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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20201070, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286055

ABSTRACT

A comparative study was perfomed with conventional and ultrasound assisted extraction on tomato processing waste. Ultrasound extraction exhibited slightly higher phenolic and flavonoids content, as well as higher ABTS + radical scavenging capacity (4.63 mg GAE.g-1, 0.96 mg RUE.g-1 and 27.90 µmol TE.g -1 respectively). On both extracts, a high percentage of flavonoids was lost during simulated digestion, resulting on a bioacessibility of approximately 13 %. Extracts presented good stability during storage conditions, which indicates a possible technological application.


Foi realizado um estudo comparativo com a extração convencional e assistida por ultrassom em resíduos do processamento de tomate. A extração ultrassônica exibiu teor de fenólicos e flavonóides ligeiramente maiores, bem como maior capacidade antioxidante ABTS + (4,63 mg AG.g-1, 0,96 mg RUE.g-1 e 27,90 µmol TE.g -1, respectivamente). Em ambos os extratos, uma alta porcentagem de flavonóides foi perdida durante a digestão simulada, resultando em uma bioacessibilidade de aproximadamente 13%. Os extratos apresentaram boa estabilidade durante as condições de armazenamento, o que indica uma possível aplicação tecnológica.


Subject(s)
Lycopersicon esculentum/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Ultrasonics
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 132-146, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342208

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effects of dichloromethane extract (DME) from Myrcia splendenson alterations caused by type 2 diabetes in the blood and kidney of rats, in order to reduce side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Rats received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg),15 minutes after nicotinamide (120 mg/kg) or water. After 72 hours, the glycemic levels were evaluated to confirm diabetes and the animals received (15 days) DME (25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/Kg) or water. DME partially reversed hyperglycemia and (100 and 150 mg/kg) reversed hypertriglyceridemia. Histopathological findings elucidated that DME reduced damage to pancreatic islets. DME 150 mg/kgreversed the increases in TBA-RS, the reduction in the sulfhydryl content, 100 and 150 mg/kg increased CAT, reversed the decrease in GSH-Px and increased it activity in the blood. DME 150 mg/kg reversed CAT and GSH-Px reductions in the kidney. We believe that DME effects might be dependent on the presence of phenolic compounds.


Investigamos los efectos del extracto de diclorometano (DME)de Myrcia splendens sobre las alteraciones causadas por la diabetes tipo 2 en la sangre y los riñones de las ratas, para reducir los efectos secundarios causados por las drogas sintéticas. Las ratas recibieron estreptozotocina (60 mg/kg), 15 minutos después de la nicotinamida (120 mg/kg) o agua. Después de 72 horas, se confirmo la diabetes y los animales recibieron (15 días) DME (25, 50, 100 o 150 mg/Kg) o agua. DME revierte parcialmente la hiperglucemia y revierte la hipertrigliceridemia. DME redujo el daño a los islotes pancreáticos. DME revirtió los aumentos en TBA-RS, la reducción en el contenido de sulfhidrilo, aumentó la CAT, revirtió la disminución en GSH-Px y aumentó su actividad en la sangre. Además, DME revirtió las reducciones de CAT y GSH-Px en el riñón. Creemos que los efectos provocados por DME pueden depender de la presencia de compuestos fenólicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Methylene Chloride/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Hypolipidemic Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190530, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153299

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS The phenolic composition, antioxidant activity and cytotoxic potential of the extracts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides were investigated. Caffeic acid was found as the most abundant phenolic compound in the extracts. Both species showed promising antioxidant activity towards different assays. The highest cytotoxic potential was observed in the extract of C. solstitialis.


Abstract It is known that some genera of the Asteraceae family are commonly used in Turkish folk medicine. Several studies have investigated the biological effects of different extracts of Centaurea and Urospermum species, but studies involving the phenolic composition of C. solstitialis and U. picroides extracts are very limited. This study aimed to investigate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of C. solstitialis and U. picroides and evaluate their possible cytotoxic effect. RP-HPLC analysis was used to elucidate the phenolic profiles of the ethanolic extracts of flowering parts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides.The both ethanolic extracts were assessed for their antioxidant properties using DPPH, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating assays. Furthermore, the effect of the extracts on cell viability was evaluated against MCF-7 and PC-3 cancer cells and HEK293 cell line using the MTT assay. The most abundant phenolic compound in both extracts was determined to be caffeic acid, and the amount of this compound was 24078.03 and 14329.59 µg g-1 in the extracts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was found similar. Compared with U. picroides extract, C. solstitialis extract had higher potential on the inhibition of cell viability. The IC50 value of C. solstitialis on MCF cells was found as 58.53 µg mL-1. These data suggest that the extracts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides may be considered as novel and alternative natural antioxidant and anticancer sources.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asteraceae/chemistry , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Centaurea/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Turkey , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , HEK293 Cells
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 366-371, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126133

ABSTRACT

Jatobá (Hymenaea sp.) is an arboreal legume native to the Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado) and its fruit has a high functional potential, but the jatobá-da-mata specie has been poorly explored. This study evaluated the nutritional profile, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of jatobá-da-mata byproducts: pulp flour, fibrous pulp residue and sap. Jatobá fruits were pulped to obtain pulp flour and fibrous pulp residue, and the jatobá tree's sap was obtained in a typical extraction location in the Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah). Fibrous pulp residue and pulp flour had high protein (11 and 12 g/100 g) and dietary fiber (49 and 44 g/100 g) content, respectively, and the fibrous residue showed the highest total and insoluble fibers, ash and vitamin C content. Regarding polyphenols, the fibrous residue showed a high concentration (775 mg GAE/100 g); an intermediate value in pulp flour (462 mg GAE/100 g); and considerable content in sap(181 mg GAE/100 g). Jatobá residue and pulp flour are suitable ingredients for the formulation of functional foods, and the sap is a promising non-caloric product with potential health benefits.


Jatobá (Hymenaea sp.) es una leguminosa arbórea originaria de la sabana brasileña y su fruto tiene un alto potencial funcional, pero la especie jatobá-da-mata ha sido poco explorada. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el perfil nutricional, compuestos bioactivos y capacidad antioxidante de subproductos del jatobá-da-mata: harina de la pulpa, residuo fibroso de la pulpa y la savia. Los frutos fueron despulpados para obtener la harina juntamente con el residuo fibroso de la pulpa, y la savia de la planta fue obtenida en un lugar exclusivo de extracción en el Cerrado (Sábana brasileña). El residuo fibroso y la harina de la pulpa contienen un alto contenido de proteína (11 y 12 g/100 g) y de fibra dietética (49 y 44 g/100 g), respectivamente, y el residuo fibroso mostró el mayor contenido de fibras totales y insolubles, cenizas y vitamina C. En cuanto a los polifenoles, el residuo fibroso presentó alta concentración (775 mg AGE/100 g); la harina de la pulpa, un valor intermedio (462 mg AGE/100 g); y la savia, un contenido considerable (181 mg AGE/100 g). El residuo fibroso y la harina de la pulpa son ingredientes adecuados en la formulación de alimentos funcionales, y la savia es un producto no calórico prometedor con potenciales beneficios a la salud.


Subject(s)
Hymenaea/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phytochemicals , Flour
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 295-304, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128154

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to evaluate goat sperm sorting in continuous Percoll® density gradients and gamete freezability, in the presence or absence of phenolic antioxidants. For this, semen pools were sorted, frozen, and evaluated. The non-selected group (NSg) presented lower progressive motility (PM), linearity (LIN), straightness (STR), and wobble (WOB) than the selected groups, and straight line velocity (VSL) compared to those with catechin or resveratrol. The amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) was higher in NSg, and quercetin reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). After thawing, the NSg presented lower PM than the selected groups, VSL and VAP (average path velocity) than the selected group with or without catechin, LIN and WOB than the selected with or without catechin or resveratrol, and STR than the selected with catechin. Moreover, NSg presented higher ALH and BCF than the samples selected with or without catechin. Plasma membrane integrity and intact and living cells were higher in the selected groups, and MMP was lower in the NSg and the selected group with quercetin. Thus, centrifugation in Percoll® continuous density gradients is a viable methodology to select goat sperm compatible with the freezing, especially in the presence of catechin or resveratrol.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar a separação de espermatozoides caprinos em gradientes de densidade contínuos de Percoll® e a congelabilidade espermática, com ou sem antioxidantes fenólicos. Para tal, pools seminais foram selecionados, congelados e avaliados. O grupo não selecionado (gNS) apresentou menor motilidade progressiva (MP), linearidade (LIN), retilinearidade (STR) e oscilação (WOB) do que os selecionados, bem como menor velocidade linear progressiva (VSL) do que os com catequina ou resveratrol. A amplitude de deslocamento lateral de cabeça (ALH) foi maior no gNS e a quercetina reduziu o potencial de membrana mitocondrial (PMM). Após a descongelação, o gNS manifestou menor MP do que os selecionados, menor VSL e VAP (velocidade média da trajetória) do que os com ou sem catequina, menor LIN e WOB do que os com ou sem catequina ou resveratrol, e menor STR do que os com catequina, além de maior ALH e BCF do que os com ou sem catequina. A integridade da membrana plasmática e as células intactas e vivas foram maiores nas amostras selecionadas e o PMM foi inferior no gNS e no selecionado com quercetina. Portanto, a centrifugação em gradientes contínuos de densidade de Percoll® é uma metodologia viável para selecionar espermatozoides caprinos compatíveis com a congelação, especialmente na presença de catequina ou resveratrol.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Semen , Spermatozoa , Stilbenes/administration & dosage , Ruminants/physiology , Cryopreservation/veterinary , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Oxidative Stress , Antioxidants
6.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 31-40, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092741

ABSTRACT

It is important to determine the chemical composition of fruits in order to establish their potential health benefits for human nutrition and thus stimulate their cultivation and consumption. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the physical and chemical parameters, vitamin C content, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and carotenoids, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of fruits from different regions of Brazil. We observed that the different regions and fruits studied presented very distinct characteristics. For example, the cupuaçu pit is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, while the genipap and java plum presented high flavonoid content and the butia had a high concentration of carotenoids. Guava was the fruit with the highest antioxidant activity through the ABTS radical, while the yellow mombim presented the best response when the activity was determined by FRAP.


Es importante determinar la composición química de las frutas para establecer sus potenciales beneficios para la salud humana y, por lo tanto, estimular su cultivo y consumo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar parámetros físicos y químicos, el contenido de vitamina C, los compuestos fenólicos, los flavonoides y los carotenoides, el perfil de ácidos grasos y la actividad antioxidante de las frutas de diferentes regiones de Brasil. De los resultados obtenidos en este estudio se pudo observar que las diferentes regiones y frutas estudiadas presentaban características muy distintas, ya que la semilla de cupuaçu es rica en ácidos grasos insaturados, mientras que el genipapo y la ciruela java presentaron un alto contenido de flavonoides y el butia presentó alta concentración de carotenoides. La guayaba fue la fruta con la mayor actividad antioxidante determinada por el radical ABTS, mientras que el mombim amarillo presentó la mejor respuesta cuando la actividad fue determinada por FRAP


Subject(s)
Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Brazil , Carotenoids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(6): 527-541, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284290

ABSTRACT

The genus Lindera consists of approximately 100 species that are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas throughout the world. Most Lindera plants, particularly Lindera aggregata is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that has important medicinal value and health benefits. Contemporary chemical and pharmacological studies have shown that L. aggregata are a source of structurally diverse molecules having pharmacological potential. In an effort to promote research on L. aggregata and develop therapeutic and pharmacological products, this review describes the structural diversity of its components and pharmacological and biological significance of L. aggregata. This review is based on a literature analysis of scientific journals from electronic sources, such as Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science. Thus, with the growing interest in traditional medicine and botanical drugs worldwide, L. aggregata will increasingly capture chemists' and pharmacologists' attention because they produce diverse and structurally novel compounds having pharmacological significance.


El género Lindera consta de aproximadamente 100 especies que están ampliamente distribuidas en áreas tropicales y subtropicales en todo el mundo. La mayoría de las plantas de Lindera, particularmente Lindera aggregata, es parte conocida de la medicina tradicional china con un importante valor medicinal y beneficios para la salud. Estudios químicos y farmacológicos contemporáneos han demostrado que L. aggregata es una fuente de moléculas estructuralmente diversas que con potencial farmacológico. En un esfuerzo por promover la investigación sobre L. aggregata y desarrollar productos terapéuticos y farmacológicos, esta revisión describe la diversidad estructural de sus componentes y la importancia farmacológica y biológica de L. aggregata. Esta revisión se basa en un análisis de literatura de revistas científicas de fuentes electrónicas, como Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus y Web of Science. Por lo tanto, con el creciente interés en la medicina tradicional y las drogas botánicas en todo el mundo, L. aggregata captará cada vez más la atención de los químicos y farmacólogos debido a que producen compuestos diversos y estructuralmente novedosos que tienen importancia farmacológica.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Lindera/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Alkaloids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phytotherapy , Medicine, Traditional
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18467, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249175

ABSTRACT

The processing of grapes for the manufacture of juices and wines, generates large quantities of by-products rich in metabolites with antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing activities. The high homology between human enzymes and snake venoms makes the latter valuable laboratory tools for the study of pathophysiological processes. Proteases and phospholipases A2 act in processes related to hemostasis and inflammatory response. Thus, in this work, dried pomace obtained from grape (Isabel, Niagara, Bordô, BRS Violeta and Blend cultivars) processing were evaluated on phospholipase, proteolytic, hemolytic and thrombolytic activities induced by snakes venoms and the content of phenolic compounds and minerals was evaluated. The dried pomace exerted inhibitory and potentiating actions in all analyzed activities. The enzymatic modulators present in the evaluated dried pomace have potential for therapeutic use, although their broad characterization is still necessary, in order to define adequate amounts and formulations to obtain efficacy and safety in their use.


Subject(s)
Snake Venoms/adverse effects , Wine/classification , Enzymes/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phospholipases A2/analysis , Vitis/classification , Industrial Waste/analysis
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 37: 1-10, Jan. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chia seeds are gaining increasing interest among food producers and consumers because of their prohealth properties. RESULTS: The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of chia seeds to act as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors. The highest inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE was observed for colored seed ethanol extracts. A positive correlation was found between the presence of quercetin and isoquercetin as well as protocatechuic, hydroxybenzoic, and coumaric acids and the activity of extracts as AChE and BChE inhibitors. It has also been shown that grain fragmentation affects the increase in the activity of seeds against cholinesterases (ChE). Furthermore, seeds have been shown to be a source of substances that inhibit microbial growth. CONCLUSIONS: It was found that the chia seed extracts are rich in polyphenols and inhibit the activity of ChEs; therefore, their use can be considered in further research in the field of treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Seeds/chemistry , Butyrylcholinesterase , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Salvia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Flavonols/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Polyphenols/analysis , Food Additives
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(9): 734-743, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040739

ABSTRACT

There is a growing need to discover and develop alternative therapies for the treatment of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp. and multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. This study examined the chemical composition and antimicrobial potential of two propolis extracts (EPA and EPB) against seventy-seven isolates of Staphylococcus spp. obtained from subclinical bovine mastitis; three clinical strains of MRSA and two from clinical strains of S. aureus ATCC, identified as S. aureus ATCC 6538 and S. aureus ATCC 25923. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, the total flavonoid content by the Dowd method and the phenolic profile was quantified by HPLC-DAD. The MBC values of the extracts were evaluated by broth microdilution method. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds was higher in EPA than EPB. Both extracts revealed the presence of caffeic, coumaric, cinnamic, ferulic and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids, with higher concentrations of coumaric and cinnamic acids. Staphylococcus spp. isolates were susceptible to EPA (90.9%), EPB (83.1%) and oxacillin (80.5%). The oxacillin susceptible isolates were also susceptible to EPA (70.1%) and EPB (80.6%), whereas those oxacillin-resistant strains were also susceptible to EPA (40.0%) and to EPB (26.7%). MBC ranged from 34.3 to 68.7µm/mL for EPA and from 68.7 to 137.5µg/mL for EPB. Both extracts inhibited significantly (100%) the clinical strains of MRSA, S. aureus ATCC 6538 and S. aureus ATCC 25923 at the concentration of 68.7µg/mL. It is concluded that both extracts of propolis, whose main constituents are coumaric and cinnamic acids, have high antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms studied, and EPA also against oxacillin-resistant strains. These findings reinforce its potential use for the treatment of bovine mastitis.(AU)


É cada vez mais oportuna a necessidade de descobrir e desenvolver terapias alternativas para tratamento da mastite causada por Staphylococcus spp. e de infecções bacterianas multirresistentes. Este estudo examinou a composição química e o potencial antimicrobiano de dois extratos etanólicos de própolis (EPA e EPB) contra setenta e sete isolados de Staphylococcus spp. obtidos a partir de mastite bovina subclínica; três estirpes clínicas de MRSA e duas de linhagens clínicas de S. aureus ATCC, identificadas como, S. aureus ATCC 6538 e S. aureus ATCC 25923, ambas metacilina resistentes. O teor total de fenólicos foi determinado pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau, o teor de flavonoides totais pelo método Dowd e o perfil fenólico foi quantificado por HPLC-DAD. CBM dos extratos foi avaliada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. A quantidade total de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides foi maior no EPA do que no EPB. Ambos os extratos revelaram a presença dos ácidos cafeico, cumárico, cinâmico, ferúlico e 3,4-di-hidroxibenzóico, com maiores concentrações de ácidos cumárico e cinâmico. Os isolados de Staphylococcus spp. foram sensíveis a EPA (90,9%), EPB (83,1%) e oxacilina (80,5%). Os isolados suscetíveis à oxacilina também foram suscetíveis ao EPA (70,1%) e ao EPB (80,6%), enquanto os do resistente à oxacilina foram suscetíveis ao EPA (40,0%) e ao EPB (26,7%). MBC variou de 34,3 a 68,7µm/mL para EPA e de 68,7 a 137,5µg/mL para EPB. Ambos os extratos inibiram significativamente (100%) as linhagens clínicas de MRSA, S. aureus ATCC 6538 e S. aureus ATCC 25923 na concentração de 68,7µg/mL. Conclui-se que os extratos etanólicos da própolis, cujos principais constituintes são os ácidos cumário e cinâmico, possuem atividade antimicrobiana contra os micro-organismos estudados, e o EPA também contra as cepas resistentes à oxacilina. Estes achados reforçam seu potencial uso para o tratamento da mastite bovina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Oxacillin , Propolis/immunology , Staphylococcus , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Phenolic Compounds/analysis
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 347-358, jul. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008172

ABSTRACT

Manilkara zapota (Sapotaceae), commonly known as Sapodilla, is widely known for its delicious fruit. Various parts of this plant are also used in folk medicine to treat a number of conditions including fever, pain, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhage and ulcers. Scientific studies have demonstrated analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, anti-hypercholesteremic, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities in several parts of the plant. Phytochemical studies have revealed the presence of phenolic compounds including protocatechuic acid quercitrin, myricitrin, catechin, gallic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, etc. as main constituents of the plant. Several fatty acids, carotenoids, triterpenes, sterols, hydrocarbons and phenylethanoid compounds have also been isolated from M. zapota. The present review is a comprehensive description focused on pharmacological activities and phytochemical constituents of M. zapota.


Manilkara zapota (Sapotaceae), comúnmente conocida como Sapodilla, es ampliamente conocida por su delicioso fruto. Variadas partes de esta planta se usan en medicina popular para tratar una serie de afecciones, como fiebre, dolor, diarrea, disentería, hemorragia y úlceras. Estudios científicos han demostrado actividad analgésica, antiinflamatoria, antioxidante, citotóxica, antimicrobiana, antidiarreica, antihipercolesterolémica, antihiperglucémica y hepatoprotectora en diferentes partes de la planta. Los estudios fitoquímicos han revelado la presencia de compuestos fenólicos que incluyen ácido protocatechúico, quercitrina, miricitrina, catequina, ácido galico, ácido vanílico, ácido cafeico, ácido sirínico, ácido cumárico, ácido fúnico y ácido ferúlico como componentes principales de la planta. Varios ácidos grasos, carotenoides, triterpenos, esteroles, hidrocarburos y compuestos feniletanoides también han sido aislados de M. zapota. La presente revisión es una descripción exhaustiva centrada en las actividades farmacológicas y los constituyentes fitoquímicos de M. zapota.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Manilkara/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/pharmacology , Saponins/isolation & purification , Saponins/pharmacology , Sterols/isolation & purification , Sterols/pharmacology , Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Carotenoids/isolation & purification , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Sapotaceae/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Medicine, Traditional
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 39: 8-14, may. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bioremoval of phenolic compounds using fungi and bacteria has been studied extensively; nevertheless, trinitrophenol bioremediation using modified Oscillatoria cyanobacteria has been barely studied in the literature. RESULTS: Among the effective parameters of bioremediation, algal concentration (3.18 g·L−1 ), trinitrophenol concentration (1301 mg·L−1 ), and reaction time (3.75 d) were screened by statistical analysis. Oscillatoria cyanobacteria were modified by starch/nZVI and starch/graphene oxide in a bubble column bioreactor, and their bioremoval efficiency was investigated. Modifiers, namely, starch/zero-valent iron and starch/GO, increased trinitrophenol bioremoval efficiency by more than 10% and 12%, respectively, as compared to the use of Oscillatoria cyanobacteria alone. Conclusions: It was found that starch/nano zero-valent iron and starch/GO could be applied to improve the removal rate of phenolic compounds from the aqueous solution.


Subject(s)
Picrates/metabolism , Oscillatoria/metabolism , Picrates/analysis , Starch , Biodegradation, Environmental , Bioreactors , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Metal Nanoparticles , Waste Water , Graphite , Iron
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19170757, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011528

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites is a widely used ethnomedicinal plant in Bangladesh. In this study, we investigated phenolic contents, volatile compounds and fatty acids, and essential oil components of extracts prepared from aerial parts of the plant. The main volatile compounds were methyl ester of oleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid as determined by GC/MS. Phenolic contents of the extracts were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC/TOF-MS. Six phenolic compounds (syringic acid, morin, gentistic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, cinnamic acid, and apigenin) were found in the extracts. GC/MS analysis of steam distilled essential oil showed camphor, α-pinene and δ-3-carene as the main constituents. In DPPH radical scavenging assay, the highest free radical scavenging activity was observed for the methanol extract with an IC50 value of 0.48 ± 0.04 mg/mL, whereas, in metal chelating activity on ferrous ions (Fe2+) assay, the highest chelating activity was observed for hexane extract (IC50 = 0.55 ± 0.08 mg/mL). The extracts and essential oil were tested against five severe human pathogenic bacteria using disc diffusion assay and subsequent MIC values were also determined. All the extracts (except methanol extract) and the essential oil were found to possess potential antimicrobial activity with corresponding inhibition zone and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 9-23 mm and 62.5-500 µg/mL. This study has been explored the plant Lasia spinosa can be seen as a potential source of biologically active compounds.


Subject(s)
Chelating Agents/analysis , Free Radical Scavengers , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18114, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039045

ABSTRACT

The interest of this work is the discovery of new antimicrobial agents of plant origin to inhibit the formation of microbial biofilms. The present research was conducted to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds extracted from Populus nigra and Populus alba buds harvested in the area of Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria), and to evaluate their antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to identify the phenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction of P. nigra and the methanolic extracts of P. nigra and P. alba. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts and the fractions of these two species was tested against 11 microorganisms, using the disk diffusion method, while the antibiofilm effect of certain extracts was carried out in a 96-well microplate and on a biomaterial (catheter). HPLC analysis revealed the presence of 10 bioactive compounds. The main phenolic compounds identified in the three extracts were p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, and Kaempferol. This study was able to demonstrate that the extracts of P. nigra and P. alba buds have interesting antimicrobial properties, with diameters ranging from 6.6 to 21.3 mm. In addition, extracts of P. nigra exhibited antibiofilm effects greater than 70%. Our results provide evidence for the antimicrobial and antibiofilm potential of bud extracts from both poplar species. Thus, these results will pave the way for further research on these two plants.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts , Biofilms/classification , Populus/anatomy & histology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacokinetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation , Algeria/ethnology , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Polyphenols/pharmacokinetics
15.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 98 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049035

ABSTRACT

In this study, 83 wines considered by experts as representatives of the following commercial categories: "Argentinean Malbec (AM)", "Brazilian Merlot (BM)", "Uruguayan Tannat (UT)" and "Chilean Carménère (CC)" were analyzed according to their composition of phenolic, volatiles and semi-volatiles compounds. The objective was to identify the chemical compounds profile that characterized each commercial category. From about 600 peaks obtained by chromatographic techniques, 169 were identified and 53 of them were selected for multivariate statistical analysis. Four clusters, designated as "Chemical Categories" were obtained. Chemical Category 2 and Chemical Category 4 were composed by 90% of CC and 68% of AM respectively, Chemical Category 3 grouped mostly CC (50%) and BM (36%), while Chemical Category 1 showed predominance of AM (37%) and UT (30%). Based on the chemical classification, CC wines were characterized by higher content of Isopentyl lactate, Isobutyl alcohol, Ionone, malvidin and gallic acid and lower content of rutin, quercetin and resveratrol. On the other side, AM wines showed higher concentration of myricetin. UT wines had the highest antioxidant activity, higher content of quercetin, epicatechin, rutin and also the highest amount of all semi-volatiles detected in the negative mode, while BM wines only showed the highest concentration of catechin, petunidin and all semi-volatiles detected in the positive mode. Considering that phenolic and volatile compounds are strictly associated to the wines sensory characteristics, these data can contribute to establish criteria for further wines authentication and typification


Neste estudo, 83 vinhos considerados por especialistas como representantes das seguintes categorias comerciais: "Malbec Argentino (AM)", "Merlot Brasileiro (BM)", "Tannat Uruguaio (UT)" e "Carménere Chileno (CC)" foram analisados de acordo com a sua composição de compostos fenólicos, voláteis e semi-voláteis. O objetivo foi identificar a combinação dos compostos químicos que caracteriza cada categoria comercial. De cerca de 600 picos obtidos por técnicas cromatográficas, 169 foram identificados e 53 deles foram selecionados para análise estatística multivariada. Quatro clusters, designados como "Categorias Químicas" foram obtidos. A Categoria Química 2 e a Categoria Química 4 foram compostas por 90% de CC e 68% de AM respectivamente, a Categoria Química 3 agrupou principalmente CC (50%) e BM (36%), enquanto a Categoria Química 1 mostrou predominância de AM (37%) e UT (30%). Com base na classificação química, os vinhos CC foram caracterizados por apresentarem maior teor de lactato isopentílico, álcool isobutílico, ionona, malvidina e ácido gálico e menor teor de rutina, quercetina e resveratrol. Por outro lado, os vinhos AM apresentaram maior concentração de miricetina. Os vinhos UT apresentaram a maior atividade antioxidante, maior teor de quercetina, epicatequina, rutina e também a maior quantidade de todos os semi-voláteis detectados no modo negativo, enquanto os vinhos BM apresentaram a maior concentração de catequina, petunidina e todos os semi-voláteis detectados no modo positivo. Considerando que compostos fenólicos e voláteis estão estritamente associados às características sensoriais dos vinhos, esses dados podem contribuir para o estabelecimento de critérios para posterior autenticação e tipificação de vinhos sul americanos


Subject(s)
Wine/analysis , Wine/statistics & numerical data , Volatilization , Algorithms , Chemical Compounds/classification , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Antioxidants
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 34: 9-16, july. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026852

ABSTRACT

Background: Epigenetic modifications are key factors modulating the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of phytochemicals. The knowledge of plant epigenetic and genetic variations can contribute to enhance the production of bioactive compounds. These issues have been little explored thus far in Rorippa nasturtium var. aquaticum L. (watercress), an edible and medicinal plant. The aim of the current study was to determine and compare the phenolic composition and epigenetic and genetic variations between wild and cultivated watercress. Results: Significant differences were found in the quantitative phenolic composition between wild and cultivated watercress. The eight primer combinations used in the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) method revealed different epigenetic status for each watercress type, the cultivated one being the most epigenetically variable. The genetic variability revealed by the EcoRI/MspI amplification profile and also by eight inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers was different between the two types of watercress. The results of the Mantel test showed that the correlation between genetic and epigenetic variations has diminished in the cultivated type. Cluster analyses showed that the epigenetic and genetic characterizations clearly discriminated between wild and cultivated watercress. Conclusions: Relevant chemical, epigenetic, and genetic differences have emerged between wild and cultivated watercress. These differences can contribute to fingerprint and develop quality control tools for the integral and safety use and the commercialization of watercress. The richness of epialleles could support the development of tools to manipulate the watercress epigenome to develop high bioproduct­producing cultivars


Subject(s)
Nasturtium/genetics , Nasturtium/chemistry , Plants, Edible , Genetic Variation , Cluster Analysis , Microsatellite Repeats , DNA Methylation , Brassicaceae/genetics , Brassicaceae/chemistry , Cytosine/metabolism , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis , Epigenomics , Phytochemicals
17.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 30(3): f:235-l:242, mai.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-836686

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: A berinjela (Solanum melongena) é um fruto de consumo mundial. Seu processamento em forma de farinha é uma maneira de evitar perdas e aproveitar suas características nutricionais. Objetivos: Este estudo avaliou a composição físico-química (umidade, proteínas, lipídeos, fibra bruta, carboidratos, minerais, niacina, saponinas, acidez titulável, fibra alimentar e fenóis totais) da farinha de berinjela preparada a partir do fruto inteiro desidratado em estufa. Métodos: Avaliou-se a atividade antioxidante in vitro usando os seguintes ensaios: radical 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila (DPPH); poder antioxidante de redução do ferro (FRAP); e análise de polifenóis com Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE - ácido clorogênico, ácido cafeico, ácido ferúlico e rutina). Resultados: Verificou-se a presença de: 23,09% de carboidratos; 13,34% de proteínas; 1,85% de lipídeos; 39,19% de fibras totais; 1.540 mg/100 g de compostos fenólicos solúveis totais; 840 mg/100 g de saponinas; minerais (potássio, magnésio, cobre, ferro, zinco, manganês); e niacina. Observou-se atividade antioxidante in vitro para DPPH (455,6 mg de ácido ascórbico/100 g) e FRAP (486,8 mg de ácido ascórbico/100 g). A CLAE determinou a presença de ácido ascórbico, tirosina e ácidos fenólicos (ácido clorogênico, ácido cafeico e ácido ferúlico). Conclusão: A farinha de berinjela tem alto teor de fibra além de bom teor de compostos fenólicos e saponinas com importante capacidade antioxidante observada através de ensaios in vitro. A farinha de berinjela é uma boa opção para ser adicionada à dieta da população, devido aos seus potenciais benefícios à saúde


Background: The eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a fruit of world consumption. Its processing in the form of flour is a way to avoid losses and to take advantage of its nutritional characteristics. Objective: This study assessed the physicochemical composition (moisture, proteins, lipids, crude fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, niacin, saponins, titratable acidity, dietary fiber, and total phenols) of eggplant flour prepared from the whole fruit dehydrated in an oven. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was assessed using the following methods: 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH); Ferric Reducing/ Antioxidant Power (FRAP); and analysis of polyphenols using HPLC (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin). Results: It was possible to observe: 23.09% carbohydrates; 13.34% proteins; 1.85% lipids; 39.19% total fibers; 1,540 mg/100 g total soluble phenolic compounds; 840 mg/100 g saponins; minerals (potassium, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc, manganese); and niacin. In vitro antioxidant activity was observed through DPPH (455.6 mg ascorbic acid/100 g) and FRAP (486.8 mg ascorbic acid/100 g). The HPLC method determined the presence of ascorbic acid, tyrosine, and phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid). Conclusion: The eggplant flour had great fiber content in addition to good content of phenolic compounds and saponins with important antioxidant capacity observed through in vitro assays. As a result, eggplant flour is a good addition to the diet of the population, since it can bring potential health benefits


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Solanum melongena , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diet/methods , Food , Hyperlipidemias/blood , Hyperlipidemias/therapy , Nutritional Sciences , Risk Factors , Statistical Analysis
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 66(2): 87-100, June 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: lil-785928

ABSTRACT

Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals are related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless, the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds is not often considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review, we aim to present a comprehensive knowledge of the potential health promotion effects of polyphenols and the importance of considering the factors that affect their bioavailability on research projects(AU)


Los compuestos fenólicos son ubicuos en alimentos de origen vegetal. La alta ingesta de frutas, vegetales y cereales está relacionada con un bajo índice en padecimientos crónicos. Se cree que los compuestos fenólicos son, en parte, responsables de este efecto benéfico. Sin embargo, la bioaccesibilidad y biotransformación de los compuestos fenólicos generalmente no es considerada en este tipo de estudios. Por lo tanto, no se ha podido obtener un mecanismo de acción de los compuestos fenólicos. En este trabajo, presentamos una revisión de literatura del potencial benéfico de los compuestos fenólicos y cómo diversos factores pueden afectar su absorción y metabolismo(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Plants/metabolism , Edible Grain/metabolism , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Fruit , Eating , Absorption , Diet, Food, and Nutrition
19.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1): 81-88, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-780041

ABSTRACT

RESUMO No Nordeste do Brasil é bastante comum e variado o uso da coroa-de-frade (Melocactus spp.). Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi realizar diversas análises em cladódios de coroa-de-frade [Melocactus zehntneri (Britton & Rose) Luetzelburg], para que possamos compreender as razões estes usos. Os cladódios foram coletados na cidade de Campina Grande e levados ao Laboratório de Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, onde foram feitas as seguintes análises: peso, altura, diâmetro, cor, umidade, acidez, pH, ácido ascórbico, carotenoides, flavonoides e compostos fenólicos, tanto na epiderme quanto no parênquima aquífero. Os resultados mostraram que a epiderme tem uma acidez elevada e mais ácido ascórbico, e um pH mais baixo em comparação com o parênquima aquífero. O conteúdo de carotenoides, flavonoides e compostos fenólicos, foram diferentes nas partes estudadas. A epiderme apresentou sempre maiores quantidades de carotenoides, flavonoides e compostos fenólicos em relação ao parênquima aquífero, nas três plantas estudadas, indicando que a maior parte da defesa da planta acontece neste tecido. Mais estudos são necessários com técnicas mais precisas, para identificar os componentes bioativos desta espécie.


ABSTRACT In Northeast Brazil, the use of melon cactus (Melocactus spp.) is quite common and varied. Thus, the present study aimed to perform various analyzes in cladodes of melon cactus [Melocactus zehntneri (Britton & Rose) Luetzelburg], to understand the reasons for the use of this species. The cladodes were collected in the city of Campina Grande and taken to the Food Engineering Laboratory of the Federal University of Campina Grande, where we performed the following analyses: mass, height, diameter, color, moisture, acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, both in the epidermis and in the aquifer parenchyma. The results showed that the epidermis has a higher acidity, ascorbic acid content and lower pH compared to the aquifer parenchyma. The contents of carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, were different from the both parts analyzed. The epidermis always had greater quantities of carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds than the aquifer parenchyma for the three plants, showing that most of the plant defense takes place in this tissue. Further studies, with more accurate techniques, are needed to identify the bioactive components of this species.


Subject(s)
Cactaceae/classification , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Carotenoids/analysis , Groundwater , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Plant Stems/classification
20.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2,supl.1): 588-596, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-830064

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivou neste trabalho analisar a concentração de polifenóis totais, flavonoides e capacidade antioxidantes por meio dos métodos ABTS e FRAP, em erveiras jovens cultivadas em solo coberto e com sombreamento. Mudas de erva-mate foram submetidas aos tratamentos com solos cobertos e desnudos em sombreamentos de 0, 18, 35 e 50%, após sete e onze meses de cultivo, verão e outono, respectivamente. Foram coletadas folhas maduras para realização dos extratos utilizados para as análises de compostos fenólicos por meio da reação de oxirredução com reagente de Folin-Ciocalteu, flavonoides por método colorimétrico e capacidade antioxidante por frente ao radical ABTS e poder de redução do ferro (FRAP). O teor de compostos fenólicos foi maior nos tratamentos com 35% de sombreamento em comparação ao grupo dos flavonoides e capacidade antioxidante, o que foi demonstrado pela correlação do sombreamento com estes parametros. No método FRAP a maior correlação demonstra que o outono é a melhor época de colheita por apresentar maior concentração de compostos fitoquímicos. Ficou evidente a influência positiva dos sombreamentos (35 e 50%) no teor de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides relacionados à capacidade antioxidante e à qualidade da erva-mate para atender ao mercado consumidor.


ABSTRACT This study aimed to analyze the concentration of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity, by the methods ABTS and FRAP, in young herbs grown in covered and shaded soil. Yerba mate seedlings were subjected to treatment with bare and covered soils in shadings of 0, 18, 35, and 50%, after seven and eleven months cultivation, summer and fall, respectively. Mature leaves were collected to perform the analyses of phenolic compounds by redox reaction with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, of flavonoids by colorimetric method, and of antioxidant capacity by ABTS radical and FRAP (iron reduction method). The content of phenolic compounds was higher in the treatments with 35% shading in correlation with the group of flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. In the FRAP method, the higher correlation shows that autumn is the best time to harvest because of the higher concentration of phytochemical compounds. The positive influence of shading (35 and 50%) was evident in the content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids related to antioxidant capacity and better quality of yerba mate to meet the consumer market.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Ilex paraguariensis/growth & development , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching/methods , Secondary Metabolism
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