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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18800, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364431

ABSTRACT

Abstract Efavirenz is one of the most commonly used drugs in HIV therapy. However the low water solubility tends to result in low bioavailability. Drug nanocrystals, should enhance the dissolution and consequently bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to obtain EFV nanocrystals prepared by an antisolvent technique and to further observe possible effect, on the resulting material, due to altering crystallization parameters. A solution containing EFV and a suitable solvent was added to an aqueous solution of particle stabilizers, under high shear agitation. Experimental conditions such as solvent/antisolvent ratio; drug load; solvent supersaturation; change of stabilizer; addition of milling step and solvents of different polarities were evaluated. Suspensions were characterized by particle size and zeta potential. After freeze- dried and the resulting powder was characterized by PXRD, infrared spectroscopy and SEM. Also dissolution profiles were obtained. Many alterations were not effective for enhancing EFV dissolution; some changes did not even produced nanosuspensions while other generated a different solid phase from the polymorph of raw material. Nevertheless reducing EFV load produced enhancement on dissolution profile. The most important modification was adding a milling step after precipitation. The resulting suspension was more uniform and the powder presented grater enhancement of dissolution efficacy.


Subject(s)
Efficacy/classification , HIV/pathogenicity , Crystallization/instrumentation , Dissolution/methods , Particle Size , Solubility , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Excipients/pharmacology , Dissolution/classification , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Methods
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e232612, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153482

ABSTRACT

Abstract Three experiments were done with different particle sizes of corn feed on its zootechnical performance, passing rate and apparent digestibility of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). In the first, 200 juveniles were used and distributed in 20 tanks (220 L), 10 fish per unit (four replicates). The experimental system used to record passage time was composed of five incubators with 200 L. In the second, 75 juveniles were used per 55 days (three replications). In the third, 75 juveniles were used and distributed in five incubators of 200 L. All experiments were performed randomly. Different linear behavior treatments were observed for apparent digestibility of crude protein; and the smaller particle size (150 μm) had better results digestibility. smaller particle size of the corn had better results, affected the growth performance of tambaqui and the apparent digestibility of crude protein and ether extract. Thus, is recommended that a particle size of 150 μm of corn be used for tambaqui.


Resumo Três experimentos foram realizados com diferentes tamanhos de partícula de ração para o desempenho zootécnico, taxa de aprovação e digestibilidade aparente de tambaqui juvenil (Colossoma macropomum). No primeiro, foram utilizados 200 juvenis e distribuídos em 20 tanques (220 L), 10 peixes por unidade (quatro repetições). O sistema experimental utilizado para registrar o tempo de passagem foi composto por cinco incubadoras com 200 L. No segundo, 75 juvenis foram utilizados por 55 dias (três repetições). No terceiro, 75 juvenis foram utilizados e distribuídos em cinco incubadoras de 200 L. Todos os experimentos foram realizados aleatoriamente. Diferentes tratamentos de comportamento linear foram observados para digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta; e o menor tamanho de partícula (150 μm) apresentou melhor digestibilidade dos resultados. menor tamanho de partícula do milho apresentou melhores resultados, afetou o desempenho de crescimento de tambaquis e a digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta e extrato etéreo. Portanto, recomenda-se o uso de um tamanho de partícula de 150 μm de milho para o tambaqui.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zea mays , Characiformes , Particle Size , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed/analysis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921763

ABSTRACT

Based on the defects in powder properties of the contents of Ziyin Yiwei Capsules, this study screened out the main medicinal slice powders causing the poor powdery properties, and introduced the powder modification process to improve the powdery properties of these slice powders, the pharmaceutical properties of the capsule contents, and the content uniformity of Ziyin Yiwei Capsules, so as to provide a demonstration for the application of powder modification technology to the preparation of Chinese medicinal solid preparations. Through the investigation on the powder properties of the contents of Ziyin Yiwei Capsules, it was clarified that the pulverized particle size of the capsule contents had a good correlation with the pulverization time. According to the measurement results of the powder fluidity and wettability, the quality defects of the capsule contents were caused by the fine powders of Taraxaci Herba and Lungwortlike Herba. "Core-shell" composite particles were prepared from medicinal excipients magnesium stearate and fine powders of Taraxaci Herba and Lungwortlike Herba slices after ultra-fine pulverization to improve the powder properties of the problematic fine powders. Powder characterization data including fluidity and wettability were measured, followed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and infrared ray(IR) detection. It was determined that the optimal dosage of magnesium stearate was 2%, and the compositing time was 3 min. The composite particles were then used as content components of the Ziyin Yiwei Capsules. The powder characteristics between the original capsule and the modified composite capsule including the particle size, fluidity, wettability, uniformity of bulk density, and uniformity of chromatism as well as the content uniformity and in vitro dissolution were compared. The results showed that the powder characteristics and content uniformity of the prepared composite capsule were significantly improved, while the material basis of the preparation was not changed before and after modification. The preparation process was proved to be stable and feasible. The powder modification technology solved the pharmaceutical defects that were easy to appear in the preparation of traditional capsules, which has provided experimental evidence for the use of powder modification technology for improving the quality of Chinese medicinal solid preparations and promoting the secondary development and upgrading of traditional Chinese medicinal dosage forms such as capsules.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Excipients , Particle Size , Powders , Wettability
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921762

ABSTRACT

Targeting the poor powder characteristics of the contents in Hewei Jiangni Capsules, this study characterized the powder properties of the contents and employed particle design technique for improving the content quality. The content composite particles of Hewei Jiangni Capsules prepared by the particle design technique were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), followed by infrared ray(IR), content uniformity, and in vitro dissolution detection. It was found that there was a good correlation between the crushed particle size of slices and the crushing time, and the calcined Haematitum was responsible for the poor content uniformity. After the fine powder of calcined Haematitum was super-finely ground for 8.5 min and those of the other contents in the capsule for 1 min, they were prepared into the composite particles, whose property characterizations were compared with those of the physical mixtures. The content uniformity of the prepared composite particles was significantly improved, and the preparation process was stable and reliable. The adoption of particle design technology to correct the poor uniformity of the physical mixture, solve the pharmaceutical defects of Hewei Jiangni Capsules, and improve the quality of prescriptions has provided important reference for the clinical application and development of Chinese medicinal preparations.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Particle Size , Powders
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921761

ABSTRACT

Due to the complex source and different physical and chemical properties of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) powder, there are many common pharmaceutical problems in its preparation, such as large particle size difference, poor mixing uniformity, and poor compliance with oral intake, which has directly affected the quality of solid preparations as well as their clinical efficacy and safety. This study observed the property of Zhuhuang Chuihou Powder and extract its pharmaceutical defects. It was found that realgar and calcined Borax in Zhuhuang Chuihou Powder were heavy in texture and toxic, and they were easy to be isolated, indicating the potential safety hazard. At the same time, Coptidis Rhizoma and Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex were the main sources of its bitterness. Therefore, based on the idea of "drug-excipients unity", the particle design technology was used to prepare core/shell-type composite particles with bitter medicines as the core and mineral medicines as shell. Both infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy results indicated the formation of composite particles, and the taste of these composite particles were improved. Compared with the physical mixtures, the composite particles exhibited significantly decreased RSD values in the content uniformity of berberine hydrochloride, arsenic disulfide, and sodium tetraborate and appearance uniformity. The introduction of particle design technology solved the problem of uneven dispersion of Zhuhuang Chuihou Powder, thus ensuring its uniform dispersion, stability, and control and improving the quality of the original preparation. This has provided a scientific basis for the quality control of TCM powder.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Particle Size , Powders , Taste
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921760

ABSTRACT

Targeting the deficiencies of Lingzhu Powder, this study introduced the particle design technology to improve its quality. Based on the mechanism of particle design for powder and the characteristics of solvent evaporation method, composite particles consisting of Succinum, Cinnabaris, and artificial Bovis Calculus were prepared. And the powder properties of composite particles and physical mixtures as well as the content uniformity of toxic components were investigated for exploring the technological advantages of particle design in improving the quality of Lingzhu Powder. The results showed that the composite particles prepared using solvent evaporation method and particle design technology were micro-particles, and the stable agglomerate structure could be observed under SEM. Composite particles exhibited better fluidity and compliance in oral intake than physical mixtures. The differences in chromatism, bulk density, and content uniformity of the composite particles were smaller than those of physical mixtures, and the corresponding RSD values \[4.8%, 1.8%, 3.4%(bilirubin), and 0.63%(HgS), respectively\] were smaller. The solvent evaporation combined with particle design technology can be utilized to significantly improve the quality of Lingzhu Powder, which has provided new ideas for the optimization of the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal powder.


Subject(s)
Particle Size , Powders , Solvents , Technology
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921759

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate the correlations of the spatial structure properties of Chinese medicinal extracts with hygroscopicity and the anti-hygroscopic techniques. With Poria extract used as the model drug, pregelatinised starch and microcrystalline cellulose at different ratios were added into Poria fluid extract for preparing powder particles with diverse spatial structures using different drying processes. Then, their hygroscopic behaviours were characterized by equilibrium hygroscopicity(F~∞) and semi-hygroscopic time(t_(1/2)). The correlations of the hygroscopicity of each powder with the spatial structure properties such as particle size(D_(90)), porosity(ε), true density(ρ_t), and surface element distribution were analyzed using partial least-squares method. The F~∞ and t_(1/2) values of Poria extract prepared by three drying methods were sorted in a descending order as follows: F~∞(spray drying>drying at ordinary pressure>drying at reduced pressure); t_(1/2)(drying at reduced pressure>drying at ordinary pressure>spray drying). The powder obtained by spray drying showed a spherical structure with the smallest particle size and intra-particle ε but relatively stronger hygroscopicity. The large-scale surface element enrichment of the powders dried by reduced pressure effectively reduced their hygroscopicity. F~∞ and t_(1/2) were negatively correlated with ε but positively with D_(90), and the interactive influence of each spatial structural properties was not significant. There existed a correlation between the spatial structure of the powder particles of Chinese medicine extracts and their hygroscopicity, and the hygroscopicity could be improved by designing the spatial structure. This study has provided some practical basis for developing the moisture-proof technology of Chinese medicinal preparations.


Subject(s)
China , Particle Size , Plant Extracts , Powders , Technology , Wettability
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921636

ABSTRACT

Moslae Herba is a commonly used aromatic Chinese medicinal with volatile oil as the main effective component and exhibits broad-spectrum antibacterial and antiviral effects. However, the irritation and instability of Moslae Herba volatile oil necessitate the preparation into a specific dosage form. In this study, the steam distillation method was employed to extract the Moslae Herba volatile oil. The content of thymol and carvacrol in Moslae Herba volatile oil was determined by HPLC as(0.111 9±0.001 0) and(0.235 4±0.004 7) mg·mL~(-1), respectively. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and surfactants compounding were applied in the selection of the optimal excipients(surfactant and cosurfactant). On this basis, a nanoemulsion was prepared from the Moslae Herba volatile oil and then loaded into pressure vessels to get sprays, whose stability and antibacterial activity were evaluated afterward. With clarity, viscosity, smell and body feeling as comprehensive indexes, the optimal formulation of the Moslae Herba volatile oil nanoemulsion was determined as follows: Moslae Herba volatile oil∶peppermint oil∶cremophor EL∶absolute ethanol∶distilled water 7.78∶1.58∶19.26∶6.15∶65.23. The as-prepared nanoemulsion was a light yellow transparent liquid, with Tyndall effect shown under the irradiation of parallel light. It has the pH of 5.50, conductivity of 125.9 μS·cm~(-1), average particle size of 15.45 nm, polydispersity index(PDI) of 0.156, and Zeta potential of-17.9 mV. Under a transmission electron microscope, the Moslae Herba volatile oil nanoemulsion was presented as regular spheres without adhesion and agglomeration. Stability test revealed that the Moslae Herba volatile oil nanoemulsion was stable at 4-55 ℃, which was free from demulsification and stratification within 30 days. After the centrifugation at 12 000 r·min~(-1) for 30 min, there was no stratification either. The nanoemulsion had good inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and resistant S. aureus strains, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.39, 3.12 and 1.56 mg·mL~(-1), respectively. The above results demonstrated that the nanoemulsion was prepared feasibly and showed stable physical and chemical properties and good antibacterial effects. This study provides a practicable technical solution for the development of anti-epidemic and anti-infection products from Moslae Herba volatile oil.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Emulsions , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile , Particle Size
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921634

ABSTRACT

The high shear wet granulation(HSWG) process of Chinese medicine has a complicated mechanism. There are many influencing factors that contribute to this process. In order to summarize the manufacturability of different kinds of materials in HSWG, this paper constructed a material library composed of 11 materials, including 4 Chinese medicine extracts and 7 pharmaceutical excipients. Each material was described by 22 physical parameters. Several binders were employed, and their density, viscosity and surface tension were characterized. Combining empirical constraints and the principle of randomization, 21 designed experiments and 8 verification experiments were arranged. The partial least squares(PLS) algorithm was used to establish a process model in prediction of the median granule size based on properties of raw materials and binders, and process parameters. The surface tension and density of binders, as well as the maximum pore saturation were identified as key variables. In the latent variable space of the HSWG process model, all materials could be divided into three categories, namely the Chinese medicine extracts, the diluents and the disintegrants. The granulation of Chinese medicine extracts required low viscosity and low amount of binder, and the resulted granule sizes were small. The diluent powders occupied a large physical space, and could be made into granules with different granule sizes by adjusting the properties of binders. The disintegrants tended to be made into large granules under the condition of aqueous binder. The combination use of material database and multivariate modeling method is conducive to innovate the knowledge discovery of the wet granulation process of Chinese medicine, and provides a basis for the formulation and process design based on material attributes.


Subject(s)
Drug Compounding , Excipients , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Particle Size , Powders , Tablets , Technology, Pharmaceutical
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888140

ABSTRACT

This study was mainly based on the compatibility of Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Chuanxiong Rhizoma to prepare submicron emulsion and evaluated its physical and pharmaceutical properties. Firstly, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were drawn by dripping method which took Chuanxiong oil as the oil phase and the area of microemulsion region as the index. On this basis, suitable emulsifier and co-emulsifier were screened for the preparation of Chuanxiong oil submicron emulsion. Then, the formula realizing the largest oil loading was selected. Finally, puerarin substituted part of emulsifier and co-emulsifier to lower their content, so as to form puerarin-Chuanxiong oil submicron emulsion featuring the combination of medicine and adjuvant. Its particle size, zeta potential, centrifugal stability and storage stability were determined, and the in vitro drug release behavior was investigated by dialysis bag method, based on which the quality of the as-prepared submicron emulsion was evaluated comprehensively. The proposed method was proved feasible for the preparation of Chuanxiong oil submicron emulsion, which adopted polyoxyethylene castor oil(EL-40) as the emulsifier and was free from co-emulsifier. The formula of the maximum oil loading was found as Chuanxiong oil∶EL-40∶water 3∶7∶90. Further, puera-rin successfully replaced up to 10% of the emulsifier in submicron emulsion. Eventually, the optimal drug-loading formula was determined as puerarin∶Chuanxiong oil∶EL-40∶water 7∶30∶63∶900. The quality evaluation results of the as-prepared submicron emulsion demonstrated that the average emulsion droplet size was 333.9 nm, the PDI 0.26, and the zeta potential-10.12 mV. The submicron emulsion had a good centrifugal stability and did not present any instable phenomena such as delamination and precipitation during its standing still for 50 days. The evaluation of in vitro drug release behavior indicated that the submicron emulsion was capable of releasing the drug completely. The puerarin-chuanxiong oil submicron emulsion prepared in this study possessed a stable quality and to some extent increased the solubility of puerarin along with a sustained-release effect. This study provided ideas for the clinical application of puerarin.


Subject(s)
Emulsions , Isoflavones , Particle Size , Solubility
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887985

ABSTRACT

With Sangtang Yin granule as model drug,and based on the strategy of " unification of medicines and excipients",the feasibility of preparing high drug loading granules with traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) raw powder as carrier was explored. The powder yield,particle size and particle size distribution,fillibility,flowability,hygroscopicity,reconstituability and other key physical properties relating to preparations of 8 herbs( Dioscoreae Rhizoma,Euryales Semen,Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma,Coicis semen,Poria,Puerariae Lobatae Radix,Puerariae Thomsonii Radix and Coicis Semen by stir-frying with bran) were studied after being smashed,and the feasibility of taking them as excipients of TCM granules was evaluated by co-spray drying,dry granulation and other preparation techniques. According to the results of the physical properties of raw powders,raw powders of Dioscoreae Rhizoma,Euryales Semen and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix had a high powder yield,uniform particle size distribution,good fillibility,poor hygroscopicity and good reconstitutability,with the feature of assisting granule forming. Compared with the prescription of spray dry powder Sangtang Yin without any excipient,the co-sprayed powder had a high yield,good fillibility and compressibility. The yield of dry granules prepared by co-spraying dry powder was increased by more than 10%,and the particles had a uniform color,good fluidity and dissolubility with the drug-loading rate up to 100%. Based on the physical characteristics of TCM raw powder combined with the analysis of the preparation process,Dioscoreae Rhizoma and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix raw powder were selected as the carriers of granule preparations,and Sangtang Yin granule without any excipient was successfully prepared. The findings provide a feasible idea for the preparation of TCM granules with a high drug loading capacity.


Subject(s)
Excipients , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Particle Size , Powders , Pueraria , Rhizome
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Previous studies have suggested that exposure to air pollution may increase stroke risk, but the results remain inconsistent. Evidence of more recent studies is highly warranted, especially gas air pollutants.@*METHODS@#We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science to identify studies till February 2020 and conducted a meta-analysis on the association between air pollution (PM@*RESULTS@#A total of 68 studies conducted from more than 23 million participants were included in our meta-analysis. Meta-analyses showed significant associations of all six air pollutants and stroke hospital admission (e.g., PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#Exposure to air pollution was positively associated with an increased risk of stroke hospital admission (PM


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Stroke/mortality
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879151

ABSTRACT

The paclitaxel-loaded and folic acid-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nano-micelles(PTX@FA-PLGA-NMs) were prepared by the emulsion solvent evaporation method, and the parameters of paclitaxel-loaded nano-micelles were optimized with the particle size and PDI as evaluation indexes. The morphology of the nano-micelles was observed by transmission electron microscopy(TEM), and the stability, drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were systematically investigated. In vitro experiments were performed to study the cytotoxic effects of nano-micelles, apoptosis, and cellular uptake. Under the optimal parameters, the nano-micelles showed the particle size of(125.3±1.2) nm, the PDI of 0.086±0.026, the zeta potential of(-20.0±3.8) mV, the drug loading of 7.2%±0.75%, and the encapsulation efficiency of 50.7%±1.0%. The nano-micelles were in regular spherical shape as observed by TEM. The blank FA-PLGA-NMs exhibited almost no inhibitory effect on the proliferation and growth of tumor cells, while the drug-loaded nano-micelles and free PTX exhibited significant inhibitory effects. The IC_(50) of PTX@FA-PLGA-NMs and PTX was 0.56 μg·mL~(-1) and 0.66 μg·mL~(-1), respectively. The paclitaxel-loaded nano-micelles were potent in inhibiting cell migration as assessed by the scratch assay. PTX@FA-PLGA-NMs had good pro-apoptotic effect on cervical cancer HeLa cells and significantly promoted the uptake of HeLa cells. The results of in vitro experiments suggested that PTX@FA-PLGA-NMs could target and treat cervical cancer HeLa cells. Therefore, as nanodrug carriers, PTX@FA-PLGA-NMs with anti-cancer activity are a promising nano-system for improving the-rapeutic effects on tumors.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Carriers , Female , Folic Acid , Glycolates , HeLa Cells , Humans , Micelles , Paclitaxel , Particle Size , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879012

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effects of Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate(HPMCAS MF) on absorption of silybin(SLB) from supersaturable self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system which was pre-prepared at the early stage experiment. The cell toxicity of self-emulsifying preparation was evaluated by the MTT method, and the in vitro membrane permeability and absorption promoting effect of the self-emulsifying preparation were evaluated by establishing a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The in vivo and in vitro supersaturation correlation was evaluated via the blood concentration of SLB. The results of MTT showed that the concentration of the preparation below 2 mg·mL~(-1)(C_(SLB) 100 μg·mL~(-1)) was not toxic to Caco-2 cells, and the addition of polymer had no significant effect on Caco-2 cells viability. As compared with the solution group, the transport results showed that the P_(app)(AP→BL) of the self-emulsifying preparation had a very significant increase; the transport rate of silybin can be reduced by polymer in 0-30 min; however, there was no difference in supersaturated transport between supersaturated SLB self-nanoemulsion drug delivery system(SLB-SSNEDDS) and SLB self-nanoemulsion drug delivery system(SLB-SNEDDS) within 2 hours. As compared with SLB suspension, pharmacokinetic parameters showed that the blood concentration of both SLB-SNEDDS and SLB-SSNEDDS groups were significantly increased, and C_(max) was 5.25 times and 9.69 times respectively of that in SLB suspension group, with a relative bioavailability of 578.45% and 1 139.44% respectively. C_(max) and relative bioavailability of SLB-SSNEDDS were 1.85 times and 197% of those of SLB-SNEDDS, respectively. Therefore, on the one hand, SSNEDDS can increase the solubility of SLB in gastrointestinal tract by maintaining stability of SLB supersaturation state; on the other hand, the osmotic transport process of SLB was regulated through the composition of its preparations, and both of them could jointly promote the transport and absorption of SLB to improve the oral bioavailability of SLB.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Biological Availability , Caco-2 Cells , Drug Delivery Systems , Emulsions , Humans , Methylcellulose/analogs & derivatives , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Silymarin , Solubility
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Particulate matter (PM), a major component of ambient air pollution, accounts for a substantial burden of diseases and fatality worldwide. Maternal exposure to PM during pregnancy is particularly harmful to children's health since this is a phase of rapid human growth and development.@*METHOD@#In this review, we synthesize the scientific evidence on adverse health outcomes in children following prenatal exposure to the smallest toxic components, fine (PM@*RESULTS@#Maternal exposure to fine and ultrafine PM directly and indirectly yields numerous adverse birth outcomes and impacts on children's respiratory systems, immune status, brain development, and cardiometabolic health. The biological mechanisms underlying adverse effects include direct placental translocation of ultrafine particles, placental and systemic maternal oxidative stress and inflammation elicited by both fine and ultrafine PM, epigenetic changes, and potential endocrine effects that influence long-term health.@*CONCLUSION@#Policies to reduce maternal exposure and health consequences in children should be a high priority. PM


Subject(s)
Adult , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Disease Models, Animal , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Epigenomics , Female , Humans , Immune System Diseases/chemically induced , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Oxidative Stress , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/chemically induced , Young Adult
16.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 23(1, cont.): e2307, 20200000. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129308

ABSTRACT

This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of different particle size corn on the performance, egg quality and intestinal morphology of Hisex Brown laying hens. A total of 128 birds were used, in a completely randomized design with four treatments, four replicates and eight birds per experimental unit. Experimental rations had corn with different particle size: 565, 620, 781 and 1085 µm of mean geometric diameter (MGD). Feeding was ad libitum at 8:00 am and 4:00 p.m. The variables analyzed were: feed consumption, laying percentage, egg mass and weight, food conversion (was calculated by dividing the feed consumed by the total egg weight (kg.kg-1) and the number of eggs produced (kg.dozen-1)), shell percentage and thickness, Haugh unit, yolk color index and morphometry analysis of the intestinal mucosa. The use of corn with MGD until to 1085 µm in rations does not affect the performance and eggs quality of Hisex Bronw laying hens. However, there are indications that the intestinal morphometry of laying hens is negatively influenced by the increase in particle size of corn.(AU)


Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes tamanhos de partículas de milho no desempenho, qualidade dos ovos e morfologia intestinal de poedeiras Hisex Brown. Foram utilizadas 128 aves, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos, quatro repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. As rações experimentais apresentaram milho de diferentes tamanhos de partículas: 565, 620, 781 e 1085 µm de diâmetro geométrico médio (DGM). A alimentação foi ad libitum às 8:00 e 16:00h. As variáveis analisadas foram: consumo de ração, porcentagem de postura, massa e peso dos ovos, conversão alimentar (calculada dividindo-se a ração consumida pelo peso total de ovos (kg/kg) e número de ovos produzidos (kg/dúzia)), porcentagem e espessura da casca, unidade de Haugh, índice e coloração de gema e análise morfométrica da mucosa intestinal. O uso de milho com DGM até 1085 µm nas rações não afeta o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras Hisex Brown. No entanto, há indicações de que a morfometria intestinal de poedeiras é influenciada negativamente pelo aumento no tamanho das partículas do milho.(AU)


Este estudio ha sido desarrollado con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de diferentes tamaños de partículas de maíz en el rendimiento, calidad de los huevos y la morfología intestinal de gallinas ponedoras Hisex Brown. Se utilizaron 128 aves, distribuidas en un experimento completamente al azar, con cuatro tratamientos, cuatro repeticiones y ocho aves por unidad experimental. Las raciones experimentales fueron elaboradas con maíz de diferentes tamaños de partículas: 565, 620, 781, 1085 µm de diámetro geométrico medio (DGM). La alimentación fue ad libitum a las 8:00 y a las 16:00h. Las variables analizadas fueron: consumo de ración, porcentaje de postura, masa y peso de los huevos, conversión alimenticia (se calculó dividiendo el alimento consumido por el peso total de huevos (kg/kg) y el número de huevos producidos (kg/docena)), porcentaje y espesor de cáscara, unidad Haugh, índice y coloración de yema, y análisis morfométrica de la mucosa intestinal. La utilización de maíz con DGM de hasta 1085 µm en las raciones no perjudica el rendimiento y la calidad de los huevos de las ponedoras Hisex Brown. Sin embargo, hay indicaciones de que la morfometría intestinal de gallinas ponedoras es influenciada de forma negativa por el aumento del tamaño de las partículas del maíz.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Ovum , Birds , Zea mays , Animal Feed/analysis , Particle Size , Efficiency
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828399

ABSTRACT

In order to improve the supersaturation and maintenance time of drug dispersion in curcumin self-nanoemulsion(CUR-SNEDDS), precipitation inhibitors(PPIs) were introduced to prepare curcumin supersaturated self-emulsion(CUR-SSNEDDS). The composition of CUR-SNEDDS prescriptions was selected through the solubility test, the compatibility of oil phase and surfactant, the investigation of the emulsifying ability of the surfactant and the drawing of the pseudo-ternary phase diagram. Analytic hierarchy process was used in combination with central composite design-response surface method to optimize the prescription. The type and dosage of precipitation inhibitors(PPIs) were selected to maintain the supersaturated concentration and duration of CUR in artificial gastrointestinal fluids. At the same time, polarizing microscope was used to evaluate the crystallization inhibition effect and the quality and in vitro release behavior of CUR-SSNEDDS. The prepared CUR-SSNEDDS prescription was capryol 90-kolliphor RH40-transcutol HP-Soluplus(7.93∶66.71∶25.36∶5), with the drug loading of(65.12±1.25) mg·g~(-1). CUR-SSNEDDS was transparent yellow, and the nanoemulsion droplets were spherical with uniform distribution. The emulsification time was(21.02±0.13) s, the average particle size was(57.03±0.35) nm, the polydispersity index(PDI) was(0.23 ± 0.01), and the Zeta potential was(-18.10±1.30) mV. CUR-SSNEDDS significantly inhibited the generation and growth of crystals after in vitro dilution. The supersaturation could be maintained above 10 within 2 h, and the dissolution rate and degree of CUR in artificial gastrointestinal fluid were significantly increased. Soluplus could effectively maintain the supersaturated state of CUR and enhance CUR dissolution in vitro.


Subject(s)
Biological Availability , Curcumin , Emulsions , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Solubility , Surface-Active Agents
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828005

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to prepare evodiamine-glycyrrhizic acid(EVO-GL) micelles to enhance the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of evodiamine. Firstly, EVO-GL micelles were prepared with use of thin film dispersion method. With particle size, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity of micelles and the solubility of evodiamine as the indexes, the effect of different factors on micelles was observed to screen the optimal preparation methods and process. Then the pharmaceutical properties and the therapeutic effects of EVO-GL micelles prepared by optimal process were evaluated on CCl_4-induced hepatic fibrosis. The results showed that the micelles prepared by the thin film dispersion method had an even size, with an average particle size of(130.80±12.40)nm, Zeta potential of(-41.61±3.12) mV, encapsulation efficiency of 91.23%±1.22%, drug loading of 8.42%±0.71%, high storage stability at 4 ℃ in 3 months, and slow in vitro release. Experimental results in the treatment of CCl_4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats showed that EVO-GL micelles had a synergistic anti-hepatic fibrosis effect, which significantly reduced the liver function index of hepatic fibrosis rats. In conclusion, the EVO-GL micelles prepared with glycyrrhizic acid as a carrier would have a potential application prospect for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Carriers , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Liver Cirrhosis , Micelles , Particle Size , Quinazolines , Rats , Solubility
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879206

ABSTRACT

Research on the deposition of inhaled particles in human pulmonary acinus region is important to the pathogenesis investigation, prevention and treatment of lung diseases. Most of the current research focus on the final deposition fraction of inhaled particles in human acinar region, but little is involved in their dynamic deposition characteristics. In this paper, five multi-alveolar models, G3-G7, were built. The evaluation parameter 1/4 deposition time was introduced to study the particle deposition speed. The deposition characteristics of particles in the diameter ranging 0.1-5 μm were numerically simulated and summarized under the influence of factors such as the generation and structure of model, particle diameter and respiratory mode, shedding some new light on the further research of transport of inhaled particles. The results showed that the generation and structure of model had a significance effect on the deposition of particles. 0.1 μm particles were dominated by Brownian diffusion, which experienced a high deposition fraction, a fast deposition speed and a logarithmic deposition curve, while 5 μm particles were dominated by gravitational sedimentation, with a high deposition fraction, a fast deposition speed and an S-shaped deposition curve. The deposition of 0.3-1 μm particles were influenced greatly by convention and varied with the change of respiratory mode. The research methods and results in this paper can provide theoretical basis and data support for the further exploration of the mechanism, prevention and treatment of lung diseases.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Computer Simulation , Humans , Lung , Models, Biological , Particle Size
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878861

ABSTRACT

To prepare and optimize the self-microemulsion co-loaded with tenuifolin and β-asarone(TF/ASA-SMEDDS) and evaluate its quality. The prescription compositions of TF/ASA-SMEDDS were screened by solubility test, single factor test and pseudo-tern-ary phase diagram, and the prescriptions were further optimized by Box-Behnken response surface method, with the drug loading and particle size as the evaluation indexes. Then the optimized TF/ASA-SMEDDS was evaluated for emulsified appearance, particle size, morphology and drug release in vitro. The optimized prescription for TF/ASA-SMEDDS was as follows: caprylic citrate triglyceride polyoxyethylene castor oil-glycerol(10.8∶39.2∶50), drug loading of(5.563±0.065) mg·g~(-1) for tenuifolin and(5.526±0.022) mg·g~(-1) for β-asarone; uniform and transparent pan-blue nanoemulsion can be formed after emulsification, with particle size of(28.84±0.44) nm. TEM showed that TF/ASA-SMEDDS can form spherical droplets with a uniform particle size after emulsification; In vitro release test results showed that the drug release rate and cumulative release of tenuifolin and β-asarone were significantly improved. The preparation process of TF/ASA-SMEDDS was simple and can effectively improve in vitro release of tenuifolin and β-asarone.


Subject(s)
Anisoles , Biological Availability , Diterpenes, Kaurane , Drug Delivery Systems , Emulsions , Particle Size , Solubility , Surface-Active Agents
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