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J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(4): 321-323, Oct.-Dec. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528944


Introduction: Rubber band ligation is a minimally invasive outpatient hemorrhoid treatment with low cost, low complication rates, and rapid realization. It is performed with the aid of an anoscope and uses a rubber ring that surrounds the hemorrhoidal nipple, causing compression of the vascular structures of the tissue, leading to necrosis and remission of the hemorrhoid. No device for training this essential procedure for treating this pathology has been identified in the literature. Therefore, we aim to develop a low-cost simulator for training hemorrhoidal rubber ligation. Methods: The model was constructed using PVC pipe wrapped in neoprene fabric. Hemorrhoidal nipples and the pectineal line were also simulated using fabric and sewing threads. The procedure is performed with conventional anoscope and ligature forceps. Conclusion: The device in question is a low-cost simulation model designed to train the skills required to perform a rubber band ligation and review the basic anatomy of the anal canal during anoscopy. Given these qualities, the model can be used for academic training due to its low cost and simplicity of application. (AU)

Simulation Exercise , Hemorrhoids/surgery , Low Cost Technology , Education, Medical
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255195, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529228


A pandemia de covid-19 provocou intensas mudanças no contexto do cuidado neonatal, exigindo dos profissionais de saúde a reformulação de práticas e o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias para a manutenção da atenção integral e humanizada ao recém-nascido. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a atuação da Psicologia nas Unidades Neonatais de um hospital público de Fortaleza (CE), Brasil, durante o período de distanciamento físico da pandemia de covid-19. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, do tipo relato de experiência, que ocorreu no período de março a agosto de 2020. No contexto pandêmico, o serviço de Psicologia desenvolveu novas condutas assistenciais para atender às demandas emergentes do momento, como: atendimento remoto; registro e envio on-line de imagens do recém-nascido a seus familiares; visitas virtuais; e reprodução de mensagens de áudio da família para o neonato. Apesar dos desafios encontrados, as ações contribuíram para a manutenção do cuidado centrado no recém-nascido e sua família, o que demonstra a potencialidade do fazer psicológico.(AU)

The COVID-19 pandemic brought intense changes to neonatal care and required health professionals to reformulate practices and develop new strategies to ensure comprehensive and humanized care for newborn. This study aims to report the experience of the Psychology Service in the Neonatal Units of a public hospital in Fortaleza, in the state of Ceará, Brazil, during the social distancing period of the COVID-19 pandemic. This descriptive experience report study was conducted from March to August 2020. During the pandemic, the Psychology Service developed new care practices to meet the emerging demands of that moment, such as remote care, recordings and online submission of newborns' pictures and video images for their family, virtual tours, and reproduction of family audio messages for the newborns. Despite the challenges, the actions contributed to the maintenance of a care that is centered on the newborns and their families, which shows the potential of psychological practices.(AU)

La pandemia de la COVID-19 ha traído cambios intensos en el contexto de la atención neonatal, que requieren de los profesionales de la salud una reformulación de sus prácticas y el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias para asegurar una atención integral y humanizada al recién nacido. El objetivo de este artículo es reportar la experiencia del Servicio de Psicología en las Unidades Neonatales de un hospital público de Fortaleza, en Ceará, Brasil, durante el periodo de distanciamiento físico en la pandemia de la COVID-19. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, un reporte de experiencia, que se llevó a cabo de marzo a agosto de 2020. En el contexto pandémico, el servicio de Psicología desarrolló nuevas conductas asistenciales para atender a las demandas emergentes del momento, tales como: atención remota; grabación y envío em línea de imágenes del recién nacido; visitas virtuales; y reproducción de mensajes de audio de la familia para el recién nacido. A pesar de los desafíos encontrados, las acciones contribuyeron al mantenimiento de la atención centrada en el recién nacido y su familia, lo que demuestra el potencial de la práctica psicológica.(AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Psychology , Teleworking , COVID-19 , Neonatology , Anxiety , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Apgar Score , Patient Care Team , Patient Discharge , Pediatrics , Perinatology , Phototherapy , Prenatal Care , Quality of Health Care , Respiration, Artificial , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Survival , Congenital Abnormalities , Unconscious, Psychology , Visitors to Patients , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital , Health Care Levels , Brazil , Breast Feeding , Case Reports , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Cardiotocography , Health Behavior , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Child Development , Child Health Services , Infant Mortality , Maternal Mortality , Cross Infection , Risk , Probability , Vital Statistics , Health Status Indicators , Life Expectancy , Women's Health , Neonatal Screening , Nursing , Enteral Nutrition , Long-Term Care , Parenteral Nutrition , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Pliability , Comprehensive Health Care , Low Cost Technology , Pregnancy Rate , Life , Creativity , Critical Care , Affect , Crying , Humanizing Delivery , Uncertainty , Pregnant Women , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Disease Prevention , Humanization of Assistance , User Embracement , Information Technology , Child Nutrition , Perinatal Mortality , Resilience, Psychological , Fear , Feeding Methods , Fetal Monitoring , Patient Handoff , Microbiota , Integrality in Health , Ambulatory Care , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Maternal Health , Neonatal Sepsis , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Psychosocial Support Systems , Survivorship , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Family Support , Gynecology , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Maternity , Hyperbilirubinemia , Hypothermia , Immune System , Incubators , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Length of Stay , Life Change Events , Love , Maternal Behavior , Maternal Welfare , Medicine , Methods , Nervous System Diseases , Object Attachment , Obstetrics
j. public health epidemiol. (jphe) ; 15(2): 30-38, 2023. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1427872


The rampant practice of self-medication is indicative of very strong existing push and pulls factors. These factors could be economic, social or systemic. Despite having some beneficial effects, selfmedication has life-threatening consequences. This study was aimed to determine the factors which push users to medicine sources or factors at the sources which pull users. A pre-validated questionnaire was administered to participants. Data were collected and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and the results expressed as frequencies and percentages. From the total of 650 respondents, poverty was found to be the major push factor for 360 participants (55.39%), followed by unprofessionalism, friends' advice, previous use of medicine, lack of time, and poor price regulation as others. Low cost of medicines was found to pull 402 (61.8%) users to sources of medicines for self-medication. More than 300 of the respondents found easy access to medicine and advertising as strong pull factors. Other important pull factors include quick and time-saving, proliferation of medicine vendors, hospital crowds, and inadequate prescription checks at sources of medication. Poverty is a major push factor for self-medication, further compounded by quick access to illicit sources of medication. Consequently, users get pulled to cheaper sources, which unfortunately sell poor quality medicines, lack the expertise, or do not check prescription. Price control is required to ensure that quality medicines are accessible to users. Imposing physician prescription at all medicine sales points is a crucial step to fight the deleterious consequences of self-medication. Although self-medication has some positive elements, its practice needs to be put under control to avoid grappling with long term health complications.

Humans , Self Medication , Therapeutics , Poverty , Low Cost Technology
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(4): 296-301, Oct.-Dec. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430670


Objective: To develop a low-cost simulator model and a colonoscope with materials that are easily accessible to offer training on colonoscopy skills during undergraduate studies. Since this is the procedure of choice for colorectal cancer screening, the general practitioner must be able to recognize its main indications, preparation, and complications. Methods: Using materials such as a mannequin, a vehicle inspection camera, a conduit, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe, acrylic, wood, and red paint, we built a simulator and a 150-cm long and 20-to-25-mm thick colonoscope. The colonoscope's handle and handhold were made of acrylic, the colonoscope's mobile end was made with articulated PVC rings, and the up and down movements were performed according to the traction of the steel cables. The camera attached to its distal end enables connection to a smartphone to view the image. In the simulator, the conduit was inserted into the mannequin to simulate the curvatures of the colon. Red spray paint was used to simulate the staining of the colonic mucosa in the inner region of the mannequin and the adventitial layer in the outer region. Results: We were able to build a simulator and a colonoscope with a total amount of R $ 182.82 (roughly US$ 36.50). Both were tested and proved to be useful in the acquisition of psychomotor and cognitive skills in colonoscopy. Conclusion The simulator and colonoscope developed by us are cost-effective, useful in the acquisition of psychomotor and cognitive skills in colonoscopy, and can facilitate the structuring of a training program for undergraduate students. (AU)

Colonoscopy/education , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Simulation Training , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Low Cost Technology
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(4): 702-708, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394885


Abstract The present study created a cheap (below US$ 100) shoulder arthroscopy training model, affordable for the practical education of medical students and residents. The model was created using a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) knee joint pipe (150 mm in diameter and 90 degrees in inclination) and a synthetic shoulder model. The parts were arranged to simulate a lateral recumbency with the upper limb in traction, which is the frequent positioning during arthroscopies. Colored dots on the glenoid and a partial rotator cuff model on the upper portion of the scapula were placed to assist training. This inexpensive, easy-to-make model for shoulder arthroscopy can aid surgical training.

Resumo O objetivo do presente trabalho é criar um modelo de treinamento em artroscopia de ombro de baixo custo abaixo de 100 dólares, tornando-o acessível à capacitação prática de estudantes de medicina e residentes. O modelo foi criado utilizando um cano de PVC de 150 mm de diâmetro em 90 graus e um modelo de ombro sintético. O posicionamento das peças foi disposto de forma a simular a posição de decúbito lateral com membro superior em tração, frequente nas artroscopias. Para auxiliar no treinamento, foram demarcados pontos coloridos na glenóide e foi confeccionado um modelo de parte do manguito rotador na porção superior da escápula. Foi possível confeccionar um modelo para treinamento de artroscopia do ombro com um valor abaixo de 100 dólares, de fácil manufatura, que pode ser um auxiliar no treinamento de cirurgiões.

Humans , Arthroscopy , Shoulder/surgery , Low Cost Technology , Education, Medical , Simulation Training
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 31(1): 1-2, 15/03/2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1368877


La medicina personalizada (MP) trae la promesa del cuidado individual a través de la identificación de variaciones genéticas que permitan determinar la predisposición ante una enfermedad, ofreciendo una prevención oportuna y específica, o adaptando las estrategias terapéuticas de manera particular.[1] [2] Su esencia es la integración de la investigación biomédica y la información clínica,[3] [4] con la esperanza de reducir el gasto en salud y la garantía de acceso equitativo a los ciudadanos.[4] La rapidez y bajo costo en la secuenciación del genoma ha permitido su implementación en la práctica clínica.[1] En urología estos avances han facilitado una mejor comprensión de los subtipos histológicos de las neoplasias del tracto genitourinario, facilitando el uso de tratamientos específicos y un seguimiento más oportuno.[2] [5] [6] Sin embargo, su aplicación en la identificación de biomarcadores no ha sido completamente determinada

Personalized medicine (PM) brings the promise of individualized care through the identification of genetic variations that allow determining the predisposition to a disease, offering timely and specific prevention, or adapting therapeutic strategies in a particular way.[1] [2] Its essence is the integration of biomedical research and clinical information,[3] [4] with the hope of reducing health spending and guaranteeing equitable access to citizens.[4] The speed and low cost of genome sequencing has allowed its implementation in clinical practice.[1] In urology, these advances have facilitated a better understanding of the histological subtypes of histological subtypes of neoplasms in urology. The speed and low cost of genome sequencing has allowed its implementation in clinical practice.[1] In urology these advances have facilitated a better understanding of the histological subtypes of neoplasms of the genitourinary tract, facilitating the use of specific treatments and more timely follow-up.[2] [5] [6] However, its application in the identification of biomarkers has not been fully determined.

Humans , Preceptorship , Biomedical Research , Precision Medicine , Genetic Variation , Biomarkers , Low Cost Technology , Comprehension , Neoplasms
Rev. SOBECC (Online) ; 27: 1-7, 01-01-2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1381473


Objetivo: Desenvolver um sistema de baixo custo que possibilite a automatização do processo de rastreabilidade em um centro de material e este-rilização. Método: Trata-se de pesquisa aplicada, com foco em uma produção tecnológica (prototipação), visando ao desenvolvimento de um sistema auto-matizado de rastreabilidade para centro de material e esterilização. O desenvolvimento do sistema seguiu o modelo das fases do ciclo de vida de um software para o desenvolvimento de protótipos, utilizando-se para sua construção funcionalidades existentes no software Microsoft Excel 2013©. Resultados: Seguindo as fases do modelo proposto, e de acordo com as diretrizes dos órgãos competentes, desenvolveu-se um sistema de rastreabilidade automatizada, com visual simples e intuitivo, capaz de executar funções: de registro, por meio de código de barras; de acesso às informações dos processos executados no centro de material e esterilização, por meio de planilha alimentada automaticamente; de segurança, com login e senha individuais. Conclusão: Este tra-balho cumpriu seu objetivo de propor um sistema de rastreabilidade de baixo custo que atendesse às necessidades do centro de material e esterilização, necessidades que compreendem não somente as normas impostas por órgãos reguladores, mas também a automatização do processo de rastreabilidade.

Objective: To develop a low-cost system that enables the automation of the traceability process in a Sterile Processing Department. Method: This is an applied research, focusing on technological production (prototyping), aiming at the development of an automated traceability system for the Sterile Processing Department. The system was developed following the model of the software life cycle for developing prototypes, making use of existing func-tionalities in the Microsoft Excel 2013© software. Results: Following the phases of the proposed model, and in accordance with the guidelines of competent bodies, an automated traceability system was developed, with a simple and intuitive design, capable of performing the following functions: registration, by using a barcode; access to information on the processes performed at the Sterile Processing Department, by an automatically fed spreadsheet; and security, with individual login and password. Conclusions: This study fulfilled its objective of proposing a low-cost traceability system that would meet the needs of the Sterile Processing Department, which included not only the rules imposed by regulatory bodies, but also the automation of the traceability process.

Objetivo: Desarrollar un sistema de bajo costo que permita la automatización del proceso de trazabilidad en un CME. Método: Se trata de investigación aplicada, con foco en la producción tecnológica (prototipado), con el objetivo de desarrollar un sistema de trazabilidad automatizado para CME. El desarrollo del sistema siguió el modelo de las fases del ciclo de vida de un software para el desarrollo de prototipos, utilizando para su construcción funcionalidades existentes en el software Microsoft Excel 2013©, en su versión de escritorio. Resultados: Siguiendo las fases del modelo propuesto, y de acuerdo con las directrices de los órganos competentes, se desarrolló un sistema de trazabilidad automatizado, de apariencia sencilla e intuitiva, capaz de realizar: funciones de registro, por medio de un código de barras; acceder a la información de los procesos ejecutados en el CME, a través de una hoja de cálculo alimentada automáticamente; y seguridad, con usuario y contraseña individual. Conclusión: Este trabajo cumplió con su objetivo de proponer un sistema de trazabilidad de bajo costo que satisficiera las necesidades de los CME, necesidades que incluyen no solo las normas impuestas por los organismos reguladores, sino también la automatización del proceso de trazabilidad.

Humans , Automation , Sterilization , Information Technology , Safety , Software , Low Cost Technology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18665, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374559


Abstract Suitability of developing Spirulina incorporated cereal based low cost nutritious extrudates was analysed against extrusion processing parameters. Most significant extrusion processing parameters considered for present study were feed moisture (20-25%), die temperature (100-120 °C) and screw speed (50-100 rpm). Different extrusion conditions were used to obtain most acceptable rice: Spirulina blend extrudates. In present study before extrusion processing different additives (citric acid and sodium bicarbonate) were added in rice: Spirulina blend and checked its effect on colour degradation kinetics at varied packaging and storage conditions. Higher screw speed (100 rpm) indicating less residence time of feed material inside the barrel resulted in higher colour retention of rice: Spirulina (97:03) blend extrudates. Kinetics for rice: Spirulina (97:03) blend extrudates indicates faster rate of colour degradation in terms of lightness (half-life of 4 days) when packed in metalized polyethylene at 50°C with 65% relative humidity. Increased concentration of Spirulina (1-3%) in raw formulations resulted in increase in concentration of all amino acids. Impact of extrusion processing has shown non-significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on amino acid concentrations of rice: Spirulina blend extrudates. Also, all the spirulina added samples showed good consumer acceptability with the score of 6.7

Edible Grain/classification , Biomass , Microalgae/classification , Amino Acids/adverse effects , Oryza/classification , Low Cost Technology , Product Packaging/instrumentation , Residence Time , Spirulina/metabolism , Half-Life , Humidity/adverse effects
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(3): 276-276, sept. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1426942


Objetivos: El objetivo es presentar un caso de sagitectomía asistida por endoscopía y su planificación y entrenamiento prequirúrgico con modelos de simulación de bajo costo. Métodos: Se procesó una tomografía de un paciente con escafocefalia, a partir de la cual se realizó una impresión 3D de un cráneo sin huesos parietales. Se completó el modelo de simulación con materiales de bajo costo para simular los tejidos blandos y hueso. Se realizó el entrenamiento con un endoscopio de 30º. Luego del entrenamiento, se realizó una cirugía en un paciente de 2 meses de edad que presentaba una escafocefalia. Resultados: Se creó un modelo de simulación de bajo costo (aproximadamente 20 US$) para el entrenamiento de sagitectomía asistida por endoscopía. Se realizó la cirugía en un paciente, sin complicaciones quirúrgicas ni posoperatorias. Conclusión: El entrenamiento con simuladores de bajo costo permite planificar una sagitectomía asistida por endoscopía, disminuyendo los errores y los tiempos de la curva de aprendizaje.

Neuroendoscopy , Low Cost Technology , Craniosynostoses , Simulation Exercise , Endoscopy
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 31(1): 93-100, Jan.-Apr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1250157


INTRODUCTION: The use of realistic simulation methodology is used in several learning scenarios, allowing students to participate directly in the problematization of situations that require immediate professional action. OBJECTIVE: To develop, validate and validate a low cost simulator for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and resuscitation procedures in infants. METHODS: An experimental study carried out with undergraduate students of the 1st year of the Nursing course at a higher education institution in the State of Paraíba, developed a simulator model with dimensions similar to an infant with low cost materials and made possible the use as a prototype for Basic Life Support training. The prototype was developed with the accessories for disengagement and cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire based on the American Hearth Association Basic Life Support guideline to enable and validate the Basic Life Support training instrument. RESULTS: The low-cost prototype for Basic Life Support training was used as a learning object adequately and enabled the teaching-learning process as an accessible resource at low cost. Based on the questionnaire applied, we observed that there was an increase in the median number of correct answers and a reduction in the median of errors, which indicated an improvement in the acquisition of information and improvement in learning, observed through the test of Signal of Related Samples and the test of the Signs of Wilcoxon, (MA) and errors (ME), before and after training where it was found that there was an increase in MA and a reduction in ME with 5% significance (p <0.001). The frequencies of response modifications after training with the simulator were also studied by means of the two-tailed McNemar test where Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q8, Q9, Q13 and Q15 questions showed significant changes (p <0, 05). CONCLUSION: A prototype was developed that simulated the training activity in Basic Life Support, which made it possible to carry out the procedures appropriately in positioning and simulation of cardiac resuscitation, mouth / nose ventilation, and tapping in the scapular region. Which allowed the validation of disengagement and resuscitation training as a low cost alternative for health education.

INTRODUÇÃO: O uso da metodologia de simulação realística é utilizado em diversos cenários de aprendizado, permitindo aos discentes a participação direta na problematização de situações que requerem ação profissional imediata. OBJETIVO: Desenvolver, viabilizar e validar um simulador de baixo custo para procedimentos de desengasgo e reanimação cardiopulmonar em lactentes. MÉTODO: Estudo experimental realizado com alunos de graduação do 1° ano do curso de Enfermagem em uma instituição de ensino superior do Estado da Paraíba, foi desenvolvido um modelo simulador com dimensões similares a um lactente com materiais de baixo custo e acessórios para manobras de desengasgo e reanimação cardiopulmonar, viabilizado o uso como protótipo para treinamento de Suporte Básico de Vida. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi o questionário baseado no guideline do Suporte Básico de Vida da American Hearth Association. RESULTADOS: O protótipo para treinamento em Suporte Básico de Vida foi utilizado como adequadamente e viabiliza o processo ensino-aprendizagem como recurso acessível de baixo custo. O questionário aplicado observamos que houve incremento na mediana de acertos e redução na mediana de erros e indicou melhora na aquisição de informações e aprendizado, através do teste de Sinal de Amostras Relacionadas e o teste dos Postos Sinalizados de Wilcoxon, as medianas de acertos (MA) e erros (ME), antes e depois do treinamento, com o aumento de MA e redução em ME com 5% de significância (p<0,001). As respostas as questões Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q8, Q9, Q13 e Q15 mostraram modificações significativas (p<0,05), após o treinamento com o simulador por meio do Jteste de McNemar bicaudal ao estudar as frequências de modificações de respostas. CONCLUSÃO: O protótipo obteve sua aplicação em simulação de atividade de treinamento em Suporte Básico de Vida, viabilizou a realização dos procedimentos da forma adequada em posicionamento e simulação de reanimação cardíaca, ventilação boca/nariz e tapotagem na região escapular, permitiu validar o treinamento de desengasgo e reanimação como uma alternativa de baixo custo para educação em saúde.

Infant , Resuscitation , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Low Cost Technology , Education, Medical , Simulation Training , Gagging
Rev. méd. Hosp. José Carrasco Arteaga ; 13(1): 27-32, 15/03/2021. Tablas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293075


INTRODUCCIÓN: La litiasis renal es la tercera patología urológica más frecuente, después de las infecciones y la patología prostática. Una de las opciones de tratamiento es la litotripsia extracorpórea por ondas de choque (LEOCH); se trata de una técnica mínimamente invasiva, de fácil repetición, efectiva, de baja morbilidad y bajo costo. El objetivo del presente estudio fue mostrar la eficacia de la LEOCH en el tratamiento de litiasis renal y su asociación con diferentes factores. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional, de corte transversal, con datos retrospectivos, con pacientes diagnosticados de litiasis renal, que recibieron tratamiento con LEOCH en el Servicio de Endourología del Hospital José Carrasco Arteaga, durante los años 2015 y 2016. La muestra fue de 146 pacientes. La información se obtuvo de las historias clínicas de los pacientes. Para el análisis, se empleó el programa SPSS v19.0. Los resultados se mostraron a través de frecuencias y porcentajes en tablas, se aplicó Chi cuadrado para medir la asociación entre las variables. RESULTADOS: La ubicación de los litos fue principalmente intrarenal y del lado izquierdo. El tamaño medio de los cálculos fue de 12.66 mm y la densidad media de 996.97UI. Al control tomográfico posterior a la LEOCH, en el 22.6% de los pacientes se destruyó totalmente el lito y en casi un tercio de los pacientes no se apreciaron cambios. Luego de la LEOCH, la mayoría de los pacientes recibieron tratamiento expulsivo. 97% de los pacientes no tuvieron complicaciones. CONCLUSIÓN: La efectividad de la LEOCH disminuyó con la edad, en las mujeres resultó igualmente menos eficaz, aunque las diferencias no fueron significativas. La ubicación del lito, así como su tamaño resultaron tener asociación estadísticamente significativa con la efectividad del tratamiento; los litos ureterales y pequeños se destruyeron completamente con mayor frecuencia que los renales y de gran tamaño. La densidad no mostró relación significativa con la efectividad de la LEOCH.

BACKGROUND: nephrolithiasis is the third most common urological pathology, followed by infections and prostatic pathologies. One of the treatment options is extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT); it is a minimally invasive technique, easy to repeat, effective, with low morbidity and low cost. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of ESWT as a treatment for nephrolithiasis and its association with some factors. METHODS: We carried out a descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study with retrospective data, with patients diagnosed of nephrolithiasis and treated with ESWT at the Endourology Service of Hospital José Carrasco Arteaga, during the years 2015 and 2016. The sample was constituted of 146 patients. Data was Results are shown with frequencies and percentages in charts, Chi square was applied to measure the association between variables. RESULTS: The location of the stones was mainly intrarenal and on the left side. The mean size of the stones was 12.66 mm and the mean density was 996.97IU. After ESWT, tomographic control reported complete destruction of the stone in 22.6% of the patients and in almost a third of the patients there were no changes. After ESWL, most of the patients received expulsive treatment. 97% of the patients had no complications. CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of ESWL decreased with age, also it was less effective in women, but the association was not statistically significant. The location of the stone, and its size had statistically significant association with the effectiveness of the treatment; ureteral and small stones were completely destroyed more frequently than renal and big stones. The stone density had no association with LEOCH effectiveness.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Effectiveness , Lithotripsy , Lithotripsy/methods , Nephrolithiasis , Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Low Cost Technology
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(1): 159-165, ene-mar 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280562


RESUMEN A raíz de la pandemia generada por el SARS-CoV-2, los sistemas de salud de los distintos países han experimentado un dramático aumento en la ocupación de las unidades de cuidado intensivo y, por ende, una alta demanda de ventiladores mecánicos. En este artículo se propone un protocolo de pruebas de ventiladores mecánicos de bajo costo en modelos porcinos, como parte del desarrollo de equipos biomédicos que pueden apoyar la crisis sanitaria suscitada por la pandemia. El protocolo aborda aspectos que incluyen la fase previa a la prueba, el manejo anestésico, de vía aérea, seguimiento de laboratorio, recuperación y seguimiento del animal. Como resultado, se presenta a la comunidad académica un protocolo de validación de prototipo de ventilador mecánico en espécimen porcino como un referente para su aplicación y revalidación por parte de grupos interesados en el desarrollo de tecnologías locales de bajo costo.

ABSTRACT As a result of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, health systems globally have seen a dramatic increase in the occupancy of intensive care units, with mechanical ventilators being a resource in high demand in the care of these patients. This article proposes a protocol for testing low-cost mechanical ventilators in pig models, as part of the development of locally manufactured biomedical equipment that can support the health crisis caused by the pandemic. The protocol addresses aspects that include the pre-test phase, anesthetic and airway management, laboratory monitoring, recovery and monitoring of the animal. This document presents to the academic community a validation protocol of a mechanical ventilator prototype in a pig specimen that can be a reference for its application and revalidation by other groups interested in the development of local and low-cost technologies.

Animals , Swine , Ventilators, Mechanical , COVID-19 , Animals, Laboratory , Respiration, Artificial , Low Cost Technology , Clinical Trial Protocol
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(1): e20200131, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1124786


RESUMO Objetivo Conhecer a percepção de estudantes de enfermagem sobre a contribuição do uso do simulador de baixo custo no desenvolvimento de habilidades técnicas para o cateterismo periférico venoso. Método Estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa, realizado em universidade pública do sul do Brasil com 25 estudantes de enfermagem. Os dados foram coletados em 2019, por meio de questionário acerca do cateterismo periférico venoso, desenvolvido com apoio de simulador de baixo custo. Para análise, seguiu-se a proposta operativa de Minayo. Resultados A partir dos dados, surgiram duas categorias. 1) Desenvolvimento de habilidades para cateterismo periférico venoso: os estudantes apontaram que o uso do simulador possibilita compreender cada etapa do procedimento e identificar onde precisam aperfeiçoar a técnica, preparando-os para o contato com o paciente. 2) Dificuldades encontradas na utilização do simulador de baixo custo. Os estudantes destacaram a baixa fidelidade do simulador e a limitação do treinamento por simulação sem comunicação. Conclusões e implicações para a prática Os estudantes percebem o simulador de baixo custo como uma relevante ferramenta para o desenvolvimento de habilidades do cateterismo periférico venoso, sugerem seu aperfeiçoamento para aumentar a fidelidade e a incorporação da comunicação no momento da punção para o maior realismo da experiência simulada.

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate nursing students' perception on the contribution of using a low-cost simulator in the development of technical skills for peripheral venous catheterization. Method A qualitative and descriptive study carried out in a public university of southern Brazil. Data was collected from 25 nursing students in 2019 by means of a questionnaire about peripheral venous catheterization, developed with the support of a low-cost simulator. Data was analyzed using Minayo's operative proposal. Results Two categories emerged from the data. 1) Skills development for peripheral venous catheterization: the students pointed out that the use of the simulator makes it possible to understand each stage of the procedure and to identify where they need to improve the technique, preparing them for contact with the patient. 2) Difficulties encountered in using the low-cost simulator. The students highlighted the low fidelity of the simulator and the limitation of the training by simulation without communication. Conclusions and implications for practice The students perceive the low-cost simulator as a relevant tool for the development of venipuncture skills and they suggest its improvement to increase fidelity, as well as the incorporation of communication at the moment of puncture for greater realism of the simulated experience.

Humans , Catheterization, Peripheral/nursing , Low Cost Technology , Education, Nursing/methods , Simulation Training , Students, Nursing , Qualitative Research , Learning
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1150739


Objetivo: identificar as evidências disponíveis na literatura científica publicada sobre atividade física para pessoas idosas realizada em espaços públicos. Método: revisão integrativa, mediante 21 artigos na BDENF, Index Psicologia, LILACS e MEDLINE no período de 2008 a 2018. Emergiram as categorias: Benefícios da prática de atividade física realizada por idosos e Dificuldades de pessoas idosas para a realização de atividade física em espaços públicos. Resultados: pessoas idosas praticantes de atividade física em academias e em praças apresentaram melhor desempenho em teste de aptidão física e melhor capacidade funcional do que os idosos sedentários. Dentre as principais dificuldades encontradas pelos idosos: problemas de saúde e inviabilização de espaços públicos adequados para a prática de atividade física. Conclusão: mostrou-se a relevância da atividade física para idosos realizada em espaços públicos, a partir dos benefícios de sua realização e por se tratar de uma atividade de baixo custo, no entanto, ainda é preciso a implementação de ações e estratégias para diminuir as dificuldades encontradas pelos idosos para a realização da atividade física em espaços públicos

Objective: to analyze the scientific production on physical activity for the elderly in public spaces in online journals. Method: integrative review, through 21 articles in the BDENF, Index Psychology, LILACS and MEDLINE in the period from 2008 to 2018. The following categories emerged: Benefits of the practice of physical activity performed by the elderly; and Difficulties of elderly people to perform physical activity in public spaces. Results: elderly people practicing physical activity in gymnasiums and in squares presented better performance in physical fitness test and better functional capacity than the sedentary elderly. Among the main difficulties encountered by the elderly: health problems and unfeasibility of public spaces suitable for the practice of physical activity. Conclusion: it was shown the relevance of physical activity for the elderly in public spaces, from the benefits of its accomplishment and because it is a low cost activity, however, it is still necessary to implement actions and strategies to reduce difficulties encountered by the elderly to perform physical activity in public spaces

Objetivo: analizar la producción científica sobre actividad física para personas ancianas realizada en espacios públicos en periódicos en línea. Método: revisión integrativa, mediante 21 artículos en la BDENF, Index Psicología, LILACS y MEDLINE en el período de 2008 a 2018.Resultados: personas mayores practicantes de actividad física en gimnasios y en plazas presentaron mejor desempeño en prueba de aptitud física y mejor capacidad funcional que los ancianos sedentarios. Entre las principales dificultades encontradas por los ancianos: problemas de salud e inviabilización de espacios públicos adecuados para la práctica de actividad física. Conclusión: se mostró la relevancia de la actividad física para ancianos realizada en espacios públicos, a partir de los beneficios de su realización y por tratarse de una actividad de bajo costo, sin embargo, todavía es necesaria la implementación de acciones y estrategias para disminuir las dificultades encontradas por los ancianos para la realización de la actividad física en espacios públicos

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Exercise , Physical Fitness , Health of the Elderly , Low Cost Technology/methods , Urban Area , Sports and Recreational Facilities
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200245, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278434


Abstract Current trends in science education recommend the complementary use of virtual and hands-on methods of teaching. In neurobiology, for instance, there is a plethora of virtual laboratories and simulators that can be readily combined with traditional physical labs. Unfortunately, physical laboratories are almost unaffordable for many institutions due to the high cost of equipment. In this paper, we present a simple and low-cost in vivo method for demonstrating some of the basic biophysical properties of neural action potentials. The method involves the following steps: a) dissection of the ventral nerve cord of earthworm; b) electrical stimulation; c) amplification and visualization of the medial and lateral giant fibers' action potentials; and d) recording. The system showed stability, expected amplification, high signal-to-noise ratio, and an estimated total cost of US$ 5.662. We provide guidelines for assembling the system and discus its utility as a teaching alternative for low budget institutions.

Neurobiology/methods , Action Potentials , Low Cost Technology/economics , Schools
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200191, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279371


Abstract Background The contrast power injector (CPI) is the gold standard method for injecting contrast with the pressure and flow needed to generate a satisfactory images during endovascular procedures, but it is an expensive tool, narrowing its wide-scale applications. One alternative is the manual injection (MI) method, but this does not generate the pressure required for adequate visualization of anatomy. It is therefore imperative to create an alternative low-cost method that is capable of producing high quality images. Objectives To compare the injection parameters of a new mechanical device (Hand-Crank) created in a university hospital with the MI method and with the contrast power injector's ideal values. Methods A circulation phantom was constructed to simulate the pressure in the aorto-iliac territory and the injection parameters of the two methods were compared in a laboratory setting. Student's t test and the Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis. Three vascular surgery residents (the authors) performed the injections (each performed 9 tests using conventional manual injection and 9 tests using the Hand-Crank, totaling 54 injections). Results There were statistical differences between the two methods (p<0.05) in total volume injected until maximum pressure was attained, pressure variation, maximum pressure, total injection time, and time to reach the maximum pressure. Conclusions The Hand-Crank can achieve higher maximum pressure, higher average flow, and lower injection time than the manual method. It is a simple, low-cost, and effective tool for enhancing injection parameters in an experimental setup. It could help to produce higher quality images in a clinical scenario.

Resumo Contexto A bomba injetora é o método padrão-ouro para a injeção de contraste em aortografias. Entretanto, é uma ferramenta de alto custo, o que limita o seu uso. A injeção manual surge como alternativa, mas a pressão gerada com esse método é baixa, e, por isso, a qualidade das imagens não é usualmente satisfatória. Assim, a criação de um método de baixo custo capaz de gerar imagens de qualidade é imperativo. Objetivos Comparar os parâmetros de injeção de um novo dispositivo mecânico (manivela articulada) criado em um hospital universitário com os parâmetros da injeção manual e com os valores ideais da bomba injetora. Métodos Um simulador do território aórtico foi construído, e parâmetros de injeção entre os diferentes métodos em um cenário laboratorial controlado foram analisados. O teste t de Student e o teste de Mann-Whitney foram usados para análise estatística. Três residentes de Cirurgia Vascular realizaram os testes (nove usando o novo dispositivo, e nove usando a injeção manual, totalizando 54 injeções). Resultados Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,05) entre os dois métodos, considerando os parâmetros: variação de pressão, pressão máxima, tempo de injeção, tempo até a pressão máxima e volume até a pressão máxima. Conclusões A manivela articulada atingiu níveis superiores de pressão e de velocidade de injeção, com menor tempo de injeção do que a injeção manual. É um dispositivo simples, de baixo custo e com resultados comparáveis à bomba injetora, o que sugere seu uso potencial na geração de imagens satisfatórias em aortografias.

Infusion Pumps , Radiology, Interventional/instrumentation , Contrast Media/administration & dosage , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Angiography/instrumentation , Low Cost Technology , Costs and Cost Analysis , Endovascular Procedures , Injections/instrumentation
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e53033, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1146255


Objetivo: desenvolver e validar um protótipo de baixo custo para reanimação cardiopulmonar em adultos, com ênfase nos fluxos arteriais e venosos para fins educacionais. Método: trata-se de estudo oriundo de trabalho de conclusão de curso, utilizando abordagem do design thinking para elaboração do protótipo, realizado em uma universidade pública federal no sul do Brasil, entre setembro e novembro de 2019. Na validação, participaram 13 indivíduos com expertise em Urgência e Emergência, sendo utilizado um instrumento com escala Likert, composto por sete itens sobre aparência e usabilidade. Resultados: o protótipo foi idealizado usando um manequim de exposição de roupas como estrutura principal. Além do tórax permitir compressões, uma rede de ductos que simulam os fluxos sanguíneos demonstrou visualmente a circulação sanguínea e a injeção de medicações intravenosas. Conclusão: o protótipo possui capacidade de potencializar o processo de ensinoaprendizagem em suporte básico e avançado de vida, especialmente quando sustentado por metodologias ativas.

Objective: to develop and validate a low-cost prototype for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults, with an emphasis on arterial and venous flows, for educational purposes. Method: this study, which originated from a course conclusion project to develop a prototype using the design-thinking approach, was conducted at a federal public university in southern Brazil between September and November 2019. Thirteen individuals with expertise in emergency care took part in validation, using a Likert scale instrument consisting of seven items on appearance and usability. Results: the prototype was designed using a clothing display mannequin as the main structure. Compressions could be performed on the chest, and a network of ducts simulated blood flows visually, demonstrating blood circulation and intravenous medication injections. Conclusion: the prototype was able to enhance teaching and learning on basic and advanced life support, especially when supported by active methodologies.

Objetivo: desarrollar y validar un prototipo de bajo costo para reanimación cardiopulmonar en adultos, con énfasis en los flujos arteriales y venosos, con fines educativos. Método: este estudio, que se originó a partir de un proyecto de conclusión de curso para desarrollar un prototipo utilizando el enfoque de pensamiento de diseño, se realizó en una universidad pública federal en el sur de Brasil entre septiembre y noviembre de 2019. En la validación participaron trece personas con experiencia en atención de emergencias , utilizando un instrumento de escala Likert que consta de siete ítems sobre apariencia y usabilidad. Resultados: el prototipo se diseñó utilizando un maniquí de exhibición de ropa como estructura principal. Se podían realizar compresiones en el pecho y una red de conductos simulaba visualmente los flujos sanguíneos, lo que demostraba la circulación sanguínea y las inyecciones de medicación intravenosa. Conclusión: el prototipo fue capaz de mejorar la enseñanza y el aprendizaje sobre soporte vital básico y avanzado, especialmente cuando fue apoyado por metodologías activas.

Universities , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/education , Simulation Training , Proof of Concept Study , Blood Circulation , Brazil , Low Cost Technology , Applied Research , Learning , Manikins , Models, Anatomic
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(6): 366-369, nov.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156159


Resumo Objetivo: Desenvolver um modelo de treinamento de cirurgias corneanas utilizando uvas. Métodos: Foram empregadas uvas como estruturas que mimetizam o tamanho do globo ocular humano, recobertas com materiais de látex, simulando a pratica de cirurgias de córnea utilizando um sistema de videomagnificação. Foram realizados oito pontos simples. Foi avaliado o tempo de confecção do procedimento. Resultados: Foram realizadas 25 simulações como o modelo descrito. O tempo médio de realização da rafia foi de 34,56 ±5,79 minutos. A análise da correlação entre o tempo e a ordem das cirurgias mostrou uma redução no tempo de confecção. Conclusão: O modelo de treinamento oftalmológico utilizando uvas mostrou-se capaz de simular as etapas básicas do treinamento de suturas microcirúrgicas.

Abstract Objective: Develop a training model for corneal surgery using grapes. Methods: Grapes were used as structures that mimic the size of the human eyeball, covered with latex materials, simulating the practice of corneal surgery using a videomagnification system. Eight simple stitches were performed. The surgical time was evaluated. Results: 25 simulations were carried out as the model described. The mean time taken for the raffia was 34.56 ± 5.79 minutes. The analysis of the correlation between the time and the order of the surgeries showed a reduction in the confection time. Conclusion: The ophthalmic training model using grapes proved to be capable of simulating the basic stages of microsurgery suture training.

Sutures , Video Recording , Low Cost Technology , Vitis , Education, Medical , Simulation Training , Microsurgery , Cross-Sectional Studies , Animal Use Alternatives
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 27(supl.2): 90-101, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341344


RESUMEN El síndrome de Sjögren (SS) es una enfermedad autoinmune que compromete la función de las glándulas exocrinas, produciendo xerostomía y xeroftalmia. El método utilizado para cuantificar la disfunción glandular salival es el flujo salival no estimulado (FSNE). Describir las principales técnicas de recolección del FSNE en pacientes con SS. Revisión sistemática de la literatura (guías PRISMA) de estudios observacionales tipo casos y controles, cohorte y corte transversal que incluyeran pacientes con síntomas secos y diagnóstico de SS por criterios clasificatorios internacionales, que fueran comparados con una población de referencia sana o con síntomas secos no Sjögren y en los cuales se reportara la técnica y el valor del FSNE como desenlace principal. Para la calificación del nivel y calidad de la evidencia se utilizaron las guías Oxford y el Joanna Briggs Institute. Veintinueve artículos fueron incluidos, con una población total de 2.730 pacientes: 1.397 casos y 1.333 controles. La técnica más frecuentemente reportada fue la de Navazesh por recogida espontánea de drenaje durante 5 min. El punto de corte más frecuentemente encontrado fue 0,1 ml/min. Por primera vez se describen, a través de una revisión sistemática de la literatura, las principales técnicas utilizadas para evaluar el FSNE en individuos con SS cuando se comparan con personas sanas o con síndrome seco no SS, resaltando que es una técnica validada, no invasiva, reproducible y de bajo costo.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease that compromises the function of exocrine glands, producing xerostomia and xerophthalmia. The method used to quantify saliva gland dysfunction is by unstimulated whole saliva flow (UWSF).To describe the main UWSF techniques in patients with SS. Systematic review of the literature (following PRISMA guidelines) of results that include analytical observational studies of case-control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies that include patients with sicca symptoms and diagnosis of SS by international classification criteria, which were compared with healthy subjects or those with non-Sjögren sicca symptoms, and in which the technique and the value of the UWSF was reported as the main outcome. Qualification of the level and quality of the evidence was obtained using the Oxford and Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. A total of 29 articles were included, with total population of 2,730 patients: 1,397 cases and 1,333 controls. The most frequently reported technique was that of Navazesh by spontaneous drainage collection for 5 min. The most frequent cut-off point found was 0.1ml/min. For the first time in the literature, and by using a systematic review of the literature, a description is presented of the main techniques used to evaluate UWSF in individuals with SS when compared with healthy people or with sicca non-SS syndrome, highlighting that it is a valid, non-invasive, reproducible, and low cost technique.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sjogren's Syndrome , Diagnosis , Salivary Glands , Cross-Sectional Studies , Low Cost Technology , Methods