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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 394-405, jul. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352427

ABSTRACT

In this study, it was aimed to determine the antioxidant and anticancer activities of Sideritis perfoliata methanolic extract (SPE) on cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Different doses (25, 50,100 and 200 µg/mL) of SPE were used to determine proliferation of HeLa cells by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) staining method. Induction of apoptosis was determined by Annexine-V and propidium iodide staining method. Interleukin (IL) 6-8 levels were measured by ELISA method. Antioxidant activities of SPE were determined by DPPH, DNA (plasmid pBR322) protecting and cellular antioxidant activity tests. Some phytochemicals of SPE were also screened by LC-MS-MS. It was determined that SPE reduced the proliferation of HeLa cells and also induced apoptosis. IL6-8 levels importantly decreased at 200 µg/mL. SPE exhibited moderately antioxidant activities in tests used. Among the phenolics identified, vanillic acid had the highest amount. As a result, it was determined to have the anticancer activity of SPE by decreasing cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and decreasing IL6-8 in HeLa cells.


En este estudio, se tuvo como objetivo determinar las actividades antioxidantes y anticancerígenas del extracto metanólico de Sideritis perfoliata (SPE) en las células de cáncer de cuello uterino (HeLa). Se utilizaron diferentes dosis (25, 50, 100 y 200 µg/mL) de SPE para determinar la proliferación de células HeLa mediante el método de tinción con bromuro de 3-[4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il] -2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT). La inducción de apoptosis se determinó mediante el método de tinción con anexina-V y yoduro de propidio. Los niveles de interleucina (IL) 6-8 se midieron mediante el método ELISA. Las actividades antioxidantes de SPE se determinaron mediante pruebas de DPPH, protección de ADN (plásmido pBR322) y actividad antioxidante celular. Algunos fitoquímicos de SPE también se analizaron mediante LC-MS-MS. Se determinó que SPE redujo la proliferación de células HeLa y también indujo apoptosis. Los niveles de IL6-8 disminuyeron de manera importante a 200 µg/mL. SPE mostró actividades moderadamente antioxidantes en las pruebas utilizadas. Entre los fenólicos identificados, el ácido vainílico tuvo la mayor cantidad. Como resultado, se determinó que tenía la actividad anticancerígena de SPE al disminuir la proliferación celular, inducir apoptosis y disminuir la IL6-8 en las células HeLa.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Sideritis/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Survival , Interleukin-8/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Apoptosis/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antineoplastic Agents , Antioxidants/chemistry
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 215-225, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342813

ABSTRACT

This review describes the geographical distribution, botanical data, popular use, chemical composition, pharmacological activities and genetic aspects related to Eugenia luschnathiana, a native Brazilian plant popularly known as "bay pitomba". E. luschnathiana leaves are characterized morphologically by the presence of a petiole, an attenuated base, acuminated apex, elliptical shape, and parallel venation. The major chemical compounds found in E. luschnathiana are sesquiterpenes. Literature reports showed that E. luschnathiana extracts have antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The extractsfrom the leaf, fruit and stem, and a concentrated residual solution of its essential oil, displayed negligible toxicity. Lastly, a cytogenetic analysis indicated that some markers can be used for the study of genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic improvements. The information available on E. luschnathiana supports the hypothesis that this plant may be a source of compounds with promising pharmacological activity.


Esta revisión describe la distribución geográfica, datos botánicos, uso popular, composición química, actividad farmacológica y el análisis genético de Eugenia luschnathiana, una planta originaria del Brasil conocida popularmente como "pitomba da baía". Las hojas de E. luschnathiana se caracterizan por la presencia de pecíolo, base atenuada, ápice acuminado, forma elíptica y venación paralela. Su composición química presenta mayormente sesquiterpenos. Los informes en la literatura muestran que los extractos de E. luschnathiana presentan propiedades antioxidantes y actividad antimicrobiana contra las bacterias Gram-negativas y Gram-positivas. Los extractos de la hoja, fruto y tallo, y una solución residual concentrada del aceite esencial, presentaron baja toxicidad. Por último, un análisis citogenético indicó que algunos marcadores pueden utilizarse para estudios de diversidad genética, estructura poblacional y mejoramiento genético. Las informaciones disponibles acerca de E. luschnathiana proponen la hipótesis de que esta planta puede ser una fuente de compuestos con actividad farmacológica prometedora.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/genetics , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Eugenia/genetics , Medicine, Traditional , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 226-243, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342815

ABSTRACT

Several species of the Myrcia genus have been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase in the crude extract (EBF) and in the ethyl acetate fraction (FFA) of Myrcia hatschbachii, as well as to identify isolated phenolic compounds and to evaluate the antioxidant property and preliminary in vitro toxicity against Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) and FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) showed inhibitory activity superior to acarbose (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). In addition, they showed inhibitory effects of pancreatic lipase (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL for EBF and 532.68 µg/mL for FFA), antioxidant potential, absence of preliminary toxicity and presence of gallic andellagic acids in FFA. The relevant results in the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase motivate new studies for the development of herbal medicines that assist in the treatment of diabetic patients.


Varias especies del género Myrcia se han utilizado en la medicina popular para tratar la diabetes. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la actividad inhibitoria de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática en el extracto crudo (EBF) y en la fracción de acetato de etilo (FFA) de Myrcia hatschbachii, así como identificar compuestos fenólicos aislados y evaluar la propiedad antioxidante y toxicidad in vitro preliminar contra Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) y FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) mostraron una actividad inhibitoria superior a la acarbosa (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). Además, mostraron efectos inhibitorios de la lipasa pancreática (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL para EBF y 532.68 µg/mL para FFA), potencial antioxidante, ausencia de toxicidad preliminar y presencia de ácidos gálico y elágico en FFA. Los resultados relevantes en la inhibición de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática motivan nuevos estudios para el desarrollo de medicamentos a base de hierbas que ayudan en el tratamiento de pacientes diabéticos.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipase/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Pancreas/enzymology , Phenols/analysis , X-Ray Diffraction , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Complex Mixtures , Ellagic Acid , Gallic Acid , Antioxidants/chemistry
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 132-146, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342208

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effects of dichloromethane extract (DME) from Myrcia splendenson alterations caused by type 2 diabetes in the blood and kidney of rats, in order to reduce side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Rats received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg),15 minutes after nicotinamide (120 mg/kg) or water. After 72 hours, the glycemic levels were evaluated to confirm diabetes and the animals received (15 days) DME (25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/Kg) or water. DME partially reversed hyperglycemia and (100 and 150 mg/kg) reversed hypertriglyceridemia. Histopathological findings elucidated that DME reduced damage to pancreatic islets. DME 150 mg/kgreversed the increases in TBA-RS, the reduction in the sulfhydryl content, 100 and 150 mg/kg increased CAT, reversed the decrease in GSH-Px and increased it activity in the blood. DME 150 mg/kg reversed CAT and GSH-Px reductions in the kidney. We believe that DME effects might be dependent on the presence of phenolic compounds.


Investigamos los efectos del extracto de diclorometano (DME)de Myrcia splendens sobre las alteraciones causadas por la diabetes tipo 2 en la sangre y los riñones de las ratas, para reducir los efectos secundarios causados por las drogas sintéticas. Las ratas recibieron estreptozotocina (60 mg/kg), 15 minutos después de la nicotinamida (120 mg/kg) o agua. Después de 72 horas, se confirmo la diabetes y los animales recibieron (15 días) DME (25, 50, 100 o 150 mg/Kg) o agua. DME revierte parcialmente la hiperglucemia y revierte la hipertrigliceridemia. DME redujo el daño a los islotes pancreáticos. DME revirtió los aumentos en TBA-RS, la reducción en el contenido de sulfhidrilo, aumentó la CAT, revirtió la disminución en GSH-Px y aumentó su actividad en la sangre. Además, DME revirtió las reducciones de CAT y GSH-Px en el riñón. Creemos que los efectos provocados por DME pueden depender de la presencia de compuestos fenólicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Methylene Chloride/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Hypolipidemic Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190387, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153290

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Production of lipid nanoemulsions (<100 nm) of industrial interest with low energy demand. The antioxidant properties of babassu oil have been improved and the nanoemulsions are not cytotoxic. Babassu oil is a food and medicinal product. The nanoemulsion is strategic for the developed of new antioxidants phytotherapeutics.


Abstract Background: Babassu oil is an extract from a Brazilian native coconut (Orbignya phalerata Martius) and is used both as a food and a medicinal product. Methods: we produced two babassu oil nanoemulsions and evaluated them regarding their nanoscopic stability, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity.The nanoemulsions were characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering, and their stability was investigated for 120 days. The antioxidant activity was assessed by Spectroscopy Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, and the cytotoxicity was assessed by a colorimetric method (MTT) with the NIH/3T3 cell lineage. Results: the results showed nanoemulsions with average hydrodynamic diameter lower than 100 nm (p(0.001).and a polydispersity index of less than 0.3 (p(0.001), indicating monodisperse systems and good stability at room temperature. The exposure of nanoemulsions at varying pH revealed that the isoelectric point was at 3.0, and the images obtained by Transmission Electron Microscopy showed spherical droplets with a size 27 nm. The antioxidant activity showed that the babassu nanoemulsions exposed to free radicals had a better response when compared to the oil free samples. The cell viability assays showed low toxicity of the formulation with viability over 92% (p(0.05). Conclusion: babassu oil nanoformulations showed low polydispersity and kinetic stability with effective antioxidant action. Therefore, they can be promising for application in the food industry or as antioxidant phytotherapeutics.


Subject(s)
Palm Oil/chemistry , Nanotechnology , Antioxidants , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Food Industry , Cytotoxins , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Emulsions , Nanocomposites
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 28-37, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284403

ABSTRACT

Several investigations have demonstrated Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.f.) Underw. (Gleicheniaceae) plant extracts possess numerous health-promoting properties. This review is aimed to summarize and highlight the potential possess by D. linearisto be developed into future pharmacological entity especially as anticancer agent. This study used several electronic search engines to compile and integrate a number of scientific publications related with D. linearis. Scientifically, D. linearishas been reported to have antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, chemopreventive and antioxidant properties which can be linked to its potential to treat various kinds of ailments including inflammatory-related diseases and cancer. A number of scientific evidences related with anticancer studies suggested the ability of D. linearis-based phytochemicals to act as potent anticancer lead compounds. In conclusion, D. linearis has the potential to be developed into potent anticancer agent as depicted by a number of isolated phytochemicals which can work synergistically to contribute to its anticancer properties.


Varias investigaciones han demostrado que los extractos de la planta Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.f.) Underw. (Gleicheniaceae) poseen numerosas propiedades promotoras de la salud. El objetivo de esta revisión es resumir y resaltar el potencial que posee D. linearispara convertirse en una entidad farmacológica futura, especialmente como agente anticancerígeno. Este estudio utilizó varios motores de búsqueda electrónicos para compilar e integrar una serie de publicaciones científicas relacionadas con D. linearis. Científicamente, se ha informado que D. linearis tiene propiedades antinociceptivas, antiinflamatorias, antipiréticas, quimiopreventivas y antioxidantes que pueden estar vinculadas a su potencial para tratar varios tipos de dolencias, incluidas las enfermedades asociadas a inflamación y el cáncer. Una serie de evidencias científicas relacionadas con los estudios anticancerosos sugirieron la capacidad de los fitoquímicos basados en D. linearis para actuar como potentes compuestos anticancerígenos. En conclusión, D. linearis tiene el potencial de convertirse en una fuente de potentes agentes anticancerígeno, como se describe en una serie de fitoquímicos aislados que pueden actuar de forma sinérgica para contribuir a sus propiedades anticancerígenas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Tracheophyta/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Phytochemicals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Periploca aphylla is used by local population and indigenous medicine practitioners as stomachic, tonic, antitumor, antiulcer, and for treatment of inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate antidiabetic effect of the extract of P. aphylla and to investigate antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.@*METHODS@#The present research was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of methanol extract of P. aphylla (PAM) and subfractions n-hexane (PAH), chloroform (PAC), ethyl acetate (PAE), n-butanol (PAB), and aqueous (PAA) in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic Sprague-Dawley rats. Based on the efficacy, PAB (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) was tested for its antidiabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced via intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg) in rat. Blood glucose values were taken weekly. HPLC-DAD analysis of PAB was carried out for the presence of various polyphenols.@*RESULTS@#HPLC-DAD analysis of PAB recorded the presence of rutin, catechin, caffeic acid, and myricetin. Oral administration of PAB at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 21 days significantly restored (P < 0.01) body weight (%) and relative liver and relative kidney weight of diabetic rats. Diabetic control rats showed significant elevation (P < 0.01) of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, creatinine, total bilirubin, and BUN while reduced (P < 0.01) level of glucose, total protein, albumin, insulin, and HDL in serum. Count of blood cells and hematological parameters were altered in diabetic rats. Further, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and total soluble protein concentration decreased while concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and percent DNA damages increased (P < 0.01) in liver and renal tissues of diabetic rats. Histopathological damage scores increased in liver and kidney tissues of diabetic rats. Intake of PAB (400 mg/kg) resulted in significant improvement (P < 0.01) of above parameters, and results were comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide.@*CONCLUSION@#The result suggests the antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of PAB treatment in STZ-compelled diabetic rat. PAB might be used as new therapeutic agent in diabetic patients to manage diabetes and decrease the complications.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol/chemistry , Administration, Oral , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Male , Periploca/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin/adverse effects
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(6): 1029-1037, Jun., 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131245

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundsamento As sementes de Moringa oleifera , que são utilizadas para clarificação de água, contêm uma lectina chamada WSMoL que tem mostrado atividade antibacteriana e imunomoduladora in vitro . Devido ao seu valor nutritivo e potencial terapêutico, as folhas e as sementes dessa árvore são consumidas em algumas comunidades. Algumas lectinas de plantas não são tóxicas para mamíferos, mas tem sido relatado que outras são prejudiciais quando ingeridas ou administradas por outros meios. Objetivo Como um dos passos necessários para determinar a segurança de WSMoL, nós avaliamos os possíveis efeitos cardiotóxicos desta proteína purificada. Métodos Durante 21 dias consecutivos, a WSMoL foi administrada a camundongos por gavagem. Foram investigadas as funções eletrofisiológicas, mecânicas e metabólicas in vivo e ex vivo por meio de registros eletrocardiográficos, ressonância magnética nuclear e respirometria de alta resolução. Resultados O tratamento com WSMoL não induziu alterações nos níveis de glicose no sangue ou peso corporal em comparação com o grupo controle. Adicionalmente, as relações peso cardíaco/peso corporal e peso cardíaco/comprimento tibial estavam semelhantes em ambos os grupos. A ingestão de lectina também não modificou a tolerância à glicose ou resistência à insulina. Não foram observadas alterações nos parâmetros eletrocardiográficos ou na duração do potencial de ação cardíaco. Os corações dos camundongos dos grupos controle e WSMoL mostraram função ventricular esquerda preservada. Além disso, a WSMoL não induziu alterações na função mitocondrial (em todos os casos, p > 0,05). Conclusões A administração de WSMoL demonstrou ter um perfil de segurança cardíaca. Estes resultados contribuem à avaliação de segurança do uso de sementes de M. oleifera para tratar água, visto que essa lectina está presente na preparação empregada por algumas populações com esse fim. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background Moringa oleifera seeds, which are used for water clarification, contain a lectin named WSMoL which has shown in vitro antibacterial and immunomodulatory activity. Due to their nutritional value and therapeutic potential, the leaves and seeds of this tree are eaten in some communities. Some plant lectins are non-toxic to mammals, but others have been reported to be harmful when ingested or administered by other means. Objective As one of the steps needed to define the safety of WSMoL, we evaluated possible cardiotoxic effects of this purified protein. Methods: WSMoL was administered for 21 consecutive days to mice by gavage. Electrophysiological, mechanical, and metabolic cardiac functions were investigated by in vivo and ex vivo electrocardiographic recordings, nuclear magnetic resonance, and high-resolution respirometry. Results The treatment with WSMoL did not induce changes in blood glucose levels or body weight in comparison with control group. Moreover, the heart weight/body weight and heart weight/tibia length ratios were similar in both groups. Lectin ingestion also did not modify glucose tolerance or insulin resistance. No alterations were observed in electrocardiographic parameters or cardiac action potential duration. The heart of mice from the control and WSMoL groups showed preserved left ventricular function. Furthermore, WSMoL did not induce changes in mitochondrial function (in all cases, p > 0.05). Conclusions The administration of WSMoL demonstrated a cardiac safety profile. These results contribute to the safety evaluation of using M. oleifera seeds to treat water, since this lectin is present in the preparation employed by some populations to this end. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Seeds/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Moringa oleifera/chemistry , Plant Lectins/pharmacology , Water , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Lectins/isolation & purification
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 247-288, mayo 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116290

ABSTRACT

Selaginella is the only genus from Selaginellaceae, and it is considered a key factor in studying evolution. The family managed to survive the many biotic and abiotic pressures during the last 400 million years. The purpose of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of Selaginella in order to recognize their potential and evaluate future research opportunities. Carbohydrates, pigments, steroids, phenolic derivatives, mainly flavonoids, and alkaloids are the main natural products in Selaginella. A wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities, some of them pointed out by folk medicine, has been reported. Future studies should afford valuable new data on better explore the biological potential of the flavonoid amentoflavone and their derivatives as chemical bioactive entities; develop studies about toxicity and, finally, concentrate efforts on elucidate mechanisms of action for biological properties already reported.


Selaginella es el único género de Selaginellaceae, y se considera un factor clave en el estudio de la evolución. La familia logró sobrevivir a las muchas presiones bióticas y abióticas durante los últimos 400 millones de años. El propósito de esta revisión es proporcionar un resumen actualizado de Selaginella para reconocer su potencial y evaluar futuras oportunidades de investigación. Los hidratos de carbono, pigmentos, esteroides, derivados fenólicos, principalmente flavonoides, y alcaloides son los principales productos naturales en Selaginella. Se ha informado un amplio espectro de actividades farmacológicas in vitro e in vivo, algunas de ellas señaladas por la medicina popular. Los estudios futuros deberían proporcionar datos nuevos y valiosos para explorar mejor el potencial biológico de la amentoflavona flavonoide y sus derivados como entidades bioactivas químicas; desarrollar estudios sobre la toxicidad y, finalmente, concentrar los esfuerzos en dilucidar los mecanismos de acción para las propiedades biológicas ya informadas.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Selaginellaceae/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Alkaloids/analysis , Medicine, Traditional
10.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 281-285, abr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115499

ABSTRACT

Synthetic preservatives are widely present in processed foods, but most of them have carcinogenic potential, requiring the development of new natural alternatives such as fruit extracts, for microbial control. The objective of the study was to evaluate the chemical characterization, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the sugar apple pulp (Annona squamosa L.). Physicochemical characteristics were evaluated, an extract was prepared, and its antioxidant activity by DPPH method and antimicrobial by disk diffusion. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration against strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. The physicochemical analysis revealed that sugar apple pulp had 75.0% moisture, 3.0% ash, 4.0% protein, 0.2% lipids, 3.3% fibers, and 14.5% carbohydrates. The antioxidant activity of the extract by the DPPH method was 20.6%. The pulp extract from the sugar apple had inhibition zone for Staphylococcus aureus, satisfactory inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium, but did not present a bactericidal effect. Sugar apple pulp presents adequate levels of nutrients and potential for food application due to its microbiological activity and antioxidant properties.


Los conservantes sintéticos están ampliamente presentes en los alimentos procesados, pero la mayoría tienen potencial carcinogénico, lo que requiere el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas naturales para el control microbiano, como los extractos de frutas. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la caracterización química, la actividad antioxidante y antimicrobiana de la pulpa de manzana de azúcar (Annona squamosa L.). Se evaluaron las características fisicoquímicas, y se evaluó su actividad antioxidante mediante el método DPPH y antimicrobiano por difusión en disco, concentración inhibitoria mínima y concentración bactericida mínima contra cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Staphylococcus aureus. El análisis fisicoquímico reveló que la pulpa de manzana de azúcar tiene 75.0% de humedad, 3.0% de cenizas, 4.0% de proteínas, 0.2% de lípidos, 3.3% de fibras y 14.5% de carbohidratos. La actividad antioxidante del extracto por el método DPPH fue del 20.6%. El extracto de pulpa de la manzana de azúcar tenía zona de inhibición para Staphylococcus aureus, efecto inhibidor satisfactorio contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Salmonella Typhimurium, pero no presenta efecto bactericida. La pulpa de manzana de azúcar presenta niveles adecuados de nutrientes y potencial para la aplicación de alimentos debido a su actividad microbiológica y propiedades antioxidantes.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Annona/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Carbohydrates/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Proteins/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Lipids/analysis , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 167-178, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104197

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and inhibitory activities of the ethanolic extracts of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) grown in Montenegro, Quindío, Colombia, in three stages of maturation, including the edible (pulp) and inedible parts (pericarp and peduncle). The alcoholic samples were phytochemically characterized by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and by Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR); the antioxidant capacities were also evaluated by the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), in addition to the inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and the total content of phenols and flavonoids. The tests detected phytochemical compounds such as phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones and xanthones, to which the antioxidant activity and the inhibition of AChE presented, can be attributed. In conclusion, the inedible parts of mangosteen contain higher proportions of secondary metabolites, these being the most promising sources for industrial use.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue el de evaluar las actividades antioxidantes e inhibitoria de acetilcolinesterasa de los extractos etanólicos del mangostino (Garcinia mangostana L.) de Montenegro, Quíndio, Colombia, en tres estados de maduración, incluyendo las partes comestibles (pulpa) y no comestibles (pericarpio y pedúnculo). Las muestras alcohólicas fueron caracterizadas fitoquímicamente por Cromatografía de Capa Delgada (CCD), Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Eficiencia (HPLC) y Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier (FT-IR); la capacidad antioxidante fue evaluada también por el método de captación del radical libre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracilo (DPPH• dejar el radical en superíndice) y la Capacidad de Absorción de Radicales de Oxígeno (ORAC), adicionalmente la actividad inhibitoria de la acetilcolinesterasa (AchE) y el contenido total de fenoles y flavonoides. Se detectaron compuestos fitoquímicos como fenoles, flavonoides, alcaloides, quinonas y xantonas, a quienes se les puede atribuir las actividades antioxidantes y de inhibición de la acetilcolinesterasa. En conclusión, las partes no comestibles del mangostino contienen una mayor proporción de metabolitos secundarios, siendo las fuentes más promisorias para uso industrial.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Garcinia mangostana/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Colombia , Clusiaceae , Ethanol , Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity
12.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 188-206, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104201

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to screen the Rhazya stricta Decne root for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidants potential through invitro assays along with phytochemical and elemental analyses. The crude extract was prepared through maceration and fractionated using solvent-solvent extraction technique. The spectroscopic studies indicated the presence of various phytochemical classes in the extract and its fractions. The antioxidant assays showed notable results along with a good concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Enzyme inhibition assays demonstrated glucose-lowering effects by inhibiting the enzyme activity which could reduce post-prandial blood glucose level. The Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibition assay results showed the novel DPP-IV inhibition activity of the plant extract and all fractions showed noteworthy enzyme inhibition and antihyperglycemic activity. Conclusively, the Rhazya stricta root extract displayed its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic potential due to the presence of various classes of phytochemicals and micro-nutrients.


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar la raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne por su potencial antihiperglicémico y antioxidante a través de ensayos in vitro junto con análisis fitoquímicos y elementales. El extracto crudo se preparó por maceración y se fraccionó usando una técnica de extracción solvente-solvente. Los estudios espectroscópicos indicaron la presencia de varias clases fitoquímicas en el extracto y sus fracciones. Los ensayos antioxidantes mostraron resultados notables junto con una importante concentración de contenido fenólico y flavonoide. Los ensayos de inhibición enzimática demostraron efectos reductores de la glucosa al inhibir la actividad enzimática que podría reducir el nivel de glucosa posprandial en sangre. Los resultados del ensayo de inhibición de Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) mostraron la nueva actividad de inhibición de DPP-IV del extracto de la planta y todas las fracciones mostraron una notable inhibición enzimática y actividad antihiperglicémica. En conclusión, el extracto de raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne mostró su potencial antioxidante y antihiperglicémico debido a la presencia de varias clases de fitoquímicos y micronutrientes.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Flavonoids/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Plant Roots/chemistry , Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Phytochemicals , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 236-246, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104216

ABSTRACT

Chloroform extract (CE) and fractions obtained from Aldama arenaria roots were evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against 10 human tumor cell lines [leukemia (K-562), breast (MCF-7), ovary expressing a multidrug-resistant phenotype (NCI/ADR-RES), melanoma (UACC-62), lung (NCI-H460), prostate (PC-3), colon (HT29), ovary (OVCAR-3), glioma (U251), and kidney (786-0)]. CE presented weak to moderate antiproliferative activity (mean log GI50 1.07), whereas fractions 3 and 4, enriched with pimaranetype diterpenes [ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid and ent-8(14),15-pimaradien-3ß-ol], presented moderate to potent activity for most cell lines, with mean log GI50 of 0.62 and 0.59, respectively. The results showed promising in vitro antiproliferative action of the samples obtained from A. arenaria, with the best results for NCI/ADR-RES, HT29, and OVCAR-3, and TGI values ranging from 5.95 to 28.71 µg.ml -1, demonstrating that compounds of this class may be potential prototypes for the discovery of new therapeutic agents.


El extracto de cloroformo (CE) y las fracciones obtenidas de las raíces de Aldama arenaria fueron evaluadas por su actividad antiproliferativa in vitro contra 10 líneas celulares tumorales humanas [leucemia (K-562), mama (MCF-7), ovario que expresa un fenotipo resistente a múltiples fármacos (NCI/ADR-RES), melanoma (UACC-62), pulmón (NCI-H460), próstata (PC-3), colon (HT29), ovario (OVCAR-3), glioma (U251) y riñón (786-0)]. CE presentó actividad antiproliferativa débil a moderada (log GI50 promedio de 1.07), mientras que las fracciones 3 y 4, enriquecidas con diterpenos de tipo pimarane [ent-pimara-8 (14), ácido 15-dien-19-oico y ent-8 (14), 15-pimaradien-3ß-ol], presentaron actividad moderada a potente para la mayoría de las líneas celulares, con un log GI50 promedio de 0.62 y 0.59, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron una prometedora acción antiproliferativa in vitro de las muestras obtenidas de A. arenaria, con los mejores resultados para NCI/ADR-RES, HT29 y OVCAR-3, y valores de TGI que van desde 5.95 a 28.71 µg.ml -1, lo que demuestra que los compuestos de esta clase pueden ser prototipos potenciales para el descubrimiento de nuevos agentes terapéuticos.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chloroform , Plectranthus/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Ethnobotany , Cuba , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Diterpenes/chemistry
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 223-234, jan./feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049244

ABSTRACT

The Brazilian flora is known for its vast biodiversity; however, many species have been still little studied regarding to their chemical composition and biological potential. Thus, this study aimed to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and acaricidal activity of the extracts of leaves of Zanthoxylum caribaeum L. In addition, phytochemical screening of these extracts was carried out to determine the main classes of secondary metabolites present in Z. caribaeum. Using the Z. caribaeum leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The antimicrobial activity of extracts was determined by broth microdilution method, and to detect antioxidant activity the method of capturing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) was used. The acaricidal activity of the extracts was tested on Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanissidae). Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans. The ethanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (71.2%) and antioxidant capacity (the lowest IC50 value - 24.39 µg mL-1). The crude extracts obtained with methanol and acetone were the most promising. In general, phytochemical screening indicated the presence of steroids, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids and xanthones.


A flora brasileira é conhecida pela sua vasta biodiversidade, no entanto, muitas espécies ainda são pouco estudadas quanto à composição química e ao potencial biológico. Assim, esse trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e acaricida dos extratos vegetais das folhas de Zanthoxylum caribaeum L. Adicionalmente, foi realizada triagem fotoquímica desses extratos para determinar as principais classes de metabólitos secundários presentes em Z. caribaeum. Empregando-se as folhas de Z. caribaeum foram obtidos o extrato aquoso e orgânicos, utilizando os seguintes solventes (etanol, metanol, hexano, acetona, diclorometano e acetato de etila). A atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi determinada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, e para detecção da atividade antioxidante foi empregado o método de captura do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picril hidrazil (DPPH). A atividade acaricida dos extratos foi avaliada frente a Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanissidae). Os extratos brutos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana para a maioria das cepas bacterianas testadas, e também para a levedura Candida albicans. O extrato etanólico apresentou elevado potencial de sequestro de radicais livres (71,2%) e o menor valor de IC50 (24,39µg mL-1), revelando, portanto, sua capacidade antioxidante. No que se refere à atividade acaricida, os extratos obtidos com metanol e acetona foram os mais promissores. De modo geral, a triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de esteroides, flavanonas, flavonas, flavonóis, saponinas, taninos, triterpenóides e xantonas.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Zanthoxylum , Acaricides/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Leaves , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Zanthoxylum/chemistry , Mites/drug effects
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 245-255, jan./feb. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049246

ABSTRACT

Paracetamol (PCM) overdose can cause hepatotoxicity with oxidative stress; the present study was carried out to establish the possible protective effect of olive leaves extract (OLE) on toxicity induced by paracetamol in adult male rats. Twenty four adult male rats were divided into four equal groups; control, olive leaves extract group, paracetamol group and olive leaves extract plus paracetamol group. Some biochemical parameters and liver histopathology were evaluated. PCM treatment significantly increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, creatinine and alpha-fetoprotein. Paracetamol was found to significantly increase malonaldehyde (MDA) and decrease glutathione reductase (GR) activity in tissue and significantly decrease total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum. Administration of OLE caused a significant decrease serum AST, ALT enzyme, total bilirubin, GGT, LDH, creatinine, urea, alpha-fetoprotein. Also, amelioration of oxidant ­ antioxidant status with olive leaves extract was observed in addition to a significant decrease in MDA and a significant increase in TAC in liver tissue with a significant increase in glutathione reductase (GR) and SOD in serum compared to paracetamol treated group The chemical pathological changes were in step with histopathological observation suggesting marked hepatoprotective result of olive leaves extract. It could be concluded that olive leaves extract (OLE) treatment may be effective in decreasing hepatic injury and oxidative stress induced by paracetamol overdose in male albino rats


A sobredosagem de paracetamol (PCM) pode causar hepatotoxicidade com estresse oxidativo; o presente estudo foi realizado para estabelecer o possível efeito protetor do extrato de folhas de oliveira (OLE) na toxicidade induzida pelo paracetamol em ratos machos adultos. Vinte e quatro ratos machos adultos foram divididos em quatro grupos iguais: controle, grupo extrato de folhas de oliveira, grupo paracetamol e extrato de folhas de oliveira mais grupo paracetamol. Alguns parâmetros bioquímicos e histopatologia hepática foram avaliados. O tratamento com PCM aumentou significativamente aspartato aminotransferase sérica (AST), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), bilirrubina total, gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT), lactato desidrogenase (LDH), uréia, creatinina e alfa-fetoproteína. Verificou-se que o paracetamol aumenta significativamente o malonaldeído (MDA) e diminui a atividade da glutationa redutase (GR) no tecido e diminui significativamente a capacidade antioxidante total (TAC) e a superóxido dismutase (SOD) no soro. A administração de OLE causou uma diminuição significativa de AST, enzima ALT, bilirrubina total, GGT, LDH, creatinina, uréia, alfa-fetoproteína. Também foi observada melhora do status oxidante - antioxidante com extrato de folhas de oliveira, além de uma diminuição significativa no MDA e um aumento significativo no TAC no tecido hepático, com um aumento significativo na glutationa redutase (GR) e SOD no soro em comparação ao grupo tratado com paracetamol. As alterações patológicas químicas acompanharam a observação histopatológica, sugerindo resultado hepatoprotetor acentuado do extrato de folhas de oliveira. Pode-se concluir que o tratamento com extrato de folhas de oliveira (OLE) pode ser eficaz na diminuição da lesão hepática e do estresse oxidativo induzido pela overdose de paracetamol em ratos albinos machos


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Olea , Hepatoprotector Drugs , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Rats, Inbred Strains , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Random Allocation , Oxidants , Rats, Wistar , Plant Leaves , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
16.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(5): 407-413, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vegetables have some beneficial effects on human health due to their antioxidant compounds, like polyphenols. Cooking leads to many physical and chemical changes to plant structure that can alter the phytochemical compounds of vegetables. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of heat treatment and freezing on the antioxidant properties of garlic, onion, broccoli and cauliflower. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental in vitro study in a university laboratory. METHODS: Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) were obtained from a local store. These vegetables were divided into three treatment groups: raw, heated and frozen. The heat treatment consisted of heating them in a drying oven at 150 °C for 20 minutes. The freezing treatment consisted of keeping them frozen at -20 °C until analysis. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde levels of the vegetables were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, respectively. RESULTS: Heat treatment had deleterious effects on the antioxidant properties of onion and garlic; and it decreased the antioxidant activity of broccoli. Freezing improved the antioxidant activity of broccoli and garlic, but had detrimental effects for cauliflower and onion. CONCLUSIONS: Heat treatment and freezing exhibit different effects on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, cauliflower, garlic and onion. Convenient cooking and storage patterns should be identified for each vegetable, to obtain the best nutritional benefit from the antioxidant compounds of vegetables.


Subject(s)
Vegetables/chemistry , Allium/chemistry , Food Handling/methods , Food Preservation/methods , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Brassica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Onions/chemistry , Freezing , Garlic/chemistry , Heating , Nutritive Value
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 527-532, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008292

ABSTRACT

Chemical constituents and biological activities of the aerial parts of Piper erecticaule C.DC. have been studied for the first time. Fractionation and purification of the extracts afforded aristolactam AII (1), aristolactam BII (2), piperolactam A (3), piperolactam C (4), piperolactam D (5), together with terpenoids of ß-sitosterol, ß-sitostenone, taraxerol, and lupeol. The structures of these compounds were obtained by analysis of their spectroscopic data, as well as the comparison with that of reported data. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity revealed that compounds 1 and 3 showed strong AChE inhibitory effects with the percentage inhibition of 75.8% and 74.8%, respectively.


Se estudiaron por primera vez los constituyentes químicos y actividad biológica de las partes aéreas de Piper erecticaule C.DC. El fraccionamiento y la purificación de los extractos proporcionaron aristolactama AII (1), aristolactama BII (2), piperolactama A (3), piperolactama C (4), piperolactama D (5), junto con terpenoides de ß-sitosterol, ß-sitostenona, taraxerol, y el lupeol. Las estructuras de estos compuestos se obtuvieron mediante el análisis de sus datos espectroscópicos, así como mediante la comparación con datos ya informados. La actividad inhibidora de la acetilcolinesterasa reveló que los compuestos 1 y 3 mostraron un potente efecto inhibidor de la AChE con un porcentaje de inhibición del 75.8% y 74.8%, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Aporphines/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Piper/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Aporphines/chemistry , Terpenes/isolation & purification , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Indole Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/chemistry , Lactams/chemistry
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 1-9, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microalgae are aquatic chlorophyll-containing organisms comprising unicellular microscopic forms, and their biomasses are potential sources of bioactive compounds, biofuels and food-based products. However, the neuroprotective effects of microalgal biomass have not been fully explored. In this study, biomass from two Chlorella species was characterized, and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and anti-amyloidogenic activities were investigated. RESULTS: GC­MS analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of some phenols, sterols, steroids, fatty acids and terpenes. Ethanol extract of Chlorella sorokiniana (14.21 mg GAE/g) and dichloromethane extract of Chlorella minutissima (20.65 mg QE/g) had the highest total phenol and flavonoid contents, respectively. All the extracts scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) and hydroxyl radicals. The highest metal chelating activity of the extracts was observed in the ethanol extracts of C. minutissima (102.60 µg/mL) and C. sorokiniana (107.84 µg/mL). Furthermore, the cholinesterase inhibitory activities of the extracts showed that ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana (13.34 µg/mL) exhibited the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, while dichloromethane extract of C. minutissima (11.78 µg/mL) showed the highest butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Incubation of the ß-amyloid protein increased the aggregation of amyloid fibrils after 96 h. However, ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima inhibited further aggregation of Aß1­42 and caused disaggregation of matured protein fibrils compared to the control. This study reveals the modulatory effects of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima extracts on some mediators of Alzheimer's disease and provides insights into their potential benefits as functional food, nutraceutics or therapeutic agent for the management of this neurodegenerative disease.


Subject(s)
Chlorella/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Steroids/analysis , Sterols/analysis , Terpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Neuroprotective Agents , Biomass , Ethanol , Fatty Acids/analysis , Microalgae , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Amyloid/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antioxidants/chemistry
19.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 22-29, July. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053216

ABSTRACT

Background: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) contains active substances that have desirable properties for industrial and herbal medicine applications, e.g., essential oils (1.5­2.5%), tannins, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, resins, phytosterols, rosmarinic acid and many others. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of rosemary extract and 20% rapeseed oil substitution for animal fat on storage changes and inhibition of cholinesterases in liver pâté. Results: Preliminary research showed that rosemary extract exhibited antioxidative activity in the system of accelerated Rancimat and Oxidograph tests. Then, rosemary extract was used as an ingredient in liver pâté. During the experiment, meat samples were refrigerated and tested on days 1, 5, 8, 12 and 15 after production. The study proved that the substitution of 20% of animal fat with rapeseed oil decreased the content of saturated acids and increased the content of monoenic fatty acids by approximately 5% and polyene fatty acids by 40%. Conclusions: In addition to antioxidative activity, the rosemary extract affected the health-promoting value of the samples, which inhibited cholinesterase activity during the entire storage period. The extract inhibited AChE more than BChE.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Meat Products , Antioxidants/chemistry , Peroxides , Oils, Volatile , Fat Substitutes , Principal Component Analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Liver , Meat Products/microbiology
20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 378-391, jul. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008176

ABSTRACT

The content of certain metals in 13 medicinal teas made from 16 plant species was measured by flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrometer with flame methods. The measurements were evaluated against metal intake levels recommended by health authorities. The results indicate that the medicinal teas tested, regularly consumed by inhabitants of the Urubueua de Fátima River Community, Abaetetuba-Para, Brazil, present no risk of poisoning people older than six months. However, decoctions of Mentha sp., Eleutherine bulbosa, Euterpe oleracea, Piper callosum and Hyptis mutabilis, mostly given to children, had Mn values potentially exceeding the recommended maximum intake for infants in the 0-6 months age group, in the quantities customarily administered. Consequently, studies are needed to assess bioavailability for safe human consumption. Results also showed the consumption of medicinal tea alone is not enough to supply an adult's daily metal requirements or treat deficiencies. Additionally, cures emphasized by interviewed Community members might be associated with the bioactivity of organic substances that the medicinal teas contain.


El contenido de algunos metales en 13 tés medicinales de las 16 especies consumidas por los habitantes de la comunidad del Río Urubueua de Fátima, Abaetetuba-Para, Brasil, se evaluó mediante un fotómetro de llama y un espectrómetro de absorción atómica con métodos de llama, y se comparó con los niveles recomendados por las agencias de la salud. Los tés medicinales evaluados no mostraron riesgo de intoxicación para las personas mayores de seis meses de edad, sino las decocciones de Mentha sp., Eleutherine bulbosa, Euterpe oleracea, Piper callosum y Hyptis mutabilis, en su mayoría dirigidos a la ingesta de niños, informaron valores de Mn superiores a la ingesta máxima recomendada para el grupo de infantes (0-6 meses), debido a que estos estudios son necesarios para evaluar la biodisponibilidad para un consumo humano seguro. Los resultados también mostraron que solo el consumo de té medicinal no es suficiente para satisfacer las necesidades diarias recomendadas de ingesta de minerales o para tratar las deficiencias. Además, los informes de curación, enfatizados por los habitantes, indican que la bioactividad observada podría estar asociada a sustancias orgánicas presentes en el té.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Teas, Medicinal , Metals/analysis , Reference Values , Brazil
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