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1.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 532-537, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981783

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) and trio-whole exome sequencing (trio-WES) for fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT) thickness.@*METHODS@#Sixty two pregnant women who had visited Urumqi Maternal and Child Care Health Hospital between June 2018 and June 2020 for NT ≥ 3.0 mm at 11 ~ 13+6 gestational weeks were selected as study subjects. Relevant clinical data were collected. The patients were divided into 3.0 ~ <3.5 mm (n = 33) and ≥3.5 mm groups (n = 29). Chromosome karyotyping analysis and chromosomal microarray analysis were carried out. And trio-WES analysis was performed on 15 samples with NT thickening but negative CMA results. The distribution and incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in the two groups were compared by using chi-square test.@*RESULTS@#The median age of the pregnant women was 29 years old (22 ~ 41 years old), the median thickness of NT was 3.4 mm (3.0 ~ 9.1 mm), and the median gestational age at the detection was 13+4 weeks (11+5 ~ 13+6 weeks). Chromosome karyotyping analysis has detected 12 cases of aneuploidies and 1 case of derivative chromosome. The detection rate was 20.97% (13/62). CMA has detected 12 cases of aneuploidies, 1 case of pathogenic CNV and 5 cases of variant of uncertain significance (VUS), with a detection rate of 29.03% (18/62). The aneuploidy rate for the NT ≥ 3.5 mm group was higher than that for the 3.0 ≤ NT < 3.5 mm group [3.03% (1/33) vs. 41.38% (12/29), χ² = 13.698, P < 0.001]. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the detection rate of fetal pathogenic CNV and VUS (χ² = 0.028, P > 0.05). Trio-WES analysis of 15 samples with negative CMA result and no structural abnormality has identified 6 heterozygous variants, including SOS1: c.3542C>T (p.A1181V) and c.3817C>G (p.L1273V), COL2A1: c.436C>T (p.P146S) and c.3700G>A (p.D1234N), LZTR1: c.1496T>C (p.V499A), and BRAF: c.64G>A (p.D22N), respectively. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), all of the variants were rated as VUS.@*CONCLUSION@#NT thickening can indicate chromosome abnormality, and CMA and trio-WES may be used for the prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Adult , Infant , Nuchal Translucency Measurement/methods , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Chromosome Aberrations , Aneuploidy , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , DNA Copy Number Variations , Transcription Factors
2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244244, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448957

ABSTRACT

Com os avanços tecnológicos e o aprimoramento da prática médica via ultrassonografia, já é possível detectar possíveis problemas no feto desde a gestação. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prática do psicólogo no contexto de gestações que envolvem riscos fetais. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo sob formato de relato de experiência como psicólogo residente no Serviço de Medicina Fetal da Maternidade Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Os registros, feitos por observação participante e diário de campo, foram analisados em dois eixos temáticos: 1) intervenções psicológicas no trabalho em equipe em consulta de pré-natal, exame de ultrassonografia e procedimento de amniocentese; e 2) intervenções psicológicas em casos de bebês incompatíveis com a vida. Os resultados indicaram que o psicólogo nesse serviço é essencial para atuar de forma multiprofissional na assistência pré-natal para gravidezes de alto risco fetal. Ademais, a preceptoria do residente é relevante para sua formação e treinamento para atuação profissional no campo da psicologia perinatal.(AU)


Face to the technological advances and the improvement of medical practice via ultrasound, it is already possible to detect possible problems in the fetus since pregnancy. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychologist's practice in the context of pregnancies which involve fetal risks. It is a qualitative study based on an experience report as a psychologist trainee at the Fetal Medicine Service of the Maternity School of UFRJ. The records, based on the participant observation and field diary, were analyzed in two thematic axes: 1) psychological interventions in the teamwork in the prenatal attendance, ultrasound examination and amniocentesis procedure; and 2) psychological interventions in cases of babies incompatible to the life. The results indicated that the psychologist in this service is essential to work in a multidisciplinary way at the prenatal care for high fetal risk pregnancies. Furthermore, the resident's preceptorship is relevant to their education and training for professional performance in the field of Perinatal Psychology.(AU)


Con los avances tecnológicos y la mejora de la práctica médica a través de la ecografía, ya se puede detectar posibles problemas en el feto desde el embarazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la práctica del psicólogo en el contexto de embarazos de riesgos fetal. Es un estudio cualitativo basado en un relato de experiencia como residente de psicología en el Servicio de Medicina Fetal de la Escuela de Maternidad de la Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Los registros, realizados en la observación participante y el diario de campo, se analizaron en dos ejes temáticos: 1) intervenciones psicológicas en el trabajo en equipo, en la consulta prenatal, ecografía y los procedimientos de amniocentesis; y 2) intervenciones psicológicas en casos de bebés incompatibles con la vida. Los resultados señalaron como fundamental la presencia del psicólogo en este servicio trabajando de forma multidisciplinar en la atención prenatal en el contexto de embarazos de alto riesgo fetal. Además, la tutela del residente es relevante para su educación y formación para el desempeño profesional en el campo de la Psicología Perinatal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Psychosocial Intervention , Heart Defects, Congenital , Anxiety , Orientation , Pain , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Paternity , Patient Care Team , Patients , Pediatrics , Placenta , Placentation , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Maintenance , Prognosis , Psychoanalytic Theory , Psychology , Puerperal Disorders , Quality of Life , Radiation , Religion , Reproduction , Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena , General Surgery , Syndrome , Congenital Abnormalities , Temperance , Therapeutics , Urogenital System , Bioethics , Physicians' Offices , Infant, Premature , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Animal , Pregnancy Outcome , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Family , Abortion, Spontaneous , Child Rearing , Child Welfare , Mental Health , Family Health , Survival Rate , Life Expectancy , Cause of Death , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Chromosome Mapping , Parental Leave , Mental Competency , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive , Down Syndrome , Perinatal Care , Comprehensive Health Care , Chemical Compounds , Depression, Postpartum , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Disabled Children , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Gravidity , Crisis Intervention , Affect , Cytogenetic Analysis , Spirituality , Complicity , Value of Life , Humanizing Delivery , Death , Decision Making , Defense Mechanisms , Abortion, Threatened , Delivery of Health Care , Dementia , Uncertainty , Organogenesis , Qualitative Research , Pregnant Women , Early Diagnosis , Premature Birth , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Child Mortality , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Postpartum Period , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological , Ethanol , Ego , Emotions , Empathy , Environment , Humanization of Assistance , User Embracement , Ethics, Professional , Cell Nucleus Shape , Prenatal Nutrition , Cervical Length Measurement , Family Conflict , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications , Gestational Sac , Brief, Resolved, Unexplained Event , Fetal Death , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Multimodal Imaging , Mortality, Premature , Clinical Decision-Making , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Child, Foster , Freedom , Burnout, Psychological , Birth Setting , Frustration , Sadness , Respect , Psychological Distress , Genetics , Psychological Well-Being , Obstetricians , Guilt , Happiness , Health Occupations , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Maternity , Hospitals, University , Human Development , Human Rights , Imagination , Infections , Infertility , Anencephaly , Jurisprudence , Obstetric Labor Complications , Licensure , Life Change Events , Life Support Care , Loneliness , Love , Medical Staff, Hospital , Intellectual Disability , Morals , Mothers , Narcissism , Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities , Neonatology , Nervous System Malformations , Object Attachment
3.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(4): 266-272, ago. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407852

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir y analizar los hallazgos ecográficos en 97 fetos portadores de síndrome de Down (SD) confirmado. Método: Se incluyeron todas las gestantes con diagnóstico prenatal de SD de nuestro centro, realizado por cariograma o reacción en cadena de la polimerasa cuantitativa fluorescente para aneuploidía. Se analizaron los informes genéticos y ecográficos, y se realizó un seguimiento posnatal. Resultados: De los 97 casos de SD, el 73% de los diagnósticos fueron entre las 11 y 14 semanas. El promedio de edad de las madres fue de 35,7 años. El 83% de los fetos con SD, evaluados a las 11-14 semanas, tuvieron una translucencia nucal ≥ 3,5 mm. Del total de los casos analizados, el 33% fueron portadores de una cardiopatía congénita, correspondiendo el 58% de estas a defectos mayores, principalmente anomalías del tabique auriculoventricular. Un 7,6% de los casos terminaron como mortinato, principalmente durante el tercer trimestre. Conclusiones: El ultrasonido es una herramienta muy sensible para la sospecha prenatal de SD y la detección de sus anomalías asociadas. Consideramos que la información aportada será útil para programar estrategias de pesquisa, organizar el control perinatal y precisar el consejo a los padres de fetos portadores de esta condición.


Abstract Objective: To describe and analyze the ultrasound findings in 97 fetuses with confirmed Down syndrome (DS). Method: All pregnant women with prenatal diagnosis of DS in our center, performed by karyotype or quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction for aneuploidy, were included. Genetic and ultrasound reports were analyzed, as well as postnatal follow-up. Results: Of the 97 cases of DS, 73% of the diagnoses were between 11-14 weeks. The average age of the mothers was 35.7 years. 83% of our fetuses with DS, evaluated between 11-14 weeks, had a nuchal translucency ≥ 3.5 mm. Of the total of the fetuses analyzed, 33% were carriers of congenital heart disease, 58% of these correspond to a major defect, mainly anomalies of the atrioventricular septum. 7.6% of cases ended as stillbirth, mainly during the third trimester. Conclusions: Ultrasound is a very sensitive tool for prenatal suspicion of DS and the detection of its associated abnormalities. We believe that the information provided will be useful to program screening strategies, organize perinatal control and to counselling parents of fetuses carrying this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods , Down Syndrome/genetics , Down Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Fetal Diseases/genetics , Fetal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Phenotype , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Fetal Mortality , Fetus/abnormalities , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging
4.
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 45(4): e440, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126709

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La pesquisa prenatal de anomalías cromosómicas, mediante el uso de marcadores epidemiológicos y ecográficos del primer trimestre permite identificar gestantes con riesgo incrementado de síndrome de Down. Objetivos: Analizar la edad materna, la translucencia nucal, el ductus venoso y el hueso nasal, durante el cribaje del primer trimestre, en las gestantes que se realizaron diagnóstico prenatal citogenético, con el fin de evaluar la efectividad del mismo en la detección temprana del síndrome Down y su utilidad para la reducción del número de pruebas invasivas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de corte transversal y se analiza una muestra de 3439 gestantes a las que se realizó el estudio citogenético indicado en el Centro Provincial de Genética Médica de La Habana, en el período comprendido entre el 3 de enero de 2006 y el 30 de diciembre de 2008. Resultados: La edad materna avanzada mostró una sensibilidad de un 87 por ciento del test y una tasa de falsos positivos de 99 por ciento. La translucencia nucal se comportó con una sensibilidad de 10 por ciento. El hueso nasal no mostró asociación con los cariotipos positivos para síndrome de Down. Al no realizarse sistemáticamente la presencia del ductus venoso, no se pudo establecer una asociación estadística. La estimación de riesgo de síndrome de Down basada únicamente en la edad materna avanzada determina una alta tasa de falsos positivos. Por lo que este marcador, unido a la evaluación de los marcadores ecográficos del primer trimestre para recalcular el riesgo individual, puede aumentar la efectividad en el diagnóstico y disminuir el número de pruebas invasivas. Conclusiones: La estimación de riesgo de síndrome de Down basada únicamente en la edad materna avanzada determina una alta tasa de falsos positivos. Por lo que este marcador, unido a la evaluación de los marcadores ecográficos del primer trimestre para recalcular el riesgo individual, puede aumentar la efectividad en el diagnóstico y disminuir el número de pruebas invasivas(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: The prenatal investigation of chromosomal abnormalities through the use of epidemiological and echographic markers on the first trimester, allows to identify pregnant women with an increased risk of Down syndrome. Objectives: To analyze maternal age, nuchal translucency, venous ductus and nasal bone, during the first trimester screening, in pregnant women who underwent prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis, in order to evaluate effectiveness in early detection of Down syndrome and the value for reducing the number of invasive tests. Methods: A descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out and a sample of 3439 pregnant women was studied. The cytogenetic study ordered at Havana Provincial Center for Medical Genetics was carried out from January 3, 2006 to December 30, 2008. Results: Advanced maternal age showed 87 percent sensitivity and 99 percent of false positive rate. Nuchal translucency accounted 10 percent of sensitivity. The nasal bone showed no association with positive karyotypes for Down syndrome. A statistical association of the venous ductus presence could not be established since the search was not systematically. Conclusions: The estimation of Down syndrome risk based solely on advanced maternal age determines high false positive rate. Therefore, this marker, together with the evaluation of the first trimester ultrasound markers for recalculating the individual risk, can increase the diagnostic effectiveness and decrease the number of invasive tests(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Mass Screening/adverse effects , Down Syndrome/diagnosis , Nuchal Translucency Measurement/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Cytogenetics/methods
5.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 874-876, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the correlation between fetal nuchal fold (NF) thickening and fetal chromosomal abnormality.@*METHODS@#In total 919 pregnant women undergoing ultrasound examination were selected for interventional prenatal diagnosis in order to detect fetal chromosomal abnormality.@*RESULTS@#The detection rate of chromosomal abnormality has significantly increased with NF thickness, advanced maternal age, presence of other ultrasound abnormalities (P<0.05). Trisomy 21 was the most common abnormality, and there was a prepondance for male fetuses.@*CONCLUSION@#Increased NF thickness is strongly associated with the risk of fetal chromosomal abnormalities, advanced maternal age and presence of additional ultrasound abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Chromosome Aberrations , Fetus , Maternal Age , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
6.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 970-974, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776765

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and outcome of pregnancy for fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT).@*METHODS@#Between July 2014 and February 2018, 247 fetuses with increased NT (>95th centile)were analyzed by chromosome microarray analysis (CMA). The fetuses were divided into ones with isolated increased NT (168 cases), increased NT with cystic hygroma (20 cases), increased NT with edema (12 cases) or increased NT with other abnormalities (47 cases). All couples were followed up by telephone calls.@*RESULTS@#The rate of chromosomal abnormalities was 31.6% (78/247), which included 66 cases with chromosomal aneuploidies and 12 with copy number variants (CNVs). CNVs accounted for 31.4% (11/35) of total abnormalities among fetuses with isolated increased NT, whilst only 2.3% (1/43) of the total abnormalities among fetuses with non-isolated increased NT. Three fetuses with a normal CMA result had mental and physical retardation. Two of them were diagnosed with single gene disorders by whole exome sequencing.@*CONCLUSION@#CMA can detect more chromosomal microdeletion/microduplications among fetuses with isolated increased NT. Furthermore, fetuses with increased NT and anegative CMA result during pregnancy cannot exclude all adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Aneuploidy , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosomes , DNA Copy Number Variations , Edema , Fetus , Lymphangioma, Cystic , Microarray Analysis , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Pregnancy Outcome , Prenatal Diagnosis , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
7.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 434-438, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819029

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the prognosis of fetuses with cystic hygroma (CH) or nuchal translucency (NT) or nuchal fold (NF) thickening detected by prenatal echography.@*METHODS@#From January 2014 to December 2015, 124 fetuses with CH and NT/NF thickening on prenatal echography were enrolled from Women's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. The basic clinical information, ultrasonic results, pregnancy outcomes and newborn follow-ups were analyzed. The cases were grouped by prognosis and the factors affecting prognosis were analyzed with logistic regression.@*RESULTS@#There were 85 cases of labor induction including one stillbirth and 39 cases delivered. Except one infant who died after birth, all live births survived with good prognosis. Univariate analysis showed that the gestational age at diagnosis of poor prognosis group was earlier than that of good prognosis group (<0.01); and the former group also had higher hydrops fetalis rate and additional structural anomalies rate (all <0.01). Multivariate regression analysis showed that hydrops fetalis (=90.105, <0.05) and additional structural anomalies (=61.854, <0.05) were risk factors of poor prognosis in fetuses with CH and NT/NF thickening.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Fetuses with diagnosed CH or NT/NF thickening on prenatal ultrasonography are likely to be associated with chromosomal abnormality. Early gestational weeks, hydrops fetalis and additional structural anomalies may indicate poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Fetus , Hydrops Fetalis , Lymphangioma, Cystic , Diagnosis , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Pregnancy Outcome , Prognosis , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
8.
Journal of Genetic Medicine ; : 49-54, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719113

ABSTRACT

Nuchal translucency is an important indicator of an aneuploid fetus in prenatal diagnostics. Previously, only the presence of aneuploid could be confirmed by conventional karyotyping of fetuses with thick nuchal translucency. With the development of genetic diagnostic techniques, however, it has been reported that subtle variations not detectable by conventional karyotyping might occur in cases of pathologic clinical syndrome in euploid fetuses. One of the newer, high-resolution genetic methods in the prenatal setting is chromosomal microarray. The possible association between nuchal translucency thickness with normal karyotype and submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities detectable by microarray has been studied. How and when to apply microarray in clinical practice, however, is still debated. This article reviews the current studies on the clinical application of microarray in cases of increased nuchal translucency with normal karyotype for prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Aneuploidy , Chromosome Aberrations , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , Fetus , Karyotype , Karyotyping , Microarray Analysis , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Prenatal Diagnosis
9.
Journal of Genetic Medicine ; : 79-86, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719109

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as an alternative testing of invasive diagnostic testing in pregnancies with ultrasound abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of pregnant women with abnormal ultrasound findings before 24 weeks of gestation between April 2016 and March 2017. Abnormal ultrasound findings included isolated increased nuchal translucency, structural anomalies, and soft markers. The NIPT or diagnostic test was conducted and NIPT detected trisomy 21 (T21), T18, T13 and sex chromosomal abnormalities. We analyzed the false positive and residual risks of NIPT based on the ultrasound findings. RESULTS: During the study period, 824 pregnant women had abnormal ultrasound findings. Among the study population, 139 patients (16.9%) underwent NIPT. When NIPT was solely performed in the patients with abnormal ultrasound findings, overall false positive risk was 2.2% and this study found residual risks of NIPT. However, the discordant results of NIPT differed according to the type of abnormal ultrasound findings. Discordant results were significant in the group with structural anomalies with 4.4% false positive rate. However, no discordant results were found in the group with single soft markers. CONCLUSION: This study found different efficacy of NIPT according to the ultrasound findings. The results emphasize the importance of individualized counseling for prenatal screening or diagnostic test based on the type of abnormal ultrasound.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Chromosome Aberrations , Congenital Abnormalities , Counseling , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Down Syndrome , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography
11.
Journal of Genetic Medicine ; : 1-7, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114921

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of noninvasive prenatal screening for trisomy 18 by assessing the levels of unmethylated-maspin (U-maspin) and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness during the first trimester of pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted using maternal plasma samples collected from 65 pregnant women carrying 11 fetuses with trisomy 18 and 54 normal fetuses. We compared the U-maspin levels, NT thicknesses, or a combination of both in the first trimester between the case and control groups. RESULTS: U-maspin levels and NT thickness were significantly elevated in the first trimester in pregnant women carrying fetuses with trisomy 18 when compared to those carrying normal fetuses (27.2 vs. 6.6 copies/mL, P<0.001 for U-maspin; 5.9 vs. 2.0mm, P<0.001 for NT). The sensitivities of the U-maspin levels and NT thickness in prenatal screening for fetal trisomy 18 were 90.9% and 90.9%, respectively, with a specificity of 98.1%. The combined U-maspin levels and NT thickness had a sensitivity of 100% in prenatal screening for fetal trisomy 18, with a specificity of 98.1%. CONCLUSION: A combination of U-maspin levels and NT thickness is highly efficacious for noninvasive prenatal screening of fetal trisomy 18 in the first trimester of pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Case-Control Studies , Epigenomics , Fetus , Mass Screening , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Plasma , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Trisomy
12.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 81(4): 297-301, ago. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-795893

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analizar los resultados de los marcadores ecográficos secundarios (hueso nasal, onda a del ductus venoso y regurgitación tricuspídea) y valorar su efectividad para la detección de trisomía 21 y su utilidad para la reducción del número de pruebas invasivas. MÉTODOS: Tras la realización del test combinado de primer trimestre a toda paciente con un riesgo entre 1/101-1/1000 se realizó la valoración de los marcadores secundarios. RESULTADOS: Desde Enero de 2014 a Mayo de 2015 se realizaron 2.660 test combinados del primer trimestre valorándose la edad materna, la traslucencia nucal y la PAPP-A y ßhCG, teniendo una sensibilidad del 90% y una tasa de falsos positivos del 3,2%. Hubo 10 fetos con trisomía 21. La sensibilidad de hueso nasal, ductus venoso y regurgitación tricuspídea fue del 22,2%, 50% y 50% y la especificidad del 99,8%, 96,9% y 98,8% respectivamente. La sensibilidad global del test contingente fue del 90%, con una reducción de la tasa de falsos positivos al 1,6%, lo que se reduciría de 171 a 148 el número de amniocentesis. CONCLUSIÓN: El test contingente es una buena herramienta para reducir la tasa de falsos positivos respecto al test combinado sin disminuir la tasa de detección y con ello reducir la tasa de pruebas invasivas.


AIMS: To analyze the results of the secondary sonographic markers (nasal bone, wave ductus venosus and tricuspid regurgitation) and evaluate its effectiveness for the detection of trisomy 21 and thus reduce the number of invasive tests. METHODS: After completing the first trimester combined test, all patients with a risk between 1/101-1/1000 were evaluated the secondary sonographic markers. RESULTS: From January 2014 to May 2015 2660 combined test being assessed maternal age, nuchal translucency and PAPP-A and ßhCG were performed, with a sensitivity of 90% and a false positive rate of 3.2%. 10 fetuses with trisomy 21 were observed. The sensitivity of nasal bone, ductus venosus and tricuspid regurgitation was 22.2%, 50% and 50% and specificity was 99.8%, 96.9% and 98.8% respectively. The overall sensitivity of contingent test was 90%, with a reduction in false positive rate to 1.6%, which would decrease the number of amniocentesis from 171 to 148. CONCLUSION: The contingent test is a good tool to reduce the rate of false positives with respect to the combined test without decreasing the detection rate and thereby reduce the rate of invasive testing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods , Down Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/genetics , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Umbilical Veins/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers , Mass Screening , Sensitivity and Specificity , Maternal Age , Down Syndrome/diagnosis , Down Syndrome/genetics , Risk Assessment , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Amniocentesis , Karyotyping , Nasal Bone/diagnostic imaging
13.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 357-366, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129980

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to review the screening performance of combined test at the Ewha Womans University Mokdong hospital. METHODS: All women admitted for routine antenatal care between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2012 with a known pregnancy outcome were included in this study, totaling 1,156 women with singleton pregnancies presenting at 10 to 13 weeks of gestation. Women were offered screening using a combination of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, free β-human chorionic gonadotropin and fetal nuchal translucency thickness. Those with an estimated risk of ≥1 in 250 of carrying a fetus with trisomy 21 or ≥1 in 300 risk of trisomy 18 were offered genetic counseling with the option of an invasive diagnostic test. RESULTS: The median of gestational age was 11+3 weeks, the median of crown-rump length was 47.1 mm, and the median age of the women was 31 years. The detection rate was 80% for trisomy 21 (4 of 5) and 100% for trisomy 13 and 18 (all 2). The false-positive rate was 7.73% for trisomy 21 and 1.21% for trisomy 18. CONCLUSION: This study was the first large population study performed with the aim of analyzing the performance of the combined test in Korea. This study demonstrated that the detection rates and other figures of the first trimester combined test are comparable to the results reported in other papers worldwide. Consequently, if strict conditions for good screening outcomes are achieved, the first trimester combined test might well be the earliest detectable screening, improving detection rates without increasing karyotyping or economic and other implications that inevitably ensue.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy , Chorionic Gonadotropin , Chromosome Aberrations , Crown-Rump Length , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Down Syndrome , Fetus , Genetic Counseling , Gestational Age , Korea , Mass Screening , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A , Prenatal Diagnosis , Trisomy
14.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 357-366, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129965

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to review the screening performance of combined test at the Ewha Womans University Mokdong hospital. METHODS: All women admitted for routine antenatal care between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2012 with a known pregnancy outcome were included in this study, totaling 1,156 women with singleton pregnancies presenting at 10 to 13 weeks of gestation. Women were offered screening using a combination of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, free β-human chorionic gonadotropin and fetal nuchal translucency thickness. Those with an estimated risk of ≥1 in 250 of carrying a fetus with trisomy 21 or ≥1 in 300 risk of trisomy 18 were offered genetic counseling with the option of an invasive diagnostic test. RESULTS: The median of gestational age was 11+3 weeks, the median of crown-rump length was 47.1 mm, and the median age of the women was 31 years. The detection rate was 80% for trisomy 21 (4 of 5) and 100% for trisomy 13 and 18 (all 2). The false-positive rate was 7.73% for trisomy 21 and 1.21% for trisomy 18. CONCLUSION: This study was the first large population study performed with the aim of analyzing the performance of the combined test in Korea. This study demonstrated that the detection rates and other figures of the first trimester combined test are comparable to the results reported in other papers worldwide. Consequently, if strict conditions for good screening outcomes are achieved, the first trimester combined test might well be the earliest detectable screening, improving detection rates without increasing karyotyping or economic and other implications that inevitably ensue.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy , Chorionic Gonadotropin , Chromosome Aberrations , Crown-Rump Length , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Down Syndrome , Fetus , Genetic Counseling , Gestational Age , Korea , Mass Screening , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A , Prenatal Diagnosis , Trisomy
15.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 444-453, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50891

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To validate quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) via chorionic villus sampling (CVS) for the diagnosis of fetal aneuploidies. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of consecutive pregnant women who had undergone CVS at Cheil General Hospital between December 2009 and June 2014. Only cases with reported QF-PCR before long-term culture (LTC) for conventional cytogenetic analysis were included, and the results of these two methods were compared. RESULTS: A total of 383 pregnant women underwent QF-PCR and LTC via CVS during the study period and 403 CVS specimens were collected. The indications of CVS were as follows: abnormal first-trimester ultrasonographic findings, including increased fetal nuchal translucency (85.1%), advanced maternal age (6.8%), previous history of fetal anomalies (4.2%), and positive dual test results for trisomy 21 (3.9%). The results of QF-PCR via CVS were as follows: 76 (18.9%) cases were identified as trisomy 21 (36 cases), 18 (33 cases), or 13 (seven cases), and 4 (1.0%) cases were suspected to be mosaicism. All results of common autosomal trisomies by QF-PCR were consistent with those of LTC and there were no false-positive findings. Four cases suspected as mosaicism in QF-PCR were confirmed as non-mosaic trisomies of trisomy 21 (one case) or trisomy 18 (three cases) in LTC. CONCLUSION: QF-PCR via CVS has the advantage of rapid prenatal screening at an earlier stage of pregnancy for common chromosomal trisomies and thus can reduce the anxiety of parents. In particular, it can be helpful for pregnant women with increased fetal nuchal translucency or abnormal first-trimester ultrasonographic findings.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Aneuploidy , Anxiety , Chorion , Chorionic Villi Sampling , Chorionic Villi , Cytogenetic Analysis , Diagnosis , Down Syndrome , Fluorescence , Hospitals, General , Maternal Age , Medical Records , Mosaicism , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Parents , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Trisomy
16.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 1003-1010, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221430

ABSTRACT

Ultrasonography in obstetrics is increasingly used for the screening of chromosomal abnormalities as well as for prenatal diagnosis of congenital abnormalities with safety and technological advancements. In the first trimester, it is important to confirm normal intrauterine pregnancy with viability, detect the abnormalities of uterus and adnexa, determine the number of fetuses and assess chorionicity and amnionicity in case of multiple pregnancy. After establishment of gestational age accurately by crown-rump length, thickened fetal nuchal translucency, absence of nasal bone, tricuspid regurgitation, reverse a wave of ductus venosus and cystic hygroma can be markers for screening of chromosomal abnormalities. In addition, the scan also offers an opportunity to detect gross structural abnormalities, which could help improve the prognosis by early prenatal intervention. In the second trimester, aneuploidy (trisomy 21, 18, 13, Turner syndrome) and genetic syndromes could be detected by major structural defects and soft markers. It is important to consider that many malformations may not be detected prenatally even by qualified practitioners and appropriate equipment, and to counsel patients about the potential for false-positive or false-negative results.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Amnion , Aneuploidy , Chorion , Chromosome Aberrations , Congenital Abnormalities , Crown-Rump Length , Fetus , Gestational Age , Lymphangioma, Cystic , Mass Screening , Nasal Bone , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Obstetrics , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Pregnancy, Multiple , Prenatal Diagnosis , Prognosis , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency , Trisomy , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Uterus
17.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 1-9, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221370

ABSTRACT

A first-trimester ultrasound scan has become an essential part of antenatal care. The Korean Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology held a first-trimester ultrasound forum on April 5, 2014. The forum aimed to present an updated review of the literature on the topic of first-trimester ultrasound in specific lectures and to host a panel discussion on several important issues regarding first-trimester scans. The forum provided evidence- and consensus-based best practice patterns for obstetricians in Korea. Here, we report the review and checklists presented from the forum.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Checklist , Gynecology , Korea , Lecture , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Obstetrics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Ultrasonography
18.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 370-374, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239467

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the genetic etiology for fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT) but a normal karyotype at whole genome level by chromosome microarray analysis (CMA).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Seventy-eight fetuses with increased NT (≥ 3.0 mm) but a normal karyotype were collected between 11(+0) and 13(+6) gestational weeks. Genomic DNA was extracted, and microarray testing was performed using Affymetrix CytoScan(TM) HD arrays. The data was analyzed by CHAS software. All detected copy number variations (CNVs) were confirmed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The CMA assay has detected pathogenic CNVs in 6 fetuses (7.69%), which have ranged from 0.41 Mb to 15.87 Mb. Well-known microdeletion or microduplication syndromes including Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, 22q11 microdeletion syndrome and ATR-16 syndrome were identified in three cases. The detection rates in fetuses with or without structural abnormalities were 18.18% and 5.97%, respectively (P=0.198 with Fisher's Exact Test). The average NT in fetuses with pathogenic CNVs and non-pathogenic CNVs has measured 4.48 mm and 4.22 mm (P=0.735 by Mann-Whitney Test).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>For fetuses with increased NT, CMA can identify chromosomal microdeletion/microduplication unrecognizable by conventional karyotyping analysis. It may therefore play an important role in prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling by improving the diagnostic rate.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosome Disorders , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Genetics , Fetal Diseases , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Genetics , Karyotype , Karyotyping , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Prenatal Diagnosis
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1345-1351, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185885

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of the deviation from the mid-sagittal plane, fetal image size, tissue harmonic imaging (THI), and speckle reduction filter (SRF) on the measurement of the nuchal translucency (NT) thickness using Volume NT(TM) software. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 79 pregnant women, NT was measured using Volume NT(TM). Firstly, the three-dimensional volumes were categorized based on the angle of deviation in 10degrees intervals from the mid-sagittal plane. Secondly, the operator downsized the fetal image to less than 50% of the screen (Method A) and by magnifying the image (Method B). Next, the image was magnified until the fetal head and thorax occupied 75% of the screen, and the NT was measured (Method C). Lastly, NT values were acquired with THI and SRF functions on, with each function alternately on, and with both functions off. RESULTS: The mean differences in NT measurements were -0.09 mm (p<0.01) between two-dimensional (2D) and a deviation of 31-40degrees and -0.10 mm (p<0.01) between 2D and 41-50degrees. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for 2D-NT and NT according to image size were 0.858, 0.923, and 0.928 for methods A, B, and C, respectively. The ICC for 2D-NT and NT with respect to the THI and SRF were 0.786, 0.761, 0.740, and 0.731 with both functions on, THI only, SRF only, and with both functions off, respectively. CONCLUSION: NT measurements made using Volume NT(TM) are affected by angle deviation from the mid-sagittal plane and fetal image size. Additionally, the highest correlation with 2D-NT was achieved when THI and SRF functions were used.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Embryo, Mammalian/diagnostic imaging , Image Enhancement/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Nuchal Translucency Measurement/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Software
20.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 950-955, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-312660

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish the normal reference ranges of transabdominal ultrasound measurements of the posterior fossa structure in fetuses at 11 to 13⁺⁶ gestational weeks and explore their clinical value in screening open spina bifida (OSB).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Between January, 2013 and September, 541 randomly selected normal fetuses underwent nuchal translucency at the gestational age 11 to 13⁺⁶ weeks. The parameters of the posterior fossa were measured in mid-sagittal view of the fetal face and the axial view of the transverse cerebellum insonated through the anterior fontanel by transabdominal ultrasound to establish the normal reference ranges. The measurements were obtained from 3 fetuses with OSB for comparison with the reference ranges.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In normal fetuses, the parameters of the posterior fossa measured in the two views showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Two high echogenic lines were observed in normal fetuses, as compared with one in fetuses with OSB representing the posterior border of the brain stem and the anterior border of the fourth ventricle. The line between the posterior border of the fourth ventricle and the anterior border of the cisterna magna was not displayed in fetuses with OSB. The anteroposterior diameters of the brain stem, the fourth ventricle, and cisterna magna all increased in positive correlation with the crown-lump length in normal fetuses. In the 3 OSB fetuses, the anteroposterior diameter of the brain stem exceeded the 95th percentile and the anteroposterior diameter of fourth ventrical-cisterner magena was below the 5th percentile of the reference range for CRL; the brain stem to fourth ventrical-cisterner magena anteroposterior diameter ratio was increased to above 1.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The established normal reference ranges of the parameters of fetal posterior fossa may provide assistance in early OSB detection. The absence of the posterior border of the fourth ventricle and the anterior border of the cisterna magna and a brainstem to fourth ventrical-cisterner magena anteroposterior diameter ratio greater than 1 can be indicative of OSB at 11 to 13⁺⁶ gestational weeks.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Brain Stem , Cerebellum , Cisterna Magna , Cranial Fossa, Posterior , Fourth Ventricle , Gestational Age , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Reference Values , Spina Bifida Cystica , Diagnostic Imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
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