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2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(2): 280-290, 20240220. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532624

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El tacrolimus es un medicamento inmunosupresor ampliamente usado en trasplante hepático, que presenta una gran variabilidad interindividual la cual se considera asociada a la frecuencia de polimorfismos de CYP3A5 y MDR-1. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la frecuencia de los polimorfismos rs776746, rs2032582 y rs1045642 y su asociación con rechazo clínico y toxicidad farmacológica. Métodos. Se incluyeron pacientes inmunosuprimidos con tacrolimus a quienes se les realizó trasplante hepático en el Hospital San Vicente Fundación Rionegro entre 2020 y 2022, con supervivencia mayor a un mes. Se evaluaron las variables clínicas, rechazo agudo y toxicidad farmacológica. Se secuenciaron los genes de estudio mediante PCR, comparando la expresión o no en cada uno de los pacientes. Resultados. Se identificaron 17 pacientes. El 43 % de los pacientes se clasificaron como CYP3A5*1/*1 y CYP3A5*1/*3, entre los cuales se encontró asociación con aumento en la tasa de rechazo agudo clínico, al comparar con los pacientes no expresivos (100 % vs. 44 %, p=0,05); no hubo diferencias en cuanto a la toxicidad farmacológica u otros desenlaces. Se encontró el polimorfismo rs2032582 en un 50 % y el rs1045642 en un 23,5 % de los pacientes, sin embargo, no se identificó asociación con rechazo u otros eventos clínicos. Conclusiones. Se encontró una asociación entre el genotipo CYP3A5*1/*1 y CYP3A5*1/*3 y la tasa de rechazo clínico. Sin embargo, se requiere una muestra más amplia para validar estos datos y plantear modelos de medicina personalizada.


Introduction. Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive drug widely used in liver transplantation, which presents great interindividual variability which is considered associated with the frequency of CYP3A5 and MDR-1 polymorphisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of the rs776746, rs2032582 and rs1045642 polymorphisms and their association with clinical rejection and drug toxicity. Methods. Immunosuppressed patients with tacrolimus who underwent a liver transplant at the Hospital San Vicente Fundación Rionegro between 2020 and 2022 were included, with survival of more than one month. Clinical variables, acute rejection and pharmacological toxicity were evaluated. The study genes were sequenced by PCR, comparing their expression or not in each of the patients. Results. Seventeen patients were identified. 43% of the patients were classified as CYP3A5*1/*1 and CYP3A5*1/*3, among which an association was found with increased rates of clinical acute rejection when compared with non-expressive patients (100% vs. 44%, p=0.05). There were no differences in drug toxicity or other outcomes. The rs2032582 polymorphism was found in 50% and rs1045642 in 23.5% of patients; however, no association with rejection or other clinical events was identified. Conclusions. An association was found between the CYP3A5*1/*1 and CYP3A5*1/*3 genotype and the clinical rejection rate. However, a larger sample is required to validate these data and propose models of personalized medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacogenetics , Liver Transplantation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Organ Transplantation , Tacrolimus , Graft Rejection
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 119 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532242

ABSTRACT

O rápido envelhecimento populacional observado no Brasil marca a transição demográfica e epidemiológica devido à baixa mortalidade e à alta prevalência de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, como o diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). O DM2 é uma doença metabólica caracterizada por elevados níveis de açúcar no sangue e alta morbidade em idosos, associada ao risco cardiovascular. O controle dos níveis glicêmicos é essencial para prevenir complicações agudas e crônicas, evitando prejuízos à capacidade funcional, autonomia e qualidade de vida do indivíduo. As recomendações para o controle glicêmico no DM2 envolvem ações não farmacológicas, como mudanças no estilo de vida (dieta, perda de peso e atividade física regular), e terapia medicamentosa. Os idosos são os maiores consumidores de medicamentos no país, e a polifarmácia, combinada com as mudanças fisiológicas típicas do envelhecimento, torna essa parte da população mais suscetível a problemas relacionados aos medicamentos, que podem afetar o sucesso da terapêutica. Nos últimos anos, estudos em farmacogenômica, uma área que explora a variação interindividual da resposta a medicamentos, demonstraram a associação de variantes em genes com o metabolismo de medicamentos, evidenciando interações farmacogenéticas em diversas classes de antidiabéticos orais. Este estudo buscou compreender os diferentes fatores que influenciam o controle glicêmico em idosos com diabetes referida, residentes no município de São Paulo, participantes do Estudo Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento (SABE), no período de 2010 a 2015. Foram delineados três artigos que analisaram as características socioeconômicas, aspectos de saúde, estilo de vida e aqueles relacionados ao DM2, como manejo da hiperglicemia e a variabilidade genética na resposta a medicamentos e o controle glicêmico, e seu impacto no desenvolvimento de complicações decorrentes do DM2. O artigo 1 descreve os perfis farmacoepidemiológico e farmacogenético dos idosos. O segundo artigo avalia os fatores associados ao controle glicêmico inadequado, enquanto o artigo 3 estima o risco de desenvolvimento de complicações em 5 anos. A metformina, antidiabético oral da classe das biguanidas e primeira escolha para o tratamento do DM2, foi o medicamento mais utilizado pelos idosos da amostra (61,3%), em monoterapia (35,2%), em mais da metade das associações de 2 AD e em todos os esquemas com 3 AD. Das variantes genéticas associadas à eficácia do tratamento com metformina estudadas, portadores do genótipo TT da variante rs2252281 (SLC47A1) apresentaram maior chance de controle glicêmico inadequado (OR = 4,19 IC 1,22; 14,36). Esse fenômeno foi observado em 32,1% dos idosos e estava associado à utilização de dois ou três antidiabéticos (OR = 2,89 IC 95% 1,47; 5,67), ao tempo de duração do DM2 (OR = 1,46 IC 95% 0,68; 3,12) e à presença de doença cardíaca (OR = 2,02 IC 95% 1,02; 4,01). Problemas nos olhos (RR= 2,13 IC 95% 1,24; 3,66), retinopatia diabética (RR = 3,18 IC 95% 1,05; 9,61) e episódios agudos de hipoglicemia (RR = 2,28 IC 95% 1,49; 3,49) e hiperglicemia (RR = 2,78 IC 95% 1,65; 4,68) tiveram risco aumentado em idosos com controle glicêmico inadequado. Estes resultados reforçam a necessidade de uma abordagem abrangente e individualizada para o manejo da hiperglicemia nos idosos. O controle glicêmico nesta parcela da população é desafiador, e suas implicações no desenvolvimento de complicações do DM2 destacam a importância de manter os níveis de glicose no sangue dentro de faixas saudáveis. A pactuação de metas glicêmicas menos rígidas pode evitar situações adversas, como a hipoglicemia, e a adoção de esquemas terapêuticos menos complexos pode contribuir significativamente para melhora na adesão.


The rapid aging of the population observed in Brazil marks the demographic and epidemiological transition due to low mortality and a high prevalence of noncommunicable chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (TDM2). TDM2 is a metabolic disease characterized by elevated blood sugar levels and high morbidity in the elderly, associated with cardiovascular risk. Controlling glycemic levels is essential to prevent acute and chronic complications, avoiding impairments to functional capacity, autonomy, and quality of life. Recommendations for glycemic control in TDM2 involve non-pharmacological actions, such as lifestyle changes (diet, weight loss, and regular physical activity), and drug therapy. Elderly individuals are the largest consumers of medications in the country, and polypharmacy, combined with the physiological changes typical of aging, makes this population more susceptible to medication-related problems that can affect the success of therapy. In recent years, studies in pharmacogenomics, an area that explores interindividual variation in drug response, have demonstrated the association of genetic variants with drug metabolism, highlighting pharmacogenetic interactions in various classes of oral antidiabetics. This study aimed to understand the different factors influencing glycemic control in elderly individuals with reported diabetes living in São Paulo city, participants in the Health, Well-being, and Aging Study (SABE) from 2010 to 2015. Three articles were outlined, analyzing socioeconomic characteristics, health aspects, lifestyle, and those related to TDM2, such as hyperglycemia management and genetic variability in drug response and glycemic control, and its impact on the development of complications from TDM2. Article 1 describes the pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacogenetic profiles of the elderly. The second article evaluates factors associated with inadequate glycemic control, while the third article estimates the risk of developing complications over 5 years. Metformin, an oral antidiabetic of the biguanide class and the first choice for TDM2 treatment, was the most used medication by the elderly in the sample (61.3%), either in monotherapy (35.2%) or in more than half of the combinations of 2 antidiabetic drugs and all regimens with 3 drugs. Among the studied genetic variants associated with metformin treatment effectiveness, carriers of the TT genotype of the rs2252281 variant (SLC47A1) had a higher chance of poor glycemic control (OR = 4.19 CI 1.22; 14.36). Poor glycemic control was observed in 32.1% of the elderly and was associated with the use of two or three antidiabetics (OR = 2.89 CI 95% 1.47; 5.67), the duration of TDM2 (OR = 1.46 CI 95% 0.68; 3.12), and the presence of heart disease (OR = 2.02 CI 95% 1.02; 4.01). Problems with eyes (RR = 2.13 CI 95% 1.24; 3.66), diabetic retinopathy (RR = 3.18 CI 95% 1.05; 9.61), and acute episodes of hypoglycemia (RR = 2.28 CI 95% 1.49; 3.49) and hyperglycemia (RR = 2.78 CI 95% 1.65; 4.68) had an increased risk in elderly individuals with poor glycemic control. These results emphasize the need for a comprehensive and individualized approach to hyperglycemia management in the elderly. Glycemic control in this population segment is challenging, and its implications for the development of DM2 complications underscore the importance of maintaining blood glucose levels within healthy ranges. Agreeing on less stringent glycemic targets can prevent adverse situations such as hypoglycemia, and the adoption of less complex therapeutic regimens can significantly contribute to improved adherence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pharmacogenetics , Aged , Aging , Pharmacoepidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Utilization , Noncommunicable Diseases , Glycemic Control
5.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 108-111, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928373

ABSTRACT

Genetic background can lead to differences in drug effects among different populations when they use the same drug. To delineate the pharmacogenomics and population genetic differences may help to clarify the role of polymorphisms of drug metabolism-related genes in drug effect heterogeneity among different populations. This article has summarized the latest progress on the polymorphisms of drug metabolism-related genes among different populations in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pharmacogenetics , Polymorphism, Genetic
6.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 115 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396864

ABSTRACT

A medicina de precisão trata-se de uma área tem avançado rapidamente nos últimos anos, juntamente com o desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias de diagnóstico e tratamento, levando à minimização de efeitos colaterais relacionados ao tratamento melhoras nos resultados clínicos de forma geral. A pesquisa em farmacogenômica (PGx) desempenha um importante papel na área da medicina de precisão, ao investigar as variantes genéticas que modulam a resposta a fármacos, por meio de alterações em sua farmacocinética (PK) ou farmacodinâmica (PD). A distribuição de variantes de farmacogenes difere consideravelmente entre as populações e o sequenciamento genético completo em populações diversas (WGS, do inglês whole-genome sequencing) desempenha um papel importante como uma abordagem de sequenciamento abrangente para detectar variantes comuns e raras. Objetivo: Os objetivos gerais foram: i) verificar o panorama dos estudos brasileiros na área da PGx, em termos de metodologia de estudo e oportunidades potenciais na área de pesquisa no Brasil, e ii) avaliar a frequência de marcadores farmacogenéticos em idosos da cidade de São Paulo e avaliar a proporção de indivíduos potencialmente em alto risco de interações farmacogenéticas no ano de 2010. Métodos: Na primeira parte do trabalho, foi realizada uma revisão sistemática que buscou estudos brasileiros na área da PGx que analisaram a associação entre fármaco(s) e gene(s) que apresentam interesse especial na área da farmacogenética (VIPs, do inglês Very Important Pharmacogenes); foram incluídos 97 estudos para análise do texto completo. Na segunda parte do trabalho, a ferramenta Stargazer foi utilizada para identificar star alleles de 38 farmacogenes, utilizando o banco de dados de WGS de 1.171 indivíduos não-relacionado do estudo SABE (Estudo de Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento). Resultados: Na revisão da literatura, 32 dos 65 VIPs foram analisados por estudos de associação na população brasileira. Noventa e seis eram estudos de genes candidatos e um era GWAS (do inglês, genome-wide association study). Agentes antitrombóticos, fármacos que atuam no sistema nervoso e no sistema cardiovascular foram as classes mais estudadas. Em geral, 68% eram estudos observacionais e 24% eram ensaios clínicos. A análise dos marcadores farmacogenéticos na coorte SABE mostrou que 352 haplótipos ou star alleles únicos foram observados em todos os 38 farmacogenes avaliados. Destes, 255 apresentaram frequência < 0,05 e 199 apresentaram frequência < 0,01; 70,1% dos star alleles foram classificados como tendo perda ou diminuição de função, ou função desconhecida. Para os onze farmacogenes com alto nível de evidência de interação com medicamentos (1A) segundo o Consórcio de Implementação de Farmacogenética Clínica (CPIC, do inglês Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium), verificou-se que mais de 99% dos indivíduos carregavam pelo menos um genótipo de alto risco. Segundo o registro de medicamentos da coorte, 22,5% dos indivíduos que utilizavam um medicamento com nível de evidência do 1A (CPIC) estavam potencialmente em risco de uma interação farmacogenética por possuírem um fenótipo predito que interage com o medicamento em uso. Conclusão: Populações miscigenadas ainda estão sub-representadas em grandes estudos genômicos, e este projeto pode contribuir com dados adicionais de para PGx na população brasileira.


The area of precision medicine is growing rapidly with advances in diagnostic and treatment options, leading to improvements in clinical outcomes and minimization of unnecessary side effects. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) plays an important role in precision medicine and deals with the variation of drug response due to genetic factors. Research in the field of PGx aims to identify genetic variants that modulate the response to drugs, through alterations in their pharmacokinetics (PK) or pharmacodynamics (PD). The distribution of PGx variants differs considerably among populations, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) performed on diverse populations plays a major role as a comprehensive sequencing approach to detect both common and rare variants. Objective: This study evaluated i) the landscape of Brazilian PGx studies in terms of study methodology and potential opportunities in this research area in Brazil, and ii) the frequency PGx markers in a cohort of elderly individuals from the city of São Paulo, and the proportion of individuals at a potential high-risk for PGx interaction in 2010. Methods: In the first part of this research, a systematic review was performed to find Brazilian studies in the area of PGx which analyzed the association between drugs and very important pharmacogenes (VIP); 97 studies were included for full-texts review. In the second part, the tool Stargazer was used to call star alleles from 38 pharmacogenes using data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging Study (SABE), which includes variants from whole-genome sequences of 1,171 unrelated individuals. Results: In the literature review, 32 out of 65 VIPs were analyzed by association studies in the Brazilian population. Ninety-six were candidate gene studies and one was GWAS. Antithrombotic agents, drugs that act on the nervous system, and the cardiovascular system were the most studied dugs. In general, 68% comprised observational studies and interventional clinical trials accounted for 24%. The analysis of PGx markers in the SABE cohort showed 352 unique star alleles or haplotypes in all 38 pharmacogenes assessed. Among these, 255 and 199 had a frequency < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively, with decreased/ loss-of-function/ unknown function corresponding to 70.1%. For eleven pharmacogenes with high level of evidence (1A) supporting the association with drugs according to CPIC (Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium), more than 99% of the individuals carried at least one high risk genotype. According to cohort medication register from 2010 round of data collection, 22.5% of individuals using CPIC level 1A drugs were potentially at high risk for a pharmacogenetic interaction because they also had a predicted phenotype which interacts with the drug taken. Conclusion: Admixed populations are still underrepresented in large genomic studies, and this project could provide insights to PGx in those populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pharmacogenetics , Biomarkers , Epidemiology , Whole Genome Sequencing
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e201188, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420506

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mycophenolic acid (MPA) inhibits IMPDH, involved in the guanosine nucleotides synthesis, and prevents DNA replication in immune cells. The repression of cell and humoral immunity by MPA induces allograft tolerance preventing acute rejection in solid organ transplantation. MPA is an effective and safe drug, but genetic and non-genetic factors have been implicated in the interindividual variability of drug response. Several studies have shown the impact of variants of pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics-related genes on MPA response in kidney transplantation. This review explored further the influence of genes involved in the immune response on clinical outcomes of kidney recipients on short- or long-term MPA treatment. Variants in genes related to T cell activation (CD28, CTL4, ICOS, PDPC1), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL2, IL6, IL12A, IL12B, TNF, IFNG), immunomodulatory cytokines (IL4, IL10, TGFB1), and innate immune response (CD14, TLR2, TLR4) were shown to be associated with increased risk of acute rejection, graft function or survival, chronic graft nephropathy, viral infections or MPA-induced myelotoxicity. Some of the significant pharmacogenetic associations were confirmed by meta-analyses of kidney transplantation. These findings are suggestive that variants in immune response-related genes contribute to the variability of MPA response, and have potential application as biomarkers of acute rejection in kidney transplantation.


Subject(s)
Pharmacogenetics/instrumentation , Kidney Transplantation/classification , Mycophenolic Acid/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Immunity/immunology
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(3): 403-408, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345391

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso clínico de una paciente de 10 años diagnosticada con miocardiopatía dilatada, quien registró valores en el índice internacional normalizado (International Normalized Ratio, INR) superiores a 10 con la dosis estándar de acenocumarol, además de otros valores que indicaban el estado incoagulable, lo que obligó a suspender y reiniciar el tratamiento en varias ocasiones. Después de más de 30 días de tratamiento, sorprendentemente se lograron los niveles esperados y estables en el INR con la mitad de la dosis recomendada para una paciente de su edad y peso.Se decidió hacer un análisis farmacogenético retrospectivo del caso mediante RT-PCR con sondas TaqMan™ que incluyó cinco polimorfismos de un solo nucleótido y distinto grado de asociación con la dosis-respuesta a los fármacos antivitamínicos K (AVK): rs2108622 (gen CYP4F2), rs9923231, rs7294 (gen VKORC1), rs1799853 y rs1057910 (gen CYP2C9). La paciente resultó ser homocigota para el rs9923231 (VKORC1) y heterocigota para el rs2108622 (CYP4F2). Se ha evidenciado a nivel nacional e internacional que este perfil genético está fuertemente asociado con una necesidad de dosis menores de antivitamínicos K.En conclusión, el análisis farmacogenético confirmó que la condición genética de la paciente, la cual conlleva una baja expresión de la enzima VKORC1 (blanco terapéutico de los antivitamínicos K), hacía predecible la necesidad de una dosis menor a la establecida según los protocolos clínicos recomendados por la Food and Drug Administration (FDA) y PharmGKB™ para los fármacos cumarínicos. El análisis genotípico previo de la paciente hubiese permitido alcanzar el rango terapéutico más prontamente, evitando potenciales riesgos de hemorragia, lo que demuestra la importancia de los análisis farmacogenéticos en tratamientos de gran variabilidad y estrecho rango terapéutico.


Abstract We present the clinical case of a 10-year-old patient diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy who registered INR values above 10 upon receiving standard doses of acenocoumarol, as well as other values reported as uncoagulable, forcing the discontinuation and restart of treatment more than once. Expected and stable INR levels were achieved after more than 30 days of treatment, surprisingly with half the recommended dose for a patient of her age and weight. We decided to conduct a retrospective pharmacogenomic analysis including nucleotide genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) with different degrees of association with the dose/response to antivitamin K (AVK) drugs: rs2108622 (gene CYP4F2), rs9923231, rs7294 (gene VKORC1), rs1799853, and rs1057910 (CYP2C9 gene) using TaqMan® RT-PCR. The patient was homozygous for rs9923231 (VKORC1) and heterozygous for rs2108622 (CYP4F2), a genetic profile strongly associated with a requirement of lower AVK doses as shown by national and international evidence. In conclusion, the pharmacogenetic analysis confirmed that this patient's genetic conditions, involving low expression of the VKA therapeutic target, required a lower dose than that established in clinical protocols as recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the PharmGKB® for coumarin drugs. A previous genotypic analysis of the patient would have allowed reaching the therapeutic range sooner, thus avoiding potential bleeding risks. This shows the importance of pharmacogenetic analyses for highly variable treatments with a narrow therapeutic range.


Subject(s)
Pharmacogenetics , Acenocoumarol , Vitamin K , Anticoagulants
9.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(1): 3-8, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180729

ABSTRACT

Abstract Saliva is widely used for clinical and laboratory analysis. This study proposed to use DNA extracted from saliva for genotyping and pharmacokinetics of piroxicam. A fast and efficient genotyping method was used to determine relevant allelic variants of CYP2C9 (*2 and *3), since genetic factors can influence in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) metabolization. DNA Extract All Reagents Kit® was used for DNA extraction and genotyping was performed using TaqMan® GTXpress™ Master Mix, SNP genotyping assays and a Viia7 Real-Time PCR system. Volunteers performed sequential collections of saliva samples before and after taking a single dose of piroxicam (0.25 to 72 h) which were used for pharmacokinetics assays. Piroxicam concentrations were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Sixty-six percent of volunteers were ancestral homozygous (CYP2C9*1/*1), and 34% showed one or both polymorphisms. Of these 34%, 22 individuals showed CYP2C9*2 polymorphism, 8 CYP2C9*3, and 4 CYP2C9*2/*3. Piroxicam pharmacokinetics were performed in 5 subjects. Areas under the curve (AUC0-t(h*ng/mL)) for CYP2C9*1/*1, *1/*2 and *1/*3 were, respectively, 194.33±70.93, 166 and 303. Maximum concentrations (Cmax(ng/mL)) for these genotypes were respectively 6.46±2.56, 4.3 and 10.2. Saliva sampling was a very effective matrix for both pharmacogenetic and pharmacokinetic tests, ensuring the speed of the procedure and the well-being and agreement of the participants. Once having the knowledge about the slow and fast metabolizers, it is possible to make an adequate prescription in order to avoid the adverse effects of the medication and to guarantee greater analgesic comfort to the patients respectively.


Resumo Saliva é amplamente utilizada para análises clínicas e laboratoriais. Este estudo propôs o uso de DNA extraído da saliva para genotipagem e farmacocinética do piroxicam. Um método de genotipagem rápido e eficiente foi usado para determinar as variantes alélicas clinicamente relevantes de CYP2C9 (* 2 e * 3), uma vez que fatores genéticos podem influenciar nas respostas metabólicas individuais a medicamentos como anti-inflamatórios não esteroides (AINEs). DNA Extract All Reagents Kit® foi usado para extração de DNA e a genotipagem foi realizada usando TaqMan® GTXpress ™ Master Mix, ensaios de genotipagem SNP e um sistema Viia7 Real-Time PCR. Os voluntários realizaram coletas sequenciais de amostras de saliva antes e após a ingestão de uma única dose de piroxicam (0,25 a 72 h) que foram utilizadas para ensaios farmacocinéticos. As concentrações de piroxicam foram analisadas usando LC - MS / MS. Sessenta e seis por cento dos voluntários eram homozigotos ancestrais (CYP2C9 * 1 / * 1) e 34% apresentaram um ou ambos os polimorfismos. Destes 34%, 22 indivíduos apresentaram polimorfismo CYP2C9 * 2, 8 CYP2C9 * 3 e 4 CYP2C9 * 2 / * 3. A farmacocinética do piroxicam foi realizada em 5 indivíduos. As áreas sob a curva (AUC0-t (h * ng / mL)) para CYP2C9 * 1 / * 1, * 1 / * 2 e * 1 / * 3 foram, respectivamente, 194,33±70,93, 166 e 303. Concentrações máximas (Cmax (ng / mL)) para esses genótipos foram, respectivamente, 6,46±2,56, 4,3 e 10,2. A amostra de saliva foi uma matriz muito eficaz tanto para os testes farmacogenéticos quanto para os farmacocinéticos, garantindo a agilidade do procedimento e o bem-estar e concordância dos participantes. Com o conhecimento dos metabolizadores lentos e rápidos, é possível fazer uma prescrição adequada para evitar os efeitos adversos da medicação e garantir maior conforto analgésico aos pacientes respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacogenetics , Saliva , Drug Prescriptions , Chromatography, Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9/genetics
10.
Ciencia Tecnología y Salud ; 8(2): 211-219, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1353114

ABSTRACT

El proyecto HapMap ha generado información y preguntas sobre la diversidad genética en las distintas poblaciones del mundo. En las últimas décadas, proyectos como la elucidación del genoma del mestizo mexicano han revelado las distancias genéticas entre mestizos y amerindios en México. Cerca de 20 genes son actualmente estudiados en paneles comerciales asociados al metabolismo de fármacos, uno de ellos el gen que expresa la enzima CY P2C19, la cual metaboliza cerca de 26 fármacos de importancia clínica. El objetivo fue revisar la literatura científica en Google Scholar, PubMed y ScienceDirect que reporta resultados sobre estudios farmacogenéticos en Guatemala, otros que presentan hallazgos sobre distancias genéticas en el guatemalteco y se compara con lo que se conoce de otras poblaciones del continente y el mundo, haciendo énfasis en CY P2C19. El mestizaje en Guatemala fue único, por ello es importante investigar sus variantes alélicas asociadas al metabolismo de fármacos, para permitir una terapéutica más efectiva y segura que mejore la calidad de vida del guatemalteco.


The HapMap project has generated information and queries about genetic diversity in the different populations around the world. In recent decades, research projects such as the elucidation of the genome of the Mexican Mestizo, have exposed the genetic distances between mestizos and Amerindians in Mexico. About 20 genes are currently studied in commercial panels associated with drug metabolism. One of them CY P2C19, that expresses the CY P2C19 enzyme, that metabolizes about 26 drugs of clinical importance. The objective was to review the scientific literature in Google Scholar, PubMed and ScienceDirect that reports results on pharmacogenetic studies in Guatemala, others that presented findings over genetic distances in Guatemala, as well as a comparison with the knowledge about other populations of the continent and world, with emphasis in CY P2C19 gen. Miscegenation in Guatemala was unique and is important to investigate the Guatemalan allelic variants associated with drug metabolism to allow a more effective and safe therapeutic and improve their quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacogenetics , Cytochrome P450 Family 19 , American Indian or Alaska Native/genetics , Pharmacogenomic Testing , Guatemala , Metabolism/drug effects
11.
Ciencia Tecnología y Salud ; 8(2): 220-231, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1353228

ABSTRACT

El uso de inhibidores de calcineurina, en particular de tacrolimus como terapia inmunosupresora se ha generalizado a nivel mundial, permitiendo mejorar la tasa de sobrevida del injerto y la calidad de vida del paciente trasplantado. Con el acceso a los estudios de farmacogenética, los grupos de trasplante a nivel mundial se han visto motivados a realizar estudios genéticos que permitan interpretar la influencia de polimorfismos de genes como mTOR, PPP3CA, FK BP1A, FKBP2, y FOXP3, sin embargo, los más estudiados en la población trasplantada para optimizar la dosis de tacrolimus y ciclosporina son los polimorfismos del citocromo p450, CYP3A4 y CYP3A5.El objetivo de la presente revisión narrativa es examinar publicaciones recientes que estudien la relación entre el polimorfismo de CYP3A4/5 y el metabolismo de tacrolimus en pacientes trasplantados renales.Se revisó literatura reciente extraída de los sitios NCBI PubMed y PharmGKB.org en la que se hubiera investigado la influencia de los polimorfismos de CYP3A4/5 en el metabolismo de tacrolimus en trasplantados renales. Se identificó variaciones genéticas de CYP3A4/5 en pacientes trasplantados tratados con tacrolimus que permitirán a los médicos trasplantólogos dosificar de manera precisa el inmunosupresor. El uso de análisis farmacogenéticos permite determinar las variables genéticas del CYP3A4/5, y por lo tanto la toma de decisiones personalizadas en la dosis de inicio y de mantenimiento del inmunosupresor tacrolimus para alcanzar los niveles óptimos y con ello disminuir el riesgo de rechazo, de infecciones asociadas a inmunosupresión, y de toxicidad por el medicamento.


The use of the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus as immunosuppressive therapy, has become widespread world-wide, improving the graft's survival rate and the quality of life of the transplanted patient. With access to pharmacogenetic studies, transplant groups worldwide have been motivated to conduct genetic studies to inter-pret the influence of polymorphisms of genes such asmTOR, PPP3CA, FK BP1A, FKBP2, and FOXP3, however the most studied in the transplanted population to optimize the dose of tacrolimus and cyclosporine are those of cytochrome p450,CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. The objective of this narrative review is to examine recent publications studying the relationship betweenCYP3A4/5polymorphism, and tacrolimus metabolism in renal transplant patients. Literature extracted from the NCBI PubMed site and PharmGKB.org, from the past five years, which investigated the influence ofCYP3A4/5polymorphism on tacrolimus metabolism in renal transplants had been reviewed. Genetic variations ofCYP3A4/5 were identified in transplant patients treated with tacrolimus that will allow transplant physicians to dose the immunosuppressant accurately. The use of pharmacogenetic analyses makes it possible to determine the genetic polymorphisms ofCYP3A4/5, and therefore the decision-making cus-tomized at the starting and maintenance dose of the tacrolimus immunosuppressant to achieve optimal levels and thereby reduce the risk of rejection, immunosuppression-associated infections, and drug toxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacogenetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Kidney Transplantation , Tacrolimus , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/drug effects , Immunosuppression Therapy/adverse effects , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Prescription Drugs/toxicity , Calcineurin Inhibitors
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 690-700, out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1131334

ABSTRACT

Resumo A farmacogenômica (FGx) investiga a interação entre genes e medicamentos. Através da análise de regiões específicas do DNA, informações sobre o perfil de metabolização do paciente para um determinado fármaco podem ser descritas, assim como o perfil esperado de resposta ao tratamento. Objetivamente, esse tipo de teste pode ter impacto no tratamento de pacientes que não estão respondendo adequadamente a um determinado medicamento, seja pela ausência dos efeitos esperados ou em virtude do aparecimento de efeitos adversos. Neste cenário, o objetivo desta revisão é o de informar o cardiologista clínico sobre esta importante área do conhecimento e atualizá-lo sobre o tema, procurando preencher as lacunas no que diz respeito à relação custo-benefício da aplicação da FGx nas doenças cardiovasculares, além de fornecer informações para a implementação da terapia guiada pela FGx na prática clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacogenetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(9)sept. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389314

ABSTRACT

There is an important interindividual variability in dose requirement for coumarinic anticoagulants, which could be explained by genetic and non-genetic factors. Among hereditary factors, there are gene polymorphisms that code the therapeutic target and the main enzyme responsible for their metabolism. However, there are other candidate genes that could modulate dose requirements. The is a paucity of pharmacogenomic platforms to determine dose requirements of coumarinics in the Chilean population. Therefore, algorithms considering different variables to adjust individual dosages are required. Herein, we analyze the available evidence about factors that can modify the effects of vitamin K antagonists and that should be incorporated to dosing algorithms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacogenetics , Vitamin K , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Warfarin , Chile , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9/genetics , Genotype , Anticoagulants
14.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 31(2): 51-53, jun. 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117007

ABSTRACT

Los contenidos de este capítulo se basan en la 3a edición de las Clínicas Quirúrgicas de Cáncer Colorrectal. C. Vaccaro y N. Peralta. del hospital ediciones 2020 (en prensa)


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Precision Medicine/trends , Pharmacogenetics/trends , Colorectal Neoplasms/etiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Molecular Epidemiology/trends , Mutation , Neoplasm Metastasis/genetics , Neoplasm Metastasis/therapy
16.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(1)ene.-abr. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1509233

ABSTRACT

The Organizing Committee of the V International Congress on Immunopharmacology (Immunopharmacology 2020) organized by the Cuban Society of Pharmacology, BioCubaFarma and the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) would like to invite you to participate in this important event, scheduled for June 9 to 13, 2020 at the Convention Centre of the Melia Marina Varadero Hotel, Varadero Beach, Matanzas, Cuba. The Congress will be formed by different workshops and symposia such as: Fifth workshop on new advances in immunopharmacology Fifth workshop on neuroimmunology, neuroimmunopharmacology and neuroimmunomodulation. Immunopharmacology of brain tumors Symposium on hereditary ataxias Fifth symposium on pharmacology of cytochrome P450 and transporters Fourth symposium on inflammation and pain 2nd symposium on NFkB Synthetic peptides as immunopharmacological tools Novel designs in clinical trials. Biosimilar pharmaceuticals Pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, proteomics and phosphoproteomics Immune response in cancer First symposium on business and international cooperation on biologics Immunopharmacology 2020 is sponsored by: Cuban Society of Pharmacology (SCF) International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) Latin-American Association of Pharmacology (ALF) PAHO / WHO BioCubaFarma National research centers: Finlay Vaccine Institute (IFV); Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB); Center of Molecular Immunology (CIM); Center for Control of Drugs, Equipment and Medical Devices (CECMED); National Center for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA); Tropical Medicine Institute "Pedro Kourí" (IPK); National Center for Biopreparations (BioCEN); Center for Drug Research and Development (CIDEM); Center for Clinical Trials (CENCEC); among others International Manufacturers and Companies The key objectives of the Congress are: To provide a progressive state-of-the-art report for scientists, manufacturers, governmental authorities and healthcare workers, who need to be updated about the latest scientific developments for human vaccines, including basic science, product development, market introduction, immunization programs and epidemiological surveillance. To promote the scientific collaboration among experts and institutions through the experience exchange, the presentation of results and the discussion on the conference topics. To accelerate progress in the development of vaccines and the acceptance and introduction of new methods and technologies. Opening lectures, oral presentations and posters will provide you the opportunity to be involved in a high quality congress to discuss about the progress in the field of immunology and pharmacology sciences(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pharmacogenetics , Pharmacology , Autoimmune Diseases , Spinocerebellar Degenerations , Neoplasms , Vaccines , Congress
17.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1143-1148, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879766

ABSTRACT

Pharmacogenomics is an emerging tool to improve the efficacy and safety of drug treatment through the DNA analysis in the genes related to drug concentrations (pharmacokinetics) and drug actions (pharmacodynamics). Clinicians need to integrate the genomic data in their benefit-risk assessment and then provide the right drug to the right patient at the right time. This tool can help to prevent an ineffective treatment, select right dose and reduce adverse drug reactions that are common in the current practice under the trial-observation-adjustment model. Pharmacogenomics may have extensive impacts on unique paediatric patients to enhance a better relationship between medical professionals and affected children or their guardians and to improve the drug compliance. Clinicians should embrace the advancements in pharmacogenomics and actively participate in clinical research to identify the ancestor-related alleles and develop the population-specific gene panel. It will allow patients to enjoy more achievements in pharmacogenomics by implementing it in first line clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Pharmacogenetics , Precision Medicine , Prescriptions
18.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 562-565, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826324

ABSTRACT

Oral anticoagulants play an important role in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases.Warfarin,a traditional oral anticoagulant,is limited in clinical use due to its limitations such as narrow therapeutic window and requirements on frequent monitoring and dose adjustment.Direct oral anticoagulants(DOACs)such as dabigatran,rivaroxaban,apixaban,and edoxaban are increasingly used to prevent and treat venous thrombosis or thrombus formation.However,recent studies have documented inter-individual variability in plasma drug levels of DOACs.This article summarizes the recent advances in the pharmacogenomics of DOACs.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants , Therapeutic Uses , Atrial Fibrillation , Drug Therapy , Dabigatran , Pharmacogenetics , Rivaroxaban
19.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3265, 2020. tab
Article in English | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1126975

ABSTRACT

Objective: to verify the existence of elements that justify the use of pharmacogenetics by the Brazilian nurse. Method: this is a quantitative, cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study, whose final sample was 67 individuals. The participants were healthy at the time of the study and reported a history of previous use and the occurrence of adverse effects by drugs commonly used and metabolized by CYP2C9. We collected 4 mL of venous blood for subsequent DNA extraction by salting out method and genotyping of the CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms, using Polymerase Chain Reaction in real time using Taqman assays. Results: the use of drugs metabolized by CYP2C9 was frequent (more than 75% of the individuals have already used between 2 or 4 of these drugs). Regarding adverse events, there were 19 perceived symptomatic occurrences associated with drugs metabolized by CYP2C9. The allele frequency of the polymorphism * 2 and * 3 in the population studied was 11.1% and 7.5%, respectively, and there was a coincidence between the presence of alleles of low enzyme activity and the occurrence of adverse effects. Conclusion: there are elements that justify the adoption of pharmacogenetics in the nursing care to reduce the occurrence of adverse reactions to drugs metabolized by CYP2C9.


Objetivo: verificar a existência de elementos que justifiquem o uso da farmacogenética pelo enfermeiro brasileiro. Método: trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, do tipo transversal, observacional descritivo, cuja amostra final foi de 67 indivíduos. Os participantes estavam saudáveis no momento do estudo e reportaram histórico de uso prévio e ocorrência de efeitos adversos por fármacos comumente utilizados e metabolizados pela CYP2C9. Coletamos 4 mL de sangue venoso para posterior extração de DNA por método salting out e genotipagem dos polimorfismos CYP2C9*2 e CYP2C9*3 através de Polymerase Chain Reaction em tempo real, utilizando ensaios Taqman. Resultados: o uso de fármacos metabolizados pela CYP2C9 foi frequente (mais de 75% dos sujeitos já utilizaram entre 2 ou 4 desses fármacos). A respeito dos eventos adversos, houve 19 ocorrências sintomáticas percebidas, associadas a fármacos metabolizados pela CYP2C9. A frequência alélica do polimorfismo *2 e *3 na população estudada foi de 11,1% e 7,5%, respectivamente, com coincidência entre a presença dos alelos de baixa atividade enzimática e ocorrência de efeitos adversos. Conclusão: existem elementos que justificam a adoção da farmacogenética no cuidado do enfermeiro com objetivo de redução da ocorrência de reações adversas a fármacos metabolizados pela CYP2C9.


Objetivo: verificar la existencia de elementos que justifiquen el uso de la farmacogenética por parte del enfermero brasileño. Método: se trata de un estudio cuantitativo, transversal, observacional, descriptivo, cuya muestra final fue de 67 individuos. Los participantes estaban sanos en el momento del estudio e informaron un historial de uso previo y la aparición de efectos adversos por fármacos comúnmente utilizados y metabolizados por el CYP2C9. Recolectamos 4 ml de sangre venosa para la posterior extracción de ADN mediante el método de salazón y genotipificación de los polimorfismos CYP2C9 * 2 y CYP2C9 * 3 a través de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real utilizando ensayos Taqman. Resultados: el uso de drogas metabolizadas por el CYP2C9 fue frecuente (más del 75% de las personas ya han usado entre 2 o 4 de estas drogas). Con respecto a los eventos adversos, hubo 19 casos sintomáticos percibidos asociados con medicamentos metabolizados por el CYP2C9. La frecuencia alélica del polimorfismo * 2 y * 3 en la población estudiada fue de 11.1% y 7.5%, respectivamente, y hubo una coincidencia entre la presencia de alelos de baja actividad enzimática y la aparición de efectos adversos. Conclusión: existen elementos que justifican la adopción de la farmacogenética en el cuidado del enfermero para reducir la aparición de reacciones adversas a los medicamentos metabolizados por el CYP2C9.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pharmacogenetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nursing , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Drug Utilization , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 , Nursing Care , Nursing Process
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