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1.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e58558, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367771

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease(CVD) remains the major cause of mortality in the world, typically claiming a third of all deaths. The primary cause of CVD is atherosclerosis. Therefore, timely prevention and therapy of atherosclerosis are able to reduce the risk of the development of its clinical manifestations. Anti-atherosclerotic activity of medicinal plants mainly appears in their multiple effects.This study was carried out to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of virgin olive oil in experimentally induced hyperlipemic Wistar. A total of 24 rats were randomly allocated to 4 equal groups and treated as follows for 50 days: (1) Normal control (NC); that were fed with a standart diet; (2) High Cholesterol Diet Control (HCD); which received high cholesterol diet for 50 days; (3) Animals receiving high cholesterol diet for 50 days, after this period the animals are fed for eight days by the standard foodand receiving by gavage virgin olive oil (HCD+VOO) and(4) Animals fed for eight days with the standard food and receiving by gavage olive oil (VOO). High Cholesterol Diet containing yolk egg and coconut oil. Results showed that olive oil caused a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in serum levels of Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low­Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL) and Atherogenic Index Serum (AIS). The results also demonstrated a significant (p < 0.01) increase in High­Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL). Moreover, virgin olive oil induced a significant reduction in liver lipid content. On the other hand, a High cholesterol diet induced oxidative stress was measured by estimating reduced glutathione level and amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formed as an index of lipid peroxidation in a liver and a heart. Virgin olive oil supplementation attenuated all these variations. Our observations of the study indicate that the virgin olive oil has a significant antihyperlipidemic potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Atherosclerosis/diet therapy , Diet, High-Fat/methods , Olive Oil/pharmacology , Triglycerides/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation/immunology , Cholesterol/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar/immunology , Diet, Atherogenic/methods , Glutathione/pharmacology , Hypercholesterolemia/immunology , Lipoproteins/immunology
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191062, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394040

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effects of methanol extract of G. verum on redox status of isolated heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats after ischemia. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: untreated control rats and rats that received 125 and 250 mg/kg G. verum extract for 4 weeks per os. Index of lipid peroxidation (measured as TBARS) and parameters of antioxidative defence system such as level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were spectrophotometrically determined in heart homogenate. The index of lipid peroxidation in heart tissue was lower in both treated groups compared to the control group. On the other hand, the activity of SOD was significantly higher after consumption of both doses, while the activity of CAT was significantly higher only after treatment with a higher dose of extract. Based on our results we might conclude that 4-week treatment with methanol extracts of G. verum has the potential to modulate myocardial redox signaling after ischemia, thus significantly alleviating cardiac oxidative stress and exerting dose-dependent antioxidant properties. Future studies are certainly necessary to fully clarify the role of this plant species in myocardial I-R injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Galium/adverse effects , Wounds and Injuries/classification , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Heart , Ischemia/pathology , Antioxidants/adverse effects
3.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e52931, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368486

ABSTRACT

Syzygiumcumini(L.) Skeels wasadaptedto the climatic conditionsandsoil typesin Brazil. Its fruits, leaves andinner barkare usedin folk medicinedue to their highantioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenicandantidiabeticactivities mainlyassociated with the presenceof phenolic compounds. It is estimated thatat least300million peopleworldwide developdiabetesand approximately 11million peopleare carriersof the disease in Brazil.The objectiveof this workwas to evaluate thein vitro antioxidant activity, as well as thehypoglycemic actionofhydroethanolic extract(HEE), the ethyl acetate(EAF) andhydromethanolic(HMF) fractions from leavesofS.cumini(L.) Skeels in rats. All assays werecarried out in three replications. Data wereexpressed as meanSDand significance was evaluated by ANOVAand Bonferronitest (p < 0.05). The results indicatea significant(p < 0.05) total phenolcontent (207 ± 2.3GAE mg g-1) andantioxidant activity(EC50=9.05±0.170 µg mL-1) for EAF. HEE and its fractions showed no significant (p > 0.05) actionto modulateglucosebytheOGTT assayinnondiabetic micecompared to control. Thus the use of the plant against diabetes in individuals is not proven.


Subject(s)
Rats , Biological Products/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Syzygium/immunology , Hypoglycemic Agents/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Syzygium/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Phenolic Compounds , Acetates/toxicity
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18586, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132054

ABSTRACT

Vanadyl sulfate (VS) is an ingredient in some food supplements and experimental drugs. This study was designed to assay the effects of VS on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in renal tissue of rats with diabetes type 2. 30 male Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups as follow: non-diabetics, non-treated diabetics and VS-treated diabetics. Diabetes type 2 has been induced through high fat diet and fructose in the animals. Diabetic rats were treated with 25 mg/kgBW of VS in water for 12 weeks. At the end of study, glucose and insulin were measured using commercially available kits in serum and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in renal homogenates of animals were measured by related methods. Compared to controls, glucose and insulin were increased significantly in non-treated diabetic rats (p-value <0.05) that showed the induction of diabetes type 2 in rats. The results showed that in VS-treated diabetic rats compared to the non-treated diabetic group, vanadyl sulfate significantly reduced the glucose and insulin secretion and changed renal inflammatory and oxidative markers, except protein carbonyl so that we couldn't find any significant changes. Our study showed that vanadyl supplementation had positive effects on oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers in kidney of diabetic rats


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sulfates/analysis , Vanadates/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-10/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Insulin Secretion , Insulin/pharmacology
5.
Clinics ; 72(3): 143-149, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840057

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The passive cycle ergometer aims to prevent hypotrophy and improve muscle strength, with a consequent reduction in hospitalization time in the intensive care unit and functional improvement. However, its effects on oxidative stress and immune system parameters remain unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of a passive cycle ergometer on the immune system and oxidative stress in critical patients. METHODS: This paper describes a randomized controlled trial in a sample of 19 patients of both genders who were on mechanical ventilation and hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Hospital Agamenom Magalhães. The patients were divided into two groups: one group underwent cycle ergometer passive exercise for 30 cycles/min on the lower limbs for 20 minutes; the other group did not undergo any therapeutic intervention during the study and served as the control group. A total of 20 ml of blood was analysed, in which nitric oxide levels and some specific inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukins 6 (IL-6) and 10 (IL-10)) were evaluated before and after the study protocol. RESULTS: Regarding the demographic and clinical variables, the groups were homogeneous in the early phases of the study. The nitric oxide analysis revealed a reduction in nitric oxide variation in stimulated cells (p=0.0021) and those stimulated (p=0.0076) after passive cycle ergometer use compared to the control group. No differences in the evaluated inflammatory cytokines were observed between the two groups. CONCLUSION: We can conclude that the passive cycle ergometer promoted reduced levels of nitric oxide, showing beneficial effects on oxidative stress reduction. As assessed by inflammatory cytokines, the treatment was not associated with changes in the immune system. However, further research in a larger population is necessary for more conclusive results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Illness/therapy , Exercise/physiology , Motion Therapy, Continuous Passive/methods , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Cytokines/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Intensive Care Units , Lipopolysaccharides/therapeutic use , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscular Atrophy/prevention & control , Nitric Oxide/immunology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Reproducibility of Results , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(3): e17003, 2017. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889397

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bisphenol-A (BPA) belongs to the family of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and it is used in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. The reproductive toxicity of BPA is well documented but it also exerts its toxic effects through multiple pathways especially by inducing a state of oxidative stress and causing damage to the vital organs. In the present study, histopathologic and oxidative damage caused by BPA in liver and kidneys of fresh water cyprinid, Ctenopharyngodon idella was evaluated. LC50 of BPA for Ctenopharyngodon idella was determined by probit regression analysis. Fish were exposed to a sublethal concentration of BPA i.e. 3.2 ppm (1/2 LC50) for 14 days. Histologic studies revealed that BPA caused degenerative changes in liver and kidneys and exposure of sublethal concentration of BPA caused oxidative damage in both organs. Lipid peroxidation significantly increased in liver and kidneys of treated group. Catalase activity and reduced glutathione content significantly decreased in the group exposed to BPA compared to control and glutathione-S-transferase activity increased significantly in both organs exposed to the sublethal concentration of BPA. From this study it is concluded that BPA caused toxic effects in fish species by changing oxidative balance and damaging the vital organs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carps , Biomarkers/analysis , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Histological Techniques , Catechol Oxidase/classification , Fishes
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(1): 1-7, Jan. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771855

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of ischemic preconditioning on mortality, inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were allocated according to the period of ischemia with or without ischemic preconditioning which consist on clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 10 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes before the sustained ischemia period. Mortality was assessed in Phase 1 study, and the CINC-1, CINC-2 and MDA levels in the lungs were analyzed in Phase 2. RESULTS: Mortality was lower in the ischemic preconditioning group subjected to 90 minutes of ischemia compared to the group without ischemic preconditioning (I-90: 50% and IPC-90: 15%, p=0.018), and it was lower in the ischemic preconditioning group as a whole compared to the groups without ischemic preconditioning (IPC-14% and I=30%, p=0.006). Lower levels of MDA, CINC-1, and CINC-2 were observed in the animals that were subjected to ischemic preconditioning compared to the animals that were not (MDA: I-45=1.23 nmol/mg protein, and IPC-45=0.62 nmol/mg protein, p=0.0333; CINC-1: I-45=0.82 ng/mL and IPC-45=0.67 ng/mL, p=0.041; CINC-2: I-45=0.52 ng/mL and IPC-45=0.35 ng/mL, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Ischemic preconditioning reduces mortality, inflammatory process and oxidative stress in rats subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Ischemic Preconditioning/mortality , Mesenteric Ischemia/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Reperfusion Injury/mortality , Chemokine CXCL1/analysis , Chemokines, CXC/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Lung/metabolism , Lung/physiopathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Mesenteric Arteries/metabolism , Mesenteric Ischemia/mortality , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric
8.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 67(2): 0-0, mayo.-ago. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-769452

ABSTRACT

Objective: In this systematic review the aim was to summarise the in vivo/in vitro evidence on the role of oxidative-nitrosative stress in pathogenesis of dengue. Methods: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, The COCHRANE library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS via Virtual Health Library, Google Scholar) using the term: dengue, dengue virus, severe dengue, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, antioxidants, oxidants, free radicals, oxidized lipid products, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase. Articles were selected for review by title and abstract excluding letter, review, epidemiological studies, and duplicates studies. Selected articles were reviewed for used animal model or cell cultures, original purposes, strain of virus or type of antibody, main outcomes, methods, and oxidative-nitrosative stress markers values. Results: In total, 4330 non-duplicates articles were identified from computerized searches of reference databases, of which 32 were eligible for full text searching. The results of in vivo studies were obtained from monkey and knockout and/or wild-type mice. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cell cultures most commonly used in identified in vitro studies, following by human endothelial cells cultures. DENV-2 strains were most used. Conclusions: In conclusion, a large body of in vivo and in vitro evidences showed that oxidative/nitrosative stress can be related to production of pathogenesis-related protein, increased susceptibility of mice to DENV infection, hemorrhage development in mice, proinflammatory cytokines and transcriptional factor expression, and DENV replication in various cell cultures(AU)


Objetivo: sistematizar las evidencias in vivo/in vitro de la participación del estrés oxidativo-nitrosativo en el curso de la infección por virus del dengue. Métodos: revisión sistemática de estudios observacionales en las bases de datos (PubMed, EMBASE, The COCHRANE library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS via Virtual Health Library, Google Scholar) utilizando las siguientes palabras clave: dengue, dengue virus, severe dengue, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, antioxidants, oxidants, free radicals, oxidized lipid products, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide y nitric oxide synthase. La selección inicial fue realizada a partir del título y resumen excluyéndose: cartas para editor, revisiones, estudios con diseños epidemiológicos y estudios duplicados. A cada artículo seleccionado, se le revisó el objetivo o propósito, cultivos celulares o modelos animales utilizados, cepas víricas o tipo de anticuerpos utilizados, métodos y valores de los marcadores de estrés oxidativo-nitrosativo. Resultados: de 4330 publicaciones encontradas, 32 estudios cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Se utilizaron primates no humanos y ratones knockout o tipo salvaje para la obtención de las evidencias in vivo. Los cultivos celulares más utilizados fueron de células mononucleares de sangre periférica y de células endoteliales humanas. Las cepas más utilizadas en los ensayos correspondieron al serotipo 2 del virus dengue. Conclusiones: existen evidencias in vivo/in vitro que muestran la posible asociación entre el estrés oxidativo-nitrosativo con: producción de proteínas relacionadas con la patogénesis del dengue, incremento en la susceptibilidad de ratones por la infección por dengue, desarrollo de hemorragias en modelo de ratón, expresión de citoquinas proinflamatorias y replicación viral en varios cultivos de células tanto humanas como de origen animal(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Intravital Microscopy/methods
9.
Salvador; s.n; 2015. 69 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000983

ABSTRACT

A malária é uma doença causada por cinco espécies de parasitos do gênero Plasmodium que causa anualmente a morte de milhares de pessoas, principalmente em países pobres da África. Muito antiga, uma diversidade de fármacos já foram empregados na tentativa de erradicação da doença, entretanto o aparecimento de cepas resistentes, bem como efeitos adversos gerados pelo tratamento impossibilitou tal ação. Os quinolínicos configuram uma grande parte destes tratamentos, apresentando uma notável atividade antimalárica. Neste trabalho nós avaliamos o potencial antimalárico de três novos derivados quinolínicos BS 260, BS 318 e BS 373 em culturas de Plasmodium falciparum, cepa w2, cloroquina resistente. BS 373 apresentou melhor atividade contra culturas de Plasmodium falciparum e, assim como o BS 318, foi capaz de inibir a biocristalização de hemozoína pelos parasitos. A microscopia eletrônica de transmissão revelou uma desorganização celular, diminuição do tamanho e quantidade de cristais de hemozoína no vacúolo digestivo, bem como vacuolizações citoplasmáticas e presença de estruturas membranares no vacúolo digestivo, o que indica a ocorrência de um processo autofágico nas células tratadas com 10 LM e 20 LM do BS 373. A presença de cristais citoplasmáticos indica a ocorrência de autólise pela ruptura da membrana do vacúolo digestivo. Por fim, o efeito dos tratamentos se mostrou irreversível nos parasitos com 24 horas de tratamento para BS 318 e BS 373, enquanto que para BS 260 essa irreversibilidade só foi observada após 48 horas. Nossos dados mostram que os derivados quinolínicos testados são efetivos contra culturas de P. falciparum, configurando bons candidatos à novas moléculas antimaláricas.


Malaria is a disease caused by five Plasmodium species that cause deaths of thousands of people annually, mostly in poor countries of Africa. Very anccient, a variety of drugs have been used in an attempt to eradicate the disease, however the emergence of resistant strains, as well as adverse effects caused by treatment prevented such action. The quinoline are a large part of these treatments, presenting a remarkable antimalarial activity. In this paper we evaluate the antimalarial potential of three new quinoline derivative BS 260, BS 318 and BS 373 in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant, w2 strain, cultures. BS 373 showed the best activity against Plasmodium falciparum cultures, while and analogously to BS 318 was able to inhibit the hemozoin formation by parasites. The transmission electron microscopy revealed a cell disorganization, decreased size and amount of hemozoin crystals in the digestive vacuole, cytoplasmic vacuolization and presence of membrane structures in the digestive vacuole, which indicates an autophagic process in cells treated with 10 LM and 20 LM BS 373. Cytoplasmic being crystals indicate parasite cell autolusis caused by digestive vacuole membrane disrupture. Finally, the effect of treatment proved irreversible on parasites at 24 hours of treatment for BS 318 and BS 373, whereas for BS 260 this irreversibility was only observed after 48 hours. Our data show that the quinoline derivatives tested are effective against P. falciparum cultures, setting good candidates for new antimalarial molecules.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxidative Stress , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/immunology , Malaria/parasitology , Malaria/pathology , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium falciparum/parasitology
10.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Dec ; 51(6): 467-475
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156525

ABSTRACT

Guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins (G proteins) play a key role in the regulation of various signal transduction systems, including adenylyl cyclase/cAMP and phospholipase C (PLC)/phosphatidyl inositol (PI) turnover, which are implicated in the modulation of a variety of physiological functions, such as platelet functions, including platelet aggregation, secretion, and clot formation and cardiovascular functions, including arterial tone and reactivity. Several abnormalities in adenylyl cyclase activity, cAMP levels and G proteins have been shown to be responsible for the altered cardiac performance and vascular functions observed in cardiovascular disease states. The enhanced or unaltered levels of inhibitory G proteins (Giα) and mRNA have been reported in different models of hypertension, whereas Gsα levels are shown to be unaltered. The enhanced levels of Giα proteins precede the development of blood pressure and suggest that overexpression of Gi proteins may be one of the contributing factors for the pathogenesis of hypertension. The levels of vasoactive peptides including ET-1 and Ang II and growth factors are augmented in hypertension and contribute to the enhanced expression of Giα proteins in hypertension. In addition, oxidative stress due to enhanced levels of Ang II and ET-1 is enhanced in hypertension and may also be responsible for the enhanced expression of Giα proteins observed in hypertension. Furthermore, Ang II- and ET-1-induced transactivation of growth factor receptor through the activation of MAP kinase signaling is also shown to contribute to the augmented levels of Giα in hypertension. Thus, it appears that the enhanced levels of vasoactive peptides by increasing oxidative stress and transactivation growth factor receptors enhance MAP kinase activity that contribute to the enhanced expression of Giα proteins responsible for the pathogenesis of hypertension. In this review, we describe the role of vasoactive peptides and the signaling mechanisms responsible for the enhanced expression of Giα proteins in hypertension.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/immunology , Animals , Blood Pressure/immunology , Blood Vessels/immunology , Endothelin-1/immunology , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits/immunology , /immunology , Humans , Hypertension/immunology , Models, Cardiovascular , Models, Immunological , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Vasomotor System/immunology
11.
Homeopatia Méx ; 83(691): 16-26, jul.-ago. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-729286

ABSTRACT

En un abordaje teórico previo (2003) sobre los miasmas o enfermedades crónicas de Hahnemann (EC o MR) se presentó una explicación de estos conceptos desde la biología celular y corporal, tanto en su funcionamiento normal como en la patología, durante los tres estadios de toda célula u organismo: funcionamiento homeostasis, reproducción y muerte. Esta segunda parte plantea el papel de la supresión y los mecanismos fisiopatológicos por los cuales se genera ésta, así como las consecuencias biológicas, funcionales, estructurales y genéticas que dan lugar a lo que llamamos enfermedades miasmáticas o modos reaccionales.


Part I of this theoretical paper (2003) on Hahnemann’s miasms or reaccional modes, talked about explanation of them from cellular and organisms biology, giving a perspective in heath or disease, in three stages of every cell or organism: healthy stage-homeostasis, reproduction and death. This part II go further trying to explain what is the “suppression”, how does is generated, and which are its multiple functional, structural and genetic consequences that we call miasmatic disease or reaccional modes.


Subject(s)
Defensive and Curative Mechanisms , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Miasm in Homeopathy , Suppression
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(5): 355-360, 02/05/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709436

ABSTRACT

Recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) is an inflammatory condition of the oral mucosa characterized by painful, well-circumscribed, single or multiple round or ovoid ulcerations. The exact etiologic factor(s) of these ulcerations are not yet understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate inflammatory processes and free radical metabolism of 25 patients with RAUs compared to 25 healthy controls. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-10, and IL-12 were determined by ELISA. Nitric oxide (NO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), total antioxidant status (TAS), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were measured spectroscopically in serum. The levels of MDA, GSH, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-12, MPO, and TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were higher, and the levels of NO, IL-10, and TAS were lower in patients with RAU than in controls. Statistical analysis showed that GSH, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-10, and OSI differed significantly in patients with RAU compared to controls. These parameters have important roles in oxidant/antioxidant defense.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Glutathione/blood , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Malondialdehyde/blood , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Stomatitis, Aphthous/immunology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Free Radicals/metabolism , /blood , /blood , /blood , Nitric Oxide/blood , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Peroxidase/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144674

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: The cytokines, adipokines, and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, such data remain scarce in India. The present study evaluated pro-inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and markers of oxidative stress in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and their association with degree of adiposity, insulin resistance and markers of disease severity. Methods: The present prospective cross-sectional pilot study included 79 subjects; 34 NAFLD, 22 chronic hepatitis B (CH-B) and 23 healthy controls (HC). The parameters studied were adiponectin, leptin, tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-1 and 6 (IL-1, IL-6), and systemic markers of oxidative stress. Results: The mean body mass index (kg/m2) in NAFLD patients, CHB, and HC were 26.4±3.7, 21.3±2.3, and 22.3±2.7, respectively. The median serum levels of all pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher (P<0.001) in NAFLD compared to control groups. Compared to HC, levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01) reduced in both NAFLD and CHB. IL-6 showed marked and selective increase only in NAFLD patients. The levels of IL-6 were significantly (P<0.02) higher in NAFLD patients with advanced histology grade and correlated with IR (r=0.42, P=0.02). In a sub-group, markers of oxidative stress were significantly higher, and that of antioxidant potential were significantly lower among NAFLD patients compared to control subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: Patients with NAFLD revealed significantly elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, increased oxidative stress, and a significant association of IL-6 with IR and advanced histopathology.


Subject(s)
Adipokines/blood , Chemokines/blood , Fatty Liver , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 48(4): 659-665, Oct.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665862

ABSTRACT

Sickle cell disease promotes hemolytic anemia and occlusion of small blood vessels due to the presence of high concentrations of hemoglobin S, resulting in increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased antioxidant defense capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective action of a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761), selected due to its high content of flavonoids and terpenoids, in erythrocytes of patients with sickle cell anemia (HbSS, SS erythrocytes) subjected to oxidative stress using tert-butylhydroperoxide or 2,2-azobis-(amidinepropane)-dihydrochloride, in vitro. Hemolysis indexes, reduced glutathione, methemoglobin concentrations, lipid peroxidation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species were determined. SS erythrocytes displayed increased rates of oxidation of hemoglobin and membrane lipid peroxidation compared to normal erythrocytes (HbAA, AA erythrocytes), and the concentration of EGb 761 necessary to achieve the same antioxidant effect in SS erythrocytes was at least two times higher than in normal ones, inhibiting the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (IC50 of 13.6 µg/mL), partially preventing lipid peroxidation (IC50 of 242.5 µg/mL) and preventing hemolysis (IC50 of 10.5 µg/mL). Thus, EGb 761 has a beneficial effect on the oxidative status of SS erythrocytes. Moreover, EGb 761 failed to prevent oxidation of hemoglobin and reduced glutathione at the concentrations examined.


A doença falciforme promove anemia hemolítica e oclusão dos pequenos vasos, causados pela presença de altas concentrações de hemoglobina S, cujas consequências incluem a produção aumentada de espécies reativas de oxigênio e diminuição da capacidade de defesa antioxidante. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a ação protetora de um extrato padronizado de Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761), selecionado devido ao seu alto conteúdo de flavonóides e terpenóides, em eritrócitos de pacientes com anemia falciforme (HbSS, eritrócitos SS) submetidos ao estresse oxidativo usando terc-butil-hidroperóxido e 2,2-azobis-(amidinopropano)-diidrocloreto, in vitro. Índices de hemólise, glutationa reduzida, concentração de metemoglobina, peroxidação lipídica e espécies reativas de oxigênio foram determinados. Eritrócitos de pacientes com anemia falciforme apresentaram taxas aumentadas de oxidação da hemoglobina e peroxidação lipídica e a concentração de EGb 761 necessária para atingir o mesmo efeito antioxidante foi pelo menos duas vezes maior em relação aos eritrócitos normais (HbAA, eritrócitos AA), inibindo a formação de espécies reativas de oxigênio (IC50 de 13.6 µg/mL), prevenindo parcialmente a peroxidação lipídica (IC50 de 242.5 µg/mL) e prevenindo a hemólise (IC50 de 10.5 µg/mL). Portanto, EGb 761 possui um efeito benéfico no estado oxidativo dos eritrócitos SS. Entretanto, o EGb 761 não preveniu a oxidação da hemoglobina e da glutationa reduzida, nas concentrações examinadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Ginkgo biloba/classification , Erythrocytes/classification , Anemia, Sickle Cell/classification , Azo Compounds/pharmacokinetics
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(7): 707-712, July 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595698

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a multifactorial disease involving inflammatory activity and endothelial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the changes in lipoperoxidation, in immunological and biochemical parameters and nitric oxide metabolite (NOx) levels in MS patients. Fifty patients with MS (4 males/46 females) and 50 controls (3 males/47 females) were studied. Compared to control (Mann-Whitney test), MS patients presented higher serum levels (P < 0.05) of fibrinogen: 314 (185-489) vs 262 (188-314) mg/dL, C-reactive protein (CRP): 7.80 (1.10-46.50) vs 0.70 (0.16-5.20) mg/dL, interleukin-6: 3.96 (3.04-28.18) vs 3.33 (2.55-9.63) pg/mL, uric acid: 5.45 (3.15-9.65) vs 3.81 (2.70-5.90) mg/dL, and hydroperoxides: 20,689 (19,076-67,182) vs 18,636 (15,926-19,731) cpm. In contrast, they presented lower (P < 0.05) adiponectin: 7.11 (3.19-18.22) vs 12.31 (9.11-27.27) µg/mL, and NOx levels: 5.69 (2.36-8.18) vs 6.72 (5.14-12.43) µM. NOx was inversely associated (Spearman’s rank correlation) with body mass index (r = -0.2858, P = 0.0191), insulin resistance determined by the homeostasis model assessment (r = -0.2530, P = 0.0315), CRP (r = -0.2843, P = 0.0171) and fibrinogen (r = -0.2464, P = 0.0413), and positively correlated with hydroperoxides (r = 0.2506, P = 0.0408). In conclusion, NOx levels are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers. The high uric acid levels together with reactive oxygen species generation may be responsible for the reduced NO levels, which in turn lead to endothelial dysfunction. The elevated plasma chemiluminescence reflecting both increased plasma oxidation and reduced antioxidant capacity may play a role in the MS mechanism.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adiponectin/blood , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Insulin Resistance/immunology , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Nitric Oxide/blood , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Inflammation/blood , Lipid Peroxidation , Metabolic Syndrome/immunology , Obesity/blood , Uric Acid/blood
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(1): 57-67, Jan. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-535637

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response that can lead to tissue damage and death. In order to increase our understanding of sepsis, experimental models are needed that produce relevant immune and inflammatory responses during a septic event. We describe a lipopolysaccharide tolerance mouse model to characterize the cellular and molecular alterations of immune cells during sepsis. The model presents a typical lipopolysaccharide tolerance pattern in which tolerance is related to decreased production and secretion of cytokines after a subsequent exposure to a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide. The initial lipopolysaccharide exposure also altered the expression patterns of cytokines and was followed by an 8- and a 1.5-fold increase in the T helper 1 and 2 cell subpopulations. Behavioral data indicate a decrease in spontaneous activity and an increase in body temperature following exposure to lipopolysaccharide. In contrast, tolerant animals maintained production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide when terminally challenged by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Survival study after CLP showed protection in tolerant compared to naive animals. Spleen mass increased in tolerant animals followed by increases of B lymphocytes and subpopulation Th1 cells. An increase in the number of stem cells was found in spleen and bone marrow. We also showed that administration of spleen or bone marrow cells from tolerant to naive animals transfers the acquired resistance status. In conclusion, lipopolysaccharide tolerance is a natural reprogramming of the immune system that increases the number of immune cells, particularly T helper 1 cells, and does not reduce oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Sepsis/immunology , Cell Proliferation , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C
18.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2008. 91 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-837318

ABSTRACT

O excesso de Fe no organismo gera espécies reativas de oxigênio (ERO) que são potencialmente tóxicas. Entretanto, a magnitude dos efeitos da exposição à moderada sobrecarga de Fe e da sua interação com facilitadores e/ou inibidores da absorção mineral não é conhecida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar esses efeitos e a sua interação com fruta nos e/ou fitato (facilitadores e inibidores da absorção de Fe, respectivamente) nos índices séricos do estado nutricional em Fe, no perfil dos lipídeos séricos e em parâmetros do metabolismo hepático e ósseo. Para o experimento foram utilizados 34 ratos machos Wistar, pesando inicialmente 49,3 ± 3,9g, alojados individualmente em gaiolas de aço semimetabólicas por 92 dias. Uma dieta AIN-93G (Dieta 1: Grupo Controle) e quatro dietas AIN93G modificadas foram usadas para o estudo, com as seguintes características: Dieta 2: sobrecarga moderada de ferro com 550mgFe/kg de ração (Grupo SBC); Dieta 3: sobrecarga moderada de ferro + 18% de farinha de yacon (Grupo SBC+FY); Dieta 4: sobrecarga moderada de ferro + 0,6% de fitato (Grupo SBC+FIT); Dieta 5: sobrecarga moderada de ferro + 18% de farinha de yacon + 0,6 % de fitato (Grupo SBC+FY+FIT). Os resultados demonstraram que a moderada sobrecarga de Fe ou a sua interação com farinha de yacon e/ou fitato não alterou os índices séricos do estado nutricional em Fe. Ocorreu aumento na atividade sérica da AST apenas no grupo SBC (p=0,055). Nos grupos SBC e SBC+FY houve diminuição na concentração do colesterol sérico (p=0,002) e, apenas no grupo SBC+FY+FIT, diminuição da concentração sérica do VLDL. No fígado, houve aumento significativo (p=0,002) da concentração de Fe não-heme nos grupos IO (+83%) e SBC+FIT (+117%) e, em todos os grupos SBC, na atividade da enzima GPx (p=0,000). A atividade da CAT foi menor (p=0,036) apenas para o grupo SBC+FY+FIT. Em todos os grupos SBC ocorreu significativo aumento nos depósitos de hemossiderina em torno das células de Kupffer (p=0,000). Houve aumento na apoptose em todos os grupos SBC, com os grupos SBC+FY e SBC+FY +FIT apresentando o maior número de corpúsculos apoptóticos/área (+405% e +342%, respectivamente) (p=0,000). Não houve alteração nos parâmetros relacionados ao metabolismo ósseo. No grupo SBC+FY houve significativo aumento na absorção aparente de Ca (p<0,05). Conclusões: A moderada sobrecarga de Fe não alterou os índices séricos do estado nutricional em Fe, mas resultou em alterações no tecido hepático e no perfil dos lipídeos séricos. Com exceção do perfil de lipídeos séricos, no qual apenas o fitato pareceu exercer efeito protetor, nos demais parâmetros avaliados a interação com farinha de yacon rica em fruta nos e/ou fitato reverteu parcial ou totalmente as alterações induzidas pela moderada sobrecarga de Fe


Excess Fe in the organism generates potentially toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the magnitude of the effects of a moderate Fe overload and its interaction with factors which inhibit or facilitate mineral absorption is not known. The aim of the present work was to evaluate such effects and their interaction with fructans and/or phytate (compounds which facilitate and inhibit Fe absorption, respectively) on serum iron status indices, on the profile of serum lipids and on hepatic and bone metabolism parameters. In the experiment, thirty-four male Wistar rats initially weighing 49,3 ± 3,9g were used. The rats were housed in individual stainless-steel wire-mesh cages for 92 days. An AIN-93G diet (Diet 1: Control Group) and four modified AIN-93G diets were used in the study. The modified diets presented the following formulations: Diet 2: moderate Fe overload with 550mgFe/kg diet (IO Group); Diet 3: moderate Fe overload + 18% yacon flour (IO-YF Group); Diet 4: moderate Fe verload + 0.6% phytate (IO-Phy Group); Diet 5: moderate Fe overload + 18% yacon flour + 0.6% phytate (IO-YF-Phy Group). The results demonstrated that a moderate Fe overload or its interaction with yacon flour and/or phytate did not alter the serum iron status indices. An increase in the serum AST activity was observed only in the IO group (p=0,055). In the IO and IO-YF groups, there was a reduction in the serum cholesterol concentration (p=0,002) and a reduction in the serum VLDL concentration was observed only in the IO-YF-Phy group. In the liver, there was a significant increase (p=0,002) in non-heme Fe concentration in the IO (+83%) and IO-Phy (+117%) groups. Also, GPx activity was significantly increased (p=0,000) in all IO groups. CAT activity was lower (p=0,036) only in the IO-YF-Phy group. A significant increase in hemosiderin deposition around Kupffer cells was observed in all IO groups (p=0,000). Apoptosis was increased in all IO groups, whereas the IO-YF and IO-YF-Phy groups showed the largest number of apoptotic bodies/area (+405% and +342%, respectively) (p=0,000). There was no alteration in the parameters related to bone metabolism. In the IO-YF group, there was a significant increase in Ca apparent absorption (p<0,05).Conclusions: The moderate Fe overload did not alter the serum iron status índices, but led to alterations in the hepatic tissue and in the profile of serum lipids. Except for the profile of serum lipids where only phytate seemed to have a protective effect, in the other evaluated parameters the interaction with yacon flour rich in fructans and/or phytate partially or totally reversed the alterations induced by the moderate Fe overload


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Iron Overload/complications , Fructans/analysis , Bone and Bones , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/drug therapy , Diet
19.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2007 Oct; 44(5): 373-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-28484

ABSTRACT

Two important consequences of hyperglycemia in diabetes are development of oxidative stress and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) which are known to be associated with diabetic complications. Relationship between AGE formation and development of oxidative stress (OS) is yet to be established. In the present study, the involvement of AGE in PMN-mediated ROS generation and the associated OS were investigated in type 2 diabetic mellitus (DM) patients. We assessed OS parameters (serum MDA, FRAP and GSH), PMN oxidative functions (respiratory burst and superoxide production) and total serum AGE in 90 subjects divided equally in three groups--control group, Group I consisting of type 2 diabetic patients without microvascular complications and Group II consisting of type 2 diabetic patients with microvascular complications. PMNs isolated from both groups (I and II) exhibited higher level of respiratory burst (RB) and produced increased amount of superoxide anion as compared to the controls. The increase was more pronounced in diabetes with complications, as compared to those without. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level was elevated, whereas glutathione (GSH) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) levels were significantly reduced in diabetes as compared to the controls, suggesting the presence of oxidative stress in DM. A positive correlation between PMN oxidative function and OS parameters suggested the involvement of PMN in the development of OS in DM. Serum AGE level was also elevated in diabetic groups as compared to the controls. Further, the positive correlation between serum AGE level and PMN oxidative function suggested the involvement of AGE in increased RB and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by resting diabetic PMN. The results of the study indicate that AGE-PMN interaction possibly upregulates NADPH oxidase, leading to enhanced ROS generation and thus contributes to the pathogenesis in diabetes.


Subject(s)
Cells, Cultured , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Female , /immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophil Activation/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Reactive Oxygen Species/immunology
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-23279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Information on oxidative damage during sepsis in children is not available, we undertook this study to assess the levels of certain antioxidants in blood of children with sepsis. METHODS: Study group had 38 children with sepsis (<5 yr) and 39 age-and sex-matched controls admitted to a tertiary care hospital. Red cell glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and plasma vitamin C were estimated by standard techniques. RESULTS: There was no significant change in erythrocyte GSH, SOD and TBARS levels in sepsis when compared to controls. This may be due to the adaptive response of the body to combat the oxidative stress. However, plasma vitamin C levels were significantly reduced in patients aged one year one month to five years which may be due to active phagocytosis and due to its role as a free radical scavenger. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Our findings show that children affected by sepsis probably adapt to the free radical toxicity induced by this condition. Further studies need to be done on a larger sample to confirm the findings.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/blood , Child, Preschool , Glutathione/blood , Humans , Lipid Peroxidation/immunology , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Sepsis/immunology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/analysis
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