Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 125
Filter
1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 431-436, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440308

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad periodontal es una de las principales causas de pérdida dentaria. Clínicamente, esta patología, mediada por la desregulación del sistema inmune producto de una disbiosis ocurrida en el surco gingival, inicia con la inflamación de la encía y evoluciona con el daño irreversible de los tejidos que rodean el diente. El hueso alveolar es uno de los tejidos afectados esta patología, esto debido a la activación de osteoclastos por la sobreexpresión de la proteína RANKL en el huésped. El propósito de este trabajo es determinar el nivel de sobreexpresión de RANKL, en un modelo de células tumorales U2OS, frente a la infección con Porphyromonas gingivalis y Prevotella intermedia. Para identificar el nivel de RANKL, se definieron cuatro grupos: Un grupo control, no tratado; Grupo PG, tratado con P. gingivalis; Grupo PI, tratado con P. Intermedia; y un grupo PG+PI, tratado con ambas bacterias. El nivel relativo de la proteína RANKL fue determinado en el sobrenadante y en los extractos celulares de manera independiente, mediante la técnica Western blot. En sobrenadantes, el grupo PG mostró mayores niveles de RANKL comparados con PI (p < 0,05). En extractos celulares los niveles fueron mayores en el grupo PG+PI (p < 0,05). El grupo PI mostró los niveles más bajos de RANKL. La infección polimicrobiana resulta en una mayor expresión de RANKL en células tumorales U2OS, mientras que frente a la infección P. gingivalis, se observó mayor cantidad de RANKL soluble.


SUMMARY: Periodontal disease is one of the main causes of tooth loss. Clinically, this pathology, mediated by the deregulation of the immune system due to a dysbiosis occurred in the gingival sulcus, begins with the inflammation of the gum and evolves with the irreversible damage of the tissues that surround the tooth. Alveolar bone is one of the most affected tissues by this disease, due to the activation of osteoclasts by the upregulation of RANKL in the host. The aim of this study is to determine the increase of RANKL, in a U2OS tumor cells model, inoculated with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia. To identify the level of RANKL, four groups were defined: A control group, not treated; PG group, treated with P.gingivalis; PI group, treated with P. intermedia; and a PG+PI group, treated with both bacteria. The relative level of RANKL was determined in the supernatant and cell extracts independently, using the Western blot technique. In supernatants, the PG group showed higher RANKL levels compared to PI (p < 0.05). In cell extracts the levels were higher in the PG+PI group (p < 0.05.). The PI group showed the lowest levels of RANKL.Polymicrobial infection results in a greater expression of of soluble RANKL was observed.


Subject(s)
Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Bacteria, Anaerobic/physiology , Bone Resorption/microbiology , RANK Ligand/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Porphyromonas gingivalis/physiology , Prevotella intermedia/physiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Electrophoresis , RANK Ligand/analysis
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e231137, Jan.-Dec. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1523140

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the influence of nicotine on the extracellular polysaccharides in Fusobacterium nucleatum biofilm. Methods: F. nucleatum (ATCC 10953) biofilms supplemented with different concentrations of nicotine (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/mL) were grown in two different BHI broth conditions [no sucrose and 1% sucrose]. Extracellular polysaccharides assay, pH measurements, and a spectrophotometric assay were performed. Data were submitted for ANOVA and Tukey honestly significant difference analyses (HSD) tests (α =.05). Results: Extracellular polysaccharides synthesis was influenced by an interaction between nicotine concentrations and growth medium solution containing sucrose (P<.05). The pH values declined in the sucrose-exposed biofilm were greater than in the group exposed only to nicotine (P<.05). The biofilm exposed to sucrose and nicotine had a higher total biofilm growth (P<.05) than the nicotine-treated biofilm without sucrose. Conclusions: Regardless of sucrose exposure, biofilms exposed to different nicotine concentrations influenced the amount of extracellular polysaccharides


Subject(s)
Humans , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/chemical synthesis , Fusobacterium nucleatum/growth & development , Biofilms/growth & development , Nicotine/pharmacology , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Spectrophotometry , Sucrose/administration & dosage , Culture Media , Dental Caries/microbiology , Nicotine/administration & dosage
3.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(6): 1205-1211, dic. 2022. tab., ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1427327

ABSTRACT

Entamoeba gingivalis y Trichomonas tenaxson protozoos que generalmente se encuentran en la cavidad oral de los humanos. E. gingivalis vive en la superficie de los dientes y las encías, bolsas gingivales cerca de la base de los dientes y rara vez en las criptas de las amígdalas. Por lo general, se transmiten por contacto directo de una persona a otra al besarse, rociarse con gotas o compartir utensilios para comer. Se sabe que hasta el 95% de las personas con poca higiene bucal pueden estar infectadas con esta ameba. Por otro lado, Trichomonas tenax es una pequeña tricomona que generalmente se encuentra en la cavidad oral del 5 al 10% de los humanos. Aunque se consideran comensales anaeróbicos no patógenos, el refugio de este protozoo es más común entre personas con mala higiene bucal o enfermedades. Los informes epidemiológicos demostraron variables tasas de prevalencia de la infección por E. gingivalis entre los niños, y su ocurrencia puede variar de acuerdo a la edad, presencia de gingivitis, periodontitis y condiciones inmunosupresoras. Los niños y adolescentes en edad escolar son extremadamente susceptibles a una amplia gama de infecciones gingivales como bacterias y protozoos. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar la prevalencia de los protozoarios E. gingivalis y T. tenax en adolescentes con edades comprendidas entre 10 y 19 años en una población de 185 pacientes de la ciudad peruana de Huancayo, Perú. La prevalencia fue mayor en la población femenina (14,05%) que en la población masculina (11,35%), con un mayor porcentaje de prevalencia entre las edades de 17 a 19 años (12,43%), pH salival menor a 6,7 y con enfermedades periodentales (16,22%). Los resultados estadísticos demostraron que la edad (p=0,001), pH salival (p=0,024) y diagnóstico de otras patologías periodentales (p<0,001) fueron estadísticamente significativas(AU)


Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax are protozoa that are usually found in the oral cavity of humans. E. gingivalis lives on the surface of the teeth and gums, gum pockets near the base of the teeth, and rarely in the crypts of the tonsils. They are usually spread by direct person-to-person contact through kissing, dousing, or sharing eating utensils. It is known that up to 95% of people with poor oral hygiene may be infected with this amoeba. On the other hand, Trichomonas tenax is a small trichomona that is usually found in the oral cavity of 5-10% of humans. Although they are considered non-pathogenic anaerobic commensals, the harborage of this protozoan is more common among people with poor oral hygiene or disease. Epidemiological reports have shown variable prevalence rates of E. gingivalis infection among children, and its occurrence may vary according to age, presence of gingivitis, periodontitis, and immunosuppressive conditions. School-age children and adolescents are extremely susceptible to a wide range of gingival infections including bacteria and protozoa. The objective of this work is to determine the prevalence of the protozoa E. gingivalis and T. tenax in adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 in a population of 185 patients from the Peruvian city of Huancayo, Peru. The prevalence was higher in the female population (14.05%) than in the male population (11.35%), with a higher percentage of prevalence between the ages of 17 to 19 years (12.43%), lower salivary pH to 6.7 and with periodontal diseases (16.22%). The statistical results showed that age (p=0.001), salivary pH (p=0.024) and diagnosis of other periodontal pathologies (p<0.001) were statistically significant(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Periodontal Diseases/epidemiology , Protozoan Infections/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 14-14, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929142

ABSTRACT

Oral bacteria directly affect the disease status of dental caries and periodontal diseases. The dynamic oral microbiota cooperates with the host to reflect the information and status of immunity and metabolism through two-way communication along the oral cavity and the systemic organs. The oral cavity is one of the most important interaction windows between the human body and the environment. The microenvironment at different sites in the oral cavity has different microbial compositions and is regulated by complex signaling, hosts, and external environmental factors. These processes may affect or reflect human health because certain health states seem to be related to the composition of oral bacteria, and the destruction of the microbial community is related to systemic diseases. In this review, we discussed emerging and exciting evidence of complex and important connections between the oral microbes and multiple human systemic diseases, and the possible contribution of the oral microorganisms to systemic diseases. This review aims to enhance the interest to oral microbes on the whole human body, and also improve clinician's understanding of the role of oral microbes in systemic diseases. Microbial research in dentistry potentially enhances our knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of oral diseases, and at the same time, continuous advances in this frontier field may lead to a tangible impact on human health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria , Dental Caries/microbiology , Microbiota , Mouth/microbiology , Mouth Diseases/microbiology , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology
5.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 36(4): 573-582, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058792

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. Evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de la Myrciaria dubia sobre microorganismos orales. Materiales y métodos . Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura siguiendo las recomendaciones PRISMA mediante búsquedas en Pubmed, LILACS, SciELO, ProQuest, EBSCO y Google Scholar, de estudios publicados durante 2008 y 2018. Resultados . Se recopilaron 11 estudios, in vitro, todos los estudios evidenciaron actividad antimicrobiana positiva, principalmente por cada una de las partes de sus frutos, sobre grampositivos. Sin embargo, dicha actividad fue comparada con clorhexidina en solo dos estudios y en otro resultó ser mejor que un antibiótico. Se detectó un alto riesgo de sesgo en la mayoría de estudios. Los compuestos fenólicos incluidos polifenoles y acilfloroglucinoles fueron señalados como los responsables de su actividad. Conclusiones . Existe evidencia sobre la actividad antimicrobiana de M. dubia. Su estudio como antimicrobiano contra microorganismos orales es aún incipiente, pero se advierte un gran potencial debido a los fitoquímicos potentes que posee. Además, se necesita más estudios de calidad, que comparen su actividad versus antisépticos orales y sobre más microorganismos asociados a caries dental y enfermedad periodontal.


ABSTRACT Objectives. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Myrciaria dubia on oral microorganisms. Materials and Methods. A systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines was conducted through searches of studies published between 2008 and 2018 in Pubmed, LILACS, SciELO, ProQuest, EBSCO, and Google Scholar. Results. Eleven (11) in vitro studies were gathered; all the studies showed positive antimicrobial activity on gram-positives, mainly by each of the parts of its fruits. However, such activity compared to chlorhexidine in only two studies, and, in another study, it was better than an antibiotic. A high risk of bias was detected in most studies. Phenolic compounds, including polyphenols and acylphloroglucinols, were identified as responsible for its activity. Conclusions. There is evidence of antimicrobial activity in M. dubia. Its study as an antimicrobial against oral microorganisms is still incipient, but there is great potential thanks to the potent phytochemicals it contains. Also, additional quality studies are required: comparing their activity versus oral antiseptics and on microorganisms associated with dental caries and periodontal disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Periodontal Diseases/drug therapy , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Caries/drug therapy , Fruit , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification
6.
RFO UPF ; 23(1): 98-106, 15/08/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-910201

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: revisar a literatura sobre o tratamento dasdoenças periodontais associado a probióticos, identificandoas funcionalidades e os principais agentes microbianosempregados. Material e método: foi realizadabusca nas bases de dados eletrônicas PubMed e ScienceDirect, empregando os termos de busca probiotics eperiodontal diseases. Como critérios de inclusão, foramselecionadas pesquisas clínicas originais e ensaios clínicospublicados em português ou inglês. Resultados:após pesquisa e minuciosa revisão por título e resumode cada estudo, 40 ensaios clínicos randomizados foramselecionados para avaliação dos desfechos observados.Todos os estudos empregaram probióticos associadosa raspagem, alisamento e polimento coronorradicular.A cepa bacteriana mais utilizada é o Lactobacillus reuteri.Foi demonstrado que os probióticos conferem potencialauxilio ao tratamento das lesões periodontais.Embora os parâmetros avaliados nem sempre sejam beneficiadospelo tratamento, o uso dos microrganismosbenéficos reduziu a necessidade de intervenção cirúrgicaprincipalmente em pacientes com bolsas profundas.Considerações finais: A utilização dos probióticosse mostra segura e traz pequenos ganhos auxiliares notratamento das doenças que acometem o periodonto.Desenhos de estudos com rigor metodológico e amostrasrepresentativas são encorajados visando analisar etestar os benefícios desses agentes. (AU)


Objective: this study aimed to review the literature on the treatment of periodontal diseases associated with probiotics, identifying functionalities and the most used microbial agents. Material and method: a search was performed in the main electronic databases PubMed and Science Direct using the search terms "Probiotics" and "Periodontal diseases". The inclusion criteria were original clinical researches and clinical trials published in Portuguese and English. Results: after the research and meticulous revision for the title and abstract of each study, 40 randomized clinical trials were selected for evaluation of the outcomes observed. All studies used probiotics associated with scaling and crown-root planning and polishing. The most used bacterial strain was Lactobacillus reuteri. It was shown that probiotics provide potential assistance for the treatment of periodontal lesions. Although the parameters evaluated are not always favored by the treatment, the use of the beneficial microorganisms reduced the need for surgical intervention, especially in patients with deep pockets. Final considerations: the use of probiotics is safe and promotes small additional improvements in the treatment of periodontal diseases affecting the periodontium. Study designs with methodological rigor and representative samples are encouraged, aiming to analyze and test the benefits of such microbial agents. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontal Diseases/therapy , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Limosilactobacillus reuteri , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Stomatitis/therapy , Periodontium/microbiology
7.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 17(1): 78-83, jul.17,2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-909998

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Microrganismos subsecivos de infecções endodônticas primárias ou secundárias são a causa das infecções persistentes ou refratárias. Objetivo: realizar uma revisão de literatura sobre as infecções endodônticas persistentes, descrevendo a microbiota mais comumente associada ao insucesso da terapia endodôntica, bem como ressaltar o diagnóstico e tratamento dessas infecções. Metodologia: Foram realizadas buscas bibliográficas eletrônicas utilizando base de dados como Pubmed, Lilacs e Bireme que abordassem o tema proposto no período de 2000 a 2016. Para tanto, foram utilizados os seguintes descritores de assunto na língua portuguesa: "Endodontia", "Infecção persistente", "Periodontite apical" e na língua inglesa: "Endodontics", "Persistent infection","Apical Periodontitis". Resultados: Os artigos selecionados foram lidos criteriosamente e mostraram que esses microrganismos resistem aos procedimentos intracanais de desinfecção, resultando em uma periodontite apical persistente, com ou sem sintomatologia clínica e radiográfica evidente. O diagnóstico e tratamento são dificultados devido à complexidade anatômica do sistema de canais radiculares e capacidade de resistência bacteriana e o tratamento envolve um tratamento endodôntico efetivo, com necessidade cirúrgica em alguns casos. Conclusão: A análise desses patógenos é crucial nas infecções refratárias, tornando-se necessário avançar nas pesquisas para a determinação de novas técnicas de desinfecção associadas a novas medicações que tornarão a Endodontia cada vez mais eficaz e com resultados ainda mais previsíveis


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Periodontal Diseases/diagnosis , Periodontal Diseases/therapy
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170154, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893720

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between subgingival restorations and the target periodontopathogenic bacteria (Pg, Td and Pi) in subgingival biofilm during one year after combined restorative-periodontal treatment. Material and Methods Seventeen systemically healthy subjects, who were positive for the presence of three cervical lesions associated with gingival recessions in three different adjacent teeth, were included in the study. A total of 51 combined defects were treated with connective tissue graft plus a nanofilled composite resin (NCR+CTG), a resin-modified glass ionemer cement (RMGI+CTG) and a fluoride-releasing resin material with pre-reacted glass (PRG), called giomer (Giomer+CTG). Periodontal clinical measurements and subgingival plaque samples were obtained from all combined defects at baseline and at 6 and 12 months after the surgery. The number of bacteria were evaluated by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. Results No statistically significant difference in the amount of DNA copies of Pg, Td and Pi was observed in any of the groups at any time points (p>0.05). In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the amount of DNA copies of the bacteria at baseline and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively, regardless of treatment group (p>0.05). Conclusion This study suggests that subgingivally placed NCR, RMGI and giomer restorations can show similar effects on periodontopathogenic bacteria in the treatment of gingival recessions that are associated with noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Porphyromonas gingivalis/drug effects , Prevotella intermedia/drug effects , Composite Resins/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Treponema denticola/drug effects , Glass Ionomer Cements/pharmacology , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Periodontal Diseases/prevention & control , Reference Values , Time Factors , DNA, Bacterial , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genetics , Prevotella intermedia/genetics , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Dental Plaque/drug therapy , Treponema denticola/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Gingival Recession/therapy , Middle Aged
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(3): 274-281, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893617

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pulpal and periodontal tissues have similar microbiota that allows cross-contamination between the pulp and periodontal tissues. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of isolated Candida albicans from periodontal endodontic lesions in diabetic and normoglycemic patients, and the fungi's virulence in different atmospheric conditions. Material and Methods A case-control study was conducted on 15 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (G1) and 15 non-diabetics (G2) with periodontal endodontic lesions. Samples of root canals and periodontal pockets were plated on CHROMagar for later identification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virulence test. Results C. albicans was identified in 79.2% and 20.8% of the 60 samples collected from diabetic and normoglycemic patients, respectively. Of the 30 samples collected from periodontal pockets, 13 showed a positive culture for C. albicans, with 77% belonging to G1 and 23% to G2. Of the 11 positive samples from root canals, 82% were from G1 and 18% from G2. Production of proteinase presented a precipitation zone Pz<0.63 of 100% in G1 and 72% in G2, in redox and negative (Pz=1), under anaerobic conditions in both groups. Hydrophobicity of the strains from G1 indicated 16.4% with low, 19.3% with moderate, and 64.3% with high hydrophobicity in redox. In G2, 42.2% had low, 39.8% had moderate, 18% had high hydrophobicity in redox. In anaerobic conditions, G1 showed 15.2% with low, 12.8% with moderate, and 72% with high hydrophobicity; in G2, 33.6% had low, 28.8% had moderate, and 37.6% had high hydrophobicity. There was statistical difference in the number of positive cultures between G1 and G2 (p<0.05) with predominance in G1. There was statistical difference for all virulence factors, except hemolysis (p=0.001). Conclusions Candida albicans was isolated more frequently and had higher virulence in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Dental Pulp Diseases/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/microbiology , Oxidation-Reduction , Peptide Hydrolases/analysis , Periodontal Diseases/physiopathology , Periodontal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Periodontal Pocket/microbiology , Phospholipases/analysis , Virulence , DNA, Fungal , Radiography, Dental , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Dental Pulp Diseases/physiopathology , Dental Pulp Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Electrophoresis , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
10.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 105(2): 63-69, jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-908057

ABSTRACT

La existencia de una íntima conexión entre el conducto radicular y el ligamento periodontal, ha dado lugar a lo que se conoce como relaciones endoperiodontales. Esto se debe a la presencia de varias vías anatómicas de comunicación entre ambas entidades: el foramen apical, los forámenes laterales pertenecientes a conductos accesorios y conductillos dentinarios en zonas de ausencia del cemento dentario protector. Los microorganismos y sus agentes tóxicos tienen la capacidad de afectar ambos tejidos en esa interrelación física y biológica. El diagnóstico diferencial entre enfermedad endodóntica y periodontal es de vital importancia para la elección del tratamiento y el pronóstico a distancia.


The intimate connection between the root canal and theperiodontal ligament generates a concept that is known asendo-periodontal relationships. This is due to the presence ofseveral anatomical communications between them: apical foramen,lateral foramina and dentinal tubules denuded of theircementum coverage. Microorganisms and their toxic agentscan affect both tissues due to this physical and biological interrelation.Proper differential between endodontic and periodontaletiology is vital to the accurate choice of treatment andfor the long term prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Dental Pulp Diseases/physiopathology , Periodontal Diseases/physiopathology , Periodontal Ligament/anatomy & histology , Diagnosis, Differential , Dental Fistula/complications , Dental Fistula/diagnosis , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Dental Pulp Necrosis/microbiology , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Periodontal Pocket/microbiology , Retreatment/methods , Root Canal Therapy/methods
11.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e29, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842770

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The majority of HIV-infected patients develop Candida spp-associated clinical oral lesions. Studies have shown that asymptomatic oral colonization of Candida spp may lead to oral lesions or become a source of disseminated infections. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of periodontal conditions on Candida spp prevalence and Candida spp carriage in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients compared to non-infected patients. Twenty-five patients not infected with HIV and 48 HIV-infected patients were classified according to periodontal conditions as being periodontal healthy or with periodontal disease. Candida spp carriage and classification were performed in oral rinse samples. Viral load and CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4+L) counts were performed in blood samples from HIV-infected patients. No differences in Candida spp prevalence related to HIV status or periodontal condition were detected. However, Candida spp carriage was increased in periodontally affected HIV-infected patients when compared to periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients (p= 0.04). Periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients presented Candida spp carriage in similar levels as healthy or periodontally affected non-HIV-infected patients. Candida spp carriage was correlated with CD4+L counting in HIV-infected patients. We concluded that periodontal disease is associated with increased Candida spp carriage in HIV-infected patients and may be a predisposing factor to clinical manifestations of candidiasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Candida/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Periodontal Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Oral/epidemiology , Carrier State , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Mouth/microbiology
12.
Rev. Fundac. Juan Jose Carraro ; 22(42): 46-49, 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-908171

ABSTRACT

Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.Gingivalis) es un microorganismo comprometido en el inicio y progresión de la enfermedad periodontal crónica y agresiva, y es considerado su principal agente etiológico. Esta bacteria cuenta con una serie de factores de virulencia que le permiten, iniciar el proceso infeccioso, perpetuar la infección y también transformar la placa dental benigna en una comunidad microbiana patógena. Estudiar sus factores de virulencia y su capacidad de modular la respuesta inmunológica del huésped es muy importante para comprender el papel de este patógeno en el desarrollo y establecimiento de la enfermedad. Esta revisión proporciona una visiónactual sobre los factores de virulencia y su impacto sobre la respuesta inmunológica en relación con la patogénesis de la enfermedad periodontal.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Porphyromonas gingivalis/pathogenicity , Virulence Factors , Autoimmunity/physiology , Immunity, Mucosal , Periodontal Diseases/etiology , Periodontal Diseases/pathology
13.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2017. 142 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-908571

ABSTRACT

Esta Tese reporta dois estudos distintos relacionados à terapia de manutenção periodontal (TMP): achados microbiológicos longitudinais de 6 anos relacionados à cooperação dos indivíduos e efeito do tabagismo na perda dental. A justificativa para estes estudos é baseada em dois aspectos pontuais: (1) Embora a associação do tabagismo como fator de risco para a periodontite e pior resposta à TMP tenha sido demonstrada em muitos estudos, o efeito isolado deste sobre a perda dental em indivíduos submetidos a TMP ainda não foi reportado em revisões sistemáticas; (2) Poucos estudos têm sido conduzidos avaliando mudanças longitudinais na microbiota subgengival de indivíduos em TMP e, até o momento, nenhum estudo relacionou níveis de bactérias associadas à periodontite com o grau de cooperação dos indivíduos em TMP. Neste sentido, os objetivos deste estudo são apresentados em dois artigos científicos: (1) realizar uma revisão sistemática e meta-análise do efeito do tabagismo na perda dental em indivíduos em TMP, com a seguinte questão focal: ¿Qual é o efeito do tabagismo na perda dental em indivíduos em terapia de manutenção periodontal?¿; (2) avaliar longitudinalmente, durante 6 anos, o efeito da cooperação em TMP na frequência das bactérias Actinomyces naeslundii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tanerella forsythia e Treponema dentícola. Na revisão sistemática as bases de dados MEDLINE, WEB OF SCIENCE, COCHRANE LIBRARY e SCOPUS foram pesquisadas, incluindo artigos até fevereiro de 2017. A estratégia de busca identificou 728 referências. Após a remoção das duplicatas, restaram 591 para a seleção baseada nos títulos e resumos, e desses, foram selecionados 36 para leitura completa do texto. Após a leitura, foram incluídos 10 artigos para revisão sistemática e 3 artigos para meta-análise. A qualidade da evidência científica foi moderada para indivíduos tabagistas em TMP apresentarem maior chance de perda dental que indivíduos não tabagistas. A metodologia do estudo microbiológico englobou um total de 56 indivíduos, todos recrutados de um coorte prospectivo com 212 participantes de um programa de TMP. Estes indivíduos foram acompanhados durante 6 anos, em 5 tempos de avaliações: T1 (anterior à terapia periodontal ativa), T2 (após a terapia periodontal ativa), T3 (última visita à TMP em 2 anos), T4 (última visita à TMP em 4 anos) e T5 (última visita à TMP em 6 anos). Assim, 28 indivíduos cooperadores regulares (CR) foram randomizados e pareados, pelo gênero e idade, a 28 indivíduos cooperadores irregulares (CI). Durante a TMP, os exames periodontais avaliaram os parâmetros clínicos: índice de placa (IP), profundidade de sondagem (PS), nível clínico de inserção (NCI) e sangramento à sondagem (SS). A quantificação de bactérias em carga total e dos níveis de A. naeslundii, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia e T. dentícola foi executada pela reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa (qPCR). Este estudo concluiu que CI apresentaram piores parâmetros clínicos periodontais e maiores níveis de carga bacteriana total que CR, refletindo o papel benéfico da cooperação na TMP em manter a estabilidade da condição periodontal


This Thesis report two distinct issues related to periodontal maintenance therapy (PMT): microbiological findings of 6 years related to compliance of individuas and effect of smoking on tooth loss. The rattionale for these studies is based on two specific aspects: (1) Although the association of smoking as a risk factor for periodontitis and worse response to PMT has been demonstrated in many studies, the isolated effect of smoking on tooth loss in patients undergiong PMT has not been reported in systematic reviews; (2) Few studies have been conducted on longitudinal changes in the subgingival microbiota of individuals in PMT and to date, no study related levels of bacteria to the degree of cooperation of individuls in PMT...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Periapical Diseases/therapy , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/physiopathology , Tooth Loss/prevention & control , Bacteria , Microbiota/drug effects , Periodontitis/prevention & control , Risk Factors
14.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e33, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839539

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to investigate the differences in the subgingival microbiological outcomes between periodontal patients submitted to a supragingival control (SPG) regimen as compared to subgingival scaling and root planing performed combined with supragingival debridement (SPG + SBG) intervention during the periodontal maintenance period (PMP). A systematic literature search using electronic databases (MEDLINE and EMBASE) was conducted looking for articles published up to August 2016 and independent of language. Two independent reviewers performed the study selection, quality assessment and data collection. Only human randomized or non-randomized clinical trials with at least 6-months-follow-up after periodontal treatment and presenting subgingival microbiological outcomes related to SPG and/or SPG+SBG therapies were included. Search strategy found 2,250 titles. Among these, 148 (after title analysis) and 39 (after abstract analysis) papers were considered to be relevant. Finally, 19 studies were selected after full-text analysis. No article had a direct comparison between the therapies. Five SPG and 14 SPG+SBG studies presented experimental groups with these respective regimens and were descriptively analyzed while most of the results were only presented graphically. The results showed that both SPG and SPG+SBG protocols of PMP determined stability in the microbiological results along time. Nevertheless, new studies comparing these interventions in PMP are needed, especially if the limitations herein discussed could be better controlled.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dental Scaling/methods , Periodontal Debridement/methods , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Periodontal Diseases/prevention & control , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Rev. ADM ; 73(6): 280-285, nov.-dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869337

ABSTRACT

El Fusobacterium nucleatum es una bacteria anaerobia Gram negativa,es un residente común en el biofi lm oral y se ha encontrado una estrechaasociación entre las fusobacterias y las periodontitis. El Fusobacteriumnucleatum se ha asociado con el cáncer colorrectal, pero la causalidad y el mecanismo subyacente aún no se han establecido. La microbiota intestinal humana tiene un papel reconocido en el cáncer colorrectal. Se ha encontrado que el Fn se adhiere, invade, e induce respuestas inflamatorias oncogénicas que estimulan el crecimiento de las células de cáncer colorrectal a través de un factor de la adhesina FadA.


The anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterial species Fusobacterium nucleatumis common in oral biofi lm and the association between it andperiodontitis is well-established. Fusobacterium nucleatum has beenassociated with colorectal cancer, though causality and the underlyingmechanism have yet to be determined. The role of the human gutmicrobiota in colorectal cancer has been acknowledged. Fusobacteriumnucleatum has been found to adhere to, invade, and induce oncogenicand infl ammatory responses that stimulate the growth of colorectalcancer cells through its unique FadA adhesin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dysbiosis , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Fusobacterium nucleatum/pathogenicity , Colorectal Neoplasms/etiology , Adhesins, Bacterial/physiology , Drug Synergism , Periodontitis/etiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Dental Plaque/microbiology
16.
ImplantNewsPerio ; 1(8): 1580-1587, nov.-dez. 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-848563

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: revisar quais seriam os diferentes fatores envolvidos na transmissão de periodontopatógenos entre membros de uma mesma família e quais as suas consequências. Material e métodos: uma revisão da literatura foi realizada na base de dados PubMed, utilizando os termos "vertical transmission", "periodontal pathogens", "oral colonization", e "periodontitis". Resultados: após a leitura do título e resumo, 30 artigos foram incluídos nesta revisão. A transmissão de patógenos periodontais entre indivíduos de uma mesma família está relacionada à passagem via salivar e ao compartilhamento alimentar e de higiene, aos cuidados dos filhos pelos pais ou cuidadores, e ao contato íntimo entre cônjuges. Estudos que avaliaram a transmissão do Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans entre indivíduos de uma mesma família mostraram a ocorrência da transmissão vertical, embora também ocorra transmissão horizontal. Entretanto, resultados semelhantes não puderam ser observados para o Porphyromonas gingivalis. Enquanto alguns relatos indicam a ocorrência de transmissão horizontal desta bactéria, diversos outros estudos indicam características bacterianas que reduzem sua ocorrência. Conclusão: a colonização oral por microrganismos patogênicos está relacionada à transmissão vertical e horizontal de patógenos, embora a persistência dos microrganismos pareça estar relacionada a fatores individuais do hospedeiro e características dos patógenos. Além disso, atividades preventivas e terapêuticas devem ser realizadas de forma a alterar o processo de transmissão, colonização e o maior risco do desenvolvimento de problemas periodontais.


Objective: to review the different factors involved in the transmission of periodontopathogens between members of the same family and their consequences. Material and methods: an electronic literature review was conducted at the PubMed using the keywords "vertical transmission", "periodontal pathogens", "oral colonization", and "periodontitis". Results: after reading of title and abstract, 30 articles were included. The transmission of periodontal pathogens among individuals of the same family is related to the passage through salivary and food and hygiene sharing, the care of the children by parents or caregivers, and the intimate contact between individuals. Studies evaluating the transmission of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans among individuals from the same family showed the occurrence of vertical transmission and horizontal transmission. However, similar results could not be observed for Porphyromonas gingivalis. While some reports indicate the occurrence of horizontal transmission, several other studies indicate bacterial characteristics that reduce its occurrence. Conclusion: oral colonization by pathogenic microorganisms is related to its vertical and horizontal transmission, although the persistence of the microorganisms seems to be related to individual host factors and pathogen characteristics. In addition, preventive and therapeutic activities must be performed in a way that will alter the transmission, colonization and the greater risk of developing periodontal problems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Saliva/microbiology
17.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 104(1): 1-3, mar. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-789827

ABSTRACT

Desde 1928, los antibióticos eran las primeras armas contra los microoganismos. En 1998 apareció una bacteria resistente que permitió el incremento de las enfermedades infecciosas. Cuanto más expuesta esté una población bacteriana a un antibiótico, las bacterias que sobrevivan se harán más resistentes, aún para defenderse de futuros antibióticos. Pero su empleo está justificado como método de profilaxis en pacientes médicamente comprometidos. En principio, debe indicarse medicación local para reducir la carga microbiana. El proifesional debe saber cuándo recetar un antibiótico y no olvidar que éste es un coadyuvante del tratamiento, ya que es el propio sistema inmune del paciente el que realiza la curación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial/physiology , Focal Infection, Dental/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Dental Pulp Diseases/microbiology , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus
18.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e92, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952064

ABSTRACT

Abstract This pilot study aimed to evaluate the influence of smoking on clinical and microbiological parameters after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Forty-eight subjects were grouped into smokers (SM, n = 24) and nonsmokers (NS, n = 24) and paired according to gender, age, ethnicity, and periodontal status. Both groups received oral hygiene education and scaling and root planing. Clinical evaluation was performed using plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket probing depth (PPD), gingival recession (GR), and clinical attachment level (CAL) before instrumentation (baseline) and at 3 and 6 months. The prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida dubliniensis in subgingival biofilm was determined by polymerase chain reaction. The data were statistically analyzed considering p < 0.05. Clinical conditions improved between baseline and 3 months after periodontal treatment. However, NS had a better clinical response, presenting greater PPD reduction and CAL increase in comparison to SM. Periodontal treatment reduced the levels of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and T. forsythia individually after 3 months for the NS group and after 6 months for both groups. The prevalence of Candida species was markedly higher in SM than in NS at all time points evaluated. Periodontopathogens associated or not with C. albicans or C. dubliniensis were more prevalent in SM than in NS at baseline and after 3 months. It was concluded that smoking impairs clinical and microbiological responses to periodontal therapy. Periodontopathogens combined or not with some Candida species are resistant to short-term periodontal therapy in SM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Periodontal Diseases/therapy , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Periodontium/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Smoking/adverse effects , Reference Values , Time Factors , Periodontal Index , Pilot Projects , Dental Plaque Index , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dental Scaling/methods , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Gingival Recession , Middle Aged
19.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 3(2): 855-862, 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-790615

ABSTRACT

La Periodontitis es una enfermedad inflamatoria local crónica de los tejidos de soporte delos dientes que conduce a la pérdida progresiva del ligamento periodontal y del hueso alveolar. El tabaquismo es un factor de riesgo conocido para muchas enfermedades y la evidencia creciente sugiere que el tabaquismo afecta negativamente a la salud periodontal. El hábito del tabaquismo provoca el aumento de la flora bacteriana periodonto patógenas, aumentando su patogenicidad y alteraciones en el tejido periodontal, sin embargo el efecto del tabaquismo no es directamente a estas bacterias. La nicotina provoca una disminución del flujo sanguíneo y disminución de capilares lo que dificulta la respuesta inmune contra las bacterias patógenas. Además el sistema inmune se ve suprimido frente al tabaquismo, por lo que la acción de los leucocitos es escasamente eficaz para combatir la enfermedad periodontal. Como conclusión, el tabaquismo, principalmente la nicotina, afecta al flujo sanguíneo gingival, la producción de citocinas, la función de los neutrófilos, el recambio de tejido conectivo y como consecuencia de estos factores, aumenta el número de bacterias periodonto patógenas lo que afecta negativamente al tejido periodontal.


Periodontitis is a chronic local inflammatory disease of tissue supporting the teeth that leads to progressive loss of periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Smoking is a known risk factor for many diseases and increasing evidence suggests that smoking negatively affects periodontal health. Cigarette smoking increased periodontal pathogenic bacterial flora, increasing their pathogenicity and alterations in the periodontal tissue, however the effect of smoking is not directly to these bacteria. Nicotine causes a decreased blood flow and decreased capillary hindering the immune response against pathogenic bacteria. In addition, the immune system is suppressed, so the action of leukocytes is poorly effective against periodontal disease. In conclusion, smoking, mainly nicotine, affects the gingival blood flow, cytokine production, the neutrophil function, replacement of connective tissue and because of these factors, increases the number of periodontal pathogenic bacteria which negatively affects the periodontal tissue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria , Periodontal Diseases/chemically induced , Smoking/adverse effects , Periodontium , Periodontium/microbiology , Bacteria/growth & development , Periodontal Diseases/immunology , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Nicotine/adverse effects
20.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-757877

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Reportamos la asociación entre el polimorfismo de nucleótido simple de IL-10-592C/A (rs1800872) y la detección/abundancia relativa de los periodontopatógenos Porfiromonas gingivalis, Tenerella forsythia, Treponema denticola y Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Además investigamos la influencia de los determinantes genéticos y microbiológicos en los niveles de expresión de IL-10 en lesiones periodontales. Metodología Fueron reclutados 117 pacientes con periodontitis crónica y 58 controles. Luego del examen clínico fueron obtenidas muestras microbiológicas y la presencia/carga bacteriana de especies de periodontopatógenos fue cuantificada por RT-PCR. El genotipo para IL-10-592C/A fue determinado mediante restriction fragment length polymorphism. Resultados La distribución alélica del SNP rs1800872 en la población investigada cumplió con el equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg (p = 0,64). Como ya ha sido reportado, los sujetos polimórficos demostraron menor expresión de IL-10 y riesgo aumentado de sufrir periodontitis crónica. El polimorfismo IL-10-592C/A no demostró relación con la detección o carga bacteriana de ninguna de las bacterias investigadas, además los niveles de expresión de IL-10 no fueron influenciados por el perfil microbiológico, sino que se correlacionaron directamente con el genotipo para el polimorfismo IL-10-592C/A.


Objective: A study was conducted to investigate the possible influence of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) IL-10-592 C/A on the occurrence and load of the periodontal pathogens: P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticolaand A. Actinomycetemcomitans; as well to investigate the influence of microbial and genetic factors on the modulation of local IL-10 mRNA levels. Methodology The study included 117 cases and 58 controls. After clinical examination microbiological samples were obtained and the detection/quantification of the target bacterial species was performed by RT-PCR. SNP rs1800872 was assayed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results Allele distribution of rs1800872 was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P = 64). As previously reported, polymorphic subjects demonstrated decreased IL-10 expression and increased risk of suffering chronic periodontitis. IL-10-592C/A rs1800872 SNP was not associated with the detection or the bacterial load of the investigated pathogens. Moreover, the presence/load of bacteria at periodontal sites did not influence IL-10 expression, which was determined by the genetic background of the study subjects. IL-10-592C/A SNP was not associated with detection/bacterial load of pathogenic bacteria. IL-10 expression levels were determined by the genetic background and were independent of the bacterial microenvironment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Periodontal Diseases/genetics , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , /genetics , Bacterial Load , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Case-Control Studies , DNA, Bacterial , Gingiva/microbiology , Periodontal Diseases/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , /physiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL