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1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(3): 120-125, 20220000. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1373050

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El manejo inmediato del dolor postoperatorio es esencial para una comodidad y rehabilitación temprana del paciente Este estudio busca evaluar el efecto analgésico postoperatorio inmediato en cirugías de columna lumbosacra por vía posterior, como los efectos adversos con la administración de analgesia intratecal, usando Clonidina contra Morfina. Material y métodos: Es un estudio analítico de intervención, cuasi experimental, prospectivo, longitudinal, comparativo, doble ciego. Para comparar la eficacia de la analgesia intratecal post operatoria inmediata en cirugías de columna lumbosacra primarias por vía posterior y los efectos adversos. Los pacientes se distribuyeron en dos grupos previamente designados, a un grupo se le administro Clonidina 0.5 microgramos/kg/peso y a otro grupo Morfina 5 microgramos/Kg/Peso. intratecal, intraoperatorio. Resultados: Existió diferencia estadísticamente significativa con mejor manejo del dolor postoperatorio en las primeras horas y menor presencia de vómitos en el grupo de pacientes que se utilizó Clonidina intratecal. No existió diferencia estadísticamente significativa de ambas medicaciones intratecales en la valoración de otros efectos adversos. Discusión: El uso de la analgesia intratecal ha ido ganando relevancia en el tiempo y se fueron sumando estudios para ver la eficacia de diferentes medicamentos, diferentes dosis, menor presencia de efectos adversos. El estudio analiza estas variables buscando una mejor opción terapéutica. Tenemos a favor una muestra representativa a pesar de no ser aleatoria, estricto seguimiento, y análisis estadístico adecuado. Conclusión: La Clonidina intratecal es más efectiva para manejo del dolor post operatorio inmediato de cirugías de columna lumbosacra por vía posterior y con menor presencia de efectos adversos


Introduction: Immediate postoperative pain management is essential for the patient's greater comfort and early rehabilitation. Te goal of this study is to evaluate the immediate analgesic postoperative effect in posterior lumbosacral spine surgery, as well as the adverse effects of the administration of intrathecal analgesia, using Clonidine versus Morphine. Material and methods: An analytical, quasi-experimental, prospective, longitudinal, comparative, double-blinded intervention study was conducted to compare the efficacy of immediate postoperative intrathecal analgesia in primary posterior lumbosacral spine surgery, and the adverse effects. Te patients were divided into two previously designated groups. One group received Clonidine 0.5 microgramos/kg and the other group received Morphine 5 microgramos/kg. Intrathecal, intraoperative. Results: Tere was a statistically significant difference with better postoperative pain management in the first hours and less vomiting in the group of patients who received intrathecal Clonidine. Tere was no statistically significant difference between both intrathecal medications in the evaluation of other adverse effects. Discussion: Te use of intrathecal analgesia, has been on the rise over time and more studies have been conducted to see the efficacy of different drugs, different doses, with fewer adverse effects. Tis study to analyze these variables with a view to finding a better therapeutic option. Te advantage is having a representative if not random sample, strict follow-up, and appropriate statistical analysis Conclusion: Intrathecal Clonidine proved to be more effective in immediate postoperative pain management after posterior lumbosacral spine surgery and with fewer adverse effects


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Pain Measurement , Analgesia, Epidural/methods , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Clonidine/administration & dosage , Aftercare , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Lumbosacral Region/surgery , Morphine/administration & dosage
2.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(1): 86-101, Mar 19, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284042

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Com a finalidade de evitar e reduzir lesões dos tecidos do canal do parto, a episiotomia pode ser realizada. Contudo, complicações cicatriciais podem ocorrer e resultar em desconfortos e dificuldades nas atividades diárias das parturientes. O uso de fotobiomodulação (FBM) em episiotomia é considerada uma alternativa de método não farmacológico para auxiliar no tratamento e cuidado destas puérperas. Objetivo: Revisar os estudos publicados nos últimos 20 anos sobre o efeito da FBM em episiotomia. Métodos: Revisão sistemática da literatura realizada através de busca digital em artigos publicados em revistas eletrônicas, ensaios clínicos e ensaios clínicos randomizados, entre os anos de 2000 e 2020, nas bases de dados eletrônicas PEDro, PubMed, Science Direct e Bireme. Resultados: Foram verificados estudos com aplicação da FBM para reparo tecidual e analgesia em episiotomia. A partir da análise de estudos metodologicamente mais robustos, a FBM não pareceu apresentar benefícios na aceleração do processo cicatricial, mas alguns resultados positivos para o controle da dor. Conclusão: De acordo com os achados, são necessários mais estudos com adequação de parâmetros e qualidade metodológica para elucidar quais os efeitos do uso da FBM no tratamento de episiotomia. (AU)


Introduction: To avoid and reduce lesions of tissues in the birth canal, an episiotomy can be performed. However, scar complications can occur and result in discomfort and difficulties in daily activities of parturient women. The use of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in episiotomy is considered an alternative non-pharmacological method to assist in treatment and care of these puerperal women. Objective: To review the studies published in the last 20 years on the effect of PBMT on episiotomy. Methods: A systematic review was conducted through the search of articles published in electronic journals, clinical trials, and randomized clinical trials between 2000 and 2020, in the electronic databases PEDro, PubMed, Bireme, Science Direct. Results: Studies with the application of PBMT for tissue repair and analgesia in episiotomy were verified. From the analysis of methodologically robust studies, the PBMT did not represent benefits in accelerating the healing process, but some positive results for pain control. Conclusion: According to the findings, further studies are needed with adequate parameters and methodological quality to elucidate the effects of using PBMT in the treatment of episiotomy. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Wound Healing , Low-Level Light Therapy , Episiotomy
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888351

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy of adductor canal block (ACB) combined with transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS)for postoperative analgesia and early functional exercise after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).@*METHODS@#A total of 84 patients underwent primary unilateral TKA from January 2019 to August 2020 were selected, including 45 males and 39 females, aged 66-77 (72.8±8.9) years;body mass index (BMI) was for 19-25 (23.6±3.5) kg /m@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences in VAS of rest pain and activity pain in postoperative 6, 12 h between two groups (@*CONCLUSION@#TEAS combined with ACB has a better postoperative analgesic efficacy than simple ACB, and can promote early functional exercise of patients. It is safe and effective for postoperative analgesia after TKA.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Female , Humans , Male , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Treatment Outcome
4.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(2): e508, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126755

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El dolor posterior a una intervención quirúrgica, es un síntoma frecuentemente observado, no cumple una función útil y el peligro de no tratarlo aumenta la morbilidad y mortalidad posoperatoria. Objetivo: Destacar la importancia de la analgesia multimodal en el control del dolor agudo posoperatorio. Métodos: Revisión en la literatura impresa tanto nacional como internacional, sobre la analgesia y la modalidad multimodal y además, se hizo búsqueda en Internet. En los artículos revisados se obtuvieron distintos aspectos clínicos de la analgesia multimodal y de sus protocolos. Resultados: En la actualidad para mitigar el dolor y alcanzar la máxima expresión en la analgesia posoperatoria se han desarrollado diferentes modalidades analgésicas, aunque de todas ellas solo ha alcanzado mayor grado de recomendación, la analgesia multimodal porque es capaz de conseguir con su efecto sinérgico y con pequeñas dosis, una mejor potencia para producir analgesia y menos efectos adversos. Consideraciones finales: La analgesia multimodal logra un control adecuado del dolor agudo posoperatorio, disminuye las complicaciones posoperatorias y la necesidad de analgesia de rescate, pero todo esto depende del protocolo de analgesia multimodal propuesto, la vía de administración de los fármacos elegidos, sus dosis y el cumplimiento de los intervalos de aplicación(AU)


Introduction: The pain after surgery is a frequently observed symptom, it is not a useful function and the danger of not treating it increases postoperative morbidity and mortality. Objective: To highlight the importance of multimodal analgesia in the control of acute postoperative pain. Methods: It was made a review in the printed literature both national and international on the multimodal analgesia, and in addition, a search in Internet. In the reviewed articles there were obtained different clinical aspects of multimodal analgesia and its protocolization. Results: Nowadays, in order to mitigate the pain and achieve the maximum expression in the postoperative analgesia, there have been developed different analgesic modalities, although of all of them it only has achieved a greater degree of recommendation, the multimodal analgesia because it is capable of achieving with its synergetic effect and with small doses, a better power to produce analgesia and fewer adverse effects. Conclusions: The multimodal analgesia achieved adequate control of acute postoperative pain, decreasing the inherent complications of this state and the need of rescue analgesia. All of the above depends on the proposed protocol of multimodal analgesia, the route of administration of the chosen drugs, their doses and the compliance of the application intervals(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Analgesia/methods
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(1): 22-27, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137130

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction and objectives: Blockade of the Erector Spinal Muscle (ESP Block) is a relatively new block, initially described for chronic thoracic pain analgesia, but it has already been described for anesthesia and analgesia in thoracic surgical procedures and, more recently, for high abdominal surgeries. The aim of the study was to compare two techniques, ESP Block and Epidural Block, with morphine and local anesthetic for postoperative analgesia of open cholecystectomy surgeries. Methods: Controlled single-blind randomized clinical trial with 31 patients (ESP Block, n = 15; Epidural, n = 16), of both genders, ages between 27 and 77 years. The ESP block was performed at the T8 level with injection of 20 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine bilaterally. The epidural block was performed at the T8-T9 space with 20 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine and 1 mg of morphine. Results: The ESP Block group presented higher mean ​​Numeric Pain Scale (NPS) values for pain in the up to 2 hour (p = 0.001) and in the 24 hour (p = 0.001) assessments. The ESP Block group had a three-fold increased risk (43.7% vs. 13.3%) of rescue opioid use in the 24 postoperative hours when compared to the epidural group (RR = 3.72, 95% CI: 0.91 to 15.31, p = 0.046). Conclusion: ESP Block did not prove to be an effective technique for postoperative analgesia of open cholecystectomy, at the doses performed in this study, having required more use of rescue opioid, and without differences in NPS. More comprehensive studies are required to assess the efficacy of ESP block for the visceral and abdominal somatic component, considering the specific blockade level.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivo: O Bloqueio do Plano do Músculo Eretor da Espinha (ESP block) é um bloqueio relativamente novo, inicialmente descrito para analgesia de dor torácica crônica, porém já descrito para anestesia e analgesia em procedimentos cirúrgicos torácicos e, mais recentemente, para cirurgias abdominais altas. O estudo objetivou comparar as técnicas de bloqueio ESP e bloqueio Epidural com morfina e anestésico local para analgesia pós-operatória de cirurgias de colecistectomia aberta. Método: Estudo clínico randomizado controlado, unicego com 31 pacientes (ESP block, n = 15; Epidural, n = 16), de ambos os sexos, idades entre 27 e 77 anos. O ESP block foi realizado no nível de T8 com injeção de 20 mL de ropivacaína 0,5% bilateral. O bloqueio Epidural foi realizado no espaço T8-T9 com 20 mL de ropivacaína 0,5% e 1 mg de morfina. Resultados: O grupo ESP block apresentou valores médios de dor pela Escala Visual Numérica (EVN) maiores nas avaliações até 2 horas (p= 0,001) e em 24 horas (p= 0,001). O grupo ESP block apresentou um risco três vezes maior - 43,7%vs.13,3% - de uso de opioide de resgate em 24 horas pós-operatórias do que o grupo epidural (RR = 3,72; 95% IC 0,91 a 15,31; p= 0,046). Conclusão: Nas doses realizadas nesse estudo, o ESP block não se mostrou uma técnica efetiva para analgesia pós-operatória de colecistectomia aberta, com mais uso de opioide de resgate e sem diferenças na escala visual numérica de dor. Necessita-se de estudos mais abrangentes avaliando a eficácia do ESP block para o componente visceral e somático abdominal, considerando o nível do bloqueio específico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Cholecystectomy/methods , Analgesia/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Analgesia, Epidural , Single-Blind Method , Back Muscles/innervation , Middle Aged
6.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(8): 443-447, sept 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1023260

ABSTRACT

Background: Pain is defined as "unpleasant sensory and sensory experience", associated with actual or potential tissue domage or described in terms of such damage. Objetive: To assess the effect of bupivacaine versus bupivacaine plus intrathecal dexmedetomidine in postoperative pain. Patients and method: An experimental design was made of a controlled clinical trial type, in patients scheduled for lower abdomen surgery or lower extremities. A sample of 60 patients was studied during the period from October 1 to december 15, 2018, who agreed to participate in the study through of signing consent under information. Results: It was observed that the time of the rescue analgesia was prolonged in more than 120 min in the case of dexmedetomidine when compared with bupivacaine (p<0.0001); also VAS scores at the time of analgesia rescue for the group with dexmedetomidine were 3.71 ± 1.27 and in the bupivacaine group of 5.7 ± 1.59, the difference of two pints of the VAS (p= <0.001) was significant, which demonstrates that dexmedetomidine is effective for prolong postoperative analgesia and decrease the analgesia requirements. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine at a dose of 5 ug associated with bupivacaine administered intrathecally is more Effective in postoperative analgesia compared with this substance alone in abdominal surgery inferior and lower extremities (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Pain Measurement , Injections, Spinal , Bupivacaine/pharmacokinetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacokinetics
7.
Dolor ; 29(71): 36-40, jul. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118184

ABSTRACT

El dolor crónico postoperatorio de cirugía de columna lumbar tiene una incidencia entre un 10-50 por ciento de los pacientes postoperados, siendo de difícil manejo. Se ha denominado síndrome de fracaso de cirugía espinal lumbar (FBSS) a aquellos pacientes que han sido beneficiarios de una cirugía del raquis lumbosacro y en quienes no se logra una mejoría de manera satisfactoria, presentando dolor crónico lumbar, siendo su incidencia de alrededor de un 20 por ciento, y debido a una mala evolución del proceso de recuperación que puede ocasionar fibrosis en el canal medular. Existen diversas alternativas terapéuticas para afrontar este problema, donde destacan el tratamiento farmacológico, medicina física y el abordaje intervencionista no quirúrgico y quirúrgico implementados últimamente, con el fin de disminuir de manera efectiva el dolor en este grupo de pacientes. Sin embargo, a pesar de las terapias combinadas, existe un grupo de pacientes que debe ser sometido a una nueva intervención quirúrgica con resultados poco promisorios.


Chronic postoperative pain of lumbar spine surgery has an incidence between 10-50 percent of postoperative patients, being difficult to manage. The Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS) has been referred to those patients who have been beneficiaries of lumbosacral spinal surgery and who do not achieve a satisfactory improvement, presenting chronic lumbar pain with an incidence around 20 percent and due to a poor evolution of the recovery process that can cause fibrosis in the medullary canal. There are several therapeutic alternatives to address this problem, which highlights the pharmacological treatment, physical medicine and the non-surgical and surgical intervention approach recently implemented, in order to effectively reduce pain in this group of patients. However, despite the combination therapies, there is a group of patients that must undergo a new surgical intervention with little promising results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Low Back Pain/etiology , Low Back Pain/therapy , Failed Back Surgery Syndrome/complications , Failed Back Surgery Syndrome/therapy , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Chronic Pain , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 91-94, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977420

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The erector spinae plane block is a newly described and effective interfascial plane block for thoracic and abdominal surgery. This case report describes a patient with multiple rib fractures undergoing ultrasound-guided continuous erector spinae plane block for analgesia. Case report: A 37-year-old male patient was taken for surgical fixation of multiple rib fractures. At the end of the surgery, using ultrasound-guided longitudinal parasagittal orientation 3 cm to the lateral aspect of the T5 spinous process and an in-plane technique, 20 mL 0.25% bupivacaine was administered between the erector spinae muscle and the transverse process, and a catheter was then inserted in the same plane. Before the end of surgery, 1 g paracetamol and 50 mg dexketoprofen were administered. Postoperative analgesia was applied with patient controlled analgesia method using 0.25% bupivacaine via the catheter. The patient's Visual Analogue Scale score at rest in the first 24 h was 0. The patient was monitored for 3 days with Visual Analogue Scale < 4, and the catheter was removed on postoperative day 4. No opioid requirement other than paracetamol and dexketoprofen occurred during this time. No postoperative complications were recorded. Discussion: The erector spinae plane block is an alternative to paravertebral, intercostal, epidural or other regional techniques. It may be a suitable technique in anesthesia and algology practice due to providing analgesia in the postoperative period with a catheter in the erector spinae plane.


Resumo Introdução: O bloqueio do plano do eretor da espinha é um bloqueio do plano interfacial recentemente descrito e eficaz para cirurgia torácica e abdominal. Neste relato descrevemos o caso de um paciente com fratura de múltiplas costelas, submetido ao bloqueio contínuo do plano do eretor da espinha guiado por ultrassom para analgesia. Relato de caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 37 anos, encaminhado para fixação cirúrgica de fratura de múltiplas costelas. Ao final da cirurgia, usando a orientação parassagital longitudinal guiada por ultrassom 3 cm em relação à face lateral do processo espinhoso T5 e a técnica no plano, 20 ml de bupivacaína a 0,25% foram administrados entre o músculo eretor da espinha e o processo transverso, e um cateter foi então inserido no mesmo plano. Antes do final da cirurgia, 1 g de paracetamol e 50 mg de dexcetoprofeno foram administrados. A analgesia pós-operatória foi aplicada com o método de analgesia controlada pelo paciente, com bupivacaína a 0,25% via cateter. Na Escala Visual Analógica, o escore do paciente em repouso nas primeiras 24 h foi zero. O paciente foi monitorado por três dias com a Escala Visual Analógica < 4, e o cateter foi removido no quarto dia de pós-operatório. Exceto por paracetamol e dexcetoprofeno, não houve necessidade de outro agente opioide durante esse tempo. Não houve registro de complicação pós-operatória. Discussão: O bloqueio do plano do eretor da espinha é uma alternativa às técnicas paravertebrais, intercostais, epidurais ou outras técnicas regionais. Pode ser uma técnica adequada na prática de anestesia e algologia devido ao fornecimento de analgesia no período pós-operatório mediante um cateter no plano do eretor da espinha.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Rib Fractures/surgery , Pain Management/methods , Fractures, Multiple/surgery , Analgesia/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Paraspinal Muscles
9.
Dolor ; 28(70): 36-37, dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118036

ABSTRACT

Los biomateriales son una herramienta usada frecuentemente en neurocirugía, traumatología y cirugía endoscópica, para reparar o reemplazar tejidos y sus funciones. Duragen es un injerto utilizado para la reparación de la duramadre en neurocirugía y beriplast es un sellador de fibrina usado para mejorar la hemostasia y sellado tisular. En el presente caso clínico se utilizaron estos biomateriales para tratar con éxito a una paciente con dolor neuropático refractario post exodoncia de diente 48.


Biomaterials are a usefull tool, used frecuentely in neurosurgery, traumatology and endoscopic surgery, for the repairment or replacement of tissues and there function. Duragen is a graft used to repair the dura mater in neurosurgery, beriplast is a fibrin sealant to treat bleeding and get tisular sealment. In the present clinical case, this material are used succesfuly to treat refractary post exodontia neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Surgery, Oral/methods , Biocompatible Materials , Toothache/surgery , Mandibular Nerve
10.
Prensa méd. argent ; 104(3): 124-129, may2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1358280

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La hernia inguinal ó crural no tratada se complica frecuentemente con la incarceración o el estrangulamiento de la misma. Lugar de Aplicación: Servicio de Guardia Central. Hospital Nacional de Clínicas. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Diseño: Estudio Prospectivo y protocolizado. Material y método: Entre enero de 2000 y diciembre de 2015 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente 118 pacientes con diagnóstico de hernia inguinal atascada. 90 correspondían al sexo masculino y 28 al sexo femenino, con un promedio de edad de 59 años. En relación a los síntomas el total de los pacientes presentaban dolor inguinocrural, acompañado de una tumoración irreductible. Fueron intervenidos bajo anestesia raquídea 72 casos, 28 generales, 11 peridural y 1 con anestesia local asistida. Resultados: En 96 pacientes se llevo a cabo la técnica de Bassini modificada, en los otros 22 casos la técnica de Mc Vay. En 38 oportunidades se realizó la resección de epiplón por estar comprometido, en 88 se complemento con una incisión relajadora tipo Tanner y en 5 pacientes se dejaron drenajes. En el control a los 7 días, se observo que 15 pacientes habían tenido seromas, en 3 casos presentaban dolor postoperatorio, 1 paciente tuvo un absceso y 19 presento un hematoma. En un control los 5 años que demostró que 3 pacientes presentaban dolor neuritíco y 8 habían recidivada su hernia. Conclusiones: La técnica de Bassini modificada en el tratamiento de las hernias inguinales atascadas es una opción valida y segura, obteniendo buenos resultados inmediatos y con una baja recidiva a largo plazo


Background: The non-operative treatment of both the inguinal and crural hernias can frequently be complicated by incarceration or strangulation of the hernia. Study ground: Emergency department, Clinical National Hospital, National University of Córdoba. Argentina. Design: Prospective and protocolized study. Material and Method: Between January 2000 through December 2015, 118 patients underwent operative procedures with diagnosis of obstruded inguinal hernia. There were 90 males and 28 females with an average age of 59 years. All of them had inguinal-crural pain and irreductible hernia. 72 cases were operated upon, with rachideal anesthesia, 28 with general anesthesia, 11 with peridural, and in 1 case, with local anesthesia. Results: 96 patients were operated with the Bassini´s modificated technique, 22 cases with the Mc Vay´s technique, and in 38 cases with the resection of the omentum. 88 patients received a Tanner´s incision and 5 cases needed a drainage. At the seventh day of control, 15 patients had seromas, 3 suffered postoperative pain, in one case an abscess was developed, and hematomas were observed in 19 cases. At the 5th year control, 3 patients had neuritic pain and 8 patients presented recurrent hernias . Discussion: Bassini´s modificated technique is a valid option for obstructed inguinal hernia with excellent close results and at long term, with a low recurrence rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Hernia, Inguinal/surgery , Hernia, Inguinal/complications
11.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(2): 149-153, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897834

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and goal of study: After laparoscopic cholecystectomy, patients have moderate pain in the early postoperative period. Some studies shown beneficial effects of subcostal transversus abdominis plane block on reducing this pain. Our goal was to investigate influence of subcostal transversus abdominis plane block on postoperative pain scores and opioid consumption. Materials and methods: We have randomized 76 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy to receive either subcostal transversus abdominis plane block (n = 38) or standard postoperative analgesia (n = 38). First group received bilateral ultrasound guided subcostal transversus abdominis plane block with 20 mL of 0.33% bupivacaine per side before operation and tramadol 1 mg.kg−1 IV for pain breakthrough (≥6). Second group received after operation tramadol 1 mg.kg−1/6 h as standard hospital analgesia protocol. Both groups received acetaminophen 1 g/8 h IV and metamizole 2.5 g/12 h. Pain at rest was recorded for each patient using NR scale (0-10) in period of 10 min, 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 16 h after the surgery. Results and discussion: We obtained no difference between groups according age, weight, intraoperative fentanyl consumption and duration of surgery. Subcostal transversus abdominis plane block significantly reduced postoperative pain scores compared to standard analgesia in all periods after surgery. Tramadol consumption was significantly lower in the subcostal transversus abdominis plane (24.29 ± 47.54 g) than in the standard analgesia group (270.2 ± 81.9 g) (p = 0.000). Conclusion: Our results show that subcostal transversus abdominis plane block can provide superior postoperative analgesia and reduction in opioid requirements after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivo: Após a colecistectomia laparoscópica, os pacientes apresentam dor moderada no pós-operatório imediato. Alguns estudos mostraram efeitos benéficos do bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal subcostal na redução dessa dor. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a influência do bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal subcostal nos escores de dor no pós-operatório e no consumo de opioides. Materiais e métodos: Foram randomizados 76 pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia laparoscópica para receber o bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal subcostal (n = 38) ou analgesia padrão no pós-operatório (n = 38). O primeiro grupo recebeu bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal subcostal bilateral guiado por ultrassom com 20 mL de bupivacaína a 0,33% em cada lado antes da operação e tramadol IV (1 mg.kg−1) para controle da dor (≥ 6). O segundo grupo recebeu tramadol (1 mg.kg−1/6 h) como protocolo-padrão de analgesia hospitalar pós-cirurgia. Ambos os grupos receberam acetaminofeno IV (1 g/8 h) e dipirona (2,5 g/12 h). A dor em repouso foi registrada para cada paciente com o uso da escala NR (0-10) nos períodos de 10 min, 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h e 16 h após a cirurgia. Resultados e discussão: Não houve diferença entre os grupos em relação a idade, peso, consumo intraoperatório de fentanil e duração da cirurgia. O bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal subcostal reduziu significativamente o escore de dor no pós-operatório em comparação com a analgesia-padrão em todos os períodos após a cirurgia. O consumo de tramadol foi significativamente menor no grupo bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal subcostal (24,29 ± 47,54 g) do que no grupo analgesia padrão (270,2 ± 81,9 g) (p = 0,000). Conclusão: Nossos resultados mostram que o bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal subcostal pode proporcionar analgesia superior no pós-operatório e redução da necessidade de opioides após colecistectomia laparoscópica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Analgesia , Nerve Block/methods , Pain Measurement , Prospective Studies , Abdominal Muscles , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
12.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 32(4): 556-561, out.-dez. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-878776

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O controle da dor é essencial em qualquer evento cirúrgico. A lipoaspiração cursa, em geral, com queixas de dor pós-operatória, o que levanta a discussão acerca da melhor maneira de preveni-la e tratá-la. Dessa forma, estudos indicam que a analgesia deveria começar antes que qualquer estímulo doloroso seja deflagrado a fim de reduzir ou prevenir a dor preemptivamente. A abordagem nas diversas vias álgicas, com combinação de diferentes classes de fármacos ou associação dos bloqueios raquimedular ou epidural com anestesia geral, também pode contribuir para o manejo da dor. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, prospectivo, intervencionista, tipo Coorte, com pacientes submetidas à cirurgia plástica envolvendo lipoaspiração. O procedimento anestésico padrão consistiu na associação de anestesia geral e subaracnóidea. O escalonamento da dor, realizado 6 e 18 horas após o término da cirurgia, utilizou escalas unidimensionais. A ausência de dor ou a presença de dor leve foram consideradas como resultado satisfatório. Resultados: Foram avaliadas 50 pacientes do sexo feminino, com média de 35 anos de idade. Não foi encontrada dor severa em qualquer momento do estudo. Os resultados satisfatórios representaram 94% e 92% das pacientes na avaliação das 6 e 18 horas do pós-operatório, respectivamente (p < 0,001). Conclusões: A anestesia geral venosa combinada com raquianestesia, em cirurgia de contorno corporal, foi capaz de controlar satisfatoriamente a dor no pós-operatório imediato na maioria dos casos (>90%). A lipoaspiração mostrou ser cirurgia de dor controlável nesta casuística.


Introduction: Pain control is essential in any surgical event. Liposuction is, in general, accompanied by complaints of postoperative pain, which raises the discussion about the best way to prevent and treat it. Accordingly, studies indicate that the analgesia should begin before any painful stimulus is triggered in order to reduce or prevent the pain preemptively. The approach of the various pain pathways, with a combination of different classes of drugs or utilization of spinal block or epidural/general anesthesia can also contribute to pain management. Methods: A descriptive, prospective, interventional cohort type study was conducted with patients undergoing plastic surgery involving liposuction. The standard anesthetic procedure consisted of an association between general and spinal anesthesia. The assessment of pain, carried out 6 and 18 hours after the end of the surgery, used unidimensional scales. The absence of pain or the presence of mild pain was considered a satisfactory result. Results: Fifty female patients were evaluated, with an average of 35 years of age. No intense pain was found at any time during the study. Satisfactory results accounted for 94% and 92% of the patients in the assessment at 6 and 18 hours post-surgery, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Intravenous anesthesia combined with spinal anesthesia, in body contouring surgery, was able to satisfactorily control pain in the immediate postoperative period in most cases (>90%). In this study, liposuction was revealed to be a type of surgery with manageable pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , Pain , Lipectomy , Analgesia , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Spinal , Pain/complications , Pain/drug therapy , Pain, Postoperative/surgery , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Lipectomy/methods , Analgesia/methods , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods
13.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(4): 395-403, July-aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897749

ABSTRACT

Abstract Post-operative pain management is a significant problem in clinical practice in Latin America. Insufficient or inappropriate pain management is in large part due to insufficient knowledge, attitudes and education, and poor communications at various levels. In addition, the lack of awareness of the availability and importance of clear policies and guidelines for recording pain intensity, the use of specific analgesics and the proper approach to patient education have led to the consistent under-treatment of pain management in the region. However, these problems are not insurmountable and can be addressed at both the provider and patient level. Robust policies and guidelines can help insure continuity of care and reduce unnecessary variations in practice. The objective of this paper is to call attention to the problems associated with Acute Post-Operative Pain (APOP) and to suggest recommendations for their solutions in Latin America. A group of experts on anesthesiology, surgery and pain developed recommendations that will lead to more efficient and effective pain management. It will be necessary to change the knowledge and behavior of health professionals and patients, and to obtain a commitment of policy makers. Success will depend on a positive attitude and the commitment of each party through the development of policies, programs and the promotion of a more efficient and effective system for the delivery of APOP services as recommended by the authors of this paper. The writing group believes that implementation of these recommendations should significantly enhance efficient and effective post-operative pain management in Latin America.


Resumo O controle da dor no período pós-operatório é um problema significativo na prática clínica na América Latina. O controle insuficiente ou inadequado da dor é devido, em grande parte, à insuficiência de conhecimento, atitudes e formação e à comunicação precária em vários níveis. Além disso, a falta de conscientização da disponibilidade e importância de políticas e diretrizes inequívocas para avaliar a intensidade da dor, o uso de analgésicos específicos e a abordagem adequada para instruir o paciente levaram ao subtratamento consistente da dor na região. Contudo, esses problemas não são insuperáveis e podem ser abordados no âmbito tanto do provedor quanto do paciente. Políticas e diretrizes substanciais podem ajudar a garantir a continuidade dos cuidados e reduzir as variações desnecessárias na prática. O objetivo deste artigo é chamar a atenção para os problemas associados à dor aguda no pós-operatório (DAPO) e sugerir recomendações para solucioná-los na América Latina. Um grupo de especialistas em anestesiologia, cirurgia e dor desenvolveu recomendações que levarão a um controle mais eficiente e eficaz da dor. Será preciso mudar o conhecimento e o comportamento dos profissionais de saúde e pacientes e obter um compromisso por parte de legisladores. O sucesso dependerá de uma atitude positiva e do compromisso de cada parte através do desenvolvimento de políticas e programas e da promoção de um sistema mais eficiente e eficaz para a prestação de serviços para a DAPO, como recomendado pelos autores deste trabalho. O grupo que as redigiu acredita que a aplicação dessas recomendações deve melhorar de modo significativo a eficiência e eficácia do controle da dor no período pós-operatório na América Latina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Postoperative Care/standards , Pain Management/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Latin America
14.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 34(1): 254-264, ene.-mar. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841451

ABSTRACT

ResumenEl dolor es una experiencia universal pero única para cada individuo. El proceso patológico que culmina en una intervención quirúrgica es una de las principales fuentes de dolor, muchas veces abordado y manejado de manera subóptima o en entornos que carecen de la organización adecuada. La utilización de la historia clínica y examen físico para la identificación de factores de riesgo conocidos para dolor postoperatorio agudo y crónico son fundamentales al elaborar un plan de manejo del dolor efectivo. Según las recomendaciones, se obtiene una mejor respuesta con el uso de terapia multimodal farmacológica y no farmacológica que involucra celecoxib preoperatorio, anestesia regional periférica o neuraxial, manejo de dolor postoperatorio con antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES), acetaminofén, gabapentina o pregabalina; implementación de terapia cognitiva y de comportamiento. Monitoreo y valoración periódica del paciente para evaluar su respuesta a analgésicos y efectos adversos asociado a coordinación y planeamiento eficaz de protocolos y guías en cada centro de salud, se han visto de utilidad al valorar a un grupo tan heterogéneo e impredecible.


Abstract:Pain is a universal experience but unique for every individual. The pathological processes that end in a surgical intervention are some of the main pain sources, often approached and managed suboptimally or without proper organization. The use of clinical history and physical examination to identify known risk factors to postoperative acute and chronic pain are fundamental to elaborate an effective pain management plan. According to recommendations, the outcome improves with pharmacological and non-pharmacological multimodal analgesia, including celecoxib before surgery, peripheral regional anesthesia or neuraxial techniques, management of postoperative pain with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, gabapentin or pregabalin; implementation of cognitive - behavioral therapy. Monitoring and periodic assessments associated with coordination and planning of protocols and guidelines in every clinical center, have been useful to evaluate a heterogeneous and unpredictable group, in order to establish the patients' response to analgesics and their adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain, Postoperative , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Pain Measurement , Acute Pain , Pain Management
15.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-883208

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Esse estudo tem como propósito a análise da analgesia pós-operatória em adultos. Um dos principais objetivos dos cuidados pós-operatórios é o correto tratamento da dor. Isso evita a demora na recuperação e o aumento do custo hospitalar. A ausência de dor tende a minimizar as complicações pós-operatórias por ela causadas em todos os sistemas e aparelhos do organismo. Métodos: Esse estudo constitui-se de uma revisão da literatura especializada, realizada em maio de 2017 e junho de 2017, na qual se realizou uma consulta a artigos científicos selecionados através de busca no banco de dados, Medline, Medscape, Up to date com artigos publicados nos últimos cinco anos, e literaturas consagradas em Anestesiologia. Resultados: Descritos abaixo, a partir dos artigos e bibliografias utilizadas. Conclusões: Após uma abordagem prática multimodal da analgesia pós-operatória, analisando tal riqueza de opções para o manejo da dor pós-operatória, é fundamental ressaltar a importância no investimento em estudos com esta mesma abordagem, visando um aperfeiçoamento na analgesia pós-operatória, nunca esquecendo a atual tendência de redução de uso de opioides.


Aims: This study has the analysis of postoperative analgesia in adults as a purpose. One of the main objectives of post-operative care is the correct treatment of pain. This avoids a delay in recovery and an increase in hospital cost. The absence of pain tends to minimize the postoperative complications caused by it in all systems in the organism. Methods: This study constitutes in a specialized literary review, conducted in may, 2017 to june, 2017, in wich was performed a consult in scientific articles selected through the research in data base, Medline, Medscape, Up to Date for references published within the last 5 years, and renowed literature in anesthesiology. Results: Descripted below, through the articles and references used. Conclusions: After a practical and multimodal approach in postoperative analgesia, analyzing such variety of options in the management of postoperative pain, it´s crucial to emphasize the importance in investment in studies with this same approach, looking forward an improvement in postoperative analgesia, never forgetting a current tendency to decrease the use of opioids.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Adult
16.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(9): 862-866, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829553

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Introduction Since the 1980s, the use of autologous fat grafting has been growing in plastic surgery. Recently, this procedure has come to be used as a treatment for keloids and hypertrophic scars mainly due to the lack of satisfactory results with other techniques. So far, however, it lacks more consistent scientific evidence to recommend its use. The aim of this study was to review the current state of autologous fat grafting for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars, their benefits and scientific evidences in the literature. Method A review in the Pubmed database was performed using the keywords “fat grafting and scar”, “fat grafting and keloid scar” and “fat grafting and hypertrophic scar.” Inclusion criteria were articles written in English and published in the last 10 years, resulting in 15 studies. Results These articles indicate that autologous fat grafting carried out at sites with pathological scars leads to a reduction of the fibrosis and pain, an increased range of movement in areas of scar contraction, an increase in their flexibility, resulting in a better quality of scars. Conclusion So far, evidences suggest that autologous fat grafting for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars is associated with a better quality of scars, leading to esthetic and functional benefits. However, this review has limitations and these findings should be treated with reservations, since they mostly came from studies with low levels of evidence.


RESUMO Introdução a partir da década de 1980, o uso da lipoenxertia autóloga tem crescido na cirurgia plástica. Recentemente, esse procedimento passou a ser utilizado como tratamento de queloides e cicatrizes hipertróficas, principalmente em decorrência da falta de resultados satisfatórios com outras técnicas. No entanto, até o momento, faltam evidências científicas mais consistentes que recomendem seu uso. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão do estado atual da lipoenxertia autóloga no tratamento de queloides e cicatrizes hipertróficas, os benefícios e as evidências científicas presentes na literatura. Método foi realizada uma revisão na base de dados Pubmed com os descritores “fat grafting and scar”, “fat grafting and keloid scar” e “fat grafting and hypertrofic scar”. Os critérios de inclusão foram artigos escritos em inglês e publicados nos últimos 10 anos, resultando em 15 estudos. Resultados os artigos indicam que a lipoenxertia autóloga realizada em locais com cicatrizes patológicas leva a uma diminuição da fibrose e da dor, à maior amplitude de movimentos em áreas de retração cicatricial, ao aumento de sua maleabilidade, resultando na melhor qualidade das cicatrizes. Conclusão até o momento, as evidências sugerem que a lipoenxertia autóloga para o tratamento das queloides e cicatrizes hipertróficas está associada à uma melhor qualidade das cicatrizes, levando a benefícios estéticos e funcionais. Contudo, esta revisão possui limitações e os acha dos devem ser analisados com ressalvas, já que a maioria provem de estudos com baixos níveis de evidência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adipose Tissue/transplantation , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/surgery , Keloid/surgery , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/metabolism , Keloid/metabolism
17.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(4): 395-401,
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787630

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objective: Adequate analgesia after sternotomy reduces postoperative adverse events. There are various methods of treating pain after heart surgery, such as infiltration with a local anesthetic, nerve block, opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alpha-adrenergic agents, intrathecal and epidural techniques, and multimodal analgesia. Content: A review of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of pain after sternotomy. We also discuss the various analgesic therapeutic modalities, emphasizing advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Conclusions: Heart surgery is performed mainly via medium sternotomy, which results in significant postoperative pain and a non-negligible incidence of chronic pain. Effective pain control improves patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes. There is no clearly superior technique. It is believed that a combined multimodal analgesic regimen (using different techniques) is the best approach for treating postoperative pain, maximizing analgesia and reducing side effects.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivo: Analgesia adequada após esternotomia reduz eventos adversos no pós-operatório. Várias modalidades estão disponíveis para tratamento da dor após cirurgia cardíaca: infiltração com anestésico local, bloqueio de nervos, opioides, anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais, agentes alfa-adrenérgicos, técnicas intratecais e epidurais e analgesia multimodal. Conteúdo: Foi feita uma revisão sobre epidemiologia, fisiopatologia, prevenção e tratamento da dor após esternotomia. Também fora discutidas as diversas modalidades terapêuticas analgésicas, com ênfase em vantagens e desvantagens de cada técnica. Conclusões: A cirurgia cardíaca é feita principalmente por esternotomia média, que resulta em dor significativa no pós-operatório e uma incidência não insignificante de dor crônica. O controle efetivo da dor melhora a satisfação dos pacientes e os desfechos clínicos. Nenhuma técnica é claramente superior. Acredita-se que um regime analgésico combinado multimodal (com várias técnicas) seja a melhor abordagem para tratar a dor pós-operatória, o que maximiza a analgesia e reduz os efeitos colaterais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Sternotomy/adverse effects , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Analgesia/methods , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Analgesia, Epidural/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Combined Modality Therapy , Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthetics, Local , Nerve Block/methods
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(3): 325-332, mar. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784901

ABSTRACT

Background: There is evidence that acupuncture may relieve pain. Aim: To assess the evidence about the effectiveness of acupuncture to relieve postoperative pain. Material and Methods: A systematic review of the literature selecting controlled clinical trials and systematic reviews comparing acupuncture with standard pain management. The value and quality of reports were evaluated using Jadad scale and STRICTA protocol. Pain intensity and analgesic consumption were the primary endpoints sought. Results: Five controlled trials and two systematic reviews were selected. A meta-analysis was not feasible due to the heterogeneity of studies. In the postoperative period of tonsillectomy, acupuncture reduced pain by 36 and 22% at 20 minutes and two hours, respectively. In knee replacement, acupuncture reduced pain by 2% and analgesic consumption by 42%. In the postoperative period of dental interventions, acupuncture reduced pain by 24% at two hours. Conclusions: Acupuncture may be useful to manage postoperative pain, but more controlled studies are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Time Factors , Pain Measurement , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(12): 831-837, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769499

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE : To investigate the analgesic effect of acupuncture (AP) or micro-dose pharmacopuncture (PA), using carprofen or morphine, in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OHE). METHODS: Thirty five dogs were randomly assigned to five groups after sedation with acepromazine IM: AP, 0.5 mg.kg-1 of morphine subcutaneously (SC), 4 mg.kg-1 of carprofen SC, and PA with 0.05 mg.kg-1 of morphine or 0.4 mg.kg-1 of carprofen. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Pain was assessed after OHE by a blind observer for 24h, by dynamic visual analogue scale (DIVAS), Glasgow (CMPS-SF), Melbourne (UMPS) and Colorado University pain scale (CSU). Animals reaching 33% of the UMPS score received rescue analgesia with morphine IM. Non parametric data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis or Friedman tests where applicable, followed by Dunn´s test. Parametric data were analysed by two way ANOVA, followed by Tukey test. RESULTS: There were no differences among groups in number of rescue analgesia. Except for the DIVAS score where animals treated with morphine had the lowest score compared with AP and carprofen, at 1h after surgery, there were no other differences among groups. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture or pharmacopuncture were equally effective as morphine or carprofen to control postoperative pain in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Acupuncture Analgesia/veterinary , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Hysterectomy/veterinary , Morphine/therapeutic use , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Pain, Postoperative/veterinary , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Analgesia/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Hysterectomy/adverse effects , Ovariectomy/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Pain Measurement/veterinary , Pain, Postoperative/therapy
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