal (TANU). Métodos Análise dos prontuários de 51 lactentes que falharam na TANU nas maternidades do munícipio e que foram encaminhados a um centro de referência em saúde auditiva para diagnóstico audiológico, entre janeiro e junho de 2021. Foram identificados os lactentes que finalizaram o diagnóstico, aqueles que não compareceram ao agendamento para exames ou evadiram durante o processo. Tentativas de contato foram realizadas com os responsáveis pelos lactentes que evadiram, para identificar o motivo da evasão. Resultados O comparecimento ao diagnóstico ficou em 75%, com evasões entre o encaminhamento da maternidade para o centro de referência, bem como durante o processo de diagnóstico. Cinquenta por cento dos sujeitos concluíram as avaliações audiológicas até os 3 meses de vida. A tentativa de contato foi bem-sucedida com os responsáveis pelos lactentes que evadiram, sendo os motivos mais frequentes: adoecimento do lactente, distância entre a moradia e o centro de referência, horário de trabalho dos pais. Conclusão Na etapa de diagnóstico, o índice de comparecimento e o tempo de conclusão até o terceiro mês de vida da criança ficaram abaixo dos índices recomendados, diminuindo a efetividade do Programa de Triagem Auditiva Neonatal Universal (PTANU). A busca ativa por contato telefônico e uso de aplicativo de mensagem telefônico foi importante para reduzir a evasão em 76%. Outras ferramentas que aprimorem o processo para um diagnóstico não prolongado, evitando evasões, necessitam ser estudadas.


ABSTRACT Purpose To study the process of hearing assessment in infants who were referred by professionals responsible for Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS). Methods Analysis of the medical records of 51 infants referred by maternity hospitals where UNHS was performed and were referred to a Hearing Health Center, between January and June 2021. Infants who completed hearing assessment, who never attended the appointments, or were lost during the diagnostic process were identified. Attempts were made to contact infants' guardians in order to understand the reason for missing the appointments. Results The attendance to the diagnosis was 75%. Fifty percent of the infants completed hearing assessment as recommended, up to 3 months of life. The attempt to contact parents who missed the appointments was successful, and the most frequent reasons are: the infant was ill on the day of scheduled appointment, distance from home to the hearing health center, parents' working hours. Conclusion For the diagnostic stage, the attendance rate and the age for completing hearing assessment were below the recommended. The active search for telephone contact and use of phone messaging application was important to reduce evasion by seventy-six percent. Tools that optimize the diagnostic process with less infants missing still must be studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Neonatal Screening , Diagnostic Errors , Lost to Follow-Up , Hearing Loss/diagnosis , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem
3.
Health sci. dis ; 24(1): 43-46, 2023. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1411401

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Ces vingt dernières années, on assiste à une augmentation spectaculaire du nombre de cas de diabète de type 1 avec une mortalité plus élevée en Afrique Noire en lien avec les difficultés d'accès aux soins, à la rupture de suivi engendrant un nombre élevé de perdus de vue. L'objectif du travail est de déterminer le profil épidémiologique des enfants diabétiques perdus de vue dans notre pratique. Patients et méthodes. C'est une étude transversale à visée descriptive et analytique qui a concerné les enfants diabétiques perdus de vue de 2002 à 2019 dans le service de diabétologie du CHU de Yopougon. Résultats. Durant l'étude 195 enfants ont été suivi dans le service, 90 ont été considérés comme perdus de vue soit une fréquence de 46,15 %. L'âge moyen des perdus de vue était de 14,6 ± 5,3 avec des extrêmes allant de 2 à 20 ans. Ils sont majoritairement de sexe F dans 50,6 %. Dans 37 % on retrouve un niveau socio-économique faible calculé selon l'indice IPSE avec une association statistiquement significative entre les classes socio-économiques moyenneinferieure et moyenne (p respectivement < 0,01 et 0,001). La plupart des perdus (84,5 %) n'ont pas d'assurance maladie. Le lieu de résidence était urbain (Abidjan) dans 73 %. Ils ont issus d'une famille biparentale dans 79 ,8 % des cas. Une association statistiquement significative a été retrouvée entre la non-scolarisation et la perte de vue (P < 0,05).Conclusion. Le manque de suivi chez les enfants diabétiques a des conséquences drastiques sur le pronostic de la maladie au long cours, marqué par une mortalité de 11 % qui touche essentiellement les populations à revenu faible


Introduction. Over the past twenty years, there has been a spectacular increase in the number of cases of type 1 diabetes with a higher mortality rate in Black Africa due to difficulties in accessing care but also a lack of follow-up resulting in a high number of people being lost to follow-up. Our work aims to determine the epidemiological profile of diabetic children lost to follow-up. Patients and methods. This was a cross-sectional study with descriptive and analytical aims which concerned diabetic children lost to follow-up from 2002 to 2019 in the diabetes department of the University Hospital of Yopougon. Results. During the study period, 195 children were followed up in the department, 90 were considered as lost to follow-up, i.e. a frequency of 46.15%. The average age of the lost to follow-up was 14.6 ± 5.3 years with extremes ranging from 2 to 20 years. The majority of them were male (50.6%). Thirty-seven percent had a low socioeconomic level calculated according to the IPSE index, with a statistically significant association between the lowermiddle and middle socioeconomic classes (p < 0.01 and 0.001 respectively). Most of the lost (84.5%) did not have health insurance. The place of residence was urban (Abidjan) in 73%. They came from a two-parent family in 79.8% of cases. A statistically significant association was found between non-education and loss of sight (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The lack of follow-up in diabetic children has drastic consequences on the prognosis of the disease in the long term marked by a mortality of 11% which affects mainly low-income populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Epidemiology , Disease Management , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Lost to Follow-Up , Social Class , Continuity of Patient Care
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 120, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424414

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the follow-up of children diagnosed with deafness in neonatal hearing screening and risk factors for hearing loss. METHODS Quantitative, cross-sectional, and retrospective study to evaluate factors associated with hearing loss and the follow-up of cases of children diagnosed with audiological dysfunction, by analyzing electronic medical records of 5,305 children referred to a Specialized Center in Type I Rehabilitation, from January/2016 to February/2020, in the city of Manaus, Amazonas. The statistical study used Pearson's chi-square test and binary logistic regression in which odds ratio scans were obtained with reliability intervals of 95%. RESULTS Of the 5,305 children referred for the otoacoustic emission retest, 366 (6.9%) failed the retest. Children diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss continued in the study, totaling 265 (72.4%). Only 58 (21.9%) children continued in the study to its end, of these 39 had received hearing aids at that point; and 16 (41%) had surgical indication for cochlear implants, of which only 3 (18.7%) had undergone surgery. Among the risk factors for hearing loss, we found 2.6 times more chance of failure in the otoacoustic emissions retest in those children who had a family history of hearing loss and ICU stay. CONCLUSION Although the screening flow reaches a large part of live births, the dropout rates during the process are high, therefore, the socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of regions such as the Amazon should be considered as relevant factors to the evasion of rehabilitation programs of these children. Hospitalization in the neonatal ICU and family history of hearing loss in the investigations could be identified as the main and most important factors for alteration of the otoacoustic emissions retests.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar o seguimento das crianças com diagnóstico de surdez na triagem auditiva neonatal e fatores de risco para deficiência auditiva. MÉTODOS Estudo quantitativo, transversal e retrospectivo para avaliação de fatores associados à perda auditiva e o seguimento dos casos de crianças diagnosticadas com disfunção audiológica, por meio da análise de prontuários eletrônicos de 5.305 crianças encaminhadas a um Centro Especializado em Reabilitação Tipo I, no período de janeiro/2016 a fevereiro/2020, na cidade de Manaus, Amazonas. O estudo estatístico utilizou o teste qui-quadrado de Pearson e por regressão logística binária nos quais foram obtidos odds ratio com intervalos de confiabilidade de 95%. RESULTADOS Das 5.305 crianças encaminhadas para realização do reteste da orelhinha, 366 (6,9%) falharam no reteste. Prosseguiram no estudo as crianças com diagnóstico de perda auditiva neurossensorial, totalizando 265 (72,4%). Permanecendo, no final da pesquisa, apenas 58 (21,9%) crianças, destas 39 receberam aparelho auditivo até o presente estudo; e 16 (41%) já tinham indicação cirúrgica para implante coclear, sendo que apenas três (18,7%) haviam realizado a cirurgia. Dentre os fatores de risco para deficiência auditiva encontramos 2,6 vezes mais chance de falha no reteste da orelhinha naquelas crianças que tinham história familiar de perda auditiva e internação em UTI. CONCLUSÕES Embora o fluxo de triagem alcance boa parte dos nascidos vivos, as taxas de evasão durante o processo são altas, portanto, as características socioeconômicas e geográficas de regiões como a Amazônia devem ser consideradas como fatores relevantes à evasão dos programas de reabilitação dessas crianças. Foi possível identificar que a internação em UTI neonatal e o histórico familiar de perda auditiva presentes nas investigações compõem os principais e mais importantes fatores para alteração dos retestes da orelhinha.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Rehabilitation Centers , Correction of Hearing Impairment/trends , Neonatal Screening , Health Care Quality, Access, and Evaluation , Disabled Children , Deafness/diagnosis , Lost to Follow-Up
5.
Distúrbios da comunicação ; 33(3): 416-427, set.2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402337

ABSTRACT

Introdução: É imprescindível o diagnóstico audiológico até o terceiro mês de vida para que se possa iniciar uma intervenção precoce, permitindo que a criança desenvolva adequadamente a fala e a linguagem. Porém este processo enfrenta diversas barreiras que dificultam sua conclusão. Objetivo: Analisar o processo do diagnóstico audiológico em bebês que falharam na triagem auditiva neonatal, descrevendo a idade na realização da triagem e do diagnóstico, os motivos das evasões e faltas durante o processo, motivos para demora na finalização do diagnóstico, e os resultados audiológicos daqueles que finalizaram este processo. Métodos: Estudo quantitativo, descritivo, observacional, realizado em um Centro de Referência em Saúde Auditiva. Foram analisados os prontuários de 68 crianças que falharam na TAN, nas maternidades da Prefeitura Municipal de São Paulo, e encaminhadas para o Centro de Referência, no período de janeiro a junho de 2019. Os dados foram analisados com base nos critérios de qualidade estabelecidos por comitês nacionais e internacionais. Resultados: O serviço teve adesão abaixo do esperado no diagnóstico audiológico (76,5%) e o contato com os que evadiram, via telefone, não foi eficiente (75%). O indicador de risco com maior ocorrência foi a permanência na UTI por mais de cinco dias (25%). Das crianças que permaneceram no processo, metade concluiu o diagnóstico, o restante não tinha encerrado (42,2%) ou evadiu do mesmo (7,7%). A maioria das crianças que finalizaram o diagnóstico, apresentavam alguma perda auditiva (65,4%). Conclusão: O critério de qualidade não foi alcançado no comparecimento ao diagnóstico, sendo abaixo dos 90% recomendáveis. Novas estratégias necessitam ser tomadas, diminuindo a evasão no diagnóstico audiológico, dentre elas, outras formas de contato com as famílias e a integração entre atenção básica e os serviços de referência em Saúde Auditiva.


Introduction: Hearing assessment is essential until the third month of life in order to enable early intervention, allowing the child's proper speech and language development. Nevertheless, this process faces several barriers that may delay its conclusion. Purpose: To investigate aspects in the hearing assessment process in infants who refers newborn hearing screening (NHS), describing the age at which screening and diagnosis were performed, the reasons for evasion or loss to follow up, and reasons for missing appointments during the process, reasons for delay in completing the diagnosis, and the audiological results of those who completed this process. Methods: This is a quantitative, descriptive, and observational study that was carried out at a hearing health center in São Paulo. The study analyzed 68 medical records from children who referred NHS, born in São Paulo city maternity hospitals, and then referred to a hearing health center, from January to June 2019. Data were analyzed based on the quality criteria established by national and international committees. Results: There was an adherence lower than expected for hearing assessment (76.5%); contact with parents using mobile phones, after missing the appointments, was not efficient (75%). NICU stay for more than five days was the most common risk indicator (25%). Half of the children analyzed process completed the diagnosis, 42.2% of the children were still in the process, and 7.7% were lost in the process. Most of the children who completed the diagnosis had some type and degree of hearing loss (65.4%). Conclusion: Although NHS is being performed as expected in more than 95% of the newborns, hearing assessment is not being completed in more than 90% of the children who referred NHS. New strategies are needed in order to reduce loss to follow-up in the hearing assessment process.


Introducción: La evaluación después de hacer referencia a la detección auditiva del recién nacido es una parte esencial del proceso y el proceso de diagnóstico debe terminar en el tercer mes de vida, con el fin de iniciar la intervención temprana, lo que permite el mejor desarrollo del habla y el lenguaje posible. Este proceso enfrenta varias barreras que pueden retrasar el deseo de la línea de tiempo. Objetivo: Analizar el proceso del diagnóstico audiológico en los bebés que fallaron en la detección auditiva, describiendo la edad en la que se realizó la selección y el diagnóstico, los motivos de evasión y ausencias durante el proceso, los motivos de la demora en la realización del diagnóstico y los resultados audiológicos correspondientes quien completó este proceso. Métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, observacional, realizado en un Centro de Referencia de Salud Auditiva. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 68 niños que fallaron la detección auditiva en las maternidades de la Prefectura Municipal de São Paulo y se enviaron al Centro de Referencia, de enero a junio de 2019. Los datos se analizaron en base a los criterios de calidad establecidos por los comités nacionales e internacionales. Resultados: El servicio tuvo una adherencia por debajo de lo esperado en el diagnóstico audiológico (76,5%) y el contacto con los que escaparon, vía telefónica, no fue eficiente (75%). El indicador de riesgo con mayor ocurrencia fue la estancia en UCI por más de cinco días (25%). De los niños que permanecieron en el proceso, la mitad completó el diagnóstico, el resto no lo había terminado (42,2%) o lo había evadido (7,7%). La mayoría de los niños que completaron el diagnóstico tenían alguna pérdida auditiva (65,4%). Conclusión: No se alcanzó el criterio de calidad al momento de atender el diagnóstico, estando por debajo del 90% recomendado. Es necesario tomar nuevas estrategias, reduciendo la evasión en el diagnóstico audiológico, entre ellas, otras formas de contacto con las familias y la integración entre atención primaria y servicios de referencia en Salud Auditiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Neonatal Screening , Hearing Loss/diagnosis , Medical Records , Lost to Follow-Up , Hearing Tests
6.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 37(2): 166-173, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388146

ABSTRACT

Resumen La terapia de la tuberculosis con el esquema primario recomendado por la OMS no logra la curación de todos los casos a nivel mundial, pero en general alcanza un éxito de curación de al menos el 85% de los casos en el año 2018. El mismo año en Chile la eficiencia del tratamiento es solo de 76%, principalmente por la alta proporción de muertes y pérdida de seguimiento durante la terapia. Datos preliminares muestran que la cohorte ingresada en 2019 tuvo un éxito de tratamiento cercano a 74%. En Chile los fracasos de tratamiento son infrecuentes, debido principalmente a la vigilancia nacional de la susceptibilidad a fármacos. Para reducir la letalidad es necesario reforzar las estrategias para el diagnóstico precoz de la tuberculosis, mediante nuevos algoritmos que incorporen la biología molecular y la radiología en casos sospechosos de esta enfermedad, fomentar el adecuado manejo de las comorbilidades, establecer una adecuada red de apoyo social y disponer de centros de hospitalización cuando se requieren. Además, se debe fortalecer la adherencia a la terapia de los pacientes con estrategias de incentivo y facilitación de la asistencia.


Tuberculosis therapy with the primary regimen recommended by the World Health Organization does not cure all cases globally, but it reached success in at least 85% of cases in the year 2018. The same year in Chile, treatment efficiency is achieved in only 76%, mainly due to the high proportion of deaths and loss of follow-up during therapy. Preliminary data show that in the 2019 cohort the success was achieved only in about 74% of new cases. Treatment failures in Chile are rare due to national surveillance of drug susceptibility. To reduce fatality, it is necessary to reinforce the strategies for early diagnosis of tuberculosis through new algorithms. Such strategies should include molecular biology and radiology in suspected TB cases, to promote proper management of comorbidities, establish an adequate social support network and have centers available for prolonged hospitalization when needed. In addition, patient's adherence to therapy should be strengthened with strategies that encourage and facilitate attendance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Patient Dropouts , Tuberculosis/mortality , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Biological Availability , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Global Health , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Immunocompromised Host , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Lost to Follow-Up , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 22: e60257, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1155274

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo analisar os fatores relacionados à perda do seguimento de gestantes com sífilis. Métodos revisão integrativa desenvolvida em seis bases de dados. A estratégia PICo foi utilizada para elaborar a questão norteadora e selecionar os descritores e as palavras-chave por meio de operadores booleanos. Foram incluídos 20 artigos na amostragem final. Resultados os fatores relacionados à perda do seguimento de gestantes com sífilis constatados foram: idade; escolaridade; diagnóstico e início tardio do tratamento; falhas no pré-natal e a baixa adesão do parceiro ao tratamento. Além disso, o déficit de conhecimento dos profissionais acerca do manejo da sífilis e as falhas no aconselhamento revelaram-se fatores inerentes à perda do seguimento. Conclusão gestantes menores de 20 anos, a baixa escolaridade, o estigma, o medo, o não tratamento da parceria, o tratamento inadequado e a falta de capacitação profissional e de orientações às gestantes estiveram associados à perda de seguimento de gestantes com sífilis.


ABSTRACT Objective to analyze factors related to the loss of follow-up in pregnant women with syphilis. Methods Integrative review developed in six databases. The PICo strategy was used to elaborate the guiding question and select the descriptors and keywords through Boolean operators. 20 articles were included in the final sample. Results the factors related to the loss of follow-up in pregnant women with syphilis were: age; schooling; diagnosis and late onset of treatment; prenatal failure and low adherence of the partner to treatment. In addition, the lack of knowledge of professionals about the management of syphilis and the failures in counseling were found to be factors inherent to the loss of follow-up. Conclusion pregnant women under 20, low schooling, stigma, fear, non-treatment of partnership, inadequate treatment and lack of professional training and guidance to pregnant women were associated with the loss of follow-up of pregnant women with syphilis.


Subject(s)
Prenatal Care , Syphilis , Pregnant Women , Lost to Follow-Up
8.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(5): 438-446, sep.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249943

ABSTRACT

Resumen La medicina se caracteriza por la aplicación del método científico a través del juicio clínico, por la correcta interpretación y el uso del curso clínico o historia natural de la enfermedad; su descripción más lograda la observamos en la arquitectura de la investigación clínica. A través de una secuencia temporal, este modelo explica el fenómeno de causalidad con tres apartados: estado basal, maniobra y desenlace. En el estado basal se evalúa quién es el paciente, de donde proviene, sus condiciones generales, el diagnóstico, el estadio y la agresividad de la patología, las complicaciones, terapias previas, nivel socioeconómico-cultural, hábitos, indicaciones o contraindicaciones terapéuticas y se prevé la evolución esperada. De la maniobra se pueden evaluar los factores de riesgo o pronóstico, tratamiento específico, sintomático y medidas generales. En el desenlace se vigila la evolución temprana y tardía. El modelo también permite determinar las causas de pérdida de seguimiento. Anticipar la evolución del paciente al reconocer su condición, enfermedad y efecto esperado de la decisiones médicas permite actuar anticipadamente, ya que esperar las manifestaciones del proceso evolutivo de la enfermedad resulta en detrimento del paciente.


Abstract Medicine is characterized by the application of the scientific method through clinical judgment, by correct interpretation and use of the clinical course and/or natural history of the disease; its best description is observed in the architecture of clinical research. Through a temporal sequence, this model explains the phenomenon of causality with three sections: baseline status, maneuver, and outcome. The baseline status assesses who the patient is, where does he come from, his general conditions, the diagnosis, stage and aggressiveness of the pathology, complications, previous therapies, socioeconomic-cultural level, habits, therapeutic indications or contraindications and the expected evolution is anticipated. In the maneuver, risk or prognostic factors, specific or symptom treatment, and general measures could be evaluated. In the outcome, early and late evolution are monitored. The model also allows the causes of follow-up loss to be determined. Anticipating patient evolution by recognizing his condition, disease, and expected effect of medical decisions allows acting in advance, since waiting for the manifestations of the evolutionary process of disease results in detriment to the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patients , Causality , Biomedical Research/methods , Clinical Reasoning , Prognosis , Socioeconomic Factors , Time , Treatment Outcome , Lost to Follow-Up , Contraindications , Habits
9.
Blood Research ; : 49-56, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare entity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The clinicopathological features of and optimal treatment for HIV-negative PBL remain largely unknown.METHODS: To gain insight into this distinct lymphoma, we summarized the clinicopathologic characteristics of 8 unpublished HIV-negative PBLs and performed a comprehensive review of 394 published cases.RESULTS: Of the 8 unpublished PBLs, the median patient age was 53.0 years. Four patients presented with stage IV disease. All 8 patients showed a plasma cell-like immunophenotype. Of the six patients who received anthracycline-based chemotherapy, including two who received bortezomib, three patients achieved a continuous complete response, two patients died due to disease progression, and one patient was lost to follow-up. The other two patients achieved continuous complete response after receiving chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and surgery. Of the 402 patients, the majority were male, with a mean age of 58.0 years. EBV infection was detected in 55.7% of the patients. The median survival times of the patients who received CHOP or CHOP-like regimens and intensive regimens were not reached and 23.0 months, respectively, and the intensive regimen did not improve the survival outcome (P=0.981). Multivariate analysis showed that EBER remained the only independent factor affecting overall survival (OS).CONCLUSION: HIV-negative PBL is a distinct entity with a predilection for elderly and immunosuppressed individuals. Intensive chemotherapy had no apparent survival benefits over the CHOP regimen in terms of OS; the prognosis of this disease is poor with current chemotherapy methods, and treatment remains a challenge.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Bortezomib , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , HIV , Lost to Follow-Up , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Multivariate Analysis , Plasma , Plasmablastic Lymphoma , Prognosis , Radiotherapy
10.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 345-355, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040247

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: There is evidence that aldosterone plays a role in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, on the progression of coronary calcification (CC) in peritoneal dialysis patients and to identify the factors involved in this progression. Methods: Thirty-three patients with a coronary calcium score (CCS) ≥ 30, detected through multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and expressed in Agatston units, were randomly assigned to a group receiving 25mg spironolactone per day for 12 months (spironolactone group) and a control group not receiving this drug. The primary outcome was a percentage change in CCS from baseline to end of the study (relative progression), when a further MDCT was conducted. Patients who had progression of CC were compared with those who did not progress. Results: Sixteen patients, seven in the spironolactone group and nine in the control group, concluded the study. The relative progression of the CCS was similar in both groups, 17.2% and 27.5% in the spironolactone and control groups respectively. Fifty-seven percent of the treated patients and 67% of those in the control group presented progression in the CC scores (p = 0.697). Progressor patients differed from non-progressors because they presented higher levels of calcium and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower levels of albumin. Conclusion: In peritoneal dialysis patients, spironolactone did not attenuate the progression of CC. However, large-scale studies are needed to confirm this observation. Disorders of mineral metabolism and dyslipidemia are involved in the progression of CC.


RESUMO Introdução: Existem evidências de que a aldosterona exerça um papel na patogênese da calcificação vascular. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da espironolactona, um antagonista do receptor mineralocorticoide, na progressão da calcificação coronariana (CC) de pacientes em diálise peritoneal, e identificar os fatores envolvidos nessa progressão. Métodos: Trinta e três pacientes com escore de cálcio coronariano (ECC) ≥ 30, detectado por tomografia computadorizada com múltiplos detectores (TCMD) e expresso em unidades de Agatston, foram randomizados para um grupo que recebeu 25 mg de espironolactona por dia durante 12 meses (grupo espironolactona) e um grupo controle que não recebeu este medicamento. O desfecho primário foi a mudança percentual do ECC do início para o final do estudo (progressão relativa), quando uma nova TCMD foi realizada. Os pacientes que tiveram progressão de CC foram comparados com aqueles que não progrediram. Resultados: Dezesseis pacientes, sete no grupo espironolactona e nove no grupo controle, concluíram o estudo. A progressão relativa do ECC foi semelhante nos dois grupos, 17,2% e 27,5% nos grupos espironolactona e controle, respectivamente. Cinquenta e sete por cento dos pacientes tratados e 67% daqueles no grupo controle apresentaram progressão nos escores de CC (p = 0,697). Os pacientes progressores diferiram dos não progressores porque apresentaram níveis séricos mais elevados de cálcio e LDL-colesterol e menores níveis de albumina. Conclusão: Em pacientes em diálise peritoneal, a espironolactona não atenuou a progressão da CC. No entanto, estudos em grande escala são necessários para confirmar essa observação. Distúrbios do metabolismo mineral e dislipidemia estão envolvidos na progressão da CC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Spironolactone/therapeutic use , Peritoneal Dialysis , Disease Progression , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Vascular Calcification/drug therapy , Vascular Calcification/blood , Spironolactone/administration & dosage , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Pilot Projects , Calcium/blood , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Lost to Follow-Up , Vascular Calcification/pathology , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Serum Albumin, Human/analysis , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
11.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 2-8, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This double-blind, randomized controlled design study aimed to assess the dose-dependent effects of synbiotics on gastrointestinal symptoms of and fatigue in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: Thirty subjects with IBS were randomly assigned into the following three groups and received 2 capsules a day for 8 weeks: (1) high-dose (2 capsules of synbiotics); (2) low-dose (1 capsule of synbiotics and 1 capsule of placebo); and (3) placebo (2 capsules of placebo). At baseline and 8 weeks, they completed the study questionnaires. RESULTS: Two subjects in the high-dose group were lost to follow-up, leaving a total of 28 patients for the analysis. After 8 weeks, abdominal discomfort, abdominal bloating, frequency of formed stool, fatigue Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory were significantly different among the groups (P=0.002, 0.006, 0.007, 0.028, and 0.041, respectively, by Kruskal-Wallis test). However, only abdominal discomfort, abdominal bloating, frequency of formed stool, and fatigue VAS were significantly improved in the high-dose group compared with those in the placebo group (P=0.002, 0.003, 0.002, and 0.013, respectively) by Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction. No adverse drug reactions were reported. CONCLUSION: High-dose synbiotics were superior to placebo in improving bowel symptoms and fatigue of IBS patients, suggesting that synbiotic dosage plays an important role in the treatment of IBS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Capsules , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Fatigue , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Lost to Follow-Up , Probiotics , Synbiotics , Visual Analog Scale
12.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 388-395, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hip fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Fast-track multidisciplinary co-management of these patients, rapid preoperative optimization, early surgery, and expeditious rehabilitation may minimize morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated outcomes of fixation of hip fractures in the elderly patients managed by Geriatric Hip Fracture Program at a military hospital in India. METHODS: A total of 114 patients above 60 years of age with hip fractures were enrolled. They were comanaged by a team of specialists and fast-tracked to surgery. Independent ambulation with support of a walker was achieved before discharge to home. Patients were followed up for 1 year. RESULTS: The average age of the 114 patients was 77 years; 24 patients were octogenarian. Eighty-four percent of injuries were due to a domestic fall. Hypertension (41%) and diabetes (22%) were the most common comorbidities. All patients were optimized before surgery. The average delay from injury to admission was 1.7 days (range, 0 to 14 days) and that from admission to surgery was 1.8 days (range, 0 to 19 days). Hence, the average time from injury to surgery was 3.5 days. The length of stay in hospital was, as per rehabilitative milestones achieved, 2 to 5 days in 40% of the patients and 6 to 15 days in 60% of the patients. At 1 year after surgery, 95 patients were independently ambulant (56 patients with support and 39 patients without support). Twenty-three percent of the patients had postoperative complications and eight patients died (7.7%) at 1-year follow-up; 11 patients were lost to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly hip fracture has a high risk of mortality (14%–58%). Thus, expeditious surgery within 24 hours of admission has been advocated in the Western literature to minimize mortality. Mortality rate at 1 year after surgery remains at 10% to 24%. In our study, even with aggressive co-management, the average delay to hip fracture fixation was more than 3 days; however, the 1-year mortality was relatively low (7.7%). This indicates the importance of preoperative optimization and postoperative rehabilitation for independent ambulation and mortality reduction in the elderly population.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Comorbidity , Follow-Up Studies , Fracture Fixation , Hip Fractures , Hip , Hospitals, Military , Hypertension , India , Length of Stay , Lost to Follow-Up , Mortality , Postoperative Complications , Rehabilitation , Specialization , Veterans , Walkers , Walking
13.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 445-453, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760674

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical usefulness and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonographic measurement of endometrial thickness (ET) in women with endometrial hyperplasia or cancer (EH+). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 29,995 consecutive women who underwent transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) for an incidental finding of a thickened endometrium at the health screening and promotion center at Asan Medical Center between 2006 and 2010. Among 959 patients with endometrial abnormalities, 92 patients were included in this study. A total of 867 patients were excluded: 416 were lost to follow-up; 263 did not undergo endometrial biopsy; 155 had endometrial polyps; 17 had submucosal myomas; and 16 had insufficient tissue samples. Endometrial histology was the reference standard for calculating accuracy. RESULTS: Of the 92 patients, 78 (84.8%) had normal pathology, while 14 (15.2%) had endometrial pathology (EH+), including 5 patients (35.7%) with simple hyperplasia without atypia, 3 (21.4%) with complex hyperplasia, and 6 (42.9%) with endometrial carcinoma, all stage Ia. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.593–0.906). The cut-off value for ET was 8 mm, indicating that TVS ET had a fair accuracy in diagnosing carcinoma, had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 62.9–100.0%) and a specificity of 24.3% (95% CI, 15.2–36.3%). CONCLUSION: TVS is useful for detecting EH+, with a cut-off value for ET of 8 mm having a high sensitivity for detecting endometrial pathologies and the ability to identify women highly unlikely to have EH+, thereby avoiding more invasive endometrial biopsy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Biopsy , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Endometrial Hyperplasia , Endometrial Neoplasms , Endometrium , Hyperplasia , Incidental Findings , Lost to Follow-Up , Mass Screening , Myoma , Pathology , Polyps , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography
14.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 169-173, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760584

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Agenesis of the septum pellucidum (ASP) is a very rare disease that can be isolated or associated with other brain abnormalities. The neurological prognosis of isolated ASP remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of neonates with ASP. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 12 neonates with isolated ASP or ASP combined with other brain abnormalities who were born at Cheil General Hospital & Women's Healthcare Center between January 2007 and December 2017. RESULTS: Of the 12 neonates, six were identified prenatally and six were identified postnatally. Isolated ASP was found in eight neonates; of these, four were detected antenatally. ASP associated with other brain abnormalities was found in four neonates. ASP was complete in nine neonates, including six with isolated ASP, and partial in three, including two with isolated ASP. Six of the eight neonates with isolated ASP had normal neurological development, except two who were lost to follow-up. Among the four neonates with other associated brain abnormalities, two had delayed motor development and a seizure, one had normal development, and one was lost to follow-up. In all neonates, ophthalmological examination revealed no optic nerve abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Isolated ASP seems to have a good neurological prognosis without ocular problems. This result needs to be confirmed by larger prospective studies over a longer developmental timeline.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Brain , Delivery of Health Care , Hospitals, General , Lost to Follow-Up , Medical Records , Optic Nerve , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Rare Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Septum Pellucidum , Viperidae
15.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 312-316, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760226

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The major side effects of treatment with oxcarbazepine (OXC) are skin rash and hyponatremia. Hematologic side effects are reported rarely. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate and types of the hematologic side effects of OXC. METHODS: The medical records of 184 patients diagnosed with epilepsy or movement disorder and on OXC monotherapy, at the Department of Pediatrics of Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital from July 2001 to July 2018, were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 184 patients, 10 (5.4%) developed leukopenia in addition to pancytopenia and 2 (1.0%) developed pancytopenia. Leukopenia developed in 11 days to 14 years after OXC administration and was more frequent in males than in females (male vs. female, 9 vs. 1; Fisher exact test, P0.05, t-test). CONCLUSION: OXC-induced leukopenia is not rare and may result in pancytopenia. Patients being treated with OXC should be regularly monitored for abnormal complete blood count profiles.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Blood Cell Count , Epilepsy , Exanthema , Hyponatremia , Leukopenia , Lost to Follow-Up , Medical Records , Movement Disorders , Pancytopenia , Pediatrics , Retrospective Studies
16.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 374-380, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There is a lack of data on long-term morbidity, particularly dysphagia, following endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL). The aim of this study are to assess the incidence of dysphagia and variables associated with this complication after EVL.METHODS: We identified individuals who completed at least one session of EVL as their sole treatment for varices from August 2012 to December 2017. Included patients achieved “complete eradication” of varices not requiring further therapy. Patients ≥90 days from their last EVL session completed a modified version of the Mayo Clinic Dysphagia Questionnaire. Individuals with dysphagia were invited to undergo a barium esophagram. Patients with pre-EVL dysphagia were excluded.RESULTS: Of the patients, 68 possessed inclusion criteria, nine (13.2%) died and 20 (29.4%) were lost to follow up. For the remaining 39 (57.4%) patients, 23 were males, mean age of 61.7±8.6 years. The most common etiology of liver disease was hepatitis C virus (n=18; 46.2%). The median number of banding sessions was 2.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.0–4.0) with a median of 9.0 bands placed (IQR, 3.0–14.0). Twelve patients (30.8%) developed new-onset dysphagia post-EVL. In univariate analysis, pre-EVL MELD score and non-emergent initial banding were associated with long-term dysphagia. In a regression model adjusted for age, sex, number of bands, and use of acid suppression after EVL, no factor was independently associated with dysphagia (all p>0.05). No strictures were identified on subsequent esophageal evaluation.CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 30% of patients developed new-onset, chronic dysphagia post-EVL. Incident dysphagia was associated with a non-emergent initial banding session. The mechanism for dysphagia remains unknown.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Barium , Constriction, Pathologic , Deglutition Disorders , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Esophageal Stenosis , Hepacivirus , Incidence , Ligation , Liver Diseases , Lost to Follow-Up , Risk Factors , Varicose Veins
17.
Archives of Plastic Surgery ; : 441-448, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine malignancy affecting the skin, for which timely diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential. MCC has most often been reported in Caucasians, and case reports in Asians are rare. This study presents our experiences with the surgical treatment and radiotherapy of MCC in Asian patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of seven MCC patients between 2000 and 2018 from a single institution, and analyzed patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, surgical treatment, sentinel lymph node evaluation, reconstruction, adjuvant radiation therapy, and prognosis. RESULTS: Eight MCC lesions occurred in seven patients, most commonly in the head and neck region. All patients underwent surgical excision with reconstruction. The final surgical margin was 1.0 cm in most cases, and reconstruction was most commonly performed with a split-thickness skin graft. Five patients received adjuvant radiotherapy, and two patients received sentinel lymph node biopsy. During the follow-up period, three patients remained well, two died from other causes, one experienced recurrence, and one was lost to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We treated seven Asian MCC patients and our series confirmed that MCC is a very dangerous cancer in Asians as well. Based on our experiences, thorough surgical excision of MCC with histopathological clearance should be considered, with sentinel lymph node evaluation if necessary, followed by appropriate reconstruction and careful postoperative observation. Adjuvant radiation therapy is also recommended for all Asian MCC patients. The results of this case series may provide guidance for the treatment of Asian MCC patients in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , Carcinoma, Merkel Cell , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Lost to Follow-Up , Lymph Nodes , Mohs Surgery , Neck , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Skin , Transplants
18.
Korean Journal of Schizophrenia Research ; : 1-7, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738914

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Clozapine is the drug of choice in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, its use is often delayed and a significant proportion of clozapine treated patients fails to respond and experience potentially dangerous side-effects. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients started on clozapine and the rate and reason of discontinuation of clozapine. METHODS: Medical records of 83 patients started on clozapine during the period of 2012–2016 were reviewed. RESULTS: Clozapine started on patients in chronic phase; the mean age of start was 38.1 years old and the mean number of psychiatric admission was 6.5. A majority (80.7%) of the patients had been subjected to antipsychotic polypharmacy prior to clozapine and most (61.5%) of them were being treated with polypharmacy including clozapine. Overall, 39 (47.0%) subjects had continued clozapine whereas 15 (18.1%) discontinued it; 29 (34.9%) were lost to follow-up. The most common reason for discontinuation was side-effects (n=13) including six life-threatening cases, most of which occurred within 6 months of its start. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that there is some evidence of delays to clozapine use, high rates of polypharmacy and significant rate of discontinuation during the early phase of clozapine treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents , Clozapine , Lost to Follow-Up , Medical Records , Polypharmacy , Retrospective Studies , Schizophrenia
19.
Journal of the Korean Fracture Society ; : 21-26, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738456

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study analyzed the results of the midclavicle fracture treatment using the minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique in a retrospective manner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2013 and March 2017, this study analyzed 40 patients who received MIPO surgery. Excluding 1 patient who underwent surgery on another body part injury, and 4 patients who were lost to follow-up over 1 year, 40 patients were analyzed for their operation time, bone union, functional American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, scar lengths, pain relief (visual analogue scale), and complications. RESULTS: All patients over a 1 year of follow-up achieved bone union, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score 97.6 (94–100) on their shoulder functional scores. Their average operation time was 42.7 minutes, and the average scar length was 6.1 cm. Eighteen patients successfully received metal removal using the previous scar without additional incision. The clavicle length was similar in the normal and operated group. CONCLUSION: Despite its small sample size, clavicle fixation using the MIPO technique can be considered an effective treatment because of its limited number of complications, such as nonunion and rotational angulations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cicatrix , Clavicle , Elbow , Follow-Up Studies , Lost to Follow-Up , Retrospective Studies , Sample Size , Shoulder , Surgeons
20.
Neurointervention ; : 53-60, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741673

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We analyzed results of percutaneous sclerotherapy for venous malformations (VMs) in head, neck and extremities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with head and neck and extremities VM treated by sclerotherapy with bleomycin and sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STS) were retrospectively reviewed. A pre-treatment magnetic resonance imaging was done for all patients to diagnose the lesion. Each lesion received 1 to 11 sessions (average, 2.7; standard deviation [SD], 2.03). We evaluated percentage reduction in swelling size and a Likert scale review of subjective feelings of the patients. RESULTS: Sixteen had a complete obliteration; by sclerotherapy alone (n=13) and surgery after a 75% reduction (n=3). Ten patients had a significant reduction up to 75% and three patients by 50%. Four had a minimal decrease with reduction of 25% or less. Follow-up duration of the patients varied from a minimum of 6 months up to 3 years (average, 15.7 months; SD, 7.8 months). Of all patients, three refused further treatment and were lost to follow-up, while another two were referred to a dermatologist. Thirteen patients reported feeling excellent after the sessions. Eight patients claimed to feel slightly better compared to before the sessions started. Only three patients complained of feeling the same before and after the sessions. None of the patients still in follow-up have reported a recurrence of a lesion thus far. CONCLUSION: Sclerotherapy using bleomycin and STS as sclerosants is a safe and effective primary treatment for VMs in the head and neck as well as in extremities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bleomycin , Extremities , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Lost to Follow-Up , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sclerosing Solutions , Sclerotherapy , Sodium , Vascular Malformations
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