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Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e231137, Jan.-Dec. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1523140


The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the influence of nicotine on the extracellular polysaccharides in Fusobacterium nucleatum biofilm. Methods: F. nucleatum (ATCC 10953) biofilms supplemented with different concentrations of nicotine (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/mL) were grown in two different BHI broth conditions [no sucrose and 1% sucrose]. Extracellular polysaccharides assay, pH measurements, and a spectrophotometric assay were performed. Data were submitted for ANOVA and Tukey honestly significant difference analyses (HSD) tests (α =.05). Results: Extracellular polysaccharides synthesis was influenced by an interaction between nicotine concentrations and growth medium solution containing sucrose (P<.05). The pH values declined in the sucrose-exposed biofilm were greater than in the group exposed only to nicotine (P<.05). The biofilm exposed to sucrose and nicotine had a higher total biofilm growth (P<.05) than the nicotine-treated biofilm without sucrose. Conclusions: Regardless of sucrose exposure, biofilms exposed to different nicotine concentrations influenced the amount of extracellular polysaccharides

Humans , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/chemical synthesis , Fusobacterium nucleatum/growth & development , Biofilms/growth & development , Nicotine/pharmacology , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Spectrophotometry , Sucrose/administration & dosage , Culture Media , Dental Caries/microbiology , Nicotine/administration & dosage
Braz. dent. j ; 31(5): 471-476, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132340


Abstract Recently, Scardovia wiggsiae has been reported to be strongly associated with caries formation. This study aimed to establish an in vitro model of S. wiggsiae biofilm and to investigate the effect of nicotine on S. wiggsiae colony-forming units (CFUs) growth. S. wiggsiae biofilm was grown overnight using brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth supplemented with 5 g of yeast extract/L (BHI-YE). The overnight culture was used as an inoculum to grow S. wiggsiae biofilm on standardized enamel and dentin samples. Samples were incubated with different nicotine concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg/mL) for 3 days. The dissociated biofilms were diluted, spiral plated on blood agar plates, and incubated for 24 h. CFUs/mL were quantified using an automated colony counter. A two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effect of different nicotine concentrations on S. wiggsiae CFUs. This study demonstrated that S. wiggsiae biofilm could be initiated and formed in vitro. Increased CFUs was observed through 0.5-4 mg/mL and 0.5-8 mg/mL of nicotine using enamel and dentin substrates, respectively. 16 and 32 mg/mL of nicotine were determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), respectively. S. wiggsiae formed greater biofilm on enamel than dentin specimens in response to the nicotine stimulus. This study demonstrated the negative effect of smoking on increasing S. wiggsiae biofilm. Establishing S. wiggsiae biofilm in vitro may allow researchers in the future to have a better understanding of caries pathogenesis and bacterial interaction.

Resumo Recentemente, foi relatado que Scardovia wiggsiae está fortemente associado à formação de cáries. Este estudo teve como objetivo estabelecer um modelo in vitro de biofilme de S. wiggsiae e investigar o efeito da nicotina no crescimento de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC) de S. wiggsiae. O biofilme de S. wiggsiae foi cultivado durante a noite usando caldo de infusão de cérebro-coração (BHI) suplementado com 5 g de extrato de levedura / L (BHI-YE). A cultura noturna foi usada como um inóculo para cultivar biofilme de S. wiggsiae em amostras padronizadas de esmalte e dentina. As amostras foram incubadas com diferentes concentrações de nicotina (0, 0,5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 e 32 mg/mL) por 3 dias. Os biofilmes dissociados foram diluídos, semeados em espiral em placas de ágar sangue e incubados por 24 h. UFC/mL foram quantificados usando um contador de colônias automatizado. Uma ANOVA de duas vias foi usada para comparar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de nicotina em UFCs de S. wiggsiae. Este estudo demonstrou que o biofilme de S. wiggsiae pode ser iniciado e formado in vitro. UFCs aumentadas foram observadas com 0,5-4 mg/mL e 0,5-8 mg/mL de nicotina usando substratos de esmalte e dentina, respectivamente. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) de nicotina foram determinadas, respectivamente, como 16 e 32 mg/mL. S. wiggsiae formou maior biofilme no esmalte do que espécimes de dentina em resposta ao estímulo de nicotina. Este estudo demonstrou o efeito negativo do tabagismo no aumento do biofilme de S. wiggsiae. O estabelecimento do biofilme de S. wiggsiae in vitro pode permitir que os pesquisadores no futuro tenham uma melhor compreensão da patogênese da cárie e da interação bacteriana.

Humans , Dental Caries , Nicotine/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans , Actinobacteria , Biofilms , Dental Enamel
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 172-177, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010524


Blakeslea trispora is a natural source of carotenoids, including β-carotene and lycopene, which have industrial applications. Therefore, classical selective breeding techniques have been applied to generate strains with increased productivity, and microencapsulated β-carotene preparation has been used in food industry (Li et al., 2019). In B. trispora, lycopene is synthesized via the mevalonate pathway (Venkateshwaran et al., 2015). Lycopene cyclase, which is one of the key enzymes in this pathway, is a bifunctional enzyme that can catalyze the cyclization of lycopene to produce β-carotene and exhibit phytoene synthase activity (He et al., 2017).

Citric Acid Cycle , Fermentation , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Lycopene/metabolism , Mucorales/metabolism , Nicotine/pharmacology , beta Carotene/biosynthesis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 595-606, nov. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102648


Petiveria alliacea (PA) have anxiolytic, antidepressant and cognitive effects. In the present paper the effect of PA water infusion and cholinergic drugs on cognitive behavior were studied. For that, 40 male NMRI mice were divided in 4 groups: Control (n=10), Drug Control (n=10), PA (n=10) and PA plus Drug (n=10). PA 1% was administered orally (7.59±1.39 ml/day); while scopolamine (2 mg/Kg), galantamine (1 mg/Kg) and nicotine (0.1 mg/Kg) were administered intraperitoneally. Behavioral tests included: anxiety maze (AM), open field (OF) and marble burying (MB). Habituation cognitive behavior was evaluated in 4 sessions, one week each session. PA had anxiolytic and antidepressant effect effect in AM, combined with nicotine potentiated an anxiogenic effect in AM, galantamine favored habituation in OF. Scopolamine potentiated the habituation in LA and decreased the obsessive-compulsive behavior in OF. In conclusion; PA had an anxiolytic effect and favored deshabituation, combined with nicotine induced an anxiogenic effect, galantamine favored habituation and scopolamine decreased obsessive-compulsive behavior and favored motor habituation indicated a possible anxiolytic effect.

La Petiveria alliacea (PA) está relacionada con efectos ansiolíticos, antidepresivos y cognitivos. El presente trabajo estudió el efecto de la infusión de PA y drogas colinérgicas sobre la habituación. 40 ratones NMRI machos fueron divididos en 4 grupos: Control (n=10), Control Drogas (n=10), PA (n=10) y PA plus Drogas (n=10). La PA (1%) fue administrada vía oral (7.59±1.39 ml/día); escopolamina (2 mg/Kg), galantamina (1 mg/Kg) y nicotina (0.1 mg/Kg) fueron administrados vía intraperitoneal. Los ensayos conductuales incluyeron: laberinto de ansiedad (LA), campo abierto (CA) y enterramiento aversivo (EA). La habituación fue evaluada en 4 sesiones con duración de una semana cada una. PA mostró un efecto ansiolítico en el LA, combinada con nicotina potenció un efecto ansiogénico en el LA. Galantamina favoreció la habituación en CA, y escopolamina potenció el fenómeno de habituación en LA y disminuyó la conducta obsesivo-compulsiva en CA. En conclusión, la PA mostró un efecto ansiolítico y antidepresivo que potencia la deshabituación, combinada con nicotina indujo un efecto ansiogénico, galantamina favoreció la habituación y escopolamina disminuyó la conducta obsesivo­ compulsiva y favoreció la habituación motora indicando un posible efecto ansiolítico.

Animals , Male , Mice , Cholinergic Agents/pharmacology , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Habituation, Psychophysiologic/drug effects , Scopolamine/pharmacology , Galantamine/pharmacology , Nicotine/pharmacology
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(3): 287-295, Sept. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-975747


RESUMEN: Los dispositivos de administración electrónica de nicotina aparecieron con el objetivo de reemplazar el uso del tabaco y contribuir al reciente crecimiento de las políticas antitabaco. Actualmente, los efectos que producen los químicos que contiene son desconocidos. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en describir la información encontrada en la literatura sobre los posibles daños generados por los dispositivos de administración electrónica de nicotina, en la cavidad bucal y los tejidos periodontales. Se realizó una búsqueda electrónica y manual, sin límite de idioma ni año. Se excluyeron, opiniones de expertos y artículos que estudiaran otros dispositivos de administración de nicotina. Se seleccionaron 18 artículos, 7 estudios in-vitro, 2 estudios longitudinales, 2 ensayos clínicos y 7 reportes de caso. Se encontró que existen niveles de citotoxicidad elevados, observando cambios a nivel de morfología y metabolismo celular. Sin embargo, si lo comparamos con el tabaco, se observa que los niveles de toxicidad son menores en los dispositivos de administración electrónica de nicotina. En los estudios longitudinales y ensayos clínicos se observó un aumento del sangramiento al sondaje y de la circulación sanguínea, medida con láser Doppler, al cambiar de cigarro convencional a cigarro electrónico. Los reportes de caso informan de importantes traumatismos en el territorio maxilofacial, causados por la explosión de estos dispositivos, durante su uso. Los dispositivos de administración electrónica de nicotina son tóxicos a nivel de las células periodontales, generando necrosis y daños al ADN celular. Presentan riesgos de uso, reportándose traumatismos graves a nivel oral y maxilofacial, por sobrecalentamiento de las baterías. Los ensayos clínicos y estudios longitudinales no fueron concluyentes, por lo que se debe seguir investigando en la materia.

ABSTRACT: Electronic nicotine delivery systems were introduced to replace tobacco use and contribute to the anti-smoking policies. Today, the effect the chemicals it contains produce in the human body, are unknown. The aim of this work was to describe the information found in the literature about the possible damage produced in the periodontal tissue and the oral cavity, by the electronic nicotine delivery systems. An electronic and manual search was carried by a single reviewer, without year or language limit, excluding expert's opinions and articles that studied other nicotine delivery systems. Eighteen articles were selected; 7 in vitro studies, 2 longitudinal studies, 2 clinical trials and 7 case reports. Toxicity levels were found to be high, showing changes in cellular morphology and metabolism. Comparing with conventional cigarette, toxicity levels were lower in the electronic nicotine delivery systems. Longitudinal studies and clinical trials observed an increase in bleeding on probing and in blood circulation, by using laser doppler velocimetry, when changing from conventional cigarette to electronic cigarette. Also reports about explosions while using these electronic devises were encountered in the literature, with grave consequences in the maxillofacial territory. Electronic nicotine delivery systems show toxic levels, generating necrosis and DNA damage in periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblast cells. The risk of using these devices is high, due to possible explosion following overheating of the lithium battery, causing facial and oral trauma. Clinical trials and longitudinal studies were not conclusive, so investigations should continue in this matter.

Humans , Periodontal Diseases/chemically induced , Nicotine/adverse effects , Nicotine/pharmacology , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Mouth
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 43(2): 87-92, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782925


ABSTRACT Objective: to know the effect of nicotine on angiogenesis and myofibroblast formation in anastomoses of the small bowel of rats. Methods: we randomly divided 60 Wistar rats into the groups Nicotine (N) and control (C), according to the proposed treatment. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to the time interval used for the evaluation (7, 14 or 28 days). The N group with 30 animals received nicotine subcutaneously at a dose of 2mg/kg body weight, diluted in 0.3ml of 0.9% saline, twice daily for 28 days prior to the operation, and for more 7, 14 or 28 days, depending on the subgroup. The C group (also 30 animals) received only saline on the same conditions and time intervals. After 28 days we carried out an end-to-end anastomosis 10cm distal to the duodenojejunal flexure in each rat. After 7, 14 or 28 days after surgery, we euthanized ten animals of each group, sent specimens of the anastomosis areas, 1cm proximal to 1cm distal, to counting of blood vessels and myofibroblasts through immunohistochemical staining by the application of monoclonal anti-factor VIII antibodies and anti-smooth muscle alpha-actin. Results: the administration of nicotine led to the decrease in the number of blood vessels measured on the 28th postoperative day and the number of myofibroblasts measured on the seventh day following completion of the anastomoses. Conclusion: administration of nicotine was deleterious on angiogenesis and myofibroblast formation in rats' small intestine anastomoses.

RESUMO Objetivo: conhecer o efeito da nicotina sobre a angiogênese e formação de miofibroblastos em anastomoses do intestino delgado de ratos. Métodos: sessenta ratos Wistar foram divididos de maneira aleatória em grupos Nicotina(N) e Controle (C), conforme o tratamento proposto. Cada grupo foi subdividido em três subgrupos, de acordo com o intervalo de tempo utilizado para a avaliação (7, 14 ou 28 dias). O grupo N, com 30 animais, recebeu nicotina por via subcutânea, na dose de 2mg/Kg de peso, diluída em 0,3ml de solução salina a 0,9%, em duas aplicações diárias, durante 28 dias prévios à operação e por mais 7, 14 ou 28 dias, conforme o subgrupo. O grupo C (igualmente com 30 animais) recebeu somente a solução salina nas mesmas condições e intervalos de tempo. Após 28 dias efetuou-se, em cada rato, anastomose término-terminal a 10cm da flexura duodenojejunal. Após 7, 14 ou 28 dias da cirurgia, os dez animais de cada subgrupo foram eutanasiados, sendo que as áreas anastomosadas, 1cm proximal a 1cm distal, foram encaminhadas para contagem de vasos sanguíneos e miofibroblastos, através de coloração imuno-histoquímica por aplicação dos anticorpos monoclonais antifator VIII e anti-alfa-actina muscular lisa. Resultados: a administração de nicotina levou à diminuição do número de vasos sanguíneos aferidos no 28o dia pós-operatório e do número de miofibroblastos aferidos no sétimo dia após a realização das anastomoses. Conclusão: a administração de nicotina foi deletéria sobre a angiogênese e formação de miofibroblastos em anastomoses do intestino delgado de ratos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Wound Healing/drug effects , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Myofibroblasts/drug effects , Intestine, Small/surgery , Intestine, Small/blood supply , Nicotine/pharmacology , Anastomosis, Surgical , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(3): 220-225, 06/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751315


Objective To compare the two anthropometric standards for screening of overweight and cardio-metabolic risk in 6–10-year-old children.Subjects and methods This cross-sectional study included 175 subjects attending the Referral Center for the Treatment of Children and Adolescents in Campos, Rio de Janeiro. They were classified according to CDC and WHO BMI z scores as normal-weight (z-score > –1 and < 1), overweight (z-score ≥ 1 and < 2) or obese (z-score ≥ 2). Sensitivities and specificities in predicting systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) alterations were calculated.Results There was a major difference in 11 children who rated overweight by the CDC but were reclassified as obese by the WHO. Their mean z-scores for SBP (1.71 ± 1.54), DBP (2.64 ± 1.83) and HOMA-IR (1.84 ± 0.98) were higher than those classified as overweight by both references (SBP = 0.49 ± 1.34, p < 0.023, DBP = 1.45 ± 0.97, p < 0.04 and HOMA = 1.24 ± 0.67, p < 0.04), but were similar to those classified as obese by both criteria (SBP = 1.25 ± 2.04, p = 0.60, DBP = 1.94 ± 1.19, p = 0.50 and HOMA = 2.09 ± 1.12, p = 0.76).Conclusion the 2007 WHO reference was the most sensitive in screening for overweight and alterations in blood pressure and HOMA-IR in 6–10-year-old children. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(3):220-5.

Animals , Female , Male , Breeding , Isoflurane/pharmacology , Motion Sickness/complications , Motion Sickness/genetics , Vomiting/chemically induced , Vomiting/complications , Copper Sulfate/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Emetics/pharmacology , Nicotine/pharmacology , Shrews , Species Specificity
Int. j. morphol ; 32(3): 761-766, Sept. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728263


Nicotine is the most important alkaloid compound in tobacco. One of the major effects of nicotine is stimulation of mesocorticolimbic system. Prefrontal cortex plays a pivotal role in personality and mental state. It is considered the main cause of addiction as it is located in mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Twenty four male rats were divided into four groups based on nicotine administration dose (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/kg). After animals were anesthetized, their brains were fixed using transcardiac method. Tissue processing and Golgi staining were performed and the stained tissue sections were analyzed by optic microscope and Motic software. By increasing the dose, nicotine significantly decreased the number of neuronal processes. In the higher dose, nicotine caused a significant decrease and increase in the size of pericarions and dendritic spines, respectively (p<0.05). Nicotine administration can decrease the size of pericarion and number of dendritic spines in the prefrontal cortex.

La nicotina es el compuesto alcaloide más importante del tabaco. Uno de sus principales efectos es la estimulación del sistema mesocorticolímbico. La corteza prefrontal desempeña un papel fundamental en la personalidad y estado mental. Esta es considerada la principal causa de la adicción, ya que se encuentra en el sistema mesocorticolímbico dopaminérgico. Veinticuatro ratas macho fueron divididas en cuatro grupos basados en la dosis de administración de nicotina (0, 0,5, 1 y 1,5 g/kg). Luego fueron anestesiados y sus cerebros se fijaron mediante perfusión transcardíaca. Se realizó el procesamiento de tejidos y las secciones bajo tinción de Golgi fueron analizadas mediante microscopia óptica y el software Motic. Con el aumento de dosis, la nicotina redujo significativamente el número de procesos neuronales. En la dosis más alta, la nicotina causó una disminución y aumento significativo en el tamaño de pericarion y espinas dendríticas, respectivamente (p<0,05). La administración de nicotina puede disminuir el tamaño del pericarion y el número de espinas dendríticas en la corteza prefrontal.

Animals , Male , Rats , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Nicotine/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Prefrontal Cortex/ultrastructure , Dendritic Spines/drug effects , Dendritic Spines/ultrastructure , Microscopy , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/ultrastructure , Nicotine/administration & dosage
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 96-107, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714625


Introduction: Nicotine is harmful to angiogenesis, osteogenesis and synthesis of collagen. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nicotine on bone remodeling during orthodontic movement in rats. Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Group C (control), group CM (with orthodontic movement) and group NM (nicotine with orthodontic movement) groups. The animals comprising groups C and CM received 0.9% saline solution while group NM received nicotine solution (2 mg/kg). A nickel-titanium closed-coil spring was used to induce tooth movement. The animals were euthanized and tissue specimens were processed histologically. We quantified blood vessels, Howship's lacunae and osteoclast-like cells present in the tension and compression areas of periodontal ligaments. The extent of bone formation was evaluated under polarized light to determine the percentage of immature/mature collagen. Results: We observed lower blood vessel densities in the NM group in comparison to the CM group, three (p < 0.001) and seven (p < 0.05) days after force application. Osteoclast-like cells and Howship's lacunae in the NM group presented lower levels of expression in comparison to the CM group, with significant differences on day 7 (p < 0.05 for both variables) and day 14 (p < 0.05 for osteoclast-like cells and p < 0.01 for Howship's lacunae). The percentage of immature collagen increased in the NM group in comparison to the CM group with a statistically significant difference on day 3 (p < 0.05), day 7 (p < 0.001), day 14 (p < 0.001) and day 21 (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Nicotine affects bone remodeling during orthodontic movement, reducing angiogenesis, osteoclast-like cells and Howship's lacunae, thereby delaying the collagen maturation process in developed bone matrix. .

Introdução: a nicotina apresenta efeito prejudicial sobre a angiogênese, osteogênese e síntese de colágeno. Objetivo: investigar a ação da nicotina sobre a remodelação óssea durante o movimento dentário induzido em ratos. Métodos: oitenta ratos machos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos: grupo C (sem indução de movimento dentário e sem a ação da nicotina - controle); grupo CM (indução de movimento dentário) e grupo NM (indução de movimento dentário associado à ação da nicotina). Os animais dos grupos C e CM receberam solução salina a 0,9% e os animais do grupo NM receberam nicotina (solução PA a 98% diluída em solução salina a 0,9% estéril) por via subcutânea (2mg/kg). Após a eutanásia dos animais, com 3, 7, 14 e 21 dias de uso da mola ortodôntica, os espécimes teciduais foram processados histologicamente e quantificou-se o número de vasos sanguíneos, lacunas de Howship e células osteoclásticas nos lados de tração e compressão do ligamento periodontal. A neoformação óssea foi avaliada por meio de luz polarizada, para determinar a porcentagem de colágeno maduro e imaturo. Resultados: observou-se que a quantidade de vasos sanguíneos diminuiu no grupo NM, quando comparado ao grupo CM, nos períodos de três (p < 0,001) e sete (p < 0,05) dias. Quanto às células osteoclásticas e lacunas de Howship, o grupo NM apresentou menores níveis de expressão em relação ao grupo CM, com diferença estatisticamente significativa nos períodos de 7 e 14 dias. A porcentagem de colágeno imaturo apresentou-se aumentada no grupo NM, quando comparado ao grupo CM, em todos os períodos analisados, com diferença e...

Animals , Male , Rats , Alveolar Process/drug effects , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Nicotine/pharmacology , Periodontal Ligament/drug effects , Tooth Movement Techniques , Alveolar Process/blood supply , Bone Resorption/pathology , Collagen/drug effects , Dental Alloys/chemistry , Dental Cementum/blood supply , Dental Cementum/drug effects , Molar/blood supply , Molar/drug effects , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Nickel/chemistry , Orthodontic Wires , Osteoclasts/drug effects , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Periodontal Ligament/blood supply , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Stress, Mechanical , Time Factors , Titanium/chemistry , Tooth Movement Techniques/instrumentation , Tooth Root/blood supply , Tooth Root/drug effects
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 40(1): 49-54, jan.-fev. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-668849


OBJETIVO: Avaliar se o tratamento com L-arginina influencia a cicatrização de retalhos cutâneos em ratos expostos à nicotina. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 40 ratos Wistar pesando 142,4±10,1g separados em quatro grupos: GC- tratamento com solução tampão fosfatos pH 7,4, confecção de retalho cutâneo, observação por 10 dias; GN- exposição à nicotina por quatro semanas, confecção de retalho cutâneo, observação por dez dias; GA- tratamento com solução tampão fosfatos pH 7,4 por quatro semanas, confecção de retalho cutâneo, tratamento com arginina por dez dias; GAN- exposição à nicotina por quatro semanas, confecção de retalho cutâneo, tratamento com arginina por dez dias. Foram avaliadas as áreas de necrose, re-epitelização, reação inflamatória e formação de tecido de granulação, pela coloração HE, a área de deposição total e a diferenciação de colágenos I e III por histometria com a coloração de picrosirius, e, através da marcação imunoistoquímica com anticorpo monoclonal anti-CD34, a densidade vascular cicatricial. RESULTADOS: As porcentagens de áreas de necrose de GN e GNA foram maiores (p<0,001) do que GC e GA. Nos escores histológicos, a deposição de colágeno e a porcentagem de colágeno tipo I, no GC e GA foram similares (p>0,05) e maiores (p<0,001) do que em GA e em GNA e, nas densidades vasculares, GN e GAN foram menores (p<0,001) do que em GC e em GA. CONCLUSÃO: A exposição à nicotina inibiu os efeitos da arginina, e nos ratos não expostos, induziu melhora na angiogênese e na deposição de colágeno total nos retalhos cutâneos.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether treatment with L-arginine influences the healing of skin flaps in rats exposed to nicotine. METHODS: 40 male Wistar rats weighing 142.4 ± 10.1 g were separated into four groups: GC: treatment with 7.4 pH phosphate buffer, submitted to skin flap and observation for ten days; GN: exposure to nicotine for four weeks, submitted to skin flap and observation for ten days; GA: treatment with 7.4 pH phosphate buffer for four weeks, submitted to skin flap and arginine treatment for ten days; GAN: exposure to nicotine for four weeks, submitted to skin flap and treatment with arginine for ten days. We evaluated: areas of necrosis, re-epithelialization, inflammatory reaction and formation of granulation tissue by HE stain; the total area of deposition and differentiation of collagens I and III by histometry with picrosirius staining; and the scar vascular density by immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal anti-CD34 antibodies. RESULTS: The percentages of necrotic areas in GN and GNA were higher (p <0.001) than in GC and GA. In histological scores, collagen deposition, and the percentage of type I collagen, GA and GC were similar to each other (p> 0.05), but higher (p <0.001) than GA and GNA; as for vascular densities, they were lower in GN and GAN (p <0.001) than in GC and GA. CONCLUSION: Exposure to nicotine inhibited the effects of arginine and in unexposed mice there was induction of angiogenesis and improvement in the total collagen deposition in the skin flaps.

Animals , Male , Rats , Arginine/pharmacology , Nicotine/pharmacology , Surgical Flaps , Skin/drug effects , Wound Healing/drug effects , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Rats, Wistar
Acta cir. bras ; 27(12): 861-865, dez. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-657969


PURPOSE: To compare the wound healing of the abdominal wall of rabbits exposed to nicotine and submitted to abdominoplasty using 2-octyl cyanoacrylate or nylon thread for the surgery suture. METHODS: Thirty two rabbits were used. They were divided in subgroups: A1, A2, B1 e B2. Group A received saline 0.9%; group B received nicotine, both groups for 14 days before surgery. We performed an abdominoplasty with a nylon suture into the A1 and B1 subgroups; as for A2 and B2 groups the suture was performed with cyanoacrylate. The euthanasia happened in the 14th post-operative day. After, we evaluated: swollen process, fibroblast proliferation, collagen, neovascularization, and macroscope and microscope epithelization of the scars. RESULTS: We observed the presence of eosinophils in all scars exposed to the cyanoacrylate, and a significant increase of neovascularization in the subgroup B2 comparing to the A2 one (p=0.037). The other variables haven't showed any statistical difference. CONCLUSIONS: Nicotine hasn't influenced the swollen process, the fibroblast proliferation, the presence of collagen, neither the epithelialization. The neovascularization showed cicatricial immaturity when comparing group A2 to group B2. The eosinophils in the scars repaired with glue showed that the substance has acted as an allergen.

OBJETIVO: Comparar a cicatrização da parede abdominal de coelhos expostos à nicotina e submetidos à abdominoplastia utilizando 2-octil cianoacrilato ou nylon na síntese cirúrgica. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se 32 coelhos. Estes foram distribuídos em subgrupos: A1, A2, B1 e B2. O grupo A recebeu solução de NaCl 0,9%; o B recebeu nicotina, ambos durante 14 dias do pré-operatório. Nos subgrupos A1 e B1 foi realizada abdominoplastia e sutura com "nylon"; enquanto A2 e B2 a síntese ocorreu com cianoacrilato. A eutanásia ocorreu no 14º dia do pós-operatório. Na pesquisa avaliou-se: processo inflamatório, proliferação fibroblástica, colágeno, neovascularização, epitelização macro e microscópica das cicatrizes. RESULTADOS: Observou-se presença de eosinofilia em todas as cicatrizes expostas ao cianoacrilato, e aumento significativo da neovascularização no subgrupo B2 em comparação com o A2 (p=0,037). Demais variáveis não apresentaram diferença estatística. CONCLUSÕES: A nicotina não influenciou o processo inflamatório, a proliferação fibroblástica, a presença de colágeno e a epitelização. A neovascularização indicou imaturidade cicatricial na comparação dos grupos A2 e B2. A eosinofilia nas cicatrizes reparadas com cola indica que a substância atuou como alergeno.

Animals , Rabbits , Abdominal Wall/surgery , Cyanoacrylates/therapeutic use , Nylons , Nicotine/pharmacology , Tissue Adhesives/therapeutic use , Wound Healing/drug effects , Abdominoplasty , Abdominal Wall/pathology , Cicatrix , Sutures , Time Factors , Tensile Strength/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 30(3): 829-833, Sept. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665487


The objective of this study was to evaluate the histopathologic effects of systemic use of nicotine on the rat nasal mucosa. Twelve adult Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180-220 g, were used as experimental animals. The rats were divided into Nicotine and control groups. The rats of Nicotine groups (n=6) were administered 2mg/kg Nicotine sulphate for 28 days. The rats of control group (n=6) were only administered 1,5 ml physiologic saline solution subcutaneously for 28 days. All animals were sacrified at the end of the study and nasal tissue samples were removed and prepared for histologic examination. The sections were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H-E) and Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Trichrome-Masson were observed under light microscope. E-cadherin immunreactivity of pseudostrafied epithelial cells of nasal mucosa was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. There were significant differences in average histopathological score between the groups treated and non-treated to nicotine. In nicotine group, degenerative change of epithelial cells and hypertrophy of goblet cells were observed. Leukocytes infiltration was observed in significant areas of connective tissue. E-cadherin expression was significantly decreased in epithelial cells of the nasal mucosa of Nicotine group...

El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos histopatológicos del uso sistémico de nicotina sobre la mucosa nasal de la rata. Se utilizaron como animales de experimentación 12 ratas Sprague-Dawley adultas, entre 180-220 g, divididas en grupos de nicotina y control. Al grupo de nicotina (n = 6) se le administró sulfato de nicotina 2mg/kg durante 28 días. Al grupo control (n = 6) se les administró sólo 1,5 ml de solución salina fisiológica por vía subcutánea durante 28 días. Todos los animales fueron sacrificados al final del estudio. Se tomaron muestras del tejido nasal y se examinaron histológicamente. Las secciones fueron teñidas con H-E, ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS) y tricrómico de Masson, observándose bajo microscopía de luz. Además, se evaluó la inmunoreactividad a E-cadherina de las células del epitelio pseudoestraficado de la mucosa nasal. Hubo diferencias significativas en la puntuación histopatológica media entre los grupos tratados y no tratados con nicotina. En el grupo de nicotina, se observaron cambios degenerativos de las células epiteliales e hipertrofia de las células caliciformes. Se observó una infiltración significativa de leucocitos en diferentes áreas del tejido conectivo. La E-cadherina se redujo significativamente en las células epiteliales de la mucosa nasal del grupo nicotina...

Animals , Rats , Nasal Mucosa , Nasal Mucosa/pathology , Nicotine/administration & dosage , Cadherins , Epithelial Cells , Immunohistochemistry , Nicotine/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(1): 33-37, Jan. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610546


Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9 percent NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

Animals , Male , Rats , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Locomotion/drug effects , Motor Activity/drug effects , Nicotine/pharmacology , Nicotinic Agonists/pharmacology , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Locomotion/physiology , Motor Activity/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Stress, Physiological/drug effects
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2012. 135 f p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-751076


Adolescentes humanos frequentemente associam o fumo do tabaco ao consumo de bebidas alcoólicas. A despeito desta associação, pouco se sabe sobre a neurobiologia básica da coexposição no cérebro adolescente. No presente estudo, avaliamos os efeitos da exposição, que ocorreu do 30º ao 45º dia de vida pós natal (PN30 a PN45), à nicotina e/ou ao etanol durante a adolescência (PN38-45) e da retirada (PN50-57) na memória visuoespacial através do Labirinto Aquático de Morris (LAM: 6 sessões + 1 prova, 3 tentativas/sessão, latência = 2 min), em 4 grupos de camundongos Suíços machos e fêmeas: (1) exposição concomitante à NIC [solução de nicotina free base (50 μg/ml) em sacarina a 2% para beber] e ETOH [solução de etanol (25%, 2 g/kg) injetada i.p. em dias alternados]; (2) exposição à NIC; (3) exposição ao ETOH; (4) veículo (VEH). Uma vez que os resultados comportamentais podem sofrer a interferência de alterações motoras, avaliamos (a) a atividade locomotora no Teste de Campo Aberto (sessão única, 5 min) e (b) a coordenação e o equilíbrio no Teste de Locomoção Forçada sobre Cilindro Giratório (5 tentativas, latência = 2 min). Para os efeitos da exposição à NIC e/ou ao ETOH na eficiência do transporte de aminoácidos excitatórios, avaliamos a captação de [3H] D-aspartato no hipocampo. A expressão do transportador glial GLAST/EAAT1 foi avaliada por Western-blot. Durante a exposição, animais ETOH e NIC+ETOH apresentaram déficits de memória nas sessões de teste e de prova no LAM enquanto, na retirada, os grupos NIC e NIC+ETOH apresentaram prejuízos na retenção. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos de tratamento em nenhum dos parâmetros testados em ambos os testes motores, tanto na exposição quanto na abstinência. Os grupos NIC, ETOH e NIC+ETOH tiveram uma diminuição significativa na captação de [3H] D-aspartato ao final do período de exposição, com uma normalização da atividade dos EAATs na retirada das drogas...

Human adolescents frequently associate tobacco smoke and alcoholic drinks. Despite this association, little is known about the basic neurobiology of co-exposure in the adolescent brain. In the present study, we assessed the effects of nicotine and/or ethanol exposure (postnatal days 30 to 45: PN30-45) during adolescence (PN38-45) and withdrawal (PN50-57) on visuospacial memory through the Morris Water Maze (MWM: 6 sessions + 1 probe, 3 trials/session, latency = 2 min), in four groups of male and female Swiss mice: (1) Concomitant NIC [nicotine free base solution (50µg/ml) in 2% saccharin to drink] and ETOH [ethanol solution (25%, 2g/kg) i.p. injected every other day] exposure; (2) NIC exposure; (3) ETOH exposure; (4) Vehicle (VEH). Once behavioral results can be affected by motor disorders, we assessed (a) locomotor activity through the Open field Test (one session, 5 min) and (b) coordination and balance through the ROTAROD Test (5 trials, latency = 2 min). To investigate the effects of NIC and/or ETOH exposure on the efficiency on excitatory amino acid transport, we assessed the [3H] D-aspartate uptake in mice hippocampus. The GLAST/EAAT1, a glial transporter, was assessed by Western-blot technique. During exposure, ETOH and NIC+ETOH animals showed deficits on memory through the session and probe trial in WMW while, during withdrawal, NIC and NIC+ETOH groups showed impairments on retention. There were no significant differences between the experimental groups in any parameters assessed in both motor tests, either during exposure and withdrawal. There was a significant decrease in the [3H] D-aspartate for NIC, ETOH and NIC+ETOH groups in the end of exposure, turning to the normal levels of EAATs activity during withdrawal...

Animals , Adolescent , Rats , Glutamic Acid/analysis , Ethanol/adverse effects , Memory , Nicotine/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking , Alcohol-Related Disorders , Adolescent Behavior , Ethanol/pharmacology , Ethanol/toxicity , Memory/physiology , Nicotine/pharmacology , Nicotine/toxicity , Tobacco Use Disorder
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2011; 35 (2): 106-113
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-117523


Anxiety is a psychological and physiological state characterized by somatic, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Anxiety is considered to be a normal reaction to stress, however excessive anxiety results in anxiety disorder. In this study, we investigated the possible interaction between nicotine and nitric oxide system of the dorsal hippocampus on anxiety-like behavior in mice. This experimental study was performed on 230 male NMRI mice. Mice were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride, plus xylazine and then placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. Two stainless-steel cannulae were placed in the CA1 region of hippocampus. Nicotine [0.5 mg/kg] was injected intraperitoneally; L-arginine [1 micro g/mouse] and L-NAME 50 ng/mouse was instilled in the cannulae; The elevated plus-maze test was used to test for anxiety-like behaviors. One-way analyses of variance [ANOVAs] followed by LSD test, were used for analysis of the data. Intraperitoneal injection of nicotine or bilateral intra-dorsal hippocampal injections of L-arginine and L-NAME induced anxiogenic effects, p<0.05, p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively. Intraperitoneal injection of lower dose of nicotine [0.1 mg/kg] before different doses of Larginine or L-NAME inhibited anxiogenic effects of L-arginine or L-NAME. It seems that both nitric oxide and nicotinic cholinergic systems play a part in the modulation of anxiety in the dorsal hippocampus of mouse; however the interaction between these two systems is complex

Animals, Laboratory , Nicotine/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Mice , Drug Interactions
Acta cir. bras ; 24(6): 466-470, Nov.-Dec. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-533208


PURPOSE: To study the collagen density and the population of fibroblasts in cutaneous injuries in rats under the influence of nicotine. METHODS: The scars of abdominal wounds in rats were analyzed. 2 mg/kg/d of nicotine was administered to the animals in the experiment group and the solution used as a vehicle for the animals in the control group. Treatment was begun seven days prior to surgery and maintained for seven or fourteen days following surgery. The removed scars were prepared for histopathological study. Histological cuts were stained by Sirius Supra red F3BA for collagen analysis and submitted to the examination using the immunohistochemical technique, which enabled us to recognize the population of fibroblasts. RESULTS: No significant difference was found in type I collagen density after seven days (p=0.912), nor after fourteen days (p=0.211). The control group had more type III collagen after seven days (p=0.004), but after fourteen days there was no significant difference (p=0,720). The total quantification of collagen, although higher in the control group, was not significantly so at any time during the study (p=0.103 after seven days and p=0.549 after fourteen days). The average of fibroblasts per field was lower after seven days (p=0.0001) and after fourteen days (p=0.0000). CONCLUSION: Under the conditions of this experiment, nicotine reduced the fibroblast population without modifying collagen density significantly.

OBJETIVO: Estudar a densidade de colágeno e a população de fibroblastos em feridas cutâneas de ratos sob a influência da nicotina. MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se as cicatrizes de feridas abdominais de ratos. Foi administrada 2 mg/kg/d de nicotina, por via subcutânea aos animais do grupo experimento e a solução usada como veículo para os animais do grupo controle. O tratamento foi iniciado sete dias antes do ato operatório e mantido por sete ou quatorze dias no pós-operatório. As cicatrizes ressecadas foram preparadas para estudo histo-patológico. Cortes histológicos foram corados pelo Sirius Supra red F3BA para a análise do colágeno e submetidos à exame pela técnica imuno-histoquímica permitiram reconhecer a população de fibroblastos. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que não existiu diferença significante na densidade de colágeno tipo I, na avaliação feita com sete dias (p=0,912) e com 14 dias (p=0,211). O grupo controle mostrava mais colágeno tipo III com sete dias (p=0,004), mas aos 14 dias não havia diferença significante (p=0,720). A quantificação do colágeno total, embora fosse maior no grupo controle, não o foi de forma significante em nenhum dos tempos estudados (p=0,103 aos sete dias e p=0,549 aos 14 dias). A média de fibroblastos por campo esteve diminuída na avaliação de sete dias (p=0,0001) e na de quatorze dias (p=0,0000). CONCLUSÃO: Nas condições do experimento, a nicotina promoveu diminuição da população de fibroblastos sem modificar a densidade do colágeno de forma significante.

Animals , Male , Rats , Collagen/drug effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Nicotine/pharmacology , Skin/drug effects , Wound Healing/drug effects , Collagen/analysis , Collagen/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Models, Animal , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 36(5): 425-430, set.-out. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-535837


OBJETIVO: Estudar a reação inflamatória e a deposição de colágeno na cicatrização de feridas cutâneas sob a influência da nicotina. MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se as cicatrizes de feridas abdominais de ratos tratados com nicotina, 2 mg/kg/d, comparando-as às de ratos controle. O tratamento foi iniciado sete dias antes do ato operatório e mantido por sete ou 14 dias, no pós-operatório. Os cortes histológicos foram corados pela hematoxilina e eosina e neles por meio de escores estabelecidos, reconheceu-se a intensidade e o tipo da reação inflamatória. Cortes histológicos corados pelo Sirius Supra red F3BA permitiram reconhecer a densidade do colágeno. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença quanto à intensidade da reação inflamatória na análise de sete dias (p=0,165) e nem na de 14 dias (p=0,684). Pôde-se verificar que não existiu diferença significante na densidade de colágeno tipo I, na avaliação feita com sete dias (p=0,912) e com 14 dias (p=0,211). O grupo controle mostrava mais colágeno tipo III com sete dias (p=0,004), mas aos 14 não havia diferença significante (p=0,720). A quantificação do colágeno total, embora fosse maior no grupo controle, não o foi de forma significante em nenhum dos tempos estudados (p=0,103 aos sete e p=0,549 aos 14 dias). CONCLUSÃO: Não houve, nas cicatrizes dos animais tratados com nicotina, em relação aos controles, diferença quanto à intensidade do processo inflamatório, nem quanto à densidade do colágeno.

OBJECTIVE: To study the inflammatory reaction and deposition of collagen in the healing of cutaneous injuries under the influence of nicotine. METHODS: The scars of abdominal injuries in rats were analyzed, which had been treated with nicotine, 2 mg/kg/d, and compared with those of control rats. Treatment was begun seven days prior to operation and was maintained for seven or fourteen days after surgery. The histological cuts were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and through the established scores the intensity and type of inflammatory reaction was identified. Histological cuts stained by Sirius Supra red F3BA enabled the identification of the collagen density. RESULTS: There was no difference in intensity of the inflammatory reaction after seven days (p=0.165), nor after fourteen days (p=0.684). There was no significant difference in the type I collagen density in the evaluation carried out after seven days (p=0.912) and after fourteen days (p=0,211). The control group had more type III collagen after seven days (p=0.004), but after fourteen days there was no significant difference (p=0.720). Although the total quantification of collagen was higher in the control group, there was no significant difference at any time during this study (p=0.103 after seven days and p=0.549 after fourteen days). CONCLUSION: In the scars of the animals treated with nicotine in comparison with the control group, there was no difference in the intensity of the inflammatory process, nor in collagen density.

Animals , Male , Rats , Collagen/drug effects , Collagen/metabolism , Nicotine/pharmacology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Collagen/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Skin/drug effects
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2009. 101 p. tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-563329


O etanol e a nicotina são as drogas mais comumente usadas no mundo. Como claramente indicado por estudos epidemiológicos, existe uma forte associação entre o tabagismo e o consumo de etanol principalmente durante o período da adolescência. Entretanto, existem poucos estudos em neurobiologia básica que avaliem o efeito da exposição combinada de nicotina e etanol durante o período da adolescência. Considerando que a nicotina é um agonista do receptor colinérgico nicotínico (nAChR) e que tem sido demonstrado que o etanol interage com os nAChRs, o presente trabalho tem como foco o estudo dos efeitos da exposição à nicotina e/ou ao etanol no sistema colinérgico durante a adolescência. Do 30º ao 45º dia pós-natal (PN) camundongos da cepa C57BL/6 foram expostos à nicotina (NIC) e/ou etanol (ETOH). Quatro grupos foram analisados: 1) exposição concomitante (NIC+ETOH) à solução de nicotina (50ug/ml) e etanol (25%, 2g/kg i.p. em dias alternados), 2) exposição a NIC, 3) exposição ao ETOH, 4) exposição ao veículo. Foram quantificadas a expressão/afinidade do [3H] hemicolinium-3 (HC-3) ao transportador de alta afinidade présinaptico de colina, ao final da exposição (PN45), após curto (PN50) e longo período de retirada (PN75). Ao final da exposição, o grupo NIC+ETOH apresentou upregulation de nAChRs, refletindo simples somação dos efeitos da NIC e ETOH no córtex cerebral e sinergismo no mesencéfalo. A upregulation devido à exposição combinada foi mantida mesmo após alguns dias de retirada das drogas. Um mês após o término da exposição, os valores foram semelhantes aos obtidos para os animais veículo. Em PN45, machos NIC apresentaram aumento da ChAT no córtex cerebral, mas o ETOH foi capaz de reverter este efeito. Ao contrário, fêmeas NIC apresentaram diminuição da ChAT. No mesencéfalo, somente ETOH promoveu aumento da ChAT. Já em PN50, o grupo NIC apresentou aumento na ChAT que foi revertido na retirada combinada de NIC+ETOH. Em PN75, o grupo NIC+ETOH...

Nicotine and ethanol are the most commonly consumed drugs. As clearly indicated by epidemiological studies, there is a close interrelationship between smoking and alcohol consumption manly during adolescence period. However, there are few studies on the basic neurobiology of the effects of the combined nicotine and ethanol exposure in the adolescent brain. Since nicotine is a cholinergic agonist and it has been shown that ethanol interferes with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), the current proposal will focus on the cholinergic effects of nicotine and/or ethanol treatment during adolescence. From the 30th to the 45th postnatal day (PN), C57BL/6 mice were exposed to nicotine free base (NIC) and/or ethanol (ETOH). Four groups were analyzed: 1) concomitant (NIC+ETOH) exposure of nicotine (50 ug/ml) and ethanol (25%, 2 g/kg i.p. every other day); 2) NIC exposure; 3) ETOH exposure; 4) vehicle. We assessed nAChR (alfa4beta2) binding, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and [3H] hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) binding to the high affinity presynaptic choline transporter at the end of exposure period (PN45), at short (PN50) and long term (PN75) withdrawal. At the end of exposure period, NIC+ETOH elicited a pronounced upregulation which reflect simple additivity of the effects of nicotine and ethanol in the cerebral cortex and synergism in the midbrain. On PN45, male NIC mice presented an increase in ChAT in the cerebral cortex. However, ETOH reversed this effect. In contrast, female NIC mice presented decreased ChAT activity. In the midbrain, ETOH increased ChAT. On PN50, NIC mice presented an increase in ChAT activity that was reversed by ETOH withdrawal. In addition, NIC+ETOH long term withdrawal elicited a decrease in ChAT activity. Regarding HC-3, binding was not affected on PN45. ETOH and NIC+ETOH withdrawal promoted a decrease at short and long-term withdrawal. These results provide experimental evidences that nicotine and ethanol during adolescence...

Humans , Male , Female , Cholinergic Agents/pharmacology , Nicotinic Agonists/pharmacology , Drug Interactions , Central Nervous System Depressants/pharmacology , Ethanol/adverse effects , Ethanol/pharmacology , Nicotine/adverse effects , Nicotine/pharmacology , Receptors, Nicotinic/genetics , Receptors, Nicotinic/metabolism , Adolescent , Alcoholism/metabolism , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/complications , Tobacco Use Disorder/metabolism
Biol. Res ; 42(1): 111-119, 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-519090


Endothelial cells are directly involved in many functions of the cardiovascular system by regulating blood flow and blood pressure through Ca2+ dependent exocitosis of vasoactive compounds. Using the Ca2+ indicator Fluo-3 and the patch-clamp technique, we show that bovine adrenal medulla capillary endothelial cells (B AMCECs) respond to acetylcholine (ACh) with a cytosolic Ca2+ increase and depolarization of the membrane potential (20.3±0.9 mV; n=23). The increase in cytosolic Ca2+ induced by 10µM ACh was mimicked by the same concentration of nicotine but not by muscarine and was blocked by 100 µM of hexamethonium. On the other hand, the increase in cytosolic Ca2+ could be depressed by nifedipine (0.01 -100 µM) or withdrawal of extracellular Ca2+. Taken together, these results give evidence for functional nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in capillary endothelial cells of the adrenal medulla. It suggests that nAChRs in B AMCECs may be involved in the regulation of the adrenal gland's microcirculation by depolarizing the membrane potential, leading to the opening of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, influx of external Ca2+ and liberation of vasoactive compounds.

Animals , Cattle , Adrenal Medulla/drug effects , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Cytosol/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Nicotine/pharmacology , Receptors, Nicotinic/drug effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Adrenal Medulla/blood supply , Adrenal Medulla/cytology , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Capillaries/cytology , Capillaries/drug effects , Cytosol/metabolism , Evoked Potentials/drug effects , Hexamethonium/pharmacology , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Muscarine/pharmacology , Receptors, Nicotinic/metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 26(4): 1013-1022, Dec. 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-532942


Nicotine is the more abundant component in cigarette smoke. Because nicotine is first metabolized in the liver, our aim was to investigate the effects of nicotine on this organ by biochemical and stereological methods. Male Wistar rats were treated with oral nicotine (ON) diluted in drinking water during 32 days. The control group was treated with drinking water in the same period. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after last day, the blood was collected and the liver was removed. Lipidogram was performed by enzymatic method and collagen fibers, fat globules and hepatocytes were count in the liver by stereological methods. We observed in control group preserved hepatocytes, with no presence of inflammatory cells. However in the ON group was possible to observe varied size of hepatocytes with cloudy cellular limits and histoarchitecture loss. Capillaries were fully of red blood cells. We observed also an increase of fat globules with small size. We observed in leucogram a reduction of leukocytes number (lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes) in the ON group in comparison to control group. The lipidogram showed an increase of triglycerides and total cholesterol for ON group when compared to control group. Moreover, a reduction of HDL- cholesterol was observed in ON group when compared to control group. Numerical density of hepatocytes was lesser in ON group when compared to control group. We suggest harmful effects of oral nicotine in liver induced by toxic mechanism with reduction of hepatocytes number and disturbance in lipid metabolism.

La nicotina es el componente más abundante en el humo del cigarrillo. Primero porque la nicotina es metabolizada en el hígado, nuestro objetivo fue investigar los efectos de la nicotina sobre este órgano por métodos bioquímicos y estereológicos. Hombre rata Wistar fueron tratados con la nicotina oral (NO) diluida en el agua potable durante 32 días. El grupo control fue tratado con agua potable en el mismo período. Las ratas se sacrificaron 24 horas después del último día, se recogió la sangre y el hígado fue retirado. Lipidogram se realizó por el método enzimático y fibras de colágeno, grasa y hepatocitos se cuentan en el hígado mediante métodos estereológicos. Hemos observado en el grupo control hepatocitos conservados, sin presencia de células inflamatorias. Sin embargo en el grupo ON fue posible observar variado tamaño de hepatocitos con nubes y claros límites celulares y histoarchitecture pérdida. Capilares están plenamente de los glóbulos rojos. Se observó también un aumento de grasa con pequeño tamaño. Hemos observado en leucogram una reducción del número de glóbulos blancos (linfocitos, neutrófilos y monocitos) en el grupo ON, en comparación con el grupo control. El lipidogram mostró un aumento de los triglicéridos y de colesterol total ON grupo comparado con el grupo control. Por otra parte, una reducción del HDL-colesterol se observó en el grupo ON, en comparación con el grupo control. Densidad numérica de los hepatocitos fue menor en el grupo ON, en comparación con el grupo control. Sugerimos oral efectos nocivos de la nicotina en el hígado inducido por tóxicos con mecanismo de reducción de número de hepatocitos y alteraciones en el metabolismo lipídico.

Male , Animals , Rats , Liver , Liver/pathology , Nicotine/pharmacology , Hepatocytes/pathology , Lipids/analysis , Nicotine/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar