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1.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 350-368, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982548

ABSTRACT

Mammals exhibit limited heart regeneration ability, which can lead to heart failure after myocardial infarction. In contrast, zebrafish exhibit remarkable cardiac regeneration capacity. Several cell types and signaling pathways have been reported to participate in this process. However, a comprehensive analysis of how different cells and signals interact and coordinate to regulate cardiac regeneration is unavailable. We collected major cardiac cell types from zebrafish and performed high-precision single-cell transcriptome analyses during both development and post-injury regeneration. We revealed the cellular heterogeneity as well as the molecular progress of cardiomyocytes during these processes, and identified a subtype of atrial cardiomyocyte exhibiting a stem-like state which may transdifferentiate into ventricular cardiomyocytes during regeneration. Furthermore, we identified a regeneration-induced cell (RIC) population in the epicardium-derived cells (EPDC), and demonstrated Angiopoietin 4 (Angpt4) as a specific regulator of heart regeneration. angpt4 expression is specifically and transiently activated in RIC, which initiates a signaling cascade from EPDC to endocardium through the Tie2-MAPK pathway, and further induces activation of cathepsin K in cardiomyocytes through RA signaling. Loss of angpt4 leads to defects in scar tissue resolution and cardiomyocyte proliferation, while overexpression of angpt4 accelerates regeneration. Furthermore, we found that ANGPT4 could enhance proliferation of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, and promote cardiac repair in mice after myocardial infarction, indicating that the function of Angpt4 is conserved in mammals. Our study provides a mechanistic understanding of heart regeneration at single-cell precision, identifies Angpt4 as a key regulator of cardiomyocyte proliferation and regeneration, and offers a novel therapeutic target for improved recovery after human heart injuries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Rats , Cell Proliferation , Heart/physiology , Mammals , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Pericardium/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Zebrafish/metabolism
2.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 279-293, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982546

ABSTRACT

Aging poses a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death in the aged population. However, the cell type-specific changes underlying cardiac aging are far from being clear. Here, we performed single-nucleus RNA-sequencing analysis of left ventricles from young and aged cynomolgus monkeys to define cell composition changes and transcriptomic alterations across different cell types associated with age. We found that aged cardiomyocytes underwent a dramatic loss in cell numbers and profound fluctuations in transcriptional profiles. Via transcription regulatory network analysis, we identified FOXP1, a core transcription factor in organ development, as a key downregulated factor in aged cardiomyocytes, concomitant with the dysregulation of FOXP1 target genes associated with heart function and cardiac diseases. Consistently, the deficiency of FOXP1 led to hypertrophic and senescent phenotypes in human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Altogether, our findings depict the cellular and molecular landscape of ventricular aging at the single-cell resolution, and identify drivers for primate cardiac aging and potential targets for intervention against cardiac aging and associated diseases.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Humans , Aging/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Primates/metabolism , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Transcriptome , Macaca fascicularis/metabolism
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2496-2507, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) is a key protein that maintains myocardial Ca 2+ homeostasis. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the SERCA2a-SUMOylation (small ubiquitin-like modifier) process after ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI) in vitro and in vivo .@*METHODS@#Calcium transient and systolic/diastolic function of cardiomyocytes isolated from Serca2a knockout (KO) and wild-type mice with I/RI were compared. SUMO-relevant protein expression and localization were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), Western blotting, and immunofluorescence in vitro and in vivo . Serca2a-SUMOylation, infarct size, and cardiac function of Senp1 or Senp2 overexpressed/suppressed adenovirus infected cardiomyocytes, were detected by immunoprecipitation, triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC)-Evans blue staining, and echocardiography respectively.@*RESULTS@#The results showed that the changes of Fura-2 fluorescence intensity and contraction amplitude of cardiomyocytes decreased in the I/RI groups and were further reduced in the Serca2a KO + I/RI groups. Senp1 and Senp2 messenger ribose nucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression levels in vivo and in cardiomyocytes were highest at 6 h and declined at 12 h after I/RI. However, the highest levels in HL-1 cells were recorded at 12 h. Senp2 expression increased in the cytoplasm, unlike that of Senp1. Inhibition of Senp2 protein reversed the I/RI-induced Serca2a-SUMOylation decline, reduced the infarction area, and improved cardiac function, while inhibition of Senp1 protein could not restore the above indicators.@*CONCLUSION@#I/RI activated Senp1 and Senp2 protein expression, which promoted Serca2a-deSUMOylation, while inhibition of Senp2 expression reversed Serca2a-SUMOylation and improved cardiac function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Calcium/metabolism , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/genetics
4.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 939-956, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010802

ABSTRACT

A small proportion of mononuclear diploid cardiomyocytes (MNDCMs), with regeneration potential, could persist in adult mammalian heart. However, the heterogeneity of MNDCMs and changes during development remains to be illuminated. To this end, 12 645 cardiac cells were generated from embryonic day 17.5 and postnatal days 2 and 8 mice by single-cell RNA sequencing. Three cardiac developmental paths were identified: two switching to cardiomyocytes (CM) maturation with close CM-fibroblast (FB) communications and one maintaining MNDCM status with least CM-FB communications. Proliferative MNDCMs having interactions with macrophages and non-proliferative MNDCMs (non-pMNDCMs) with minimal cell-cell communications were identified in the third path. The non-pMNDCMs possessed distinct properties: the lowest mitochondrial metabolisms, the highest glycolysis, and high expression of Myl4 and Tnni1. Single-nucleus RNA sequencing and immunohistochemical staining further proved that the Myl4+Tnni1+ MNDCMs persisted in embryonic and adult hearts. These MNDCMs were mapped to the heart by integrating the spatial and single-cell transcriptomic data. In conclusion, a novel non-pMNDCM subpopulation with minimal cell-cell communications was unveiled, highlighting the importance of microenvironment contribution to CM fate during maturation. These findings could improve the understanding of MNDCM heterogeneity and cardiac development, thus providing new clues for approaches to effective cardiac regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Diploidy , Heart , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Cell Communication , Gene Expression Profiling , Mitochondria , Regeneration , Mammals/genetics
5.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1013-1018, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To construct an adenovirus vector expressing artificial splicing factor capable of regulating alternative splicing of Yap1 in cardiomyocytes.@*METHODS@#The splicing factors with different sequences were constructed against Exon6 of YAP1 based on the sequence specificity of Pumilio1. The PCR fragment of the artificially synthesized PUF-SR or wild-type PUFSR was cloned into pAd-Track plasmid, and the recombinant plasmids were transformed into E. coli DH5α for plasmid amplification. The amplified plasmids were digested with Pac I and transfected into 293A cells for packaging to obtain the adenovirus vectors. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were transfected with the adenoviral vectors, and alternative splicing of YAP1 was detected using quantitative and semi-quantitative PCR; Western blotting was performed to detect the signal of the fusion protein Flag.@*RESULTS@#The transfection efficiency of the adenovirus vectors was close to 100% in rat cardiomyocytes, and no fluorescent protein was detected in the cells with plasmid transfection. The results of Western blotting showed that both the negative control and Flag-SR-NLS-PUF targeting the YAPExon6XULIE sequence were capable of detecting the expression of the protein fused to Flag. The results of reverse transcription-PCR and PCR demonstrated that the artificial splicing factor constructed based on the 4th target sequence of YAP1 effectively regulated the splicing of YAP1 Exon6 in the cardiomyocytes (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#We successfully constructed adenovirus vectors capable of regulating YAP1 alternative splicing rat cardiomyocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Adenoviridae/metabolism , Alternative Splicing , Animals, Newborn , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Genetic Vectors , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Plasmids , RNA Splicing Factors/metabolism , Transfection
6.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 365-375, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939894

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Qili Qiangxin (QLQX), a compound herbal medicine formula, is used effectively to treat congestive heart failure in China. However, the molecular mechanisms of the cardioprotective effect are still unclear. This study explores the cardioprotective effect and mechanism of QLQX using the hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R)-induced myocardial injury model.@*METHODS@#The main chemical constituents of QLQX were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light-scattering detection. The model of H/R-induced myocardial injury in H9c2 cells was developed to simulate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Apoptosis, autophagy, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured to assess the protective effect of QLQX. Proteins related to autophagy, apoptosis and signalling pathways were detected using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Apoptosis, autophagy and the excessive production of ROS induced by H/R were significantly reduced after treating the H9c2 cells with QLQX. QLQX treatment at concentrations of 50 and 250 μg/mL caused significant reduction in the levels of LC3II and p62 degradation (P < 0.05), and also suppressed the AMPK/mTOR signalling pathway. Furthermore, the AMPK inhibitor Compound C (at 0.5 μmol/L), and QLQX (250 μg/mL) significantly inhibited H/R-induced autophagy and apoptosis (P < 0.01), while AICAR (an AMPK activator, at 0.5 mmol/L) increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and autophagy and abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of QLQX. Similar phenomena were also observed on the expressions of apoptotic and autophagic proteins, demonstrating that QLQX reduced the apoptosis and autophagy in the H/R-induced injury model via inhibiting the AMPK/mTOR pathway. Moreover, ROS scavenger, N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, at 2.5 mmol/L), significantly reduced H/R-triggered cell apoptosis and autophagy (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, NAC treatment down-regulated the ratio of phosphorylation of AMPK/AMPK (P < 0.01), which showed a similar effect to QLQX.@*CONCLUSION@#QLQX plays a cardioprotective role by alleviating apoptotic and autophagic cell death through inhibition of the ROS/AMPK/mTOR signalling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis , Autophagic Cell Death , Autophagy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Herbal Medicine , Hypoxia/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
7.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 188-200, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927594

ABSTRACT

Atrial Ca2+ handling abnormalities, mainly involving the dysfunction of ryanodine receptor (RyR) and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Previously, we found that the expression and function of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 4 (TRPV4) are upregulated in a sterile pericarditis (SP) rat model of AF, and oral administration of TRPV4 inhibitor GSK2193874 alleviates AF in this animal model. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oral administration of GSK2193874 could alleviate atrial Ca2+ handling abnormalities in SP rats. A SP rat model of AF was established by daubing sterile talcum powder on both atria of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats after a pericardiotomy, to simulate the pathogenesis of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). On the 3rd postoperative day, Ca2+ signals of atria were collected in isolated perfused hearts by optical mapping. Ca2+ transient duration (CaD), alternan, and the recovery properties of Ca2+ transient (CaT) were quantified and analyzed. GSK2193874 treatment reversed the abnormal prolongation of time to peak (determined mainly by RyR activity) and CaD (determined mainly by SERCA activity), as well as the regional heterogeneity of CaD in SP rats. Furthermore, GSK2193874 treatment relieved alternan in SP rats, and reduced its incidence of discordant alternan (DIS-ALT). More importantly, GSK2193874 treatment prevented the reduction of the S2/S1 CaT ratio (determined mainly by RyR refractoriness) in SP rats, and decreased its regional heterogeneity. Taken together, oral administration of TRPV4 inhibitor alleviates Ca2+ handling abnormalities in SP rats primarily by blocking the TRPV4-Ca2+-RyR pathway, and thus exerts therapeutic effect on POAF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Administration, Oral , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Calcium/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Pericarditis/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel/pharmacology , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/pathology , TRPV Cation Channels
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 476-483, Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339188

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A doença cardiovascular é a principal causa de morte em todo o mundo. A apoptose mediada por hipóxia em cardiomiócitos é uma das principais causas de distúrbios cardiovasculares. O tratamento com a proteína do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF, do inglês vascular endothelial growth factor) foi testado, mas as dificuldades operacionais limitaram seu uso. Entretanto, com os avanços da terapia gênica, aumentou o interesse na terapia gênica baseada no VEGF em doenças cardiovasculares. No entanto, o mecanismo preciso pelo qual a reposição de VEGF resgata os danos pós-hipóxia em cardiomiócitos não é conhecido. Objetivos: Investigar o efeito da expressão de VEGF121 pós-hipóxia utilizando cardiomiócitos de ratos neonatos. Métodos: Cardiomiócitos isolados de ratos neonatos foram utilizados para estabelecer um modelo in vitro de lesão cardíaca induzida por hipóxia. O efeito da superexpressão de VEGF, isolado ou em conjunto com inibidores de moléculas pequenas que têm como alvo os canais de cálcio, receptores sensíveis ao cálcio (CaSR, do inglês calcium-sensitive receptors) e calpaína, no crescimento e proliferação celular em lesão de cardiomiócitos induzidos por hipóxia, foram determinados com ensaio de MTT, coloração TUNEL, coloração com Anexina V/PI, lactato desidrogenase e atividade da caspase. Para análise estatística, um valor de p<0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: Verificou-se que o efeito do VEGF121 foi mediado por CaSR e calpaína, mas não foi dependente dos canais de cálcio. Conclusões: Nossos resultados, mesmo em um ambiente in vitro, estabelecem as bases para uma validação futura e testes pré-clínicos da terapia gênica baseada em VEGF em doenças cardiovasculares.


Abstract Background: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death worldwide. Hypoxia-mediated apoptosis in cardiomyocytes is a major cause of cardiovascular disorders. Treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein has been tested but operational difficulties have limited its use. However, with the advancements of gene therapy, interest has risen in VEGF-based gene therapy in cardiovascular disorders. However, the precise mechanism by which VEGF replenishment rescues post-hypoxia damage in cardiomyocytes is not known. Objectives: To investigate the effect of post-hypoxia VEGF121 expression using neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Methods: Cardiomyocytes isolated from neonatal rats were used to establish an in vitro model of hypoxia-induced cardiac injury. The effect of VEGF overexpression, alone or in combination with small-molecule inhibitors targeting calcium channel, calcium sensitive receptors (CaSR), and calpain on cell growth and proliferation on hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte injury were determined using an MTT assay, TUNEL staining, Annexin V/PI staining, lactate dehydrogenase and caspase activity. For statistical analysis, a value of P<0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: The effect of VEGF121 was found to be mediated by CaSR and calpain but was not dependent on calcium channels. Conclusions: Our findings, even though using an in vitro setting, lay the foundation for future validation and pre-clinical testing of VEGF-based gene therapy in cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Receptors, Calcium-Sensing/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Hypoxia , Mitochondria
10.
Biol. Res ; 54: 3-3, 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Testosterone regulates nutrient and energy balance to maintain protein synthesis and metabolism in cardiomyocytes, but supraphysiological concentrations induce cardiac hypertrophy. Previously, we determined that testosterone increased glucose uptake­via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)­after acute treatment in cardiomyocytes. However, whether elevated glucose uptake is involved in long-term changes of glucose metabolism or is required during cardiomyocyte growth remained unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that glucose uptake and glycolysis increase in testosterone-treated cardiomyocytes through AMPK and androgen receptor (AR). METHODS: Cultured cardiomyocytes were stimulated with 100 nM testosterone for 24 h, and hypertrophy was verified by increased cell size and mRNA levels of ß-myosin heavy chain (ß-mhc). Glucose uptake was assessed by 2-NBDG. Glycolysis and glycolytic capacity were determined by measuring extracellular acidification rate (ECAR). RESULTS: Testosterone induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy that was accompanied by increased glucose uptake, glycolysis enhancement and upregulated mRNA expression of hexokinase 2. In addition, testosterone increased AMPK phosphorylation (Thr172), while inhibition of both AMPK and AR blocked glycolysis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by testosterone. Moreover, testosterone supplementation in adult male rats by 5 weeks induced cardiac hypertrophy and upregulated ß-mhc, Hk2 and Pfk2 mRNA levels. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that testosterone stimulates glucose metabolism by activation of AMPK and AR signaling which are critical to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Testosterone/pharmacology , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Cells, Cultured , Hypertrophy , Myocardium/pathology
11.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 275-285, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878256

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the positive inotropic effect of phosphodiesterase type 9 (PDE9) inhibitor PF-04449613 in ratsand its cellular and molecular mechanisms. The heart pressure-volume loop (P-V loop) analysis was used to detect the effects of PF-04449613 on rat left ventricular pressure-volume relationship, aortic pressures and peripheral vessel resistance in healthy rats. The Langendorff perfusion of isolated rat heart was used to explore the effects of PF-04449613 on heart contractility. The cardiomyocyte sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Calcium/metabolism , Myocardial Contraction , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
12.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 158-165, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985203

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the skin ultrastructure change of electric shock death rats and to test the expression changes of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) and heart type-fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) of myocardial cells, in order to provide basis for forensic identification of electric shock death. Methods The electric shock model of rats was established. The 72 rats were randomly divided into control group, electric shock death group and postmortem electric shock group. Each group was divided into three subgroups, immediate (0 min), 30 min and 60 min after death. The skin changes of rats were observed by HE staining, the changes of skin ultrastructure were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the expression of HIF-2α and H-FABP in rats myocardium was tested by immunohistochemical staining. Results The skin in the electric shock death group and postmortem electric shock group had no significant difference through the naked eye or by HE staining. Under the scanning electron microscope, a large number of cellular debris, cells with unclear boundaries, withered cracks, circular or elliptical holes scattered on the cell surface and irregular edges were observed. A large number of spherical foreign body particles were observed. Compared with the control group, the expression of HIF-2α in all electric shock death subgroups increased, reaching the peak immediately after death. In the postmortem electric shock group, HIF-2α expression only increased immediately after death, but was lower than that of electric shock death group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the expression of H-FABP in all subgroups of electric shock death group and postmortem electric shock group significantly decreased. The expression of H-FABP in all subgroups of electric shock death group was lower than that of the postmortem electric shock group (P<0.05). Conclusion Electric shock can increase HIF-2α expression and decrease H-FABP expression in the myocardium, which may be of forensic significance for the determination of electric shock death and identification of antemortem and postmortem electric shock.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Autopsy , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/metabolism , Fatty Acid Binding Protein 3/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Skin/ultrastructure
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 459-470, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887681

ABSTRACT

Cardiac hypertrophy is a common pathological process of various cardiovascular diseases and eventually develops into heart failure. This paper was aimed to study the different pathological characteristics exhibited by different mouse strains after hypertrophy stimulation. Two mouse strains, A/J and FVB/nJ, were treated with isoproterenol (ISO) by osmotic pump to induce cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiography was performed to monitor heart morphology and function. Mitochondria were isolated from hearts in each group, and oxidative phosphorylation function was assayed in vitro. The results showed that both strains showed a compensatory enhancement of heart contractile function after 1-week ISO treatment. The A/J mice, but not the FVB/nJ mice, developed significant cardiac hypertrophy after 3-week ISO treatment as evidenced by increases in left ventricular posterior wall thickness, heart weight/body weight ratio, cross sectional area of cardiomyocytes and cardiac hypertrophic markers. Interestingly, the heart from A/J mice contained higher mitochondrial DNA copy number compared with that from FVB/nJ mice. Functionally, the mitochondria from A/J mice displayed faster O


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cardiomegaly/chemically induced , Heart Failure , Isoproterenol/toxicity , Mitochondria , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism
14.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1223-1227, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880589

ABSTRACT

Cardiomyocytes injury model has been widely used in the study for the molecular mechanism of cardiovascular diseases and drug action. It is very important to select the appropriate model due to the different formation mechanisms for various models. Clinical cardiovascular pathological change is relatively complex. Currently used models according to the characteristics of clinical cardiovascular diseases mainly include hydrogen peroxide-induced myocardial cell damage model, hypoxia reoxygenation injury model, adriamycin-induced myocardial cell damage model, high sugar high fat-induced myocardial cell damage model, and isoprenaline-induced myocardial cell damage model. Every model has its advantages as well as its disadvantages. The suitable model of myocardial cell injury can be selected according to the research purpose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cell Hypoxia , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardium , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Research
15.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1155-1163, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α) controls mitochondrial biogenesis, but its role in cardiovascular diseases is unclear. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of PGC1α on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#The transverse coronary artery of SD rat was ligated for 30 minutes followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was performed to measure the area of myocardial infarction. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect the PGC1α expression in myocardium. The rat cardiomyocyte H9C2 was subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) with the knockdown of PGC1α or hypoxia- inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), or with treatment of metformin. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of PGC1α, HIF-1α, p21, BAX, and caspase-3. CCK-8 was performed to detect cell viability, and flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis and mitochondrial superoxide (mitoSOX) release. RT-qPCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of PGC1α and HIF-1α. Besides, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-qPCR and luciferase reporter gene assay were applied to detect the transcriptional regulation effect of HIF-1α on PGC1α.@*RESULTS@#After I/R, the PGC1α expression was increased in infarcted myocardium. H/R induced H9C2 cell apoptosis (@*CONCLUSIONS@#After I/R, HIF-1α up-regulates the expression of PGC1α, leading to an increase in ROS production and aggravation of injury. Metformin can inhibit the accumulation of HIF-1α during hypoxia and effectively protect myocardium from ischemia/reperfusion injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/genetics , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury
16.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 757-764, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878223

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present paper was to study the role of sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) in the generation of action potentials (APs) in cardiomyocytes during early developmental stage (EDS). The precisely dated embryonic hearts of C57 mice were dissected and enzymatically dissociated to single cells. The changes of APs were recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique before and after administration of NCX specific blockers KB-R7943 (5 μmol/L) and SEA0400 (1 μmol/L). The results showed that, both KB-R7943 and SEA0400 had potent negative chronotropic effects on APs of pacemaker-like cells, while such effects were only observed in some ventricular-like cardiomyocytes. The negative chronotropic effect of KB-R7943 on ventricular-like cardiomyocytes was accompanied by shortening of AP duration (APD), whereas such an effect of SEA0400 was paralleled by decrease in velocity of diastolic depolarization (Vdd). From embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) to E10.5, the negative chronotropic effects of KB-R7943 and SEA0400 on ventricular-like APs of embryonic cardiomyocytes gradually disappeared. These results suggest that, in the short-term development of early embryo, the function of NCX may experience developmental changes as evidenced by different roles of NCX in autorhythmicity and APs generation, indicating that NCX function varies with different conditions of cardiomyocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Action Potentials , Calcium/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Sodium/metabolism , Sodium-Calcium Exchanger , Thiourea/pharmacology
17.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 954-961, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941206

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effects of 3-phosphate dependent protein kinase 1-protein kinase B (PDK1-Akt) signaling pathway on the transcription, expression and function of cardiac hyperpolarized activated cyclic nucleotide gated 4 (HCN4) ion channels. Methods: Atrial myocytes were obtained from healthy male wild-type C57 mice and heart-specific PDK1 knockout mice (PDK1-KO) by enzymolysis. Then the atrial myocytes were divided into blank control group and PDK1-KO group. In further studies, the isolated atrial myocytes were cultured and further divided into drug control group (treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) and PDK1 knockdown group (treated with 1 μg/ml PDK1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference plasmid), SC79 group (treated with 8 μmol/ml SC79), GSK2334470 group (treated with 10 nmol/L GSK2334470) and PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group (8 μmol/ml SC79 and 1 μg/ml PDK1 shRNA interference plasmid). Real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of PDK1 and HCN4, Western blot was used to detect the protein expression levels of PDK1, Akt and HCN4, the whole cell patch clamp was used to detecte the current density of HCN, and immunofluorescence was used to detecte the expression of HCN4 protein on atrial cells. Results: (1) the expression levels of HCN4 mRNA (1.46±0.03 vs. 0.99±0.01, P<0.001) and protein (1.14±0.02 vs. 1.00±0.06, P=0.017) in PDK1-KO group were higher than those in blank control group. The HCN current density in PDK1-KO group was higher than that in blank control group((-17.47±2.00) pA/pF vs. (-12.15±2.25) pA/pF, P=0.038). (2) The functions of PDK1 shRNA and specific Akt agonist SC79 were verified by comparing the PDK1 knockdown group and SC79 group with the drug control group. The results showed that the expression levels of PDK1 mRNA and protein in PDK1 knockdown group were lower than those in drug control group, and the expression level of phosphorylated Akt (Thr 308) protein in SC79 group was higher than that in drug control group. (3) The expression levels of HCN4 mRNA (3.61±0.46 vs. 1.00±0.08, P<0.001) and protein (2.33±0.11 vs. 1.00±0.05, P<0.001) in GSK2334470 group were higher than those in drug control group. (4) To reduce the effect of drug-miss target, the cultured atrial myocytes were transfected with shRNA plasmid of PDK1 and intervened with SC79. The results showed that the expression of HCN4 mRNA in PDK1 knockdown group was higher than that in the drug control group (1.76±0.11 vs. 1.00±0.06, P<0.001), and PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group (1.76±0.11 vs. 1.33±0.07, P=0.003). In PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group, the mRNA expression level was also higher than that in the drug control group (1.33±0.07 vs. 1.00±0.06, P<0.001). The expression level of HCN4 protein in PDK1 knockdown group was higher than that in drug control group (1.15±0.04 vs. 1.00±0.05, P=0.003). As for the The expression level of HCN4 protein, there was no significantly statistical difference between the PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group and the drug control group (P>0.05), but PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group was lower than PDK1 knockdown group (0.95±0.01 vs. 1.15±0.04, P<0.001). In patch clamp experiments, the results showed that the HCN current density was (-13.27±1.28) pA/pF in the drug control group, (-18.76±2.03) pA/pF in the PDK1 knockdown group, (-13.50±2.58) pA/pF in the PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group; the HCN current density of PDK1 knockdown group was higher than that of drug control group (P<0.001), but there was no significant difference between PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group and drug control group (P>0.05). (5) The results of immunofluorescence showed that the brightness of green fluorescence of PDK1 knockdown group was higher than that of drug control group, indicating that the expression of HCN4 localized on cell membrane was increased. However, the green fluorescence of PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group was lighter than that of PDK1 knockdown group, suggesting that the expression of HCN4 in PDK1-knockdown cell membrane decreased after further activating Akt. Conclusion: PDK1-Akt signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of HCN4 ion channel transcription, expression and function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels , Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction
18.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(1): 29-36, abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003635

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Antecedentes: La muerte de los cardiomiocitos es determinante en el desarrollo de patologías cardiacas posteriores al infarto del miocardio y la insuficiencia cardiaca. Las variaciones en la expresión de la familia de proteínas BCL-2 regulan vías, tanto de muerte, como de sobrevida celular. Así, BCL-2 es una proteína anti- apoptótica y NIX una proteína que induce la necrosis y/o la apoptosis celular. La Policistina-1 (PC1) es un mecanosensor vital para la función contráctil cardiaca; sin embargo, se desconoce su papel en la sobrevida de los cardiomiocitos durante el estrés mecánico. Objetivo: Determinar si PC-1 previene la muerte de los cardiomiocitos inducida por estrés mecánico y las proteínas BCL-2 y NIX. Métodos: Se utilizó cultivo de cardiomiocitos de ratas neonatas controles o deficientes en la expresión de PC1, estimulados con solución hiposmótica (HS), como modelo de estrés mecánico. Se midió la muerte por necrosis y apoptosis y los niveles de BCL-2 y NIX. Resultados: La deficiencia de la PC1 en los cardiomiocitos induce un aumento de la necrosis y los niveles proteicos de NIX en las células estimuladas con HS. El estrés mecánico induce la apoptosis basal relacionada a una disminución de BCL- 2, independiente de la expresión de la PC1. Conclusiones: La PC1 protege a los cardiomiocitos de la necrosis por estrés mecánico, lo que podría deberse en parte a su papel en la regulación de los niveles de las proteínas NIX.


Abstracts: Background: Cardiomyocytes death is a determining factor in the development of cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction and heart failure. The change in BCL-2 family protein expression regulates both cell death and survival pathways, whereas BCL-2 is an anti-apoptotic protein and NIX induces necrosis and/or apoptosis. Polycystin-1 (PC1) is a crucial mechanosensor for cardiac contractile function. However, its role in cardiomyocyte survival during mechanical stress is unknown. Aim: To study the relationship of PC1 with mechanical stretch-death in cardiomyocytes and the BCL-2, and NIX proteins. Methods. Controls or deficient expression of PC1 neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were stimulated with hypoosmotic solution (HS) and used as a model of mechanical stress. Necrosis or apoptosis cell death, BCL-2 and NIX protein levels were measured. Results: Deficient expression of PC1 increases cardiomyocyte necrosis and NIX protein levels in cells stimulated with HS. Mechanical stress induces basal apoptosis related to a decrease in BCL-2, independent of PC1 expression. Conclusion: PC1 protects cardiomyocytes from mechanical stress necrosis, at least in part, by regulating NIX protein levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , TRPP Cation Channels/metabolism , Necrosis/prevention & control , Stress, Mechanical , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis , Flow Cytometry , Membrane Proteins/metabolism
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(12): e8834, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055472

ABSTRACT

Polydatin (PD), a monocrystalline polyphenolic drug mainly found in the roots of Polygonum cuspidatum, has various pharmacological activities. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 5 (DGCR5) was found to participate in the suppression of multiple cancers. Here, we proposed to study the effect of PD on myocardial infarction (MI) by inducing DGCR5. CCK-8 assay was performed to detect the viability of H9c2 cells. Flow cytometry was utilized to test apoptosis of H9c2 cells. These results determined the optimal concentration and effect time of hypoxia as well as PD. Si-DGCR5 was transfected into cells and the expression level was determined by qRT-PCR. Western blot was utilized to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, Bcl-2, Bax, and cleaved-caspase-3, as well as autophagy-associated proteins including Beclin-1, p62, and LC3-II/LC3-I. As a result, PD efficiently attenuated hypoxia-induced apoptosis and autophagy in H9c2 cells. The expression of DGCR5 was down-regulated by hypoxia and up-regulated by PD. Besides, knocking-down the expression of DGCR5 inhibited the protection of PD in H9c2 cells. In addition, PD up-regulated the accumulation of DGCR5, DGCR5 decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and p62, raised the expression of Bax and cleaved-caspase-3, and the proportion of LC3-II/LC3-I. PD stimulated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MEK/ERK signaling pathways via up-regulating the expression of DGCR5. Our data demonstrated that PD reduced cell apoptosis and autophagy induced by hypoxia in cardiomyocytes. Moreover, PD activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MEK/ERK signaling pathways by up-regulating the expression of DGCR5.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Cell Hypoxia/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , RNA, Long Noncoding/drug effects , Glucosides/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Cell Line , Cytoprotection , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(7): e8732, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011598

ABSTRACT

Inflammation plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), suggesting that the immune system is a target of therapeutic interventions used for treating CVDs. This study evaluated mechanisms underlying inflammatory response and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy associated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or heat shock protein 60 (HSP60)-induced Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation and the effect of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II delta B (CaMKIIδB) on these outcomes. Our results showed that treatment with HSP60 or LPS (TLR agonists) induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and complement system C3 and factor B gene expression. In vitro silencing of CaMKIIδB prevented complement gene transcription and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy associated with TLR 2/4 activation but did not prevent the increase in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alfa gene expression in primary cultured cardiomyocytes. Moreover, CaMKIIδB silencing attenuated nuclear factor-kappa B expression. These findings supported the hypothesis that CaMKIIδB acts as a link between inflammation and cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, the present study is the first to show that extracellular HSP60 activated complement gene expression through CaMKIIδB. Our results indicated that a stress stimulus induced by LPS or HSP60 treatment promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and initiated an inflammatory response through the complement system. However, CaMKIIδB silencing prevented the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy independent of inflammatory response induced by LPS or HSP60 treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Gene Expression , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Chaperonin 60/pharmacology , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Inflammation/metabolism
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