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1.
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 22-32, 13 oct. 2021. tab, Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342177

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: mejorar la independencia funcional de los pacientes con enfermedad vascular cerebral (EVC) es uno de los objetivos que se plantean los equipos de rehabilitación física y cognitiva. Uno de los modelos que podría dar respuesta a este objetivo es el entrenamiento cognitivo de la memoria de trabajo (MT). Aunque esta estrategia se viene estudiando desde hace 20 años, aún es necesario realizar un estudio de revisión sistemática que permita conocer con claridad los efectos del entrenamiento cognitivo computarizado de la MT en el funcionamiento de la vida diaria en pacientes con EVC isquémica. Metodología: para ello, se creó una ecuación de búsqueda para aplicar en la base de datos Web of Science (WoS), en el rango temporal desde enero de 2010 a enero de 2019. Posteriormente, se realiza un análisis bibliométrico con el objetivo de identificar los autores y revistas más importantes sobre el tema de investigación. Finalmente, el reporte cronológico identifica la evolución y avances del impacto de los entrenamientos de la memoria de trabajo en la EVC. Resultados: se encontraron tres enfoques relacionados con: efectos de un programa de realidad virtual en las actividades de la vida diaria, efectos del entrenamiento de la MT en la plasticidad cerebral y efectos del entrenamiento cognitivo de la MT en las actividades de la vida diaria. Conclusión: se ha propuesto el desempeño cognitivo como uno de los componentes más importantes del funcionamiento en la vida diaria, particularmente la MT como mediador entre los programas de entrenamiento cognitivo y las habilidades funcionales. Los entrenamientos cognitivos reducen el deterioro cognitivo y el riesgo de demencia. Sin embargo, los beneficios de un entrenamiento cognitivo se limitan a dominios muy similares a los entrenados (transferencia cercana, más que lejana).


Objective: improving functional independence of patients with cerebrovascular disease has become one of the main goals for physical and cognitive rehabilitation teams. A well-known framework that addresses this issue is Working Memory Training. Although this model has been studied for more than twenty years, a systematic review on the effects of Working Memory Training after ischemic stroke and its impact on everyday functioning is still needed. Methodology: thus, a search equation has been proposed on Web of Science database from January 2010 to January 2019. Then, a bibliometric analysis presents the most important authors and journals in the research topic. Finally, a chronological report shows advanced research lines and effects of Working Memory Training in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Results:these findings showed 3 approaches related to the following: effects of virtual reality-based programs on everyday functioning, effects of Working Memory Training on brain plasticity, and effects of Working Memory Training on everyday life. Conclusion: cognitive performance has been proposed to be one of the most important components of functioning in daily life. Working Memory has been shown to strongly mediate between cognitive training and functional abilities. Cognitive training is asso-ciated with less cognitive decline and reduced risk of dementia. However, the benefits from cognitive training may be limited to highly similar domains (close transfer rather than far transfer).


Introdução: melhorar a independência funcional do paciente com doença cerebrovas-cular (DCV) é um dos objetivos traçados pelas equipes de reabilitação física e cognitiva. Um dos modelos que poderia responder a esse objetivo é o treinamento cognitivo da memória de trabalho (MT).Objetivo: embora essa estratégia seja estudada há 20 anos, ainda é necessário realizar um estudo de revisão sistemática que nos permita conhecer claramente os efeitos do treinamento cognitivo computadorizado da MT no funcionamento da vida diária em pacientes com DCV isquêmica.Metodologia: para isso, foi criada uma equação de busca a ser aplicada na base de dados Web of Science (WoS), no período de janeiro de 2010 a janeiro de 2019. Pos-teriormente, é realizada uma análise bibliométrica a fim de identificar os autores mais importantes e periódicos sobre o tema de pesquisa. Por fim, o relatório cronológico identifica a evolução e a evolução do impacto do treino da memória de trabalho no CVS.Resultados: foram encontradas três abordagens relacionadas a: efeitos de um programa de realidade virtual nas atividades da vida diária, efeitos do treinamento da MT na plas-ticidade cerebral e efeitos do treinamento cognitivo da MT nas atividades da vida diária.Conclusão: o desempenho cognitivo tem sido proposto como um dos componentes mais importantes do funcionamento na vida diária, particularmente a MT como media-dor entre programas de treinamento cognitivo e habilidades funcionais. O treinamento cognitivo reduz o declínio cognitivo e o risco de demência. No entanto, os benefícios do treinamento cognitivo são limitados a domínios muito semelhantes aos treinados (transferência próxima, em vez de distante).


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Activities of Daily Living , Cognitive Dysfunction , Virtual Reality , Ischemic Stroke , Functional Status , Neuronal Plasticity
2.
Salud bienestar colect ; 5(1): 90-104, ene.-abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352374

ABSTRACT

La actividad de jugar es importante dentro del desarrollo humano, mientras se juega, se ponen en práctica distintas habilidades cognitivas en interacción con el funcionamiento de sistemas sensoriales y el sistema motor del cuerpo, lo cual se asocia a la construcción de aprendizajes. Jugar es una actividad que facilita comprender cómo es el mundo y cómo nos integramos en él. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo desarrollar una reflexión sobre la relación del juego con la plasticidad cerebral y el desarrollo de habilidades cognitivas. La hipótesis se centra en destacar el juego como una actividad que estimula la plasticidad cerebral y facilita el fortalecimiento de las habilidades cognitivas en todas las etapas del ciclo vital (no exclusivamente en la infancia). La guía de la cavilación consistió en una revisión del concepto de juego relacionado con conceptos de aprovechamiento de la plasticidad cerebral y estimulación de habilidades mentales. El propósito que ha orientado el artículo es convocar a la reflexión sobre la concepción y práctica del juego, con la intención de sumar a posicionar la actividad de jugar como una estrategia valiosa en los procesos de aprendizaje. El interés de los resultados se centra en dar sustento teórico a la acción de promover cada vez más la inclusión del juego en las intervenciones profesionales, en los procesos educativos y en las actividades de la vida cotidiana. La conclusión a la que se llega es que jugar resulta una excelente estrategia para facilitar la expresión de la plasticidad cerebral y las habilidades cognitivas.


The activity of playing is important within human development, while playing, different cognitive skills are put into practice in interaction with the functioning of sensory systems and the body's motor system, which is associated with the construction of learning. Playing is an activity thatmakes it easier to understand what the world is like and how we integrate ourselves into it. The present article aims to develop a reflection on the relationship between play and brain plasticity and the development of cognitive abilities. The hypothesis focuses on highlighting play as an activity that stimulates brain plasticity and facilitates the strengthening of cognitive abilities at all stages of the life cycle (not exclusively in childhood). The musing guide consisted of a review of the concept of play related to concepts of making use of brain plasticity and stimulating mental abilities. The purpose of the article is to call for reflection on the conception and practice of the game, with the intention of adding to position the activity of playing as a valuable strategy in the learning processes. The interest of the results is centered on giving theoretical support to the action of increasingly promoting the inclusion of the game in professional interventions, in educational processes and in activities of daily life. The conclusion reached is that playing is an excellent strategy to facilitate the expression of brain plasticity and cognitive abilities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain/physiology , Cognition , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology , Play and Playthings/psychology
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1645-1657, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922643

ABSTRACT

Steroid hormones play important roles in brain development and function. The signaling of steroid hormones depends on the interaction between steroid receptors and their coactivators. Although the function of steroid receptor coactivators has been extensively studied in other tissues, their functions in the central nervous system are less well investigated. In this study, we addressed the function of steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC3) - a member of the p160 SRC protein family that is expressed predominantly in the hippocampus. While hippocampal development was not altered in Src3


Subject(s)
Animals , Hippocampus , Long-Term Potentiation , Mice , Neuronal Plasticity , Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 3/genetics , Synapses
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888239

ABSTRACT

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a noninvasive neuromodulation technique can improve the impairment of learning and memory caused by diseases, and the regulation of learning and memory depends on synaptic plasticity. TMS can affect plasticity of brain synaptic. This paper reviews the effects of TMS on synaptic plasticity from two aspects of structural and functional plasticity, and further reveals the mechanism of TMS from synaptic vesicles, neurotransmitters, synaptic associated proteins, brain derived neurotrophic factor and related pathways. Finally, it is found that TMS could affect neuronal morphology, glutamate receptor and neurotransmitter, and regulate the expression of synaptic associated proteins through the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor, thus affecting the learning and memory function. This paper reviews the effects of TMS on learning, memory and plasticity of brain synaptic, which provides a reference for the study of the mechanism of TMS.


Subject(s)
Brain , Humans , Learning , Neuronal Plasticity , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879412

ABSTRACT

Perineuronal nets (PNNs) is a complex network composed of highly condensed extracellular matrix molecules surrounding neurons. It plays an important role in maintaining the performance of neurons and protecting them from harmful substances. However, after spinal cord injury, PNNs forms a physical barrier that surrounds the neuron and limits neuroplasticity, impedes axonal regeneration and myelin formation, and promotes local neuroinflammatory uptake. This paper mainly describes the composition and function of PNNs of neurons and its regulatory effects on axonal regeneration, myelin formation and neuroinflammation after spinal cord injury.


Subject(s)
Axons , Extracellular Matrix , Humans , Nerve Regeneration , Neuronal Plasticity , Neurons , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879023

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect of Baihe Dihuang Decoction on the synaptic plasticity of hippocampal neurons in rats with anxious depression. Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, venlafaxine group(6.75 mg·kg~(-1)), high-dose Baihe Dihuang Decoction group(8.64 g·kg~(-1)) and low-dose Baihe Dihuang Decoction group(4.32 g·kg~(-1)). Chronic restraint stress(6 h) combined with corticosterone(ih, 30 mg·kg~(-1)) was used to establish an anxious depression model, and 7 days after modeling, the administration started and continued for 21 days. The anxiety and depression-like behaviors of the rats were evaluated. Golgi-Cox staining and electron microscopy were used to observe the morphology and ultrastructural changes of synaptic dendrites. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the expression of hippocampal synaptic plasticity protein synapsin-1 and postsynaptic density protein 95(PSD-95). Western blot method was used to detect the expression of functional protein synaptophysin(SYP) and synaptic Ras GTPase activating protein(SynGap). The results showed that the rats in the model group had obvious anxiety and depression-like behaviors, the hip-pocampal dendritic spine density and branch length were reduced, the number of synapses was cut, and the internal structure was da-maged. The average fluorescence intensity of synapsin-1 and PSD-95 was significantly reduced and the expression of SYP and SynGap also decreased. High-dose Baihe Dihuang Decoction could significantly improve the anxiety and depression-like behaviors of model rats, relieve synaptic damage, and increase the expression of synapsin-1, PSD-95, SYP, and SynGap proteins. Therefore, we believe that Baihe Dihuang Decoction can improve anxiety and depression behaviors by regulating the synaptic plasticity of hippocampal neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Depression/drug therapy , Hippocampus , Neuronal Plasticity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Synapses
7.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 26: e2517, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350156

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo do trabalho foi criar um protocolo de treinamento auditivo e cognitivo para idosos e analisar a sua eficácia. O estudo foi realizado em três etapas: (1) seleção de materiais, compreendendo materiais existentes e outros confeccionados pelos autores; (2) análise de juízes especialistas, para consenso quanto às habilidades avaliadas e tipo de treinamento; (3) aplicação do protocolo em um caso clínico, com realização de uma bateria de testes para avaliação pré e pós-intervenção, consistindo em avaliação cognitiva e auditiva (comportamental e eletrofisiológica). Foi possível a estruturação do protocolo de acordo com as sugestões das juízas especialistas, o que gerou uma nova proposta de treinamento auditivo e cognitivo com 39 tarefas, dispostas em seis sessões. Com a aplicação do protocolo no caso clínico, observaram-se modificações positivas nos dois aspectos treinados. A nova proposta terapêutica foi concluída e aplicada. O sujeito do caso clínico obteve melhoras pós-intervenção e a eficácia foi verificada por meio dos testes comportamentais de processamento auditivo central, de rastreio cognitivo e do potencial evocado auditivo de longa latência.


ABSTRACT The objective of the work was create an auditory and cognitive training protocol for the elderly and to analyze its effectiveness. This study was carried out in three stages: (1) Selection of materials, composed of existing materials and others made by the authors, (2) Analysis of expert judges, for consensus regarding the assessed skills and type of training, and (3) Application of the protocol in a clinical case, with a battery of tests for pre-and post-intervention, composed of cognitive and auditory assessment (behavioral and electrophysiological). It was possible to structure the protocol according to the suggestions of the expert judges, which generated a new proposal for auditory and cognitive training with 39 tasks arranged in six sessions. With the application of the protocol in the clinical case, it was possible to observe positive changes in both trained aspects. The new therapeutic proposal has been completed and applied. The clinical case has shown improvement after the intervention, and the effectiveness was verified through behavioral tests of central auditory processing, cognitive screening, and long-latent auditory evoked potential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Auditory Perception , Speech Perception , Hearing Tests , Neuropsychological Tests , Evoked Potentials, Auditory , Neuronal Plasticity
8.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3486, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1347601

ABSTRACT

Objective: to develop an integrative learning program for people with dementia. Method: a methodological study was conducted using Delphi technique to develop the learning program, followed by a feasibility test. An expert panel was invited to develop the integrative learning program based on the neuroplasticity and learning framework. A feasibility test was conducted to evaluate the implementation of the program in two centers after the training of personnel who run the program. Verbatim transcripts of case conferences were coded, analyzed, and collapsed into themes and sub-themes by consensus. Results: there was no indication for content modification during the period of program implementation. Qualitatively, the participating older adults showed improvement in communications, emotions, connectedness with self and others, and well-being. Conclusion: the integrative learning program was uneventfully implemented with promising results. The program is ready for full-scale research on its efficacy in multiple centers to obtain more robust evidence.


Objetivo: desarrollar un programa de aprendizaje integrador para personas con demencia. Método: se realizó un estudio metodológico empleando la técnica Delphi para desarrollar el programa de aprendizaje, seguida de una prueba de viabilidad. Se invitó a un panel de expertos a que desarrollara el programa de aprendizaje integrador sobre la base del marco de la neuroplasticidad y el aprendizaje. Se realizó una prueba de viabilidad para evaluar la implementación del programa en dos centros después de haber capacitado al personal que dirige el programa. Las transcripciones literales de los debates de casos se codificaron, analizaron y resumieron en temas y subtemas por medio de consenso. Resultados: no hubo ninguna indicación para modificar el contenido durante el período de implementación del programa. En forma cualitativa, los adultos mayores que participaron del programa evidenciaron mejoras en la comunicación, las emociones, la capacidad de conexión con ellos mismos y con los demás y el bienestar. Conclusión: el programa de aprendizaje integrador se implementó sin inconvenientes con resultados prometedores. El programa es apto para ser sometido a una investigación a gran escala con respecto a su eficacia en varios centros para obtener evidencia más sólida.


Objetivo: desenvolver um programa de aprendizagem integrativa para pessoas com demência. Método: foi realizado um estudo metodológico com a técnica Delphi para desenvolver o programa de aprendizagem, seguido de um teste de viabilidade. Um grupo de especialistas foi convidado para desenvolver o programa de aprendizagem integrativa com base no framework da neuroplasticidade e da aprendizagem. Um teste de viabilidade foi realizado para avaliar a implementação do programa em dois centros após treinamento do pessoal que dirige o programa. Transcrições literais de conferências de casos foram codificadas, analisadas e agrupadas em temas e subtemas por consenso. Resultados: não houve indicação de modificação de conteúdo durante o período de implementação do programa. Qualitativamente, os idosos participantes apresentaram melhora nas comunicações, emoções, conexão consigo e com os outros e bem-estar. Conclusão: o programa de aprendizagem integrativa foi implementado sem intercorrências com resultados promissores. O programa está adequado para ser submetido a pesquisas em grande escala relacionadas com sua eficácia em vários centros a fim de obter evidências mais robustas.


Subject(s)
Psychiatric Nursing , Nursing Methodology Research , Delphi Technique , Communication , Community Health Services , Dementia , Learning , Neuronal Plasticity
9.
CoDAS ; 33(4): e20200145, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286119

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar os achados dos Potenciais Evocados Auditivos de Longa Latência (PEALL) em crianças com Transtorno dos Sons na Fala (TSF) após terapia fonoaudiológica. Método Estudo clínico longitudinal e prospectivo em um grupo de 14 crianças com TSF, de cinco a sete anos de idade, de ambos os sexos. Foram aplicadas as provas de Nomeação de Figuras e Imitação de palavras, para as quais foi calculado o índice de gravidade Porcentagem de Consoantes Corretas. Foram registrados os PEALL com estímulo de fala e foram analisados os valores de latência e amplitude dos componentes P1, N1, P2, N2 e P3. Cada criança foi avaliada em dois diferentes momentos: avaliação inicial e após 12 sessões de terapia fonoaudiológica. Resultados Os resultados mostraram que após terapia fonoaudiológica, o valor do índice de gravidade Porcentagem de Consoantes Corretas aumentou e um maior número de componentes foi observado nos registros dos PEALL nas crianças com TSF. Também foi observado um aumento estatisticamente significativo na amplitude do componente P3, demostrando que modificações anatomofisiológicas ocorreram no sistema nervoso auditivo central após intervenção, proporcionando melhora nos resultados dos PEALL. Conclusão Após terapia fonoaudiológica, foi observada melhora no desempenho fonológico das crianças, aumento no número de componentes presentes nos PEALL, bem como aumento na amplitude do componente P3, demonstrando que ocorreu plasticidade na via auditiva após um curto período de intervenção fonoaudiológica.


Abstract Purpose To analyze the results of Long-latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (LLAEP) in children with Speech Sounds Disorder (SSD) after speech therapy. Methods Longitudinal and prospective clinical study at 14 children with SSD, with ages ranging from five to seven years, of both genders. Were applied Picture Naming task and Imitation task, and from these tasks it was calculated the Percentage of Consonants Correct index. For an analysis of the LLAEP with speech stimulus and recorded the latency and amplitude values ​​of P1, N1, P2, N2 and P3 components. Each child was evaluated in two different moments: initial evaluation and after 12 sessions of speech therapy. Results It was observed that after twelve sessions of speech therapy the value of Percentage of Consonants Correct index increased, and a greater number of components were observed in the LLAEP records of children with SSD, as well as a statistically significant increase in the amplitude of the P3 component, demonstrating that anatomical and physiological changes occurred in the central auditory nervous system after intervention, resulting in improved of the LLAEP results. Conclusion After speech therapy, improvement in the children's phonology was observed, and there was an increase in the number of components present in the LLAEP, as well as an increase in the amplitude of the P3 component, demonstrating that plasticity occurred in the auditory pathway during these three months of therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Auditory Pathways , Speech Sound Disorder , Prospective Studies , Evoked Potentials, Auditory , Neuronal Plasticity
10.
Med. U.P.B ; 39(2): 49-55, 21/10/2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123581

ABSTRACT

La aparición progresiva de habilidades sensoriales, motoras y cognitivo-afectivas en el humano a lo largo de su desarrollo es un reflejo de cambios fisiológicos que se gestan al interior del sistema nervioso. Dichos cambios hacen parte de procesos dinámicos y dependen, después del nacimiento, de la actividad eléctrica inducida por la experiencia. Considerando lo anterior, el sistema nervioso en desarrollo constituye una especie de protomapa, sobre el que la experiencia moldea características moleculares, neuroquímicas y de conectividad, que se reflejan en las actividades emergentes del sistema. La evidencia que soporta la importancia que la influencia experiencial tiene sobre el desarrollo del sistema nervioso viene en aumento. Esta revisión reúne información sobre estudios en modelos biológicos y en humanos sometidos a privación sensorial y ambiental. Se enfatiza en la caracterización de los rasgos cognitivos y sociales.


The progressive advent of sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive skills in the human being through its development, demonstrate physiological changes that are gestated within the nervous system. These processes are dynamic and dependent postnatally on electrical activity induced by experience. Taking this into account, the developing nervous system constitutes a protomap molded by experience dependent molecular, physiological and connectivity characteristics, which are reflected in the emergent principles of the system. The evidence that supports the importance of experience as influence over the development of this system has increased in the past years. This document gathers information about animal models and human studies enduring sensory and environmental deprivation, emphasizing in the characterization of their cognitive and social remarks.


O aparecimento progressivo de habilidades sensoriais, motoras e cognitivo-afetivas no humano ao longo do seu desenvolvimento é um reflexo de mudanças fisiológicas que se gestam no interior do sistema nervoso. Ditas mudanças fazem parte de processos dinâmicos e dependem, depois do nascimento, da atividade elétrica induzida pela experiência. Considerando o anterior, o sistema nervoso em desenvolvimento constitui uma espécie de "protomapa", sobre o que a experiência molda características moleculares, neuroquímicas e de conectividade, que se refletem nas atividades emergentes do sistema. A evidência que suporta a importância que a influência experiencial tem sobre o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso vem em aumento. Esta revisão reúne informação sobre estudos em modelos biológicos e em humanos submetidos a privação sensorial e ambiental. Se enfatiza na caracterização das características cognitivas e sociais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Reflex , Sensory Deprivation , Synapses , Cognition , Models, Animal , Growth and Development , Models, Biological , Nervous System , Neuronal Plasticity
11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.2): 41-46, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125105

ABSTRACT

Este artículo presenta brevemente los antecedentes teóricos y prácticos de Integración Sensorial de Ayres (ASI, Ayres Sensory Integration) y su aplicación en el trastorno del espectro autista (TEA). Se revisan críticas históricas sobre la evidencia de ASI como intervención terapéutica y se presenta evidencia contemporánea. Según estándares establecidos por el Consejo para Niños Excepcionales (CEC, Council for Exceptional Children), organismo internacional que desarrolla criterios para categorizar prácticas basadas en la evidencia, ASI es una práctica basada en la evidencia.


This article briefly presents the theoretical and practical background of Ayres Sensory Integration (ASI) and its application in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Historical criticisms on the evidence of ASI as a therapeutic intervention are reviewed and contemporary evidence is presented. According to standards established by the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), an international organization that develops criteria for categorizing evidence-based practices, ASI is an evidence-based practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Occupational Therapy/methods , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Social Integration , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Evidence-Based Medicine , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(11): e9816, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132487

ABSTRACT

Clinical studies show that physical exercise has anxiolytic and pro-cognitive properties for both healthy individuals and psychiatric patients. Most of these data refer to the effects of aerobic exercise. However, other modalities such as resistance exercise deserve more attention because they may also modulate brain function. This study aimed to compare the effects of an aerobic exercise protocol on a treadmill and a resistance exercise protocol on a ladder apparatus on anxiety-like behavior, cognitive flexibility, and neuroplasticity parameters in healthy animals. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sedentary control, aerobic training, and resistance training. Subsequently, they were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze (EPM), light-dark box, and modified hole board (mHB) tests. The expressions of synaptophysin and postsynaptic plasticity protein 95 in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus were analyzed by immunofluorescence. The results demonstrated an anxiolytic effect promoted by exercise in the EPM, particularly in the animals submitted to aerobic training, and a mild pro-learning effect of both exercise modalities was observed in the mHB test. All groups showed similar outcomes in the other evaluations. Therefore, the exercise modalities investigated in the present study did not provide considerable modifications to such aspects of the emotional/cognitive functions and neuroplasticity under physiological contexts. Perhaps the two types of exercise acted in neurobiological pathways not analyzed in this study, or the effects may emerge under pathological contexts. These hypotheses should be tested in future studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Resistance Training , Anxiety , Rats, Wistar , Cognition , Hippocampus , Neuronal Plasticity
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 220-226, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827066

ABSTRACT

Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are a type of membrane surface glycoproteins that mediate the structural and functional interactions between pre- and post-synaptic sites. Synaptic CAMs dynamically regulate synaptic activity and plasticity, and their expression and function are modulated by environmental factors. Synaptic CAMs are also important effector molecules of stress response, and mediate the adverse impact of stress on cognition and emotion. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on the role of synaptic CAMs in stress, and aim to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms and drug development of stress-related disorders.


Subject(s)
Cell Adhesion , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Physiology , Humans , Neuronal Plasticity , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological , Synapses
14.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 399-406, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827048

ABSTRACT

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide coded by the calcitonin gene and divided into α and β subtypes. CGRP is widely distributed throughout the human body and highly expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system. Studies have shown that CGRP plays a role in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological activities, such as the formation and transmission of nociceptive signal, as well as the regulation of cardiovascular function. Recently, more and more researches have shown that CGRP is involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, cognitive function and learning memory in the central nervous system. This paper reviews the role of CGRP in regulation of synaptic plasticity and process of emotional memory, hoping to provide a new molecular target and theoretical basis for clinical treatment of neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Calcitonin , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Central Nervous System , Humans , Memory , Neuronal Plasticity
15.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 31(1): 11-24, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102451

ABSTRACT

Visual rehabilitation in people with irreversible Low Vision (LV) aims to optimize the use of remaining vision to execute visual tasks. Conventional rehabilitation exploits the visual potential through training using the remaining visual function, with or without visual aids, to improve performance on specific tasks. However, there is no consensus about the impact of this approach in the long term and on the quality of life of patients. On the other hand, visual neuro-rehabilitation has long-term advantages that can be complementary to conventional strategies and is based on the generation of scotoma awareness and training in the systematic use of extrafoveal regions for fixation and for use as oculomotor reference. These regions called preferred retinal loci (PRL) are established spontaneously in the peripheral retina that still retain visual function and constitute evidence of a high degree of plasticity of the visual system. There is wide evidence of the efficacy of visual neuro-rehabilitation strategies on performance in specific visual tasks, but their impact on the overall visual performance and quality of life of patients is still pending. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vision, Low/rehabilitation , Vision, Low/therapy , Neuronal Plasticity , Vision Disorders/rehabilitation
16.
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 46, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130794

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Chronic low back pain (CLBP) represents a problem in the occupational environment, often associated with disability, sick-leave demands, loss of productivity, anxiety, depression and high socioeconomic cost. The emergence of functional neuroimaging allowed new insights into brain structure and physiology in normality and chronic pain. While occupational related aspects are recognized as important risk factors for chronicity there have not been thus far evaluated by fMRI experiments. The overall objective of this study is to compare the neuronal correlates between groups of individuals CLBP with or without sick-leave demands. Methods A total of 74 individuals were divided into three groups: chronic low back pain with sick-leave demands [CLBP_L]; chronic low back pain without sick-leave demands [CLBP_NL]; individuals without pain or sick-leave demands [Control]. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess brain function during moderate acute pain stimulation task (thumb controlled pressure). Results After acute painful stimulation, a higher brain response was found in the anterior cingulate and superior and medium frontal gyrus was observed in CLBP_NL vs. CLBP_L ( p < 0,001) and increased brain response in the frontal pole and paracingulate region in control vs. CLBP_L ( p < 0.001) during acute pain stimulation. Conclusion The modulation of acute pain participates in the mechanism propagating chronic pain perception. The lower activation in the superior frontal gyrus observed in the CLBP_L group compared to CLBP_NL, reinforces the idea of an already existing activation in this area.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Low Back Pain/complications , Sick Leave , Functional Neuroimaging/instrumentation , Neuronal Plasticity
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180453, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132256

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 different fluences of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in intermediate period of spinal cord repair using an experimental model in rats. Thirty two rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups: Control Group (CG); Laser treated group 500 J/cm² (L-500); Laser treated group 750 J/cm² (L-750) and Laser treated group 1000 J/cm² (L-1000). Spinal cord injury (SCI) was performed by an impactor equipment (between 9th and 10th thoracic vertebrae), with a pressure of 150 kdyn. Afterwards, the injured region was irradiated daily for 14 consecutive sessions, using an 808 nm laser, at the respective fluence of each experimental groups. Locomotor function and tactile sensitivity were performed on days 1 and 15 post-surgery. Animals were euthanized 15 days post-surgery and samples were retrieved for histological and immunohistochemistry analysis. Functional behavior and tactile sensitivity were improved after laser irradiation. Moreover, higher fluencies of LLLT reduced the volume of injury. Additionally, LLLT produced a decreased CD-68 expression. These results demonstrated that, for an intermediate period of SCI repair, LLLT at higher fluences, was effective in promoting functional recovery and modulating the inflammatory process in the spinal cord of rats after traumatic SCI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Neuronal Plasticity , Spinal Cord Injuries/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190113, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132164

ABSTRACT

Abstract Norepinephrine in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a pivotal role in mediating the effects of stress on memory functions in the hippocampus, however, the functional contribution of β1-adrenergic receptors on the BLA inputs to the CA1 region of hippocampus and memory function are not well understood. In the present study the role of β1-adrenoreceptor in the BLA on memory, neuronal arborization and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampus was examined by infusion the β1-adrenoreceptor agonist (Dobutamine; 0.5µl/side) or antagonist (Atenolol; 0.25µL/side) bilaterally into the BLA before foot-shock stress. Passive avoidance test results showed that Step-through latency time was significantly decreased in the stress group rats one, four and seven days after the stress, which intra-BLA injection of Atenolol or Dobutamine before stress couldn't attenuate this reduction. Barnes-maze results revealed that infusion of Dobutamine and Atenolol significantly reduced spatial memory indicators such as increased latency time, the number of errors and the distance traveling to achieve the target hole in the stress group. These learning impairments in stress rats correlated with a reduction of LTP in hippocampal CA1 synapses in-vivo, which infusion of Dobutamine and Atenolol couldn't attenuate the population spike amplitude and mean-field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) slope reduction induced by stress. Also, the Golgi-Cox staining demonstrated that infusion of Atenolol attenuated stress decreased CA1 region dendritic and axonal arborization. These results suggest that β1-adrenergic receptors activation or block seem to exacerbate stress-induced hippocampal memory deficits and this effect is independent of CA1 LTP modulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Stress, Physiological/drug effects , Norepinephrine/metabolism , Dobutamine/pharmacology , CA1 Region, Hippocampal/drug effects , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Basolateral Nuclear Complex/drug effects , Neuronal Plasticity/drug effects , Rats, Inbred BB , Hippocampus/drug effects
19.
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 18: 1-9, nov. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095113

ABSTRACT

Mayor reserva se asocia con resistencia al deterioro en sujetos con enfermedades neurodegenerativas. En personas sanas explica las diferencias interindividuales en el rendimiento de tareas. Medir los factores de reserva cognitiva permite contar con un índice numérico de la ganancia cognitiva acumulada por un sujeto. Este índice puede ser correlacionado con otras funciones cuantificables. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar los índices de reserva obtenidos por una población chilena en la aplicación del Cognitive Reserve Index Questionnaire (CRIq). Para ello 90 adultos (18-85 años) sin evidencias de trastorno cognitivo, de la región de Valparaíso-Chile, fueron entrevistados sobre actividades de estudio, laborales y de tiempo libre ejecutadas desde los 18 años.Los resultados muestran que los índices de reserva de los sujetos varían en función del tiempo de ejecución de actividades promotoras de reserva y no por su edad. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos etarios. Estos resultados permiten concluir que la ejecución de actividades de estudio, laborales, sociales, entre otras aumenta los índices de reserva cognitiva, que es una variable diferenciadora entre individuos. La medición de dichos índices puede ser útil en un amplio campo de disciplinas (medicina, neurología, neuropsicología, educación, psicología, fonoaudiología, neurociencias y en las ciencias cognitivas en general).


A higher cognitive reserve is linked to higher resistance to deterioration among subjects suffering from neurodegenerative disorders. In healthy persons the cognitive reserve explains inter-individual differences in task performance. Measuring the cognitive reserve factors involves obtaining a numerical index of the cumulative cognitive gain accumulated by a subject. This index can be correlated with other measurable functions.This study was conceived to determine the reserve indexes accumulated by a Chilean sample, by means of the administration of the Cognitive Reserve Index Questionnaire (CRIq).In order to do so, 90 adults (18-85 years old) without evidence of cognitive disorder, living in Valparaíso region, Chile, were interviewed about their education, their work environment and their and leisure activities carried out since they were 18 years old.Results showed that reserve indexes of the subjects vary as a function of the time of execution of reserve-promoting activities, not age. Statistically significant differences were found among age-groups. These findings allow us to conclude that studying, working and engaging in social activities, among other things, increase the cognitive reserve indexes, which are a differentiating variable among individuals.The measurement of these indexes can be useful in a wide array of disciplines: medicine, neurology, neuropsychology, education, psychology, phonoaudiology, neurosciences and cognitive sciences in general.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Cognitive Reserve/physiology , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology , Chile , Surveys and Questionnaires , Age Distribution
20.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(5): 478-484, oct. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058173

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El Trastorno del Espectro Autista (TEA) es una alteración del neurodesarollo que afecta las áreas de comunicación social y conducta, las cuales se manifiestan de manera heterogénea en cada niño y con una amplia gama de niveles de funcionalidad. En la última década se han hecho avances significativos en la detección temprana de señales de riesgo, favoreciendo la realización de diagnósticos precoz. Esto ha permitido el acceso a intervenciones que capitalizan la neuroplasticidad de esta etapa del desarrollo, planteando la posibilidad de mitigar la completa manifestación del trastorno. Los objetivos de esta actualización son revisar herramientas de diagnóstico precoz y modelos de intervención temprana, y analizar cómo implementar intervenciones basadas en la evidencia en un contexto sanitario de un país como Chile.


Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects the social commu nication and behavior areas. Its symptomatology display heterogeneity and a wide range of functio nality levels in each child. In the last decade, significant advances have been made in the early detec tion of risk signs, favoring early diagnosis. This has allowed access to interventions that capitalize neuroplasticity of this stage of development, raising the possibility of mitigating the full manifesta tion of the disorder. The objective of this update is to review early diagnostic tools and early inter vention models and to analyze how to implement evidence-based interventions in a health context in a country like Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology , Chile , Early Diagnosis , Autism Spectrum Disorder/physiopathology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy
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