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1.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 31(1): 93-100, Jan.-Apr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1250157

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The use of realistic simulation methodology is used in several learning scenarios, allowing students to participate directly in the problematization of situations that require immediate professional action. OBJECTIVE: To develop, validate and validate a low cost simulator for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and resuscitation procedures in infants. METHODS: An experimental study carried out with undergraduate students of the 1st year of the Nursing course at a higher education institution in the State of Paraíba, developed a simulator model with dimensions similar to an infant with low cost materials and made possible the use as a prototype for Basic Life Support training. The prototype was developed with the accessories for disengagement and cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire based on the American Hearth Association Basic Life Support guideline to enable and validate the Basic Life Support training instrument. RESULTS: The low-cost prototype for Basic Life Support training was used as a learning object adequately and enabled the teaching-learning process as an accessible resource at low cost. Based on the questionnaire applied, we observed that there was an increase in the median number of correct answers and a reduction in the median of errors, which indicated an improvement in the acquisition of information and improvement in learning, observed through the test of Signal of Related Samples and the test of the Signs of Wilcoxon, (MA) and errors (ME), before and after training where it was found that there was an increase in MA and a reduction in ME with 5% significance (p <0.001). The frequencies of response modifications after training with the simulator were also studied by means of the two-tailed McNemar test where Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q8, Q9, Q13 and Q15 questions showed significant changes (p <0, 05). CONCLUSION: A prototype was developed that simulated the training activity in Basic Life Support, which made it possible to carry out the procedures appropriately in positioning and simulation of cardiac resuscitation, mouth / nose ventilation, and tapping in the scapular region. Which allowed the validation of disengagement and resuscitation training as a low cost alternative for health education.


INTRODUÇÃO: O uso da metodologia de simulação realística é utilizado em diversos cenários de aprendizado, permitindo aos discentes a participação direta na problematização de situações que requerem ação profissional imediata. OBJETIVO: Desenvolver, viabilizar e validar um simulador de baixo custo para procedimentos de desengasgo e reanimação cardiopulmonar em lactentes. MÉTODO: Estudo experimental realizado com alunos de graduação do 1° ano do curso de Enfermagem em uma instituição de ensino superior do Estado da Paraíba, foi desenvolvido um modelo simulador com dimensões similares a um lactente com materiais de baixo custo e acessórios para manobras de desengasgo e reanimação cardiopulmonar, viabilizado o uso como protótipo para treinamento de Suporte Básico de Vida. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi o questionário baseado no guideline do Suporte Básico de Vida da American Hearth Association. RESULTADOS: O protótipo para treinamento em Suporte Básico de Vida foi utilizado como adequadamente e viabiliza o processo ensino-aprendizagem como recurso acessível de baixo custo. O questionário aplicado observamos que houve incremento na mediana de acertos e redução na mediana de erros e indicou melhora na aquisição de informações e aprendizado, através do teste de Sinal de Amostras Relacionadas e o teste dos Postos Sinalizados de Wilcoxon, as medianas de acertos (MA) e erros (ME), antes e depois do treinamento, com o aumento de MA e redução em ME com 5% de significância (p<0,001). As respostas as questões Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q8, Q9, Q13 e Q15 mostraram modificações significativas (p<0,05), após o treinamento com o simulador por meio do Jteste de McNemar bicaudal ao estudar as frequências de modificações de respostas. CONCLUSÃO: O protótipo obteve sua aplicação em simulação de atividade de treinamento em Suporte Básico de Vida, viabilizou a realização dos procedimentos da forma adequada em posicionamento e simulação de reanimação cardíaca, ventilação boca/nariz e tapotagem na região escapular, permitiu validar o treinamento de desengasgo e reanimação como uma alternativa de baixo custo para educação em saúde.


Subject(s)
Infant , Resuscitation , Simulation Exercise , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Low Cost Technology , Education, Medical , Simulation Training , Gagging
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200245, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278434

ABSTRACT

Abstract Current trends in science education recommend the complementary use of virtual and hands-on methods of teaching. In neurobiology, for instance, there is a plethora of virtual laboratories and simulators that can be readily combined with traditional physical labs. Unfortunately, physical laboratories are almost unaffordable for many institutions due to the high cost of equipment. In this paper, we present a simple and low-cost in vivo method for demonstrating some of the basic biophysical properties of neural action potentials. The method involves the following steps: a) dissection of the ventral nerve cord of earthworm; b) electrical stimulation; c) amplification and visualization of the medial and lateral giant fibers' action potentials; and d) recording. The system showed stability, expected amplification, high signal-to-noise ratio, and an estimated total cost of US$ 5.662. We provide guidelines for assembling the system and discus its utility as a teaching alternative for low budget institutions.


Subject(s)
Neurobiology/methods , Action Potentials , Low Cost Technology/economics , Schools
3.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1150739

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar as evidências disponíveis na literatura científica publicada sobre atividade física para pessoas idosas realizada em espaços públicos. Método: revisão integrativa, mediante 21 artigos na BDENF, Index Psicologia, LILACS e MEDLINE no período de 2008 a 2018. Emergiram as categorias: Benefícios da prática de atividade física realizada por idosos e Dificuldades de pessoas idosas para a realização de atividade física em espaços públicos. Resultados: pessoas idosas praticantes de atividade física em academias e em praças apresentaram melhor desempenho em teste de aptidão física e melhor capacidade funcional do que os idosos sedentários. Dentre as principais dificuldades encontradas pelos idosos: problemas de saúde e inviabilização de espaços públicos adequados para a prática de atividade física. Conclusão: mostrou-se a relevância da atividade física para idosos realizada em espaços públicos, a partir dos benefícios de sua realização e por se tratar de uma atividade de baixo custo, no entanto, ainda é preciso a implementação de ações e estratégias para diminuir as dificuldades encontradas pelos idosos para a realização da atividade física em espaços públicos


Objective: to analyze the scientific production on physical activity for the elderly in public spaces in online journals. Method: integrative review, through 21 articles in the BDENF, Index Psychology, LILACS and MEDLINE in the period from 2008 to 2018. The following categories emerged: Benefits of the practice of physical activity performed by the elderly; and Difficulties of elderly people to perform physical activity in public spaces. Results: elderly people practicing physical activity in gymnasiums and in squares presented better performance in physical fitness test and better functional capacity than the sedentary elderly. Among the main difficulties encountered by the elderly: health problems and unfeasibility of public spaces suitable for the practice of physical activity. Conclusion: it was shown the relevance of physical activity for the elderly in public spaces, from the benefits of its accomplishment and because it is a low cost activity, however, it is still necessary to implement actions and strategies to reduce difficulties encountered by the elderly to perform physical activity in public spaces


Objetivo: analizar la producción científica sobre actividad física para personas ancianas realizada en espacios públicos en periódicos en línea. Método: revisión integrativa, mediante 21 artículos en la BDENF, Index Psicología, LILACS y MEDLINE en el período de 2008 a 2018.Resultados: personas mayores practicantes de actividad física en gimnasios y en plazas presentaron mejor desempeño en prueba de aptitud física y mejor capacidad funcional que los ancianos sedentarios. Entre las principales dificultades encontradas por los ancianos: problemas de salud e inviabilización de espacios públicos adecuados para la práctica de actividad física. Conclusión: se mostró la relevancia de la actividad física para ancianos realizada en espacios públicos, a partir de los beneficios de su realización y por tratarse de una actividad de bajo costo, sin embargo, todavía es necesaria la implementación de acciones y estrategias para disminuir las dificultades encontradas por los ancianos para la realización de la actividad física en espacios públicos


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Exercise , Physical Fitness , Health of the Elderly , Low Cost Technology/methods , Urban Area , Sports and Recreational Facilities
4.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(1): e20200131, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1124786

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Conhecer a percepção de estudantes de enfermagem sobre a contribuição do uso do simulador de baixo custo no desenvolvimento de habilidades técnicas para o cateterismo periférico venoso. Método Estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa, realizado em universidade pública do sul do Brasil com 25 estudantes de enfermagem. Os dados foram coletados em 2019, por meio de questionário acerca do cateterismo periférico venoso, desenvolvido com apoio de simulador de baixo custo. Para análise, seguiu-se a proposta operativa de Minayo. Resultados A partir dos dados, surgiram duas categorias. 1) Desenvolvimento de habilidades para cateterismo periférico venoso: os estudantes apontaram que o uso do simulador possibilita compreender cada etapa do procedimento e identificar onde precisam aperfeiçoar a técnica, preparando-os para o contato com o paciente. 2) Dificuldades encontradas na utilização do simulador de baixo custo. Os estudantes destacaram a baixa fidelidade do simulador e a limitação do treinamento por simulação sem comunicação. Conclusões e implicações para a prática Os estudantes percebem o simulador de baixo custo como uma relevante ferramenta para o desenvolvimento de habilidades do cateterismo periférico venoso, sugerem seu aperfeiçoamento para aumentar a fidelidade e a incorporação da comunicação no momento da punção para o maior realismo da experiência simulada.


ABSTRACT Objective To investigate nursing students' perception on the contribution of using a low-cost simulator in the development of technical skills for peripheral venous catheterization. Method A qualitative and descriptive study carried out in a public university of southern Brazil. Data was collected from 25 nursing students in 2019 by means of a questionnaire about peripheral venous catheterization, developed with the support of a low-cost simulator. Data was analyzed using Minayo's operative proposal. Results Two categories emerged from the data. 1) Skills development for peripheral venous catheterization: the students pointed out that the use of the simulator makes it possible to understand each stage of the procedure and to identify where they need to improve the technique, preparing them for contact with the patient. 2) Difficulties encountered in using the low-cost simulator. The students highlighted the low fidelity of the simulator and the limitation of the training by simulation without communication. Conclusions and implications for practice The students perceive the low-cost simulator as a relevant tool for the development of venipuncture skills and they suggest its improvement to increase fidelity, as well as the incorporation of communication at the moment of puncture for greater realism of the simulated experience.


Subject(s)
Humans , Catheterization, Peripheral/nursing , Low Cost Technology , Education, Nursing/methods , Simulation Training , Students, Nursing , Qualitative Research , Learning
5.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 27(supl.2): 90-101, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341344

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El síndrome de Sjögren (SS) es una enfermedad autoinmune que compromete la función de las glándulas exocrinas, produciendo xerostomía y xeroftalmia. El método utilizado para cuantificar la disfunción glandular salival es el flujo salival no estimulado (FSNE). Describir las principales técnicas de recolección del FSNE en pacientes con SS. Revisión sistemática de la literatura (guías PRISMA) de estudios observacionales tipo casos y controles, cohorte y corte transversal que incluyeran pacientes con síntomas secos y diagnóstico de SS por criterios clasificatorios internacionales, que fueran comparados con una población de referencia sana o con síntomas secos no Sjögren y en los cuales se reportara la técnica y el valor del FSNE como desenlace principal. Para la calificación del nivel y calidad de la evidencia se utilizaron las guías Oxford y el Joanna Briggs Institute. Veintinueve artículos fueron incluidos, con una población total de 2.730 pacientes: 1.397 casos y 1.333 controles. La técnica más frecuentemente reportada fue la de Navazesh por recogida espontánea de drenaje durante 5 min. El punto de corte más frecuentemente encontrado fue 0,1 ml/min. Por primera vez se describen, a través de una revisión sistemática de la literatura, las principales técnicas utilizadas para evaluar el FSNE en individuos con SS cuando se comparan con personas sanas o con síndrome seco no SS, resaltando que es una técnica validada, no invasiva, reproducible y de bajo costo.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease that compromises the function of exocrine glands, producing xerostomia and xerophthalmia. The method used to quantify saliva gland dysfunction is by unstimulated whole saliva flow (UWSF).To describe the main UWSF techniques in patients with SS. Systematic review of the literature (following PRISMA guidelines) of results that include analytical observational studies of case-control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies that include patients with sicca symptoms and diagnosis of SS by international classification criteria, which were compared with healthy subjects or those with non-Sjögren sicca symptoms, and in which the technique and the value of the UWSF was reported as the main outcome. Qualification of the level and quality of the evidence was obtained using the Oxford and Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. A total of 29 articles were included, with total population of 2,730 patients: 1,397 cases and 1,333 controls. The most frequently reported technique was that of Navazesh by spontaneous drainage collection for 5 min. The most frequent cut-off point found was 0.1ml/min. For the first time in the literature, and by using a systematic review of the literature, a description is presented of the main techniques used to evaluate UWSF in individuals with SS when compared with healthy people or with sicca non-SS syndrome, highlighting that it is a valid, non-invasive, reproducible, and low cost technique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sjogren's Syndrome , Diagnosis , Salivary Glands , Cross-Sectional Studies , Low Cost Technology , Methods
6.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(6): 366-369, nov.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156159

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Desenvolver um modelo de treinamento de cirurgias corneanas utilizando uvas. Métodos: Foram empregadas uvas como estruturas que mimetizam o tamanho do globo ocular humano, recobertas com materiais de látex, simulando a pratica de cirurgias de córnea utilizando um sistema de videomagnificação. Foram realizados oito pontos simples. Foi avaliado o tempo de confecção do procedimento. Resultados: Foram realizadas 25 simulações como o modelo descrito. O tempo médio de realização da rafia foi de 34,56 ±5,79 minutos. A análise da correlação entre o tempo e a ordem das cirurgias mostrou uma redução no tempo de confecção. Conclusão: O modelo de treinamento oftalmológico utilizando uvas mostrou-se capaz de simular as etapas básicas do treinamento de suturas microcirúrgicas.


Abstract Objective: Develop a training model for corneal surgery using grapes. Methods: Grapes were used as structures that mimic the size of the human eyeball, covered with latex materials, simulating the practice of corneal surgery using a videomagnification system. Eight simple stitches were performed. The surgical time was evaluated. Results: 25 simulations were carried out as the model described. The mean time taken for the raffia was 34.56 ± 5.79 minutes. The analysis of the correlation between the time and the order of the surgeries showed a reduction in the confection time. Conclusion: The ophthalmic training model using grapes proved to be capable of simulating the basic stages of microsurgery suture training.


Subject(s)
Sutures , Video Recording , Low Cost Technology , Vitis , Education, Medical , Simulation Training , Microsurgery , Epidemiology, Experimental , Cross-Sectional Studies , Animal Use Alternatives
7.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e53033, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1146255

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: desenvolver e validar um protótipo de baixo custo para reanimação cardiopulmonar em adultos, com ênfase nos fluxos arteriais e venosos para fins educacionais. Método: trata-se de estudo oriundo de trabalho de conclusão de curso, utilizando abordagem do design thinking para elaboração do protótipo, realizado em uma universidade pública federal no sul do Brasil, entre setembro e novembro de 2019. Na validação, participaram 13 indivíduos com expertise em Urgência e Emergência, sendo utilizado um instrumento com escala Likert, composto por sete itens sobre aparência e usabilidade. Resultados: o protótipo foi idealizado usando um manequim de exposição de roupas como estrutura principal. Além do tórax permitir compressões, uma rede de ductos que simulam os fluxos sanguíneos demonstrou visualmente a circulação sanguínea e a injeção de medicações intravenosas. Conclusão: o protótipo possui capacidade de potencializar o processo de ensinoaprendizagem em suporte básico e avançado de vida, especialmente quando sustentado por metodologias ativas.


Objective: to develop and validate a low-cost prototype for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults, with an emphasis on arterial and venous flows, for educational purposes. Method: this study, which originated from a course conclusion project to develop a prototype using the design-thinking approach, was conducted at a federal public university in southern Brazil between September and November 2019. Thirteen individuals with expertise in emergency care took part in validation, using a Likert scale instrument consisting of seven items on appearance and usability. Results: the prototype was designed using a clothing display mannequin as the main structure. Compressions could be performed on the chest, and a network of ducts simulated blood flows visually, demonstrating blood circulation and intravenous medication injections. Conclusion: the prototype was able to enhance teaching and learning on basic and advanced life support, especially when supported by active methodologies.


Objetivo: desarrollar y validar un prototipo de bajo costo para reanimación cardiopulmonar en adultos, con énfasis en los flujos arteriales y venosos, con fines educativos. Método: este estudio, que se originó a partir de un proyecto de conclusión de curso para desarrollar un prototipo utilizando el enfoque de pensamiento de diseño, se realizó en una universidad pública federal en el sur de Brasil entre septiembre y noviembre de 2019. En la validación participaron trece personas con experiencia en atención de emergencias , utilizando un instrumento de escala Likert que consta de siete ítems sobre apariencia y usabilidad. Resultados: el prototipo se diseñó utilizando un maniquí de exhibición de ropa como estructura principal. Se podían realizar compresiones en el pecho y una red de conductos simulaba visualmente los flujos sanguíneos, lo que demostraba la circulación sanguínea y las inyecciones de medicación intravenosa. Conclusión: el prototipo fue capaz de mejorar la enseñanza y el aprendizaje sobre soporte vital básico y avanzado, especialmente cuando fue apoyado por metodologías activas.


Subject(s)
Universities , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/education , Simulation Training , Proof of Concept Study , Blood Circulation , Brazil , Simulation Exercise , Low Cost Technology , Applied Research , Learning , Manikins , Models, Anatomic
8.
Fisioter. Bras ; 21(5): 446-454, Nov 19, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283437

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Na hemiparesia há uma inadequada descarga de peso nos membros inferiores que geram déficits de equilíbrio, sendo as pranchas de equilíbrio imprescindíveis para avaliação. Objetivo: Verificar a aplicabilidade clínica de uma prancha de baixo custo e da Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg (EEB) na avaliação do equilíbrio e a distribuição de peso nos membros inferiores de pacientes hemiparéticos. Métodos: Estudo piloto, transversal, quantitativo, de inovação tecnológica que realizou avaliação de 21 indivíduos acometidos com Acidente Vascular Encefálico (AVE) por uma prancha de baixo custo. Resultados: Houve predominância de AVE isquêmico e hemiparesia direita. Na avaliação com a prancha, participantes com hemiparesia direita descarregaram maior peso na região do retropé, tanto com os pés juntos quanto na largura do quadril, enquanto os que possuem hemiparesia esquerda houve diferenças nas posições, com os pés juntos, pois a maioria descarregou o peso na região do antepé, enquanto com os pés na largura do quadril descarregaram na região do retropé. Quanto a avaliação pela EEB, as atividades funcionais que necessitavam de maior sustentação obtiveram menores médias, porém não houve correlação estatisticamente significativa com as posições sobre a prancha. Conclusão: A avaliação em saúde por meio da prancha de baixo custo torna-se um instrumento importante para identificar as alterações do equilíbrio e realizar intervenções apropriadas, entretanto não se correlaciona com a Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg. (AU)


Introduction: In hemiparesis the inadequate weight-bearing in the lower limbs generate balance deficits, and balance planks are essential for evaluation. Objective: To verify the clinical applicability of a low-cost board and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) in the assessment of balance and weight distribution in the lower limbs of hemiparetic patients. Methods: A pilot, cross-sectional, quantitative, technological innovation study carried out an evaluation of 21 individuals affected by stroke with a low-cost plank. Results: Ischemic stroke and right hemiparesis were predominant. In the evaluation with the plank, participants with right hemiparesis unloaded more weight in the hindfoot region, with both feet together and hip width, while those with left hemiparesis showed differences in positions, with feet together, as most unloaded the weight in the forefoot region, while with feet hip width unloaded in the hindfoot region. As for the assessment by BBS, the functional activities that needed more support obtained lower averages; however, there was no statistically significant correlation with the positions on the board. Conclusion: Health assessment using the low-cost plank can be an important tool to identify changes in balance and carry out appropriate interventions, however it does not correlate with Berg Balance Scale. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Paresis , Low Cost Technology , Postural Balance , Health Evaluation , Physical Therapy Modalities , Stroke
9.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(3)26 de noviembre 2020. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1348107

ABSTRACT

Desde inicios del 2020, el mundo se ha visto afectado por la COVID-19 causada por el SARS-CoV-2, que en agosto lo padecen más de 31 millones de pacientes, algunos de los cuales presentan el síndrome de distrés respiratorio, que requiere de ventilación mecánica. Por el alto número de contagios, la disponibilidad de ventiladores para el tratamiento es escasa. Se presenta la descripción de un prototipo de un dispositivo de asistencia ventilatoria temporal de lazo cerrado de bajo costo; el AR_CODEX, basado en una bolsa válvula-mascarilla (BVM), que contribuye al mantenimiento ventilatorio mínimo del paciente durante un tiempo corto en casos donde no hay disponibilidad de ventiladores mecánicos. Para esto, se diseñó y construyó un sistema mecánico ajustable que compresiona la bolsa de ventilación, el cual cuenta con sensores de flujo y presión. Además, se elaboró una interfaz gráfica para un adecuado monitoreo del paciente y un sistema de control para variables como volumen, presión máxima, frecuencia respiratoria y relación inspiración: espiración. Por otro lado, existe un problema de sensibilidad en el sensor de flujo debido a varios factores, como la variación del voltaje en los motores. Adicionalmente, la implementación de un lazo cerrado es importante para compensar variaciones aleatorias en el funcionamiento del dispositivo. Es necesario realizar pruebas en animales para evaluar el correcto funcionamiento de AR_CODEX en seres vivos.


In early 2020, the world has been affected from Covid-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2. By August there were more than 31 million patients, some of them suffering from respiratory distress that requires mechanical ventilation. Due to the rise of infection rates there is no ventilator availability for the treatment. In this work we describe a reduced cost closed loop temporal assisted ventilation device prototype, AR_CODEX. It is based on mask valve bag (BVM from its Spanish initials), contributing to the minimum ventilation maintenance for the patient du-ring a short period of time when there is no mechanical ventilation availability. For this purpose an adjustable mechanical system was designed and built to pressurize the ventilation bag that is equipped with flux and pres-sure sensors. Additionally a graphical interface was developed to include adequate monitoring and controlling system for volume, maximum pressure, respiratory frequency and inhalation/exhalation rate. In addition there is a sensibility issue on the flux sensor due to engine voltage variation. A closed loop implementation is important to overcome aleatory variations during the device operation. It is needed to run AR_CODEX device performance test on animals to evaluate prior to use it directly on human patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Ventilators, Mechanical/economics , Respiratory Rate , Masks , Low Cost Technology , Equipment and Supplies , Proof of Concept Study , COVID-19
10.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(supl.1): S67-S74, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138650

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La reciente pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) ha hecho resurgir preocupación sobre la exposición inadvertida del equipo quirúrgico a agentes infecciosos transmisibles por vía aérea durante el acto quirúrgico. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la confección de un sistema de filtrado simple y de bajo costo que permite reducir el riesgo de exposición al virus, particularmente en el proceso de aspiración, recambio y remoción del neumoperitoneo en cirugía laparoscópica. MATERIALES Y MÉTODO: Se diseñó e implementó un circuito cerrado de evacuación y de filtrado del neumoperitoneo en cirugías ginecológicas laparoscópicas en un centro de salud terciario. El circuito incluye un filtro HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) y una trampa de vacío que contiene una solución de inactivación en base a amonio cuaternario o hipoclorito de sodio. RESULTADOS: Desde su implementación se han realizado 17 cirugías laparoscópicas ginecológicas por diversas patologías. Dos de ellas fueron en pacientes Covid-19 (+). A la fecha no se han reportado contagios en el equipo médico que participó en la cirugía. CONCLUSIONES: Es posible implementar un sistema de evacuación del neumoperitoneo en cirugía laparoscópica presumiblemente eficaz en minimizar el riesgo de exposición al virus SARS-COV-2 (Covid-19). Su bajo costo lo hace especialmente recomendable en países en vías de desarrollo.


INTRODUCTION: The recent SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemics has raised concern on the incidental exposition of health team to air transmissible infectious agents during surgeries. The main goal of this work is to communicate a simple and low-cost filtering system allowing to reduce the risk of contagion related to the virus, associated with pneumoperitoneum removal during surgical laparoscopy. METHODS: A closed circuit of gas removal and filtering was developed and implemented in laparoscopic gynecologic procedures at a tertiary teaching hospital. The circuit included an HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter and a vacuum trap containing an inactivating solution based on quaternary ammonium or sodium hypochlorite. RESULTS: Since its introduction, seventeen laparoscopic surgeries have been carried out for different gynecologic pathologies. Two of them in Covid (+) cases. To date, no contagion has been reported among health teammates participating in these surgeries. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to implement a pneumoperitoneum evacuation system in laparoscopic surgery presumably effective in minimizing the risk of exposure to the SARS-COV-2 virus (Covid-19). Its low cost makes it especially recommended in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumoperitoneum , Security Measures , Sodium Hypochlorite , Laparoscopy/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Low Cost Technology , Ammonium Compounds , Betacoronavirus
11.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(1): 8-17, 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115596

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivos: presentar el desarrollo de modelos educativos para el aprendizaje de dos técnicas endoscópicas vigentes, ampliamente difundidas y de gran implicación clínica, con la única intención de permitir la adquisición de destrezas básicas y avanzadas a residentes y gastroenterólogos. Materiales y métodos: se idearon dos modelos sencillos, de muy bajo costo, fácilmente reproducibles y reutilizables, con los cuales se logra ejecutar la totalidad de los procedimientos descritos. Además, permiten al operador integrar el desarrollo de habilidades y la adquisición de los conceptos teóricos mínimos requeridos, sin las presiones generadas por el riesgo existente de complicaciones. Resultados: la tendencia actual a nivel mundial se conduce hacia el desarrollo de modelos de enseñanza que aceleren la curva de aprendizaje, así como de procedimientos altamente exigentes y asociados a complicaciones potencialmente graves. Con estos modelos es posible poner a prueba al endoscopista, mediante una evaluación continua y supervisada. Su implementación en unidades de gastroenterología es sencilla, sin la necesidad de una inversión superlativa o el desplazamiento a otros países. Conclusiones: se trata de un gran aporte al desarrollo científico y educativo de nuestro país, ya que la creación y la implementación de nuevas técnicas endoscópicas y su aprendizaje no deben ser asumidos por los pacientes. En este punto, estamos de acuerdo con los conceptos emitidos por diferentes asociaciones médicas respecto a que los cursos teórico-prácticos de corta duración -y en algunas ocasiones virtuales- no constituyen una formación mínima, requerida para lograr la acreditación.


Abstract Objectives: This article presents the development of educational models for learning two widespread recent endoscopic techniques which have great clinical implications. Its sole intention is to allow acquisition of basic and advanced skills by residents and gastroenterologists. Materials and methods: Two simple, very low cost, easily reproducible and reusable models were devised. Procedures are fully described in ways that allow the operator to integrate the development of skills and acquisition of the minimum theoretical concepts required without the pressures generated by risks of complications. Results: The current global trend is to develop teaching models that accelerate the learning curve for highly demanding procedures that are associated with potentially serious complications. With these models it is possible to test endoscopists through continuous supervised evaluations. Implementation by gastroenterology units can be done easily without the need for large investments or travel to other countries. Conclusions: This is a great contribution to the scientific and educational development of Colombia since neither development of new endoscopic techniques nor the process of learning how to perform them should put patients at risk. We agree with the ideas of numerous medical associations regarding theoretical-practical courses of short duration even though some virtual sessions, "do not constitute the minimum training required needed for accreditation".


Subject(s)
Humans , Models, Educational , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Myotomy , Teaching , Ultrasonics , Low Cost Technology , Learning Curve
12.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135581

ABSTRACT

Abstract Covid-19 is a respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The high rate of contagion and the spread of the virus in the population make the early detection of the pathogen the means for the adequate targeting of infection control measures. WHO directs sample collection on upper respiratory specimens, including nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab or wash in ambulatory patients, as well as lower respiratory specimens: sputum and/or endotracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage, in addition to citing blood and feces. Among the various sample collection methods, saliva has been investigated and reported as a potential source for diagnosis. Thus, we propose to evaluate the current scenario, based on recent publications on the perspective of detecting SARS-CoV-2 in saliva as a diagnostic method for Covid-19. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 through saliva seems to be very promising, although obstacles such as the technique and the location of the collection and the sample size of the research carried out so far may present a limitation for its use. The current scenario presents saliva as a reliable method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, due to the ease of obtaining the samples, the possibility of self-collection, low cost because there is no need to use specific equipment, in addition to reducing the risk of transmission for health professionals.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Saliva/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , SARS Virus , Diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Infection Control , Low Cost Technology , Betacoronavirus
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18993, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249146

ABSTRACT

A repetitive batch process was employed followed by membrane ultrafiltration system to produce low-cost cyclodextrins (CDs) using commercial enzymes Toruzyme® cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) and its kinetic parameters were determined. The ultrafiltration system enabled the removalof inhibitory products from the reaction medium, allowing the enzyme to be recovered for reuse. A 10 kDa membrane was used to separate the different CDs produced by the CGTase. The substrates evaluated were maltodextrin, corn starch and cassava starch at 5, 10 and 15% (w/V), in the presence and absence of 10% (V/V) ethanol. After reaction for 132 h, 10% (w/V) cassava starch in the presence of ethanol provided the best results with 32.1 mg/mL of ß-CD. Maximum production occurred after 72 h of reaction, with a yield of 87.4% of ß-CD and an α-CD, ß-CD and γ-CD production ratio of 1:1:0.08 g, respectively. When eight repetitive batches of 72 h followed by ultrafiltration and crystallization of ß-CD were performed, 2.1 g of precipitate was obtained with a purity of 67.6% ß-CD. The supernatant from the crystallization process was lyophilized and resulted in 35.3% α-CD. The developed model can be used industrially for the production of low cost CDs from easily obtained raw material


Subject(s)
Ultrafiltration/instrumentation , Models, Economic , Low Cost Technology/analysis , Cyclodextrins/pharmacology , Starch and Fecula , Crystallization/classification
14.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 33(3): 166-171, sep. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1177393

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La simulación es una herramienta de educación indispensable para un entrenamiento progresivo en un ámbito seguro, no solo para el paciente sino para el educando. La misma fue incorporada en la curricula de nuestras especialidades quirúrgicas a partir del 2013. Las habilidades neuroquirúrgicas requieren de un experticio que implica un periodo prolongado de tiempo de práctica. En la actualidad, dicho periodo, se tiende a disminuir con la enseñanza de ensayo y error, repetición de los procedimientos y automatización de maniobras que la simulación facilita con el agregado de la posibilidad de un feedback de retroalimentación entre el profesional en formación y el educador en un ambiente seguro. Objetivo: Describir un modelo de simulador físico sintético de bajo costo como herramienta inicial para mejorar la curva de aprendizaje de las técnicas de neuroendoscopia intraventricular. Descripción del simulador: es un modelo físico sintético realizado a través de técnicas de mordería con gel autoportante. El simulador ofrece la posibilidad de practicar técnicas básicas neuroendoscópicas intraventriculares, ofreciendo la particularidad de poder repetir las maniobras y gestos quirúrgicas con un coste beneficio muy elevado debido al muy bajo precio de realización del simulador. A su vez, se trata de un modelo de simulación que se puede fabricar de forma casera en cualquier centro de simulación. Discusión: Presentamos un modelo inédito de bajo costo y alta fidelidad para simulación neuroendoscópica. Consta de un cerebro sintético físico que permite replicar ejercicios de navegación intraventricular con maniobras endoscópicas, toma de biopsia de lesiones quísticas o sólidas, sección de tabiques, lavado ventricular y desobstrucción de catéteres intraventriculares. Lo consideramos una herramienta básica y de amplia ayuda para profesionales que decidan iniciar su curva de aprendizaje en la neuroendoscopia intraventricular. Planeamos su validación en futuros congresos de neurocirugía.


Introduction: Simulation is an indispensable educational tool for progressive training in a safe environment, for both patients and learning neurosurgeons. It was incorporated into the curricula of our surgical specialties as of 2013. Neurosurgical skills require an expertise that involves a prolonged period of practice time. Currently, this period tends to decrease with the teaching of trial and error, repetition of procedures and automation of maneuvers that the simulation facilitates with the addition of the possibility of feedback between the professional in training and the educator, all doing in a safe environment. Objective: To describe a low cost synthetic physical simulator model as an initial tool to improve the learning curve of intraventricular neuroendoscopy techniques. Description of the simulator: it is a synthetic physical model realized through self-supporting gel biting techniques. The simulator offers the possibility of practicing intraventricular neuroendoscopic basic techniques, offering the peculiarity of being able to repeat maneuvers and surgical gestures with a very high benefit-cost due to a very low price of its creation. At the same time, it is a simulation model that can be manufactured at home in any simulation center. Discussion: We present an unprecedented model of low cost and high fidelity for neuroendoscopic simulation. It consists of a physical synthetic brain that allows the replication of intraventricular navigation exercises with endoscopic maneuvers, a biopsy of solid or cystic lesions, the section of the ventricular septum, ventricular lavage and unblocking of intraventricular catheters. We consider this simulator as a basic tool of wide assistance for professionals who decide to start their learning curve in intraventricular neuroendoscopy. We're planning its validation in a future neurosurgery congress.


Subject(s)
Neuroendoscopy , Simulation Exercise , Low Cost Technology , Neurosurgery
15.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 33(2): 82-90, jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1177680

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Desarrollar y potenciar las habilidades neuroquirúrgicas que se requieren en la disección del hueso temporal aplicado a la realización de abordajes quirúrgicos transtemporales, a través de modelos de bajo costo y aplicación sencilla. Materiales y métodos: Trabajamos sobre huesos temporales secos, con insumos hospitalarios descartables y con materiales básicos obtenidos en ferreterías. Se identificaron con silicona y teflón coloreados con acrílico, estructuras vasculares y nerviosas que forman los principales reparos anatómicos y se utiliza material sintético de látex adherido a la superficie endocraneal para recrear duramadre. Realizamos un estudio exhaustivo del hueso temporal con las diferentes estructuras anatómicas íntimamente relacionadas con él, abordándolo desde diferentes vistas. Una vez familiarizados con la anatomía, se ensayan abordajes neuroquirúrgicos y disecciones anatómicas profundizando el conocimiento sobre las estructuras relevantes no visibles previa a la disección. Discusión: En la formación neuroquirúrgica no solo importa el conocimiento teórico, sino que se requiere praxis eficaz aplicada al mismo y se logra sólo a través de auténticas experiencias, la cual da al practicante, la oportunidad de ensayar aspectos de un abordaje para lograr competencia previa a su aplicación en el paciente. Conclusión: El residente puede utilizar esta técnica de fácil acceso y bajo costo para realzar su experiencia de aprendizaje anatómico y fresado de huesos temporales y así poder discutir aspectos y ensayar un abordaje previo a una cirugía.


Introduction: Develop and enhance the neurosurgical skills required for temporal bone drilling applied to transtemporal surgical approaches through low cost and simple application models. Materials and methods: We worked on dry temporal bones with disposable hospital supplies and basic materials obtained in hardware stores. Vascular and nervous structures that form the main anatomical structures are identified with silicone and Teflon colored with acrylic and synthetic latex material is attached to the endocranial surface to recreate the dura mater. We carried out an exhaustive study of the temporal bone with the different anatomical structures intimately related to it, approaching it from different views. Once familiarized with the anatomy, neurosurgical approaches and anatomical dissections are practiced, increasing the understanding of the relevant structures not visible prior to dissection. Discussion: During neurosurgical training theoretical knowledge is not the only domain that matters, rather effective praxis applied to i t is needed and achieved only through authentic experiences, which gives the practitioner the opportunity to examine aspects of an approach in order to achieve expertise prior to its application to the patient. Conclusion: The resident can use this accessible and low cost technique to enhance their experience in anatomical learning and temporal b ones drilling and therefore, be able to discuss certain aspects and practice an approach prior to surgery.


Subject(s)
Temporal Bone , General Surgery , Low Cost Technology , Dissection
16.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 7(1): 93-101, abr. 2019. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178666

ABSTRACT

El examen general de orina (EGO) es una examen de rutina, rápido, de bajo costo y fácil acceso en los servicios de salud para la población. Además proporciona información importante para el diagnóstico de diversas enfermedades como infecciones del tracto urinario, diabetes y enfermedades renales. Este examen comprende de: el examen físico, el examen químico y el análisis microscópico del sedimento urinario. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte trasversal en el cual se procesaron 302 muestras de orina provenientes de mujeres aparentemente sanas de primer año de la Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Bioquímicas (FCFB) y su entorno familiar, además no se incluyó mujeres embarazadas y aquellas que cursaban su ciclo menstrual. El objetivo del estudio fue que los estudiantes de primer año de la Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Bioquímicas (FCFB) realicen correctamente el EGO analizar los resultados obtenidos, para relievar la importancia de este examen de laboratorio, en el diagnóstico de algunas enfermedades. Los resultados del EGO mostraron en algunas muestras, alteraciones en parámetros como: El aspecto, nitritos positivos, cantidad de bacterias y leucocitos, los cuales se ven asociados a infecciones del tracto urinario. Así también la presencia de glucosa en orina nos hace sospechar de diabetes. En ambos casos se recomendó a las participantes acudir a su médico, confirmar la sospecha con exámenes específicos y realizar el tratamiento adecuado. Por lo tanto el estudiante debe estar consciente de la importancia de realizar correctamente el EGO ya que los resultados del mismo ayudan al diagnóstico de algunas enfermedades.


The general urine test (EGO) is a routine test, fast, low cost and easy access in health services for the population. It also provides important information for the diagnosis of various diseases such as urinary tract infections, diabetes and kidney diseases. This test includes: physical examination, chemical examination and microscopic analysis of the urinary sediment. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in which 302 urine samples from apparently healthy first-year women of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biochemical Sciences (FCFB) and their family environment were processed, in addition to affected women who were not included. They were in their menstrual cycle. The objective of the study was that first-year students of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biochemical Sciences (FCFB) correctly perform the EGO to analyze the detected results, to highlight the importance of this laboratory test, in the diagnosis of some diseases. The results of the EGO detected in some samples, alterations in parameters such as: The appearance, positive nitrites, quantity of bacteria and leukocytes, which are associated with urinary tract infections. So also the presence of glucose in urine makes us suspect diabetes. In both cases, participants were advised to go to their doctor, confirm the suspicion with specific tests and perform the appropriate treatment. Therefore, the student must be aware of the importance of correctly performing the EGO and the results of the same help the diagnosis of some diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urinary Tract Infections , Low Cost Technology , Diagnosis , Ego , Laboratory Test , Urinary Tract , Laboratories , Nitrites
17.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 46(4): 286-291, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-978209

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Rapid recovery and low cost are among the benefits of ketamine for emergency sedation. It has been excluded as the first choice because of the associated adverse events. Objective: To describe the adverse events associated with the use of ketamine in a high-complexity emergency service. Materials and methods: Review of clinical records of patients who received sedation with ketamine for orthopedic procedures in the emergency room between January 2012 and June 2015, with identification of adverse events. Results: Overall, 354 patients were identified (74% males, 32% children), with a median age of 21 years, interquartile range (IQR) of 20 years. Of them, 66% had upper limb injuries, 79% were treated on an outpatient basis, with a median length of stay in the emergency service of 3.6hours (IQR 2,5). In 98%, sedation was given by a different practitioner from the orthopedic surgeon. Ketamine and midazolam were administered together in the same proportion, and 3 or more medications were used in 13% of cases. Overall, 14 adverse events (3.9%) were described, 9 related to desaturation between 80% and 90% which was solved with oxygen through nasal cannula, 3 were cases of vomiting following sedation with no aspiration, and 2 were cases of desaturation <80% which were managed with oxygen administration through a cannula and maneuvers to maintain airway patency. One patient had visual hallucinations. No patient required advanced airway maneuvers. Conclusion: The use of ketamine for sedation in the emergency service is associated with a low prevalence of major adverse events. Sedation with ketamine and midazolam appears to be a safe strategy for these procedures.


Resumen Introducción: La ketamina para sedación en urgencias tiene beneficios tales como recuperación rápida y bajo costo. Se ha excluido como primera opción por sus eventos adversos. Objetivo: Describir los eventos adversos relacionados con el uso de ketamina en un servicio de urgencias de alta complejidad. Materiales y métodos: Se revisaron historias clínicas de pacientes que recibieron ketamina en urgencias para sedación en procedimientos ortopédicos entre enero de 2012 y junio de 2015, identificando eventos adversos. Resultados: Se identificaron 354 pacientes, (74% hombres, 32% niños), con una mediana de edad de 21 años, rango intercuartílico (RIQ) de 20 años. 66% con lesiones del miembro superior, 79% tratados ambulatoriamente con una mediana de estancia en urgencias de 3,6 horas (RIQ 2,5). En el 98% la sedación fue realizada por un médico diferente al ortopedista. En la misma proporción se administró ketamina y midazolam conjuntamente, en 13% se utilizaron tres o más medicamentos. Se describieron 14 eventos adversos (3,9%), nueve correspondían a desaturación entre 80 y 90% resuelta con oxígeno por cánula nasal, tres casos de vómito después de la sedación sin broncoaspiración, y dos casos de desaturación <80% resuelta con oxígeno por cánula y maniobras para permeabilización de la vía aérea. Hubo alucinaciones visuales en un paciente. Ning un paciente requirió maniobras avanzadas para la vía aérea. Conclusiones: El uso de ketamina para sedación en urgencias tiene una baja prevalencia de eventos adversos mayores. La sedación con ketamina y midazolam, parece ser una estrategia segura en estos procedimientos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Adult , Conscious Sedation , Orthopedic Procedures , Emergencies , Ketamine , Manipulation, Orthopedic , Vomiting , Midazolam , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Low Cost Technology , Upper Extremity , Emergency Service, Hospital , Cannula , Orthopedic Surgeons , Hallucinations
18.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 22(3): e20170387, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-953456

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this study was to construct and validate a low-cost simulator to train diabetes mellitus patients and their caregivers on the administration of insulin. Method: Action research study with a qualitative approach, through a validation methodological study. Results: A low-fidelity simulator was constructed with the areas recommended for insulin administration adapted to allow skill training. Validation was done by nine experts on the subject. Conclusions: The prototype has low cost and greater anatomical functional fidelity than the models currently available in the market. Implications for practice: The simulator developed can be used by health professionals, caregivers or by the patients themselves as a tool in the training for insulin administration. Its use may favor the identification of critical points related to the application technique, allowing the planning of more directive and effective educational interventions.


Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo la construcción y validación de un simulador de bajo costo para uso en la capacitación de pacientes con diabetes mellitus y de sus cuidadores para la aplicación de insulina. Método: Investigación-acción de abordaje cualitativo y estudio metodológico de validación. Resultados: Se ha construido un simulador de baja fidelidad con las áreas recomendadas para la aplicación de insulina adaptadas para permitir el entrenamiento de la habilidad. La validación fue hecha por nueve expertos en el tema. Conclusiones: El prototipo presenta bajo costo y mayor fidelidad anatómica funcional que los modelos actualmente disponibles en el mercado. Implicaciones para la práctica: El simulador desarrollado puede ser utilizado por profesionales de la salud, cuidadores o por los propios pacientes como herramienta en la capacitación para aplicación de insulina. Su uso puede favorecer la identificación de puntos críticos relacionados con la técnica de aplicación, permitiendo la planificación de intervenciones educativas más directivas y eficaces.


Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo a construção e validação de um simulador de baixo custo para uso na capacitação de pacientes com diabetes mellitus e de seus cuidadores para a aplicação de insulina. Método: Pesquisa-ação de abordagem qualitativa e estudo metodológico de validação. Resultados: Foi construído um simulador de baixa fidelidade com as áreas recomendadas para aplicação de insulina adaptadas para permitir o treinamento da habilidade. A validação foi feita por nove experts no assunto. Conclusões: O protótipo apresenta baixo custo e maior fidelidade anatômico funcional do que os modelos atualmente disponíveis no mercado. Implicações para prática: O simulador desenvolvido pode ser utilizado por profissionais da saúde, cuidadores ou pelos próprios pacientes como ferramenta na capacitação para aplicação de insulina. Seu uso pode favorecer a identificação de pontos críticos relacionados a técnica de aplicação, permitindo o planejamento de intervenções educacionais mais diretivas e eficazes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Low Cost Technology/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/nursing , Insulin/administration & dosage
19.
San Salvador; FUNDE; 1a; 2018. 16 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1116621

ABSTRACT

El presente documento contiene la cartilla de instalación, uso y mantenimiento del Sistema de Cosecha de Agua Lluvia como una herramienta de aprendizaje para las comunidades de El Salvador. La iniciativa consiste en motivar el involucramiento de las mujeres y los gobiernos locales de los territorios para la implementación de sistemas para la recolección y almacenamiento de agua lluvia, la cual después de ser sometida a un proceso de filtrado casero puede ser usada para consumo humano. La capacidad de almacenamiento de cada sistema es de 25,000 litros de agua, lo que representa una mayor capacidad de almacenamiento frente a otros sistemas similares y es una alternativa de bajo costo para las familias y las comunidades en condiciones de pobreza. Se ha implementado la cosecha de aguas lluvias como una alternativa de bajo costo para comunidades con difícil acceso al agua en el Valle del Jiboa y la Región de Los Nonualcos. A partir de esta iniciativa se busca promover la réplica de los sistemas de cosecha de agua lluvia en otros territorios de El Salvador y avanzar en el empoderamiento de la mujer como agente de cambio dentro de sus familias, comunidades y en el territorio.


This document contains the installation, use and maintenance booklet of the Rainwater Harvesting System as a learning tool for the communities of El Salvador. The initiative consists of motivating the involvement of women and local governments of the territories for the implementation of systems for the collection and storage of rainwater, which after being subjected to a home filtration process can be used for human consumption. The storage capacity of each system is 25,000 liters of water, which represents a greater storage capacity compared to other similar systems and is a low-cost alternative for families and communities in conditions of poverty. Rainwater harvesting has been implemented as a low-cost alternative for communities with difficult access to water in the Jiboa Valley and the Los Nonualcos Region. This initiative seeks to promote the replication of rainwater harvesting systems in other territories of El Salvador and advance the empowerment of women as agents of change within their families, communities and in the territory.


Subject(s)
Rain , Women , Water , Rainwater , Water Storage , Low Cost Technology , El Salvador , Water Supply
20.
Infectio ; 21(4): 251-254, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-892739

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar al método de inactivación del carbapenémico (MIC*) frente a técnicas como el Test de Hodge modificado (THM), ácido 3-aminofenilborónico (APB) y la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en enterobacterias productoras de carbapenemasas (EPC) tipo KPC. Materiales y métodos: Se seleccionaron 88 aislados clínicos de K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, E.coli, S. marcescens, C. freundii sensibles y 91 resistentes a los carbapenémicos. El APB y el método MIC* se realizaron siguiendo las publicaciones originales. El THM se realizó de acuerdo al CLSI 100S Edición 26-2016. El gen blaKPC se identificó por multiplex PCR. Resultados: El MIC* en EPC tipo KPC presentó una sensibilidad/especificidad cercana al 100% y kappa de 1 comparado con la PCR; se observó la ausencia de halo en todas los aislados EPC tipo KPC a diferencia de los aislados sensibles a los cabapenémicos que presentaron halo > 19mm. Se observó el 3 % de resultados falsos positivos y el 5 % de falsos negativos en THM y ABP respectivamente. Discusión y conclusiones: El MIC* y la PCR demuestran superioridad al THM y ABP para identificar carbapenemasas tipo KPC en EPC. Se recomienda su uso de forma rutinaria dentro del algoritmo para la contención de infecciones por este tipo de patógenos.


Abstract Objective: To compare the carbapenem inactivation method (CIM *) with the Modified Hodge Test (MHT), the acid 3-aminophenylboronic test(APB) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of the blaKPC gene for the identification of KPC carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ECP). Materials and Methods: We selected 88 susceptible and 91 carbapenems resistant clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens and Citrobacter freundii. We performed APB and CIM* according to previously published methods and the MHT according to CLSI 100S Edition 26-2016. The blaKPC gene was identified by PCR multiplex. Results: The CIM* had a sensitivity and specificity close to 100% and a kappa score of 1 compared with gold standard PCR. The absence of zone diameter was observed in all isolated KPC producers, unlike in isolates susceptible to carbapenems, where a zone diameter >19mm was observed. Three percent of false positive and five percent of false negative was observed in THM and ABP respectively. Discussion and conclusions: The CIM* and the PCR were better than MHT and ABP at identifying carbapenemases in ECP. We recommend the routine use of the CIM* within the algorithm for ECP infection control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Low Cost Technology , Virus Inactivation , Enterobacteriaceae
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