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1.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(1): 58-65, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421566

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Phagocytosis of autoantibody-sensitized coated platelets through Fc gamma receptors on phagocytic cells is an important mechanism of thrombocytopenia in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Objective We aimed to investigate the contribution of the FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa genes polymorphism to the risk of ITP and their association with disease characteristics in Egyptian children. Methods A case control study was conducted on eighty children with primary ITP and eighty age and sex healthy matched subjects as a control group. The FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa genes polymorphism was detected using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results We found that the FcγRIIa‐131H and ‐131R allele frequencies were 51.3 % and 48.7%, respectively, in children with ITP, versus 75% and 25%, respectively, in controls (p= 0.002). The compound heterozygous HR genotype was significantly higher in ITP patients (p < 0.05). The FcγRIIIa-158F and ‐158V allele frequencies were 46.3% and 53.7%, respectively, in children with ITP, versus 70% and 30%, respectively, in controls (p= 0.002). The compound heterozygous VF genotype was significantly higher in ITP patients (p < 0.05). The combined HR/FV genotype was 47.5% in ITP patients, versus 10% in controls (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between children with newly diagnosed ITP and those who developed chronic ITP, regarding the frequency distribution of the FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa alleles and genotypes (p > 0.05). Conclusion There is a possible association of the FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa genes polymorphism with the risk for, and genetic susceptibility to ITP in Egyptian children, but large-scale studies are still needed to support our findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Thrombocytopenia , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Phagocytes , Polymorphism, Genetic , Receptors, IgG
2.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(1): 134-140, jan.mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400123

ABSTRACT

A doença granulomatosa crônica (DGC) é um erro inato da imunidade de fagócitos, e ocorre em decorrência de mutações que afetam componentes da enzima NADPH oxidase. Os pacientes são suceptíveis a infecções graves e letais por fungos e bactérias. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar o caso de um lactente com DGC que apresentou manifestação clínica de tuberculose (TB) intratorácica na forma pseudotumoral e óssea iniciada no período neonatal. O diagnóstico de DGC foi realizado através do teste de DHR e, após o início da profilaxia com sulfametoxazoltrimetroprima e itraconazol, o paciente manteve-se estável clinicamente. A mãe e a irmã também apresentaram DHR alterados, a análise genética revelou uma mutação ligada ao X no exon 2 do gene CYBB c.58G>A, levando uma alteração em G20R. É fundamental que o diagnóstico seja realizado o mais precocemente possível, a fim de instituir as orientações aos familiares e tratamento adequado, reduzindo assim complicações infecciosas e melhorando prognóstico.


Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inborn error of phagocyte immunity and occurs as a resulto f mutations that affect components of the NADPH oxidase enzyme. Patients are susceptible to serious and lethal fungal and bacterial infections. The aim of this paper is to report a case an infant with CGD who presented clinical manifestations of intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB) in the pseudotumoral and bone form, which started in the neonatal period. The diagnosis of CGD was performed using the DHR test and, after starting prophylaxis with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and itraconazole, the patient remained clinically stable. The mother and sister also had altered DHR, genetic analysis revealed an X-linked mutation in exon 2 of the CYBB gene c.58G>A, leading to an alteration in G20R. It is essential that the diagnosis is made as early as possible, in order to establish guidelines for Family members and adequate treatment, thus reducing infectious complications and improving prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Tuberculosis , Bone and Bones , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic , Phagocytes , Prognosis , Sulfamethoxazole , Therapeutics , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections , NADPH Oxidases , Diagnosis , Fungi , Genetics , Infections
3.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 4(1): 93-98, jan.mar.2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381791

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Os erros inatos de imunidade (EII) são distúrbios que ocasionam danos no desenvolvimento e/ou função do sistema imunológico. O diagnóstico muitas vezes não é realizado de imediato devido ao pouco conhecimento sobre as doenças, que leva a complicações graves e diminui a sobrevida e qualidade de vida desses pacientes. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o tempo para o diagnóstico e as ocorrências infecciosas que acometeram pacientes com EII no decorrer de sua vida até o momento do diagnóstico. Método: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, retrospectivo, em pacientes atendidos pelo serviço de Alergia, Imunologia e Pneumologia do Complexo Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná (CHC-UFPR), no período de junho de 1993 a março de 2019. Foram excluídos pacientes sem história prévia ao diagnóstico e com diagnóstico não confirmado de EII ou indefinido. Resultados: Dos 57 pacientes incluídos no estudo, a maioria (n = 34) era do sexo masculino. A idade ao diagnóstico variou de 2 até 38 anos, sendo a média 9 anos. Dentre as imunodeficiências, 43 (75,4%) tinham deficiência de anticorpos, 10 (17,5%) deficiência combinada, 3 (5,3%) deficiência de fagócitos e 1 (1,8%) deficiência de complemento. Em relação às infecções, os pacientes apresentaram mais de um episódio infeccioso, e também sofreram acometimento em mais de um sítio anatômico. As infecções mais frequentes foram as do trato respiratório inferior (80,7%), seguido das infecções do trato respiratório superior (50,9%). Foi encontrado um atraso médio de diagnóstico de 66,1 meses, sendo que 10,5% dos pacientes foram a óbito. Conclusão: Apesar de já serem bem caracterizados, os EII ainda possuem diagnóstico tardio, levando os pacientes a complicações graves, e até à morte.


Introduction: Inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) cause damage in the development and/or function of the immune system. The diagnosis is often not done immediately because of lack of knowledge about the disorders, leading to serious complications and decreasing the survival and quality of life of these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate time to diagnosis and occurrence of infections that affected patients with IEI throughout their life-span until the diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective crosssectional study was performed in patients treated at the Division of Allergy, Immunology and Pulmonology of the Complexo Hospital de Clínicas at Universidade Federal do Paraná, from June 1993 to March 2019. Patients with no history prior to diagnosis and those with unconfirmed diagnosis of IIE or undefined diagnosis were excluded from the study. Results: Of the 57 patients included in the study, most were male (n = 34). The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 9 years, ranging from 2 to 38 years. Among the immunodeficiencies, 43 (75.4%) patients had antibody deficiency disorder, 10 (17.5%) had combined immunodeficiency, 3 (5.3%) had phagocyte deficiency and 1 (1.8%) had complement disorder. Regarding infections, patients had more than one infectious episode and were affected in more than one anatomical site. The most frequent infections were those of the lower respiratory tract (80.7%), followed by upper respiratory tract infections (50.9%). A mean diagnosis delay of 66.1 months was found, and 10% of the patients died. Conclusion: Despite being well characterized, IEIs still have late diagnosis, leading patients to serious complications and even death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections , Delayed Diagnosis , Immune System , Immunity , Antibodies , Outpatients , Phagocytes , Quality of Life , Complement System Proteins , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Death , Growth and Development , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Hypersensitivity , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Infections
4.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 1-10, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787144

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradation and energy-recycling mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Extensive researches over the past decades have defined the role of autophagy innate immune cells. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge regarding the role of autophagy in neutrophil biology and a picture of molecular mechanism underlying autophagy in neutrophils. Neutrophils are professional phagocytes that comprise the first line of defense against pathogen. Autophagy machineries are highly conserved in neutrophils. Autophagy is not only involved in generalized function of neutrophils such as differentiation in bone marrow but also plays crucial role effector functions of neutrophils such as granule formation, degranulation, neutrophil extracellular traps release, cytokine production, bactericidal activity and controlling inflammation. This review outlines the current understanding of autophagy in neutrophils and provides insight towards identification of novel therapeutics targeting autophagy in neutrophils.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Biology , Bone Marrow , Extracellular Traps , Homeostasis , Inflammation , Neutrophils , Phagocytes
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 97-104, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990811

ABSTRACT

Abstract This work describes the detailed ultrastructural morphology of the phagocyte imprisoning an oyster of Nematopsis (Apicomplexa) found in Crassostrea rhizophorae, in the city of Maceió (AL), Brazil. The highly infected hosts had half-open leaflets with weak, slow retraction of the adductor muscles. Variable number of ellipsoid oocytes, either isolated and or clustered, was found between myofibrils of the adductor muscle. Each oocyst was incarcerated in a parasitophorous vacuole of host uninucleated phagocyte. The oocysts were composed of a dense wall containing a uninucleate vermiform sporozoite. The wall of the fine oocysts was composed of homogeneous electron-lucent material formed by three layers of equal thickness, having a circular orifice-micropyle obstructed by the operculum. The oocysts presented ellipsoid morphology with their wall was surrounded by a complex network of numerous microfibrils. Important details of the taxonomic value were visualized such as the ultrastructural organization of the oocyst wall and the organization of the micropyle and operculum, beyond the microfibrils that protrude from the oocyst wall only observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and that may aid in the identification of the species. However, in order to clarify the systematic position of the species reported of the genus Nematopsis, it is important to proceed with genetic analyses.


Resumo Este trabalho descreve a morfologia ultraestrutural detalhada do fagócito encarcerando um oocisto de Nematopsis (Apicomplexa) encontrado em Crassostrea rhizophorae, na cidade de Maceió (AL), Brasil. Os hospedeiros muito infectados apresentavam valvas entreabertas com retração fraca e lenta dos músculos abdutores. Número variável de oócitos de forma elipsoide, isolados e ou agrupados foi encontrado entre as miofibrilas do músculo abdutor. Cada oocisto estava encarcerado num vacúolo parasitóforo do fagócito uninucleado do hospedeiro. Os oocistos eram compostos por uma parede densa contendo um esporozoíto vermiforme uninucleado. A parede dos oocistos finos era composta de material electron-lucente homogêneo formado por três camadas de espessura igual, possuindo um orifício circular - micrópila, obstruída pelo opérculo. Os oocistos apresentavam morfologia elipsoide, sua parede era circundada por uma complexa rede de numerosas microfibrilas. Detalhes de valor taxonômico importantes foram visualizados tais como: a organização ultraestrutural da parede do oocisto e a organização da micrópila e do opérculo, além das microfibrilas que se projetam da parede do oocisto, estrutura apenas observada em microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET) e que pode auxiliar na identificação da espécie. Contudo, para esclarecer a posição sistemática da maioria das espécies relatadas do gênero Nematopsis é importante prosseguir com as análises genéticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phagocytes/ultrastructure , Apicomplexa/ultrastructure , Oocysts/ultrastructure , Crassostrea/parasitology , Brazil , Apicomplexa/isolation & purification , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
6.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 253-263, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Retinal degeneration causes blindness, and cell replacement is a potential therapy. The purpose of this study is to formation of pigmented neurospheres in a simple medium, low-cost, high-performance manner over a short period of time while expressing markers of RPE cells and the activation of specific genes of the pigment cells. Also, these neurospheres have the ability to produce a monolayer of retinal pigment epithelium-like cells (RPELC) with the ability of photoreceptor outer segment phagocytosis. METHODS: BMSC were isolated from pigmented hooded male rats and were immunoreactive to BMSC markers, then converted into neurospheres, differentiated into pigmented spheres (PS), and characterized using Retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65 kDa protein (RPE65), Retinaldehyde-binding protein 1 (CRALBP) and orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) markers by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. The PS were harvested into RPELC. The functionality of RPELC was evaluated by phagocytosis of fluorescein-labeled photoreceptor outer segment. RESULTS: The BMSC immunophenotype was confirmed by immunostained for fibronectin, CD90, CD166 and CD44. These cells differentiated into osteogenic and lipogenic cells. The generated neurospheres were immunoreactive to nestin and stemness genes. The PS after 7–14 days were positive for RPE65 (92.76–100%), CRALBP (95.21–100%) and OTX2 (94.88–100%), and after 30 days RT-PCR, qPCR revealed increasing in gene expression. The PS formed a single layer of RPELC after cultivation and phagocyte photoreceptor outer segments. CONCLUSION: Bone marrow stromal stem cells can differentiate into functional retinal pigmented epithelium cells in a simple, low-cost, high-performancemanner over a short period of time. These cells due to expressing theRPELCgenes andmarkers can be used in cell replacement therapy for degenerative diseases including age-relatedmacular degeneration as well as retinitis pigmentosa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Blindness , Bone Marrow , Epithelium , Fibronectins , Gene Expression , Genes, Homeobox , Immunohistochemistry , Nestin , Phagocytes , Phagocytosis , Retinal Degeneration , Retinal Pigment Epithelium , Retinaldehyde , Retinitis Pigmentosa , Stem Cells
7.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 85 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-999535

ABSTRACT

A promoção a amamentação representa uma importante estratégia de saúde pública no manejo do sobrepeso e obesidade mundial. É possível que os hormônios reguladores do metabolismo energético, como a adiponectina, leptina e melatonina do colostro humano, possa beneficiar o sistema imunológico do lactente e minimizar os impactos ocasionados pelo excesso de peso materno pré-gestacional. Dado que, esses hormônios também possuem ação imunomoduladora. Assim, mudanças nas concentrações desses hormônios, podem comprometer a atividade funcional das células mononucleares (MN) do colostro humano e contribuir para o aumento de infecções neonatais. Por isto, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar a atividade funcional dos fagócitos MN do colostro de mulheres com excesso de peso pré-gestacional, na ausência e presença de adiponectina, leptina e melatonina. As amostras de colostro foram coletadas de 109 doadoras saudáveis e foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo controle e grupo com excesso de peso. O colostro foi centrifugado para obtenção do botão celular e sobrenadante. O sobrenadante foi utilizado para dosagem de melatonina, quantificada por ELISA. As células MN foram utilizadas no ensaio de fagocitose, por citometria de fluxo, e a produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROS), cálcio intracelular e apoptose foram realizadas por fluorimetria. Foram consideradas diferenças significativas quando p<0,05. O colostro de mulheres com excesso de peso pré-gestacional apresentou uma maior concentração de melatonina (p<0,05). Os fagócitos MN do grupo excesso de peso teve um menor índice de fagocitose (p<0,05). No entanto, os estímulos foram capazes de restaurar a atividade fagocítica para este grupo (p<0,05). A adiponectina+leptina foi o estímulo que desenvolveu uma resposta mais efetiva, com restauração dos níveis de EROS, manutenção do cálcio intracelular e elevação do índice de apoptose para o grupo com excesso de peso (p<0,05). Os dados em conjunto reforçam a hipótese de que amamentação é benéfica para a saúde da criança. A manutenção dos níveis endógenos de adiponectina, leptina e melatonina pode aumentar a proteção e diminuir os índices de infecção neonatais, em filhos de mulheres com excesso de peso. Assim, políticas públicas que apoiam o controle de peso pré-gestacional devem ser encorajadas


Breastfeeding promotion represents an important public health iniciative in worldwide overweight and obesity management strategies. It is possible that the hormones regulating energy metabolism, such as adiponectin, leptin and melatonin of human colostrum can benefit the infant's immune system and minimize the impacts caused by pre-gestational maternal overweight. As these hormones also have immunomodulatory action, changes in their concentrations can affect the functional activity of mononuclear cells of human colostrum and contribute to the increase of neonatal infections. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the functional activity of colostrum mononuclear phagocytes in women with pregestational overweight, with absence or presence of adiponectin, leptin and melatonin. Colostrum samples collected from 109 healthy donors were divided into two groups: the control group and the high body mass index (BMI) group. Colostrum samples were centrifuged to obtain the cell button and supernatant. The supernatant was used for melatonin dosing performed by ELISA, mononuclear cells used to phagocytosis assay, by flow cytometry and production of reactive species of oxygen, intracellular calcium and apoptosis assays were performed by fluorimetry using plate reader. Statistically significant differences were considered when p <0.05. Colostrum of pre-gestational high BMI group had higher concentration of melatonin (p <0.05). Mononuclear phagocytes of high BMI group had a lower index of phagocytosis (p <0.05). However, the stimuli restored the phagocytic activity for high BMI group (p <0.05). Adiponectin+leptin was the stimulus that developed a more effective response, with restoration of reactive oxygen species levels, maintenance of intracellular calcium and elevation of apoptosis index (p < 0.05) in the high BMI group. These data reinforce that breastfeeding is beneficial to child's health and maintaining endogenous levels of adiponectin, leptin and melatonin may increase protection and decrease neonatal infection rates in children of women with high BMI. Thus, public policies that support pre-gestational weight control should be encouraged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Phagocytes , Colostrum , Leptin , Adiponectin , Melatonin , Obesity , Hormones/metabolism
8.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 95-98, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741500

ABSTRACT

Brucellosis is one of the common zoonoses caused by Brucella abortus (B. abortus). However, little has been reported on factors affecting invasion of B. abortus into host cells. To investigate cell-type dependent invasion of B. abortus, phagocytic RAW 264.7 and THP-1 cells and non-phagocytic HeLa cells were infected with wild-type and mutant B. abortus, and their invasion efficiencies were compared. The invasion efficiencies of the strains were cell-type dependent. Wild-type B. abortus invasion efficiency was greater in phagocytic cells than in epithelial cells. The results also indicated that there are different factors involved in the invasion of B. abortus into phagocytic cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brucella abortus , Brucella , Brucellosis , Epithelial Cells , HeLa Cells , Phagocytes , Zoonoses
9.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 185-196, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717220

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury is a clinical syndrome that can be caused by numerous diseases including acute tubular necrosis (ATN). ATN evolves in several phases, all of which are accompanied by different immune mechanisms as an integral component of the disease process. In the early injury phase, regulated necrosis, damage-associated molecular patterns, danger sensing, and neutrophil-driven sterile inflammation enhance each other and contribute to the crescendo of necroinflammation and tissue injury. In the late injury phase, renal dysfunction becomes clinically apparent, and M1 macrophage-driven sterile inflammation contributes to ongoing necroinflammation and renal dysfunction. In the recovery phase, M2-macrophages and anti-inflammatory mediators counteract the inflammatory process, and compensatory remnant nephron and cell hypertrophy promote an early functional recovery of renal function, while some tubules are still badly injured and necrotic material is removed by phagocytes. The resolution of inflammation is required to promote the intrinsic regenerative capacity of tubules to replace at least some of the necrotic cells. Several immune mechanisms support this wound-healing-like re-epithelialization process. Similar to wound healing, this response is associated with mesenchymal healing, with a profound immune cell contribution in terms of collagen production and secretion of profibrotic mediators. These and numerous other factors determine whether, in the chronic phase, persistent loss of nephrons and hyperfunction of remnant nephrons will result in stable renal function or progress to decline of renal function such as progressive chronic kidney disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Collagen , Extracellular Traps , Hypertrophy , Inflammation , Necrosis , Nephrons , Phagocytes , Re-Epithelialization , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Wound Healing
10.
Immune Network ; : e43-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719134

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-derived vesicles that mediate intercellular communications. As professional phagocytes, neutrophils also produce EVs in response to various inflammatory stimuli during inflammatory processes. Neutrophil-derived EVs can be categorized into 2 subtypes according to the mechanism of generation. Neutrophil-derived trails (NDTRs) are generated from migrating neutrophils. The uropods of neutrophils are elongated by adhesion to endothelial cells, and small parts of the uropods are detached, leaving submicrometer-sized NDTRs. Neutrophil-derived microvesicles (NDMVs) are generated from neutrophils which arrived at the inflammatory foci. Membrane blebbing occurs in response to various stimuli at the inflammatory foci, and small parts of the blebs are detached from the neutrophils, leaving NDMVs. These 2 subtypes of neutrophil-derived EVs share common features such as membrane components, receptors, and ligands. However, there are substantial differences between these 2 neutrophil-derived EVs. NDTRs exert pro-inflammatory functions by guiding subsequent immune cells through the inflammatory foci. On the other hand, NDMVs exert anti-inflammatory functions by limiting the excessive immune responses of nearby cells. This review outlines the current understanding of the different subtypes of neutrophil-derived EVs and provides insights into the clinical relevance of neutrophil-derived EVs.


Subject(s)
Blister , Endothelial Cells , Extracellular Vesicles , Hand , Ligands , Membranes , Neutrophils , Phagocytes
11.
International Journal of Oral Biology ; : 217-222, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740081

ABSTRACT

Phagocytosis is a fundamental process in which phagocytes capture and ingest foreign particles including pathogenic bacteria. Several oral pathogens have anti-phagocytic strategies, which allow them to escape from and survive in phagocytes. Impaired bacteria phagocytosis increases inflammation and contributes to inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influences of various agents on oral pathogenic phagocytosis. To determine phagocytosis, Streptococcus mutans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis were stained with 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE), and was measured using flowcytometery and confocal microscopy. The influencing factors on phagocytosis were evaluated through the pretreatment of ROS inhibitor (N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)), lysozyme, potassium chloride (KCI) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in THP-1 cells. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The phagocytosis of various bacteria increased in a MOI-dependent manner. Among the tested bacteria, phagocytosis of P. gingivalis showed the highest fluorescent intensity at same infection time. Among the tested inhibitors, the NAC treatment significantly inhibited phagocytosis in all tested bacteria. In addition, NAC treatment indicated a similar pattern under the confocal microscopy. Moreover, NAC treatment significantly increased the bacteria-induced secretion of IL-1β among the tested inhibitors. Taken together, we conclude that the phagocytosis occurs differently depending on each bacterium. Down-regulation by ROS production inhibited phagocytosis and lead increased of oral pathogens-associated inflammation.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Bacteria , Cytokines , Down-Regulation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Inflammation , Macrophages , Microscopy, Confocal , Monocytes , Muramidase , Phagocytes , Phagocytosis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Potassium Chloride , Streptococcus mutans , United Nations
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(4): 870-876, jul.-ago. 2017. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-876619

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação mineral injetável extra de cobre (Cu) e zinco (Zn) sobre a resposta imunológica de vacas Nelore no período pré-parto. Foram avaliadas 60 vacas prenhes, as quais foram divididas em dois tratamentos, por meio da distribuição aleatória em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Aos 75 dias antes do parto, as vacas do tratamento testemunha (T) receberam soro fisiológico como placebo e os animais suplementados (S) receberam mineral injetável via subcutânea (75mg de cobre e 250mg de zinco, em dose única). Foram realizadas três coletas de sangue, duas antes da data prevista para o parto (75 e 10 dias) e uma 30 dias após o parto. Os teores de Cu, Zn, ceruloplasmina, imunoglobulinas G (IgG) e M (IgM) foram analisados durante as três coletas. A atividade fagocitária foi avaliada aos 30 dias pós-parto. Os dados foram examinados mediante análise de variância, com o uso do pacote estatístico do SAS, e os dados individuais da atividade fagocitária pelo PROC GLM. Os dados de Cu, Zn, IgG e IgM foram analisados como medidas repetidas no tempo de coleta por meio do PROC MIXED, com o nível de significância de 5%. Os teores de Cu, Zn, IgM, IgG, ceruloplasmina e a atividade fagocitária das vacas não sofreram influência dos tratamentos (P>0,05). O fornecimento de Cu e Zn injetável, nas doses utilizadas, aos 75 dias antes do parto para vacas Nelore, em dietas suficientes, não alterou os teores de Cu, Zn, ceruloplasmina e a resposta imunológica até 30 dias após o parto.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extra injectable mineral supplementation of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) on the immune response of Nellore cows in pre-partum period. Sixty pregnant cows were randomly distributed in a completely randomized design in two treatments. In the control treatment (T), cows received saline as placebo, and supplemented treatment (S) received mineral injection (75mg copper and 250mg of zinc, single dose) subcutaneously, 75 days prior to parturition. Blood was sampled three times, two before the expected date of parturition (75 and 10 days) and another at 30 days postpartum. Analyses were performed for Cu, Zn, ceruloplasmin, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) in the three periods and the phagocytic activity in the last period (30 days postpartum). The experimental data were subjected to analysis of variance using the statistical package SAS, being that the individual data phagocytic activity were analyzed by PROC GLM, and the Cu, Zn, IgG and IgM were analyzed as repeated measures in the time, using the PROC MIXED, with the significance level of 5%. The Cu, Zn, IgM, IgG, ceruloplasmin and the phagocytic activity of the cows were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The supply of injectable Cu and Zn, at the doses used, 75 days before parturition to Nellore cows in sufficient diets, did not alter the serum contents of Cu, Zn, ceruloplasmin and the immune response up to 30 days after parturition.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cattle , Dietary Minerals , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Immunity , Immunoglobulins , Copper , Phagocytes , Zinc
13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 737-743, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25090

ABSTRACT

Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis among infants, and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Protection against GBS typically involves antibody-mediated opsonization by phagocytes and complement components. The present study evaluated serotype-specific functional antibodies to GBS among Korean infants and in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products. An opsonophagocytic killing assay (OPA) was used to calculate the opsonization indices (OIs) of functional antibodies to serotypes Ia, Ib, and III in 19 IVIG products from 5 international manufacturers and among 98 Korean infants (age: 0–11 months). The GBS Ia, Ib, and III serotypes were selected because they are included in a trivalent GBS vaccine formulation that is being developed. The OI values for the IVIG products were 635–5,706 (serotype Ia), 488–1,421 (serotype Ib), and 962–3,315 (serotype III), and none of the IVIG lots exhibited undetectable OI values (< 4). The geometric mean OI values were similar for all 3 serotypes when we compared the Korean manufacturers. The seropositive rate among infants was significantly lower for serotype Ia (18.4%), compared to serotype Ib and serotype III (both, 38.8%). Infant age of ≥ 3 months was positively correlated with the seropositive rates for each serotype. Therefore, only a limited proportion of infants exhibited protective immunity against serotype Ia, Ib, and III GBS infections. IVIG products that exhibit high antibody titers may be a useful therapeutic or preventive measure for infants. Further studies are needed to evaluate additional serotypes and age groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Antibodies , Complement System Proteins , Homicide , Immunoglobulins , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Meningitis , Mortality , Opsonin Proteins , Phagocytes , Sepsis , Serogroup , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcus
14.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e331-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203976

ABSTRACT

The clearance of apoptotic cells is an essential process for tissue homeostasis. To this end, cells undergoing apoptosis must display engulfment signals, such as ‘find-me' and ‘eat-me' signals. Engulfment signals are recognized by multiple types of phagocytic machinery in phagocytes, leading to prompt clearance of apoptotic cells. In addition, apoptotic cells and phagocytes release tolerogenic signals to reduce immune responses against apoptotic cell-derived self-antigens. Here we discuss recent advances in our knowledge of engulfment signals, the phagocytic machinery and the signal transduction pathways for apoptotic cell engulfment.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autoantigens , Homeostasis , Phagocytes , Signal Transduction
15.
Immune Network ; : 298-306, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220081

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are professional phagocytes that conduct effectors functions in the innate immune systems. They are differentiated in the bone marrow (BM) and terminally differentiated neutrophils are then released into systemic circulation. Neutrophils migrate into inflammatory foci through extravasation, reverse transmigration, and chemotaxis. As neutrophils arrive at a target site, they actively participate in eliminating pathogens. They phagocytose bacteria, and eliminate them through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of protease-enriched granules, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Since neutrophils are equipped with toxic arsenals, the activation of neutrophils is tightly controlled. Priming is the process of unlocking safety mechanisms before complete activation of neutrophils. Since the first discovery of neutrophils, they were considered as a homogeneous population with an inflammatory phenotype. However, heterogenous populations of neutrophils were discovered under physiological and pathological conditions. This review outlines the normal differentiation of neutrophils in the BM, and discusses the current understandings of neutrophil heterogeneity.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Bone Marrow , Chemotaxis , Extracellular Traps , Immune System , Neutrophils , Phagocytes , Phenotype , Population Characteristics , Reactive Oxygen Species
16.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Transplantation ; : 59-68, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45804

ABSTRACT

The complement system is a part of the innate immune system that potentiates the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells. The complement system consists of a number of proteins circulating as inactive precursors. It is stimulated mainly by three pathways: the classical pathway, the alternative pathway, and the lectin pathway. There are many genetic polymorphisms in this system, which can over-activate the immune system. In this study, we collected the polymorphisms reported to over-activate complement cascades that affect the immune system and induce autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Autoimmune Diseases , Complement System Proteins , Immune System , Phagocytes , Polymorphism, Genetic
17.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-5, 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950856

ABSTRACT

In the mammalian lung, respiratory macrophages provide front line defense against invading pathogens and particulate matter. In birds, respiratory macrophages are known as free avian respiratory macrophages (FARM) and a dearth of the cells in the avian lung has been purported to foreordain a weak first line of pulmonary defense, a condition associated with high mortality of domestic birds occasioned by respiratory inflictions. Avian pulmonary mechanisms including a three tiered aerodynamic filtration system, tight epithelial junctions and an efficient mucociliary escalator system have been known to supplement FARM protective roles. Current studies, however, report FARM to exhibit an exceptionally efficient phagocytic capacity and are effective in elimination of invading pathogens. In this review, we also report on effects of selective synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) agonists on non phlogistic phagocytic properties in the FARM. To develop effective therapeutic interventions targeting FARM in treatment and management of respiratory disease conditions in the poultry, further studies are required to fully understand the role of FARM in innate and adaptive immune responses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/physiology , Lung/immunology , Particle Size , Phagocytes/immunology , Phagocytosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , PPAR gamma/physiology , Lung/cytology
18.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(2): 112-116, abr. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-752888

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad granulomatosa crónica (EGC) es una forma infrecuente de inmunodeficiencia primaria que se caracteriza por una sensibilidad anormal a infecciones bacterianas y fúngicas, debida a un déficit en el complejo nicotinamida adenina dinucleótida fosfato oxidasa (NADPH) en los fagocitos. Objetivo: Describir tres casos de EGC con énfasis en su forma de presentación y realizar una revisión del tema. Casos Clínicos: Se presentan tres casos clínicos, dos de ellos con relación de parentesco (primos en primer grado). Se llegó a diagnóstico molecular en uno de los casos. Se destacan las manifestaciones clínicas: infecciones recurrentes, abscesos, adenitis y granulomas, y complicaciones, con la finalidad de facilitar la sospecha diagnóstica de EGC, debido a la importancia del diagnóstico temprano y el consejo genético. Conclusiones: La EGC es un trastorno inmunológico primario congénito infrecuente, con herencia ligada a X en su mayoría, pero también con formas autosómicas recesivas, con una forma de presentación característica y cuyo diagnóstico debe ser oportuno para evitar complicaciones, realizar profilaxis y tratamiento agresivo de las infecciones y consejo genético.


Introduction: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare form of primary immunodeficiency disease, characterized by an abnormal susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections, and it is caused by a deficit in the phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complex (NADPH), resulting in the inability to generate reactive oxygen species that destroy micro-organisms. The diagnosis is based on clinical characteristics and analysis of phagocytes, and later confirmed by molecular studies. Its management should consider antimicrobial prophylaxis, a search for infections and aggressive management of these. Objective: To describe three cases of CGD emphasizing their forms of presentation and to conduct a review of the condition. Case reports: Three case reports, two of them first cousins, are presented. Molecular diagnosis was reached in one of the cases. Recurrent infections, abscesses, adenitis, granulomas and complications are identified to facilitate the suspected diagnosis of CGD, bearing in mind the importance of early diagnosis and genetic counseling. Conclusions: EGC is a rare congenital primary immunodeficiency disorder, mostly with X-linked inheritance, autosomal recessive form, and a specific presentation form. Its diagnosis should be timely to avoid complications. Prophylaxis and aggressive treatment of infections should be performed, as well as genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child , Adolescent , Phagocytes/metabolism , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/diagnosis , Genetic Counseling/methods , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/physiopathology , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/genetics
19.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 739-743, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-643707

ABSTRACT

The regulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered a unique property of phagocytic cells which use this ROS system to induce innate defense system that enables it to successfully combat the pathogens. However, the mechanisms for how respiratory mucosa might produce ROS against respiratory viral infection still need to be completely defined. Respiratory mucosa and nasal epithelium has been known as the first defense site of human respiratory tract which is highly exposed and vulnerable to environmental pathogens, including air-bone microbes, viruses and allergens. We are especially interested in the innate immune response to respiratory virus infection in nasal epithelium and how this response might be influenced by ROS generation after viral infection. The interferon (IFN) signaling system is perhaps the most critical pathway for antiviral defense and protective actions of IFNs rely on signaling through IFN receptors, transcription factors and IFN-stimulated genes or antiviral cytokines requiring for virus degradation and suppression of viral transcription or translation. We verified that both type I and type III IFN genes expression and secreted proteins were more highly induced after influenza A virus infection in nasal epithelium. We also propose that type III IFNs are the primary IFNs to mediate an anti-viral defense in nasal epithelium and more sensitively reacted with ROS which were produced after respiratory virus infection. We estimate that ROS are necessary for the innate immune response and trigger the induction of IFN-related innate immune response to resist respiratory virus infection in human respiratory mucosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Allergens , Critical Pathways , Cytokines , Immunity, Innate , Influenza A virus , Interferons , Nasal Mucosa , Phagocytes , Reactive Oxygen Species , Respiratory Mucosa , Respiratory System , Transcription Factors
20.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 122-131, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104578

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We have previously shown that DICAM inhibits LPS-mediated macrophage differentiation. However, less is known about the exact action mechanisms of DICAM on the macrophage function and differentiation. METHODS: To induce differentiation into a resting M0 macrophage, THP-1 cells were cultured with 100 nM PMA for 24 h, and then rested for 3 days. THP-1 cells were infected with 50 moi of control LacZ- or DICAM-containing adenovirus. The RNA expression profile associated with DICAM during THP-1 differentiation was analyzed with a microarray chip and in silico analysis with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) program. RESULTS: A disease and function analysis of the microarray data in DICAM-overexpressed THP-1 cells revealed a suppression in the expression of multiple genes involved in the response of myeloid cells and phagocytes, and an increase of genes associated with apoptosis of fibroblast cell-line, and viral infection and replication. The canonical pathway analysis also showed the most prominent changes of signaling pathways that involve inflammation responses. An upstream regulator analysis identifyingmolecules upstream of the genes that potentially explain the observed expression changes revealed that IRF7 and the genes in type 1 interferon system, such as IFNA2 and IFNAR,was significantly attenuated by DICAM. A mechanistic network analysis confirmed a direct causal association between IRF7 and type 1 interferon system. A real-time RT-PCR analysis validating the microarray data verified the significant suppression of IRFs, IFNA2, and IFNB1. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that DICAM can be a critical regulator of type 1 interferon system, which is an essential mediator in the process of intracellular infection and systemic lupus erythematosus.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Apoptosis , Computer Simulation , Fibroblasts , Inflammation , Interferons , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Macrophages , Myeloid Cells , Phagocytes , RNA
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