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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 318-336, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970377

ABSTRACT

Olfactory epithelium, which detects and transmits odor signals, is critical for the function of olfactory system. Olfactory epithelium is able to recover spontaneously after injury under normal circumstances, but this ability is dampened in certain diseases or senility, which causes olfactory dysfunction. The olfactory epithelium consists of basal cells, sustentacular cells and olfactory sensory neurons. In order to develop an olfactory epithelial organoid containing multiple olfactory cell types in vitro, we used three-dimensional culture model and small molecules screening. This organoid system consists of horizontal basal-like cells, globose basal-like cells, sustentacular-like cells and olfactory sensory neurons-like cells. Through statistical analysis of clone diameter, immunofluorescence staining and qPCR detection of the expression level of related marker genes. We identified a series of growth factors and small molecule compounds that affected the proliferation, composition and gene expression of the organoids. CHIR-99021, an activator of Wnt signaling pathway, increased the colony formation and proliferation rate of olfactory epithelial organoids and the expression level of marker genes of olfactory sensory neurons-like cells. In addition, each factor in the culture system increased the proportion of c-Kit-positive globose basal-like cell colonies in organoids. Moreover, EGF and vitamin C were both beneficial to the expression of horizontal basal-like cell marker genes in organoids. The established olfactory epithelial organoid system mimicked the process of olfactory epithelial stem cells differentiating into various olfactory epithelial cell types, thus providing a research model for studying olfactory epithelial tissue regeneration, the pathological mechanism of olfactory dysfunction and drug screening for olfactory dysfunction treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Olfactory Mucosa/metabolism , Epithelial Cells , Organoids/metabolism , Olfaction Disorders/metabolism
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1574-1578, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421819

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Cadmium is a highly toxic metal and affects the respiratory mucosa. The aim of the study is to show the inflammation and degenerative effect of cadmium on the olfactory mucosa. In this study, eight-week-old Wistar rats with an average weight of 170-190 g were divided into two groups (control and experiment) with 20 animals in each group and used in the experiments. The rats in the experimental group were given 2 mg/kg/day powdered cadmium chloride dissolved in water intraperitoneally every day for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, the nasal cavity was completely removed with anesthesia. Concha nasalis superior was separated, fixed with zinc-Formalin solution and decalcified with 5 % EDTA (Ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid). After routine histopathological procedure, APAF-1 antibody was used for expression of Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry. Histopathological examination revealed interruptions in the basement membrane structure due to cadmium and degenerative changes in stem cells, degeneration in sensory cells and pycnosis in nuclei, dilatation in blood vessels and increased inflammation in connective tissue. APAF-1 expression was found to increase in epithelial cells and olfactory glands (Bowman gland) cells. It has been thought that cadmium toxicity increases cell degeneration and inflammation in the olfactory mucosa and may significantly affect cell death and olfactory metabolism by inducing the pro-apoptotic process.


El cadmio es un metal altamente tóxico que afecta la mucosa respiratoria. El objetivo fue mostrar el efecto inflamatorio y degenerativo del cadmio sobre la mucosa olfativa. En este estudio, ratas Wistar de ocho semanas de edad con un peso promedio de 170-190 g se dividieron en dos grupos (control y experimental) con 20 animales en cada grupo. Las ratas del grupo experimental recibieron 2 mg/kg/día de cloruro de cadmio en polvo disuelto en agua por vía intraperitoneal todos los días durante dos semanas. En los animales se exirpó la cavidad nasal bajo anestesia. Se separó la concha nasal superior, se fijó con solución de zinc-Formalina y se descalcificó con EDTA (ácido etilendiaminotetraacético) al 5 %. Después del procedimiento histopatológico de rutina, Hematoxilina- Eosina (HE) e inmunohistoquímica, se utilizó el anticuerpo APAF-1. El examen histopatológico reveló interrupciones en la estructura de la membrana basal debido al cadmio y cambios degenerativos en las células madre, degeneración en las células sensoriales y picnosis en los núcleos, dilatación de los vasos sanguíneos y aumento de la inflamación en el tejido conjuntivo. Se encontró que la expresión de APAF-1 aumenta en las células epiteliales y en las células de las glándulas olfatorias (glándulas de Bowman). Se ha pensado que la toxicidad del cadmio aumenta la degeneración celular y la inflamación en la mucosa olfativa y puede afectar significativamente la muerte celular y el metabolismo olfativo al inducir el proceso proapoptótico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Olfactory Mucosa/drug effects , Olfactory Mucosa/pathology , Cadmium Chloride/toxicity , Administration, Intranasal , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1
3.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 12-16, ene. 28, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1354268

ABSTRACT

El neuroblastoma olfativo, también conocido como estesioneuroblastoma, es un tumor derivado de la capa basal del epitelio olfativo. Se presenta como una masa de tejido blando en la porción superior de la cavidad nasal que involucra las células de aire etmoides anteriores y medias en un lado y se extiende a través de la placa cribiforme en la fosa craneal anterior, es poco frecuente y representa menos del 3 % de las neoplasias intranasales. De acuerdo con la evolución epidemiológica, su distribución por edades es bimodal con un pico en pacientes adultos en la segunda década de la vida y otro en los quinta y sexta, sin existir predilección por género reconocida


Olfactory neuroblastoma, also known as esthesioneuroblastoma, is a tumor derived from the basal layer of the olfactory epithelium. It presents as a soft tissue mass in the upper portion of the nasal cavity that involves the anterior and middle ethmoid air cells on one side and extends through the cribriform plate in the anterior cranial fossa, it is rare and represents less 3% of intranasal neoplasms. According to the epidemiological evolution, its age distribution is bimodal with a peak in adult patients in the second decade of life and another in the fifth and sixth, with no recognized gender predilection


Subject(s)
Olfactory Mucosa , Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory , Epithelium , Nasal Cavity , Patients , Air , Neoplasms
4.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 111 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396973

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar as consequências moleculares e funcionais da falta da proteína Ric8b no epitélio olfatório de camundongos. Para esse fim, comparamos o transcriptoma de epitélio olfatório de camundongos knock-out tecido específico para a proteína RIC8B (Ric8b cKO) com o dos seus irmãos tipo selvagem (WT). Identificamos muitos genes que apresentaram expressão reduzida no epitélio olfatório do camundongo Ric8b cKO, mas também vários genes que apresentaram a sua expressão aumentada. A maioria dos genes com expressão reduzida corresponde a genes normalmente expressos em neurônios olfatórios maduros, como por exemplo os genes de receptores olfatórios, o que é compatível com o fato já conhecido de que os camundongos Ric8b cKO apresentam um menor número desses neurônios. Inesperadamente, apesar de a maioria dos genes de receptores olfatórios ter a sua expressão diminuída no camundongo Ric8b cKO, observamos que um grupo destes genes de receptores teve a sua expressão aumentada. Os camundongos Ric8b cKO apresentaram também genes marcadores de outros tipos celulares que não neurônios canônicos com expressão aumentada no seu epitélio olfatório. Dentre eles, os mais significativamente alterados foram os genes marcadores de neurônios Trpc2+ tipo B (que expressam a guanilato ciclase solúvel Gucy1b2). Sabe-se que este tipo de neurônio é responsável pela sensibilidade a diferentes gases, e concordantemente, observamos que os camundongos Ric8b cKO apresentaram um aumento da sensibilidade a gás carbônico. Como o olfato apresenta um papel importante na regulação de ingestão alimentar, analisamos como os camundongos Ric8b cKO se comportam frente a diferentes dietas. Interessantemente, observamos que esses animais não apresentam preferência por alimento rico em gorduras quando comparado aos seus irmãos tipo selvagem. Nossos resultados sugerem, portanto, que a ausência da proteína RIC8B resulta na alteração de representatividade de neurônios canônicos e não canônicos no epitélio olfatório de camundongos, o que por sua vez leva a alterações funcionais e comportamentais


The objective of this work was to identify the molecular and functional consequences of the lack of the RIC8B protein in the main olfactory epithelium of mice. To this end, we compared the olfactory epithelium transcriptome of Ric8b tissue-specific knock-out mice (Ric8b cKO) with that of their wild-type littermates (WT). We identified many genes with differential expression, many of which were downregulated and also some which were upregulated in the olfactory epithelium of the Ric8b cKO mice. Most of the downregulated genes correspond to genes normally expressed in mature olfactory sensory neurons, such as olfactory receptor genes. This is compatible with the already known fact that the Ric8b cKO mice have less of this kind of neuron. Unexpectedly, even though most of the olfactory receptor genes were downregulated, we observed a subset of these genes that had their expression upregulated in the Ric8b cKO mice. The Ric8b cKO mice also showed upregulation for genes that are markers for cell types other than canonic neurons in their olfactory epithelium. Among these, the most significantly altered were the markers for neurons Trpc2+ type B (that express the soluble guanylate cyclase Gucy1b2). It is known that this kind of neuron is responsible for sensitivity to different gases. Accordingly, we observed that the Ric8b cKO mice presented a higher sensitivity to carbon dioxide. Since olfaction has an important role in food intake, we analyzed how the Ric8b cKO mice behaved with different diets. Interestingly, we observed that the Ric8b cKO mice lack preference for high fat diet when compared to their wild-type littermates. Our results indicate, therefore, that the lack of the RIC8B protein results in altered representativity of canonic and non-canonic neurons in the olfactory epithelium of mice, which then leads to altered function and behavior


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Olfactory Mucosa/abnormalities , Receptors, Odorant/agonists , Olfactory Receptor Neurons , Mice, Knockout , Feeding Behavior/classification , Neurons/chemistry , Absenteeism
5.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(5): 525-533, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132644

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Olfactory ensheathing cell is a unique kind of glia cells, which can promote axon growth. Little is known about the differences between olfactory mucosa olfactory ensheathing cells and olfactory bulb olfactory ensheathing cells in the capability to promote nerve regeneration. Objective: To study the recovery of the rat facial nerve after olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation, and to compare the differences between the facial nerve regeneration of olfactory mucosa-olfactory ensheathing cells and olfactory bulb olfactory bulb olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation. Methods: Institutional ethical guideline was followed (201510129A). Olfactory mucosa-olfactory ensheathing cells and olfactory bulb olfactory ensheathing cells were cultured and harvested after 7 days in vitro. 36 Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three different groups depending on the transplanting cells: Group A: olfactory mucosa-olfactory ensheathing cells; Group B: olfactory bulb olfactory ensheathing cells; Group C: DF-12 medium/fetal bovine serum. The main trunk of the facial nerve was transected and both stumps were inserted into a polylactic acid/chitosan conduit, then the transplanted cells were injected into the collagen in the conduits. After 4 and 8 weeks after the transplant, the rats of the three groups were scarified and the facial function score, facial nerve evoked potentials, histology analysis, and fluorescent retrograde tracing were tested and recorded, respectively, to evaluate the facial nerve regeneration and to analysis the differences among the three groups. Results: Olfactory ensheathing cells can promote the facial nerve regeneration. Compared with olfactory bulb olfactory ensheathing cells, olfactory mucosa olfactory ensheathing cells were more effective in promoting facial nerve regeneration, and this difference was more significant 8 weeks after the transplantation than 4 weeks. Conclusion: We discovered that olfactory ensheathing cells with nerve conduit could improve the facial nerve recovery, and the olfactory mucosa olfactory ensheathing cells are more effective for facial nerve regeneration compared with olfactory bulb olfactory ensheathing cells 8 weeks after the transplantation. These results could cast new light in the therapy of facial nerve defect, and furnish the foundation of auto-transplantation of olfactory mucosa olfactory ensheathing cells in periphery nerve injury.


Resumo Introdução: A célula embainhante olfatória é um tipo especial de célula glial que pode promover o crescimento do axônio. Pouco se sabe sobre as diferenças entre as células embainhantes olfatórias da mucosa olfatória e as células embainhantes olfatórias do bulbo olfatório em relação à sua capacidade de promover a regeneração nervosa. Objetivo: Estudar a regeneração do nervo facial de ratos após o transplante de células embainhantes olfatórias e comparar as diferenças entre a regeneração do nervo facial com o transplante de células embainhantes olfatórias da mucosa olfatória e de células embainhantes olfatórias do bulbo olfatório. Método: As recomendações éticas da instituição (201510129A) foram seguidas. Células embainhantes olfatórias da mucosa olfatória e células embainhantes olfatórias do bulbo olfatório foram cultivadas in vitro e coletadas após sete dias. Trinta e seis ratos Sprague Dawley machos foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos, dependeu das células transplantadas: Grupo A, células embainhantes olfatórias da mucosa olfatória; Grupo B, células embainhantes olfatórias do bulbo olfatório; Grupo C, meio de DF-12/soro fetal bovino. O tronco principal do nervo facial foi seccionado e ambos os cotos foram inseridos em um conduto de ácido polilático/quitosana; em seguida, as células transplantadas foram injetadas em colágeno nos condutos. Após quatro e oito semanas do transplante, os ratos dos três grupos foram agitados para a obtenção do escore da função facial, potenciais evocados do nervo facial, análise histológica e marcador fluorescente retrógrado, que foram testados e registrados, respectivamente, para avaliar a regeneração do nervo facial e analisar as diferenças entre os três grupos. Resultados: Células embainhantes olfatórias podem promover a regeneração do nervo facial. Em comparação com as células embainhantes olfatórias do bulbo olfatório, as células embainhantes olfatórias da mucosa olfatória foram mais eficazes na promoção da regeneração do nervo facial e essa diferença foi mais significativa oito semanas após o transplante em comparação com quatro semanas. Conclusão: Verificamos que células embainhantes olfatórias com conduto nervoso podem melhorar a recuperação do nervo facial e as células embainhantes olfatórias da mucosa olfatória são mais eficazes para a regeneração do nervo facial em comparação com as células embainhantes olfatórias do bulbo olfatório oito semanas após o transplante. Esses resultados podem lançar uma nova luz no tratamento de defeitos do nervo facial e fornecer a base do autotransplante de células embainhantes olfatórias da mucosa olfatória em lesões do nervo periférico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Facial Nerve , Nerve Regeneration , Olfactory Bulb , Olfactory Mucosa , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1463-1472, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134463

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is an accessory organ involved on the olfactory pathway, that detects pheromones and emits signals in order to modulate social and reproductive behavior. The VNO stem cells replace neurons throughout life. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize cells derived from the vomeronasal organ from New Zealand rabbits. Five male rabbits with 120 days were used for cell isolation and culture. Results: VNO-derived cells presented labelling for proliferation (PCNA), undifferentiated profile (Nanog), neuronal (GFAP), mesenchymal stem cells (CD73, CD90 and CD105 and Stro-1). Also, presence of cytoskeletal (Vimentin, b-tubulin and CK-18) and absence of hematopoietic markers (CD34, CD117 and CD45) both by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. By PCR it was possible to verify the expression of some undifferentiated profile (Oct-4), neuronal (Nestin) and mesenchymal (CD73, CD105 and Vimentin) genes. Functionally, VNO-derived cells differentiate in vitro into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes, and presented no tumorigenic potential when injected to Balb/c nu/nu mice. In conclusion, the rabbit VNO-derived cells have a profile that could be supportive to VNO olfactory/neuroreceptor epithelium by delivering factors to epithelial turnover or even by differentiation into epithelial cells to replacement of commissural epithelium.


RESUMEN: El órgano vomeronasal (OVN) es un órgano accesorio de la vía olfatoria, que detecta feromonas y emite señales que afectan la modulación del comportamiento social y reproductivo. Las células madre OVN reemplazan las neuronas durante toda la vida. El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar y caracterizar células derivadas del órgano vomeronasal de conejos raza Nueva Zelanda. Para el aislamiento y el cultivo celular se utilizaron cinco conejos machos con una edad de 120 días. Las células del OVN presentaron etiquetado para la proliferación (PCNA), un perfil indiferenciado (Nanog), neuronal (GFAP), células madre mesenquimales (CD73, CD90 y CD105 y Stro-1). Además, se ob- servó presencia de citoesqueleto (Vimentina, β-tubulina y CK-18) y ausencia de marcadores hematopoyéticos (CD34, CD117 y CD45) tanto por inmunofluorescencia como por citometría de flujo. Me- diante PCR fue posible verificar la expresión de algunos genes de perfil indiferenciado (Oct-4), neuronal (Nestin) y mesenquimatoso (CD73, CD105 y Vimentin). Las células derivadas del OVN se diferencian in vitro en adipocitos, osteocitos y condrocitos, y no presentan un potencial tumorigénico al ser infiltrados en ratones Balb / c nu / nu. En conclusión, las células derivadas de OVN de conejo tienen un perfil que podría ser compatible con el epitelio olfatorio / neurorreceptor de OVN transmitiendo factores al recambio epitelial o incluso mediante la diferenciación en células epiteliales para reemplazar el epitelio comisural.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Vomeronasal Organ/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Olfactory Bulb/cytology , Stem Cells/physiology , Olfactory Mucosa/cytology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Flow Cytometry , Neurons/physiology
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(1): 72-88, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089106

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The olfactory neuro-epithelium has an intrinsic capability of renewal during lifetime provided by the existence of globose and horizontal olfactory precursor cells. Additionally, mesenchymal stromal olfactory cells also support the homeostasis of the olfactory mucosa cell population. Under in vitro culture conditions with Dulbecco modified eagle/F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, tissue biopsies from upper turbinate have generated an adherent population of cells expressing mainly mesenchymal stromal phenotypic markers. A closer examination of these cells has also found co-expression of olfactory precursors and ensheathing cell phenotypic markers. These results were suggestive of a unique property of olfactory mesenchymal stromal cells as potentially olfactory progenitor cells. Objective: To study whether the expression of these proteins in mesenchymal stromal cells is modulated upon neuronal differentiation. Materials and methods: We observed the phenotype of olfactory stromal cells under DMEM/F12 plus 10% fetal bovine serum in comparison to cells from spheres induced by serum-free medium plus growth factors inducers of neural progenitors. Results: The expression of mesenchymal stromal (CD29+, CD73+, CD90+, CD45-), horizontal basal (ICAM-1/CD54+, p63+, p75NGFr+), and ensheathing progenitor cell (nestin+, GFAP+) proteins was determined in the cultured population by flow cytometry. The determination of Oct 3/4, Sox-2, and Mash-1 transcription factors, as well as the neurotrophins BDNF, NT3, and NT4 by RT-PCR in cells, was indicative of functional heterogeneity of the olfactory mucosa tissue sample. Conclusions: Mesenchymal and olfactory precursor proteins were downregulated by serum-free medium and promoted differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells into neurons and astroglial cells.


Introducción. El recambio celular del neuroepitelio olfatorio ocurre durante la vida del individuo gracias a precursores olfatorios. Además, las células mesenquimales del estroma también contribuyen a la homeostasis de la mucosa. Cuando un explante de una biopsia de mucosa se cultiva en un medio esencial mínimo, se genera una población predominante de células adherentes que expresan proteínas típicas de las células mesenquimales del estroma. La coexpresión de marcadores fenotípicos de precursores olfatorios y de células del recubrimiento del nervio olfatorio constituiría una propiedad única de las células mesenquimales del estroma. Objetivo. Determinar si la diferenciación celular de las células mesenquimales hacia fenotipos neurales modula la expresión de los marcadores mesenquimales característicos. Materiales y métodos. Se compararon las células aisladas de la mucosa olfatoria en un medio de cultivo con suplemento de 10 % de suero fetal bovino con esferas generadas en un medio sin suero más factores de crecimiento. Resultados. Se determinó la expresión de proteínas de las células mesenquimales del estroma (CD29+, CD73+, CD90+, CD45-), de las basales horizontales (ICAM-1/CD54+, p63+, p75NGFr+), y de las del recubrimiento del nervio olfatorio (nestin+, GFAP+) en la misma población cultivada. La determinación de Oct 3/4, Sox-2 y Mash-1, así como de las neurotrofinas BDNF, NT3 y NT4, sugirió que las células del estroma son funcionales. La expresión de las proteínas de las células mesenquimales y los precursores olfatorios, disminuyó en las células de las mesenesferas inducidas por ausencia de suero en el medio de cultivo. Conclusión. Las células mesenquimales del estroma de la mucosa olfatoria presentan una tendencia dominante hacia la diferenciación neural.


Subject(s)
Olfactory Mucosa , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Homeostasis
8.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 110-124, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762179

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the severity of olfactory disturbance (OD) in the murine model of allergic rhinitis (AR) and local allergic rhinitis (LAR) in mice. We also investigated the therapeutic effect of an intranasal steroid on OD. METHODS: Forty BALB/c mice were divided into 5 groups (n = 8 for each). The control group was sensitized intraperitoneally (i.p.) and challenged intranasally (i.n.) with saline. Mice in the AR group got i.p. and i.n. ovalbumin (OVA) administration for AR induction. The LAR group was challenged i.n. with 1% OVA for inducing local nasal allergic inflammation, without inducing the systemic allergy. The OD group got an i.p. methimazole administration (75 mg/kg) to induce total destruction of olfactory mucosa. Mice in the intranasal budesonide group received i.n. budesonide (12.8 μg per time, 30 minutes after the i.n. OVA challenge) while using OVA to cause systemic allergies. We conducted a buried-food pellet test to functionally assess the degree of OD in each group by measuring the time taken until finding hidden food. We evaluated the damage to olfactory epithelium using histopathologic evaluation and compared the degree of olfactory marker protein (OMP) expression in olfactory epithelium using immunofluorescent staining. RESULTS: Mice of the AR (81.3 ± 19.8 seconds) and LAR groups (66.2 ± 12.7 seconds) spent significantly more time to detect the pellets than the control group (35.6 ± 12.2 seconds, P < 0.01). After treatment, the intranasal budesonide group exhibited significantly better results (35.8 ± 11.9 seconds) compared with the AR and LAR groups (P < 0.01). The AR and LAR groups showed considerable olfactory epithelial damage and suppression of OMP expression compared with the control group. In the intranasal budesonide group, the olfactory lesions and OMP expression had improved substantially. CONCLUSIONS: OD may be caused by olfactory epithelial damage and suppression of OMP expression in nasal allergic inflammation and could be reversed using an intranasal steroid.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Budesonide , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , Methimazole , Olfaction Disorders , Olfactory Marker Protein , Olfactory Mucosa , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Quality of Life , Rhinitis, Allergic , Steroids
9.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 1-7, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766208

ABSTRACT

The olfactory epithelium is capable of structural and functional recovery after injury through neurogenesis. Neurogenesis occurs via stem cells in the olfactory epithelium. Horizontal basal cells and globose basal cells in the basal layer of the epithelium have the characteristics of stem cells and progenitor cells of olfactory neurons. In order for the horizontal basal cells and globose basal cells to differentiate into olfactory neurons, distinct transcriptional factors are required at each stage. These transcription factors inhibit or synergize with each other or cells at each differentiation stage, regulating olfactory neurogenesis. Recently, the regulation of neurogenesis and development through epigenetic controls that change gene expression without changing the gene sequence have been studied. Studies of olfactory epithelium have helped to elucidate complex neurological systems including spinal cord and brain. In particular, features of neurogenesis will lead to medical advances in the treatment of central nervous diseases, which until this time have been considered impossible.


Subject(s)
Brain , Epigenomics , Epithelium , Gene Expression , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Olfactory Mucosa , Spinal Cord , Stem Cells , Transcription Factors
10.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 2-9, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713226

ABSTRACT

Olfactory receptors (ORs) in mammals are generally considered to function as chemosensors in the olfactory organs of animals. They are membrane proteins that traverse the cytoplasmic membrane seven times and work generally by coupling to heterotrimeric G protein. The OR is a G protein–coupled receptor that binds the guanine nucleotide-binding G(αolf) subunit and the Gβγ dimer to recognize a wide spectrum of organic compounds in accordance with its cognate ligand. Mammalian ORs were originally identified from the olfactory epithelium of rat. However, it has been recently reported that the expression of ORs is not limited to the olfactory organ. In recent decades, they have been found to be expressed in diverse organs or tissues and even tumors in mammals. In this review, the expression and expected function of olfactory receptors that exist throughout an organism's system are discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cell Membrane , Ectopic Gene Expression , GTP-Binding Proteins , Guanine , Mammals , Membrane Proteins , Olfactory Mucosa
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(2): 413-419, June 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892996

ABSTRACT

Surgical techniques for treatment of sensory neural hearing loss (SNHL) have unpredictable outcomes and in recent years cell therapy investigated for treatment of SNHL. Olfactory epithelium proceed neurogenesis during life time and provide an easily accessible source of neural stem cells. So the aim of this study was isolating neural stem cells from olfactory epithelium of rat and differentiation of these cells into hair cells of inner ear in vitro. The epithelium tissue of olfactory mucosa of rats were removed and digested by collagenase H. The digested tissue was cultured in flasks in suspension forms to create spheres. Spheres were passaged and from passage 2 spheres selected for differentiation. At this stage cells of spheres isolated from each other and placed in flask containing defined differentiation medium. Cells at this stage cultured in adhesive form. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR were used for neural stem cells and hair cells identification. Spheres formed from olfactory epithelium culture and immunohistochemistry revealed that cells of spheres from passage one and two expressed the neural stem cells markers. After culture of isolated cells in differentiation medium, the morphology of cells begun to change. The cells presented neural cells projections and after 10 days the projections elongated more and interact to each other in multi layers. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that differentiated cells expressed hair cells specific genes. In this study we showed that neural stem cells of olfactory epithelium can differentiate into hair cells of inner ear and therefore can be used for treatment of SNHL.


Las técnicas quirúrgicas para el tratamiento de la pérdida auditiva neural sensorial (PANS) tienen resultados impredecibles y en los últimos años la terapia celular ha sido investigada para su tratamiento. El epitelio olfatorio se forma durante la neurogénesis y proporciona una fuente fácilmente accesible de células madre neurales. El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar las células madre neurales del epitelio olfativo de la rata y la diferenciación de estas células en vestibulocitos del oído interno in vitro. Se retiró el tejido del epitelio de la mucosa olfatoria de ratas y fue digerido con colagenasa H. El tejido se cultivó en forma de suspensión para crear esferas. Se seleccionaron dos esferas para la diferenciación. En esta fase, las células de esferas fueron aisladas unas de otras y colocadas en un medio de diferenciación definido. Células en esta etapa fueron cultivadas en forma adhesiva. Inmunohistoquímica y RT-PCR se utilizó para las células madre neurales y la identificación de células ciliadas. Las esferas formadas a partir del cultivo del epitelio olfatorio y la inmunohistoquímica revelaron que las células de esferas en etapas uno y dos expresaban los marcadores de células madre neurales. Se observaron cambios en la morfología de las células después del cultivo de células aisladas. RT-PCR e inmunohistoquímica revelaron que las células diferenciadas expresaron células específicas de gen de vestibulocitos. Se observó que las células madre neuronales de epitelio olfatorio puede diferenciarse en células en forma de cabello del oído interno y por lo tanto puede ser utilizado para el tratamiento de PANS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/surgery , Neural Stem Cells/transplantation , Olfactory Mucosa/cytology , Cell Differentiation , Immunohistochemistry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(8): 787-792, Aug. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-798001

ABSTRACT

O epitélio olfatório (EO) é uma fonte promissora de células-tronco (CTEO) para o uso terapêutico na medicina veterinária e humana, especialmente em doenças correlacionadas com o sistema nervoso periférico (medula espinhal) e central (cérebro e tronco encefálico) , pois as CTEO possuem a capacidade de se diferenciar em células do sistema nervoso, tais como: neurônios, oligodendrócitos e astrócitos. Em humanos estas células são utilizadas em ensaios terapêuticos de doenças degenerativas como o Alzheimer e Parkinson. Em animais a casuística relativa das doenças neurodegenerativas crônicas ou agudas é baixa, devido à dificuldade de diagnóstico definitivo, desta forma o enfoque das pesquisas com terapia celular são em sua grande maioria em lesões mecânicas na medula espinhal. Devido à falta de padronização e seleção das melhores metodologias que permitam confrontação de estudos, esta revisão busca reunir as mais recentes publicações, descrevendo o potencial uso das células-tronco do epitélio olfatório em terapias celulares, discutindo os principais desafios e perspectivas futuras com enfoque na medicina veterinária.(AU)


The olfactory epithelium (OE) is a promising source of stem cells (OESC) for therapeutic use in veterinary and human medicine, especially in diseases correlated with the peripheral (spinal cord) and central (brain and brainstem) nervous system (CNS), because of its ability to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes cells. In humans, OESC has been used primarily in therapeutic trials for degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson. In animals, the frequency of corresponding cases of chronic or acute neurodegenerative diseases is very low, because of the difficulty of a definitive diagnosis; thus, the focus of cell therapy research are mostly mechanical spinal cord injuries. Due to the lack of normalization and selection of the best methodologies for comparative studies, this review aims to analyze recent reports on the potential use of stem cells from the olfactory epithelium in cell therapies and to discuss the main challenges and future prospects in veterinary medicine.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/veterinary , Olfactory Mucosa , Stem Cells , Neurogenesis , Stem Cell Transplantation/veterinary
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(4): 329-336, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779808

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pathology of the rhinencephalon has been a subject of interest in the fields of neurodegenerative diseases, trauma, epilepsy and other neurological conditions. Most of what is known about the human rhinencephalon comes from comparative anatomy studies in other mammals and histological studies in primates. Functional imaging studies can provide new and important insight into the function of the rhinencephalon in humans but have limited spatial resolution, limiting its contribution to the study of the anatomy of the human rhinencephalon. In this study we aim to provide a brief and objective review of the anatomy of this important and often overlooked area of the nervous system.


RESUMO As patologias do rinencéfalo tem sido assunto de interesse para os estudiosos das doenças neurodegenerativas, do traumatismo cranio-encefálico, epilepsia e outras doenças neurológicas. A maior parte do conhecimento sobre a anatomia do rinencéfalo vem de estudos de anatomia comparativa com outros mamíferos e estudos histológicos em primatas. Estudos de imagem funcional, apesar de proporcionarem informações úteis e interessantes a respeito do funcionamento do rinencéfalo em humanos, sofrem de resolução espacial limitada, e portanto contribuem de maneira restrita ao estudo dos limites das áreas anatômicas. Neste artigo buscamos proporcionar ao neurologista e neurocientista interessado uma revisão prática e objetiva da anatomia desta área importante e muitas vezes esquecida do sistema nervoso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Olfactory Cortex/anatomy & histology , Medical Illustration , Olfactory Receptor Neurons , Olfactory Bulb/anatomy & histology , Olfactory Mucosa/anatomy & histology
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(1): 59-66, Jan. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771849

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe a new technique for isolation of a mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) population from the olfactory mucosa in rabbits. METHODS: Olfactory stem cells (OSCs) were retrieved from under the cribriform plate of the Ethmoid bone. Several assays were accomplished to characterize the cell population and attest its viability in vitro. The cells were submitted to flow cytometry with the antibodies CD34, CD45, CD73, CD79, CD90 and CD105 and also they were induced to differentiate in three lineages. Functional evaluation involved analysis of in vitro growth behavior, colony forming unit like fibroblasts (CFU-f) and cryopreservation response. Further transduction with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was also performed. RESULTS: The OSCs showed mesenchymal features, as positive response to CD34, CD73 and CD90 antibodies and plasticity. Additionally, these cells have high proliferated rate, and they could be cultured through many passages and kept the ability to proliferate and differentiate after cryopreservation. The positive response to the transduction signalizes the possibility of cellular tracking in vivo. This is a desirable feature in case those cells are used for pre-clinical trials. CONCLUSION: The cells harvested were mesenchymal stem cells and the technique described is therefore efficient for rabbit olfactory stem cells isolation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Cell Separation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Olfactory Mucosa/cytology , /physiology , /physiology , Thy-1 Antigens/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Colony-Forming Units Assay , Cryopreservation , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cell Plasticity/physiology , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Ethmoid Bone/cytology , Flow Cytometry , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Olfactory Mucosa/growth & development
15.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1252-1259, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815100

ABSTRACT

To explore whether hypoxic condition could promote the olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells (OM-MSCs) to differentiate into neurons with the olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) supernatant and the potential mechanisms.
 Methods: The OM-MSCs and OECs were isolated and cultured, and they were identified by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. The OM-MSCs were divided into three groups: a 3%O2+ HIF-1α inhibitors (lificiguat: YC-1) + OECs supernatant group (Group A) , a 3%O2 + OECs supernatant group (Group B) and a 21%O2 + OECs supernatant group (Control group). The neurons, which were differentiated from OM-MSCs, were assessed by immunofluorescence test. The mRNA and protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), βIII-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic portein (GFAP) were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and Western blot. The potassium channels were analyzed by patch clamp.
 Results: The neurons differentiated from OM-MSCs expressed the most amount of βIII-tubulin, and the result of Q-PCR showed that HIF-1α expression in the Group B was significantly higher than that in the other groups (all P<0.05). Western blot result showed that the βIII-tubulin protein expression was significantly higher and GFAP protein expression was obviously decreased in the Group B (both P<0.05). The patch clamp test confirmed that the potassium channels in the neurons were activated.
 Conclusion: Hypoxic condition can significantly increase the neuronal differentiation of OM-MSCs by the OECs supernatant and decrease the production of neuroglia cells, which is associated with the activation of HIF-1 signal pathway.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Cell Differentiation , Physiology , Cells, Cultured , Culture Media, Conditioned , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Flow Cytometry , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Metabolism , Hypoxia , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Metabolism , Indazoles , Pharmacology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Physiology , Neurogenesis , Physiology , Neuroglia , Metabolism , Physiology , Neurons , Physiology , Olfactory Mucosa , Potassium Channels , Signal Transduction , Tubulin , Metabolism
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(7): 616-621, 07/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751339

ABSTRACT

As an essential trace element, copper can be toxic in mammalian cells when present in excess. Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich proteins that avidly bind copper and thus play an important role in detoxification. Yeast CUP1 is a member of the MT gene family. The aim of this study was to determine whether yeast CUP1 could bind copper effectively and protect cells against copper stress. In this study, CUP1 expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and copper content was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. Cellular viability was detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the cell cycle distribution of CUP1 was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The data indicated that overexpression of yeast CUP1 in HeLa cells played a protective role against copper-induced stress, leading to increased cellular viability (P<0.05) and decreased ROS production (P<0.05). It was also observed that overexpression of yeast CUP1 reduced the percentage of G1 cells and increased the percentage of S cells, which suggested that it contributed to cell viability. We found that overexpression of yeast CUP1 protected HeLa cells against copper stress. These results offer useful data to elucidate the mechanism of the MT gene on copper metabolism in mammalian cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mammals/physiology , Pheromones/physiology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Behavior/physiology , Odorants , Olfactory Bulb/physiology , Olfactory Mucosa/physiology , Olfactory Pathways/anatomy & histology , Olfactory Pathways/physiology , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/physiology , Pheromones, Human/physiology , Smell/physiology
17.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 53-58, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815214

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the biological characteristics of the human olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells (hOM-MSCs).@*METHODS@#The hOM-MSCs were isolated, cultured and identified in vitro. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were used to observe the ultrastructure of hOMMSCs. Th e cells were induced towards adipocyte, osteocyte, neural stem cells, neural-like-cells in vitro.@*RESULTS@#The hOM-MSCs were mainly in spindle shape, arranged with radial colony. The hOMMSCs expressed CD73 and CD90 but no CD34 and CD45. Th e short and thick microvilli processes were seen at the surface of hOM-MSCs by scanning electron microscope, and 2 different cellular morphology of hOM-MSCs were seen under transmission electron microscope. Moreover, the hOMMSCs could be differentiated into adipocyte, osteocyte, neural stem cells and neural cells.@*CONCLUSION@#The hOM-MSCs possess general biological characteristics of MSCs and display multiple differentiation functions. They can be served as ideal seed cells in tissue-engineering for injury repair.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Olfactory Mucosa , Cell Biology
18.
São Paulo; s.n; 2015. [117] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-870852

ABSTRACT

A doença de Alzheimer (DA) é caracterizada por declínio cognitivo e funcional progressivo e constitui-se como a forma mais prevalente de demência. O diagnóstico da DA é realizado atualmente, exclusivamente por meio de critérios clínicos. No entanto, a manifestação clínica da DA é precedida por um longo período assintomático, com depósito silencioso das proteínas tau e -amiloide no tecido cerebral. Evidências recentes demonstram que a mucosa olfatória, estrutura periférica e facilmente acessível também está acometida na DA, podendo representar um bom método de diagnóstico preciso e precoce desta moléstia. Os objetivos desse estudo consistem em correlacionar a prevalência das proteínas tau e -amiloide no epitélio olfatório (EO) com os estágios clínicos e neuropatológicos da doença e determinar a sensibilidade e especificidade dos achados no EO para o diagnóstico da DA em seus diferentes estágios de evolução. Para tal fim, é proposto estudo post-mortem, com avaliação de 92 tecidos cerebrais de indivíduos com idade igual ou superior a 50 anos, provenientes do Banco de Encéfalos Humanos do Grupo de Estudos em Envelhecimento Cerebral da Universidade de São Paulo, com coleta dos blocos de mucosa olfatória no momento da autópsia. A avaliação cognitiva foi realizada por meio de entrevista com informante de convívio próximo com o falecido, aplicando as escalas CDR e IQCODE. A avaliação neuropatológica do encéfalo e do EO foi realizada por meio de técnicas de . Os casos foram classificados mediante critério neuropatológico do CERAD e do estadiamento de Braak e Braak para DA. A presença de proteína tau e -amiloide no EO foi correlacionada com os parâmetros clínicos e neuropatológicos obtidos. A análise do EO da concha superior permitiu identificar as proteínas tau e -amiloide com sensibilidade alta, quando comparada com o diagnóstico neuropatológico (>80%) e clínico ( > 90%). Desta forma, a análise para as proteínas tau e - amiloide do epitélio olfatório pode...


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive functional and cognitive decline and is considered the most prevalent type of dementia. AD is diagnosed exclusively on the basis of clinical criteria. However, clinical symptoms of AD are preceded by a long asymptomatic period, with silent deposition of tau and amyloid proteins in brain tissue. Recent studies demonstrate the same findings in the olfactory epithelium, a ready accessible structure which could contribute to the precise and early diagnosis of AD. The objectives of the current study were to correlate the prevalence of tau and amyloid proteins distributed in several areas of the olfactory epithelium with clinical and neuropathological criteria used for the diagnosis of AD and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the olfactory epithelium involvement for the diagnosis of AD. Ninety-two individuals, belonging to the Brazilian Brain Bank of the Aging Brain Study Group from University of São Paulo, whose blocks of olfactory mucosa were collected during autopsy, were tested. Cognitive data were gathered through an interview with a knowledgeable informant, using the CDR (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale) and the IQCODE (Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly) scales. Neuropathological examination was carried out on the basis of accepted criteria, using immunohistochemistry. Neuropathological classification of AD was performed in accordance with the CERAD criteria and Braak & Braak staging. The presence of tau and amyloid protein deposits in the olfactory epithelium was compared with clinical and neuropathological parameters. Immunostaining of olfactory epithelium from the superior turbinate was able to identify tau protein and amyloid-? with high sensitivity when compared with neuropathological scales ( > 80%) and clinical classification of CDR ( > 90%). Thus, immunohistochemistry for tau and amyloid proteins of the olfactory epithelium may represent a potential...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aging , Alzheimer Disease , Immunohistochemistry , Olfaction Disorders , Olfactory Mucosa , Smell
19.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 815-821, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-651577

ABSTRACT

Olfactory dysfunction is one of the most debilitating problem in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients, and exact mechanism underlying sinusitis induced olfactory dysfunction was not fully understood. In vivo manipulation for olfactory epithelium and fresh specimen for histopathological analysis are essential for research, but it is nearly impossible to do in human due to inaccessibility of olfactory epithelium and risk for complication. For this reason, several animal models using toxic materials, such as 3-methylindole or bromomethane, have been suggested for mimicking olfactory epithelial damage in CRS, but none of them could truly imitate the event which happens in real patient. Inducible olfactory inflammation (IOI) mouse is a transgenic mouse model selectively producing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in sustentacular cell of olfactory epithelium. The production of TNF-alpha can be actively initiated by giving food containing doxycycline to IOI mouse, and inflammation is stopped in the absence of doxycycline. Both toxicity model and transgenic model have their own advantages and disadvantages, therefore appropriate model should be selected for optimal results.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Animals, Genetically Modified , Doxycycline , Inflammation , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Animal , Olfactory Mucosa , Sinusitis , Skatole , Smell , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
20.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (24): 410-415, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-747808

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the bionomics of the olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) of human olfactory mucosa.@*METHOD@#To separate and cultivate the OECs of human and rat olfactory mucosa. To observe the cell growth, cell grouping and cell migration in vitro of the two types of OECs.@*RESULT@#Successfully separated and cultivated the OECs of human and rat olfactory mucosa. OECs of the human and rat olfactory mucosa had the similar cell growth, cell grouping and cell migration ability in vitro.@*CONCLUSION@#OECs of the human and rat olfactory mucosa have the similar bionomics in vitro, as a result, OECs of the human olfactory mucosa could be a reliable source of cell transplant for nerve injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Movement , Cells, Cultured , Olfactory Mucosa , Cell Biology
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