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Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 13-20, July. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283173


BACKGROUND: In fish farming, the plant extracts containing antioxidant compounds have been added to the diet for enhancing pathogen resistance. In vitro studies evaluating the antioxidant effect of herbal extracts on fish cell models have focused on ROS production and the respiratory burst mechanism. However, the effects on enzymatic antioxidant defense on salmon leukocytes have not been evaluated. This study aims to evaluate the enzymatic antioxidant defense and ROS-induced cell damage in Salmon Head Kidney-1 (SHK-1) cell line exposed to polyphenol-enriched extract from Sambucus nigra flowers. RESULTS: Firstly, the Total Reactive Antioxidant Power (TRAP) assay of elderflower polyphenol (EP) was evaluated, showing 459 and 489 times more active than gallic acid and butyl hydroxy toluene (BHT), respectively. The toxic effect of EP on salmon cells was not significant at concentrations below 120 mg/ mL and no hemolysis activity was observed between 20 and 400 mg/mL. The treatment of SHK-1 cell line with EP decreased both the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation induced by H2O2, which could be associated with decreasing oxidative stress in the SHK-1 cells since the GSH/GSSG ratio increased when only EP was added. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that plant extracts enriched with polyphenols could improve the enzymatic antioxidant defense of salmon leukocytes and protect the cells against ROS-induced cell damage

Salmon , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sambucus nigra/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation , Free Radical Scavengers , Reactive Oxygen Species , Aquaculture , Oxidative Stress , Salmo salar , Disease Resistance , Leukocytes , Antioxidants
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 215-225, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342813


This review describes the geographical distribution, botanical data, popular use, chemical composition, pharmacological activities and genetic aspects related to Eugenia luschnathiana, a native Brazilian plant popularly known as "bay pitomba". E. luschnathiana leaves are characterized morphologically by the presence of a petiole, an attenuated base, acuminated apex, elliptical shape, and parallel venation. The major chemical compounds found in E. luschnathiana are sesquiterpenes. Literature reports showed that E. luschnathiana extracts have antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The extractsfrom the leaf, fruit and stem, and a concentrated residual solution of its essential oil, displayed negligible toxicity. Lastly, a cytogenetic analysis indicated that some markers can be used for the study of genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic improvements. The information available on E. luschnathiana supports the hypothesis that this plant may be a source of compounds with promising pharmacological activity.

Esta revisión describe la distribución geográfica, datos botánicos, uso popular, composición química, actividad farmacológica y el análisis genético de Eugenia luschnathiana, una planta originaria del Brasil conocida popularmente como "pitomba da baía". Las hojas de E. luschnathiana se caracterizan por la presencia de pecíolo, base atenuada, ápice acuminado, forma elíptica y venación paralela. Su composición química presenta mayormente sesquiterpenos. Los informes en la literatura muestran que los extractos de E. luschnathiana presentan propiedades antioxidantes y actividad antimicrobiana contra las bacterias Gram-negativas y Gram-positivas. Los extractos de la hoja, fruto y tallo, y una solución residual concentrada del aceite esencial, presentaron baja toxicidad. Por último, un análisis citogenético indicó que algunos marcadores pueden utilizarse para estudios de diversidad genética, estructura poblacional y mejoramiento genético. Las informaciones disponibles acerca de E. luschnathiana proponen la hipótesis de que esta planta puede ser una fuente de compuestos con actividad farmacológica prometedora.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/genetics , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Eugenia/genetics , Medicine, Traditional , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 226-243, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342815


Several species of the Myrcia genus have been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase in the crude extract (EBF) and in the ethyl acetate fraction (FFA) of Myrcia hatschbachii, as well as to identify isolated phenolic compounds and to evaluate the antioxidant property and preliminary in vitro toxicity against Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) and FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) showed inhibitory activity superior to acarbose (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). In addition, they showed inhibitory effects of pancreatic lipase (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL for EBF and 532.68 µg/mL for FFA), antioxidant potential, absence of preliminary toxicity and presence of gallic andellagic acids in FFA. The relevant results in the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase motivate new studies for the development of herbal medicines that assist in the treatment of diabetic patients.

Varias especies del género Myrcia se han utilizado en la medicina popular para tratar la diabetes. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la actividad inhibitoria de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática en el extracto crudo (EBF) y en la fracción de acetato de etilo (FFA) de Myrcia hatschbachii, así como identificar compuestos fenólicos aislados y evaluar la propiedad antioxidante y toxicidad in vitro preliminar contra Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) y FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) mostraron una actividad inhibitoria superior a la acarbosa (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). Además, mostraron efectos inhibitorios de la lipasa pancreática (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL para EBF y 532.68 µg/mL para FFA), potencial antioxidante, ausencia de toxicidad preliminar y presencia de ácidos gálico y elágico en FFA. Los resultados relevantes en la inhibición de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática motivan nuevos estudios para el desarrollo de medicamentos a base de hierbas que ayudan en el tratamiento de pacientes diabéticos.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipase/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Pancreas/enzymology , Phenols/analysis , X-Ray Diffraction , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Complex Mixtures , Ellagic Acid , Gallic Acid , Antioxidants/chemistry
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00922020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143892


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite their widespread usage, synthetic insecticides and larvicides are harmful for controlling disease-causing mosquitoes owing to the development of resistance. The leaves of Eugenia astringens, Myrrhinium atropurpureum, and Neomitranthes obscura were collected from Marambaia and Grumari restingas. The safety and larvicidal efficacy of their extracts were tested against Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti L. and Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax Kollar. METHODS: The dry leaves were subjected to static maceration extraction using 90% methanol. A. aegypti and S. pertinax larvae were exposed to 7.5, 12.5, and 25.0 µL/mL of the extracts (n= 30). The larvicidal activity after 24 h and 48 h, and the mortality, were determined. The median lethal concentration (CL50) was estimated by a Finney's probit model. RESULTS: M. atropurpureum and E. astringens extracts exhibited the strongest larvicidal effects against A. aegypti. M. atropurpureum extracts (25 µL/mL) caused mortalities of over 50% and 100% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively (CL50 = 11.10 and 9.68 ppm, respectively). E. astringens extracts (25 µL/mL) caused mortalities of 50% and 63.33% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. High concentrations of N. obscura extracts induced a maximum mortality of 46.66% in A. aegypti larvae after 48 h (CL50= 25 ppm). The larvae of S. pertinax showed 100% mortality following exposure to all the plant extracts at all the tested concentrations after 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: The extracts of M. atropurpuerum exhibited the strongest larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. The larvae of S. pertinax were sensitive to all the extracts at all the tested concentrations.

Animals , Simuliidae , Aedes , Culex , Myrtaceae , Insecticides/pharmacology , Anopheles , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Larva
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e10841, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249329


The present study was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanisms and effective components of Polygonum hydropiper in ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions. The ethanol extract was purified on an AB-8 macroporous resin column and eluted with 60% ethanol and was then injected into the HPLC system for quantitative analysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally pretreated with P. hydropiper extract (PHLE; 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) for 5 days and then absolute ethanol was administered to induce gastric mucosal damage. One hour after ethanol ingestion, the rats were euthanized and stomach samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Antioxidant enzymes and anti-inflammatory cytokines were quantified. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of proteins. Cell proliferation was assayed by CCK-8 assays. The proportion of total flavonoids in the final extract of P. hydropiper was 50.05%, which contained three major bioactive flavonoid constituents, including rutin, quercitrin, and quercetin. PHLE significantly increased cell viability and effectively protected human gastric epithelial cells-1 against alcohol-induced damage in vitro. PHLE pretreatment attenuated gastric mucosal injuries in a dose-dependent manner in rats, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione, and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in gastric tissue. Pretreatment with PHLE also reduced the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in gastric tissue by downregulating the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B. PHLE exerted protective effects against gastric injury through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. Flavonoids might be the main effective components of P. hydropiper against gastric mucosal injury.

Animals , Rats , Polygonum , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ethanol/toxicity , Gastric Mucosa , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(7): e10889, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249311


Utilization of plant resources for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections is one of the appealing approaches as rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains is occurring throughout the world. Ethanol extract and its fractions from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis red flower were assessed for antibacterial and urease inhibitory activities towards forty-three clinical strains and two reference strains of H. pylori. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the most potent bacteriostatic activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.2-0.25 mg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of 1.25-1.5 mg/mL against all test strains, including forty-three strains resistant to one to four antibiotics, azithromycin (MICs, 8-256 µg/mL), erythromycin (MICs, 8-128 µg/mL), levofloxacin (MICs, 8-256 µg/mL), and/or metronidazole (MICs, 8-256 µg/mL). The fraction had similar antibacterial activities toward these test strains suggesting the preparation and the antibiotics do not have a common mechanism of anti-H. pylori activity. The fraction also had stronger effects on biofilm formation, morphological conversion, and urease activity of H. pylori than the other fractions and the ethanol extract. These flower preparations were non-toxic to three human cell lines, and nine compounds were also isolated and identified from the ethyl acetate fraction. In vivo research needs to be conducted to confirm the potential usefulness of H. rosa-sinensis flower and its constituents for effective prevention and treatment of H. pylori disease.

Humans , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Rosa , Hibiscus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Flowers , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210084, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287344


Extracts of the plant Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) are used in traditional medicine to treat malaria. The main active components are the saponin glycyrrhizin (GLR) and its active metabolite glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) which both display activities against Plasmodium falciparum. We have identified three main mechanisms at the origin of their anti-plasmodial activity: (i) drug-induced disorganisation of membrane lipid rafts, (ii) blockade of the alarmin protein HMGB1 and (iii) potential inhibition of the detoxifying enzyme glyoxalase 1 (GLO-1) considered as an important drug target for malaria. Our analysis shed light on the mechanism of action of GLR against P. falciparum.

Triterpenes , Glycyrrhiza , Plasmodium falciparum , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e10891, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285652


Juniperus communis (JCo) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant that has been used to treat wounds, fever, swelling, and rheumatism. However, the mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of JCo extract on colorectal cancer (CRC) has not yet been elucidated. This study investigated the anticancer effects of JCo extract in vitro and in vivo as well as the precise molecular mechanisms. Cell viability was evaluated using the MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution was examined by flow cytometry analysis, and cell apoptosis was determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Protein expression was analyzed using western blotting. The in vivo activity of the JCo extract was evaluated using a xenograft BALB/c mouse model. The tumors and organs were examined through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that JCo extract exhibited higher cytotoxicity against CRC cells than against normal cells and showed synergistic effects when combined with 5-fluorouracil. JCo extract induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase via regulation of p53/p21 and CDK4/cyclin D1 and induced cell apoptosis via the extrinsic (FasL/Fas/caspase-8) and intrinsic (Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-9) apoptotic pathways. In vivo studies revealed that JCo extract suppressed tumor growth through the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. In addition, there was no obvious change in body weight or histological morphology of normal organs after treatment. JCo extract suppressed CRC progression by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the potential application of JCo extract in the treatment of CRC.

Animals , Rabbits , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Juniperus , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cell Cycle , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Mice, Inbred BALB C
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 7-13, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146465


INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico (EHGNA) es la forma más común de enfermedad hepática. A nivel celular se caracteriza por la acumulación de triglicéridos (TG) en forma de gotas lipídicas (GL) dando lugar a esteatosis e inflamación. Entre los factores relevantes para la síntesis de TG se encuentran las enzimas DGAT1/2 que catalizan la etapa final de la síntesis de TG, y la proteína FABP4 que transporta lípidos intracelulares y se expresa en modelos de enfermedad hepática dependiente de obesidad. Por otra parte, TNF-α es una reconocida citoquina involucrada en el proceso inflamatorio en la EHGNA. La medicina popular del norte de Chile ha utilizado la planta Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) para el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades inflamatorias. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de un extracto hidroalcóholico de lampaya (EHL) sobre la esteatosis y expresión de marcadores de inflamación en hepatocitos tratados con ácidos grasos. Diseño experimental: Estudio in vitro en cultivos de la línea celular humana HepG2 tratadas con ácido oleico (AO) y ácido palmítico (AP). MÉTODOS: Se incubó hepatocitos HepG2 con AO/AP por 24 horas en presencia o no de EHL. Se evaluó la presencia de GL y el contenido de TG intracelulares por Oil Red O y Nile Red, respectivamente. La expresión de DGAT1/2, FABP4 y TNF-α fue evaluada por qPCR. RESULTADOS: Los hepatocitos tratados con AO/AP mostraron un aumento en las GL y TG, así como una mayor expresión de DGAT2 en comparación al control. El cotratamiento con EHL revirtió los efectos inducidos por AO/AP. CONCLUSIONES: EHL revierte el incremento en las GL, TG y en la expresión de DGAT2 inducido por AO/AP en células HepG2. Estos hallazgos sugieren un efecto hepatoprotector de la Lampaya contra la esteatosis, y apoyarían su uso complementario en el tratamiento de patologías con componente inflamatorio como la EHGNA.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease. At the cellular level, it is characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in the form of lipid droplets (LD), which leads to steatosis and inflammation. Among relevant factors for TG synthesis are the enzymes DGAT1/2 catalyzing the final stage of TG synthesis, and the protein FABP4 which transports intracellular lipids and is expressed in cell models of obesity-dependent liver disease. Additionally, TNF-α is a cytokine involved in the inflammatory process associated to NAFDL. Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine in northern Chile to treat some inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of lampaya (HEL) on steatosis and the expression of inflammatory markers in hepatocytes treated with fatty acids. Study design: In vitro study in cultures of the human HepG2 cell line treated with oleic acid (OA) and palmitic acid (PA). METHODS: HepG2 hepatocytes were incubated with OA/PA for 24 hours in the presence and absence of HEL. The formation of LD and the accumulation of intracellular TG were assessed by Oil Red O and Nile Red, respectively. The expression of DGAT1/2, FABP4 and TNF-α was assessed by qPCR. RESULTS: The treatment with OA/PA increased the levels of LD and TG as well as the expression of DGAT2 in HepG2 hepatocytes compared to control cells. HEL cotreatment counteracted OA/PA-induced effects. CONCLUSIONS: HEL prevents the increase in LD and TG levels and DGAT2 expression induced by OA/PA in HepG2 cells. These findings suggest that lampaya may have a protective effect against hepatic steatosis, which would support its complementary use in the treatment of pathologies associated with inflammation, such as NAFLD.

Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Verbenaceae/chemistry , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Triglycerides/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Cell Survival , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Culture Techniques , Oleic Acid , Ethanol/chemistry , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects , Inflammation
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0576-2020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155533


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever. Recently, the use of plant-sourced larvicides has gained momentum. METHODS: The hydroethanolic extracts and fractions ofOcotea nutansleaves and stems were bioassayed to determine the larvicidal efficacy of these samples. RESULTS: S-HEX (hexane fraction from the crude stem extract) demonstrated high potential for controlling third-stage larvae, with an LC50 of 14.14 µg.mL-1 (concentration required to inhibit 50% of the treated larvae). CONCLUSIONS Extracts from O. nutans were effective against third-stage larvae ofA. aegyptiafter 24 h of exposure.

Animals , Aedes , Mosquito Vectors , Insecticides/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Ocotea , Larva
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190530, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153299


HIGHLIGHTS The phenolic composition, antioxidant activity and cytotoxic potential of the extracts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides were investigated. Caffeic acid was found as the most abundant phenolic compound in the extracts. Both species showed promising antioxidant activity towards different assays. The highest cytotoxic potential was observed in the extract of C. solstitialis.

Abstract It is known that some genera of the Asteraceae family are commonly used in Turkish folk medicine. Several studies have investigated the biological effects of different extracts of Centaurea and Urospermum species, but studies involving the phenolic composition of C. solstitialis and U. picroides extracts are very limited. This study aimed to investigate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of C. solstitialis and U. picroides and evaluate their possible cytotoxic effect. RP-HPLC analysis was used to elucidate the phenolic profiles of the ethanolic extracts of flowering parts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides.The both ethanolic extracts were assessed for their antioxidant properties using DPPH, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating assays. Furthermore, the effect of the extracts on cell viability was evaluated against MCF-7 and PC-3 cancer cells and HEK293 cell line using the MTT assay. The most abundant phenolic compound in both extracts was determined to be caffeic acid, and the amount of this compound was 24078.03 and 14329.59 µg g-1 in the extracts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was found similar. Compared with U. picroides extract, C. solstitialis extract had higher potential on the inhibition of cell viability. The IC50 value of C. solstitialis on MCF cells was found as 58.53 µg mL-1. These data suggest that the extracts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides may be considered as novel and alternative natural antioxidant and anticancer sources.

Humans , Asteraceae/chemistry , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Centaurea/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Turkey , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , HEK293 Cells
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200163, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153296


HIGHLIGHTS Isolate, fractionate and characterize extracts obtained from soursop leaves. Use of emerging green technologies such as microwave-ultrasound hybridization. The extracts contain kaempferol, procyanidins, catechin, and quercetin. The total ethanolic extract demonstrates cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells.

Abstract Cervical cancer is classified as the fourth most common malignancy in women. Natural compounds are a therapeutic alternative in cancer therapy. The aim of the study is to isolate, fractionate, and characterize extracts obtained from soursop leaves (Annona muricata L.) and determine their cytotoxic effect against HeLa cervical cancer cells and non-carcinogenic fibroblast 3T3 cells. The phytochemicals of soursop leaves were extracted through emerging green technologies such as the novel use of microwave-ultrasound hybridization and the use of environmentally friendly solvents (water and ethanol), in addition to the purification of extracts enriched in polyphenols by liquid chromatography with Amberlite XAD-16. Total aqueous and ethanolic extract were purified, as well as the fraction one of each extract. The extracts recovered from soursop leaves contained kaempferol and its isomers, procyanidins, catechin, and quercetin. The viability of the cells was determined with the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. HeLa and 3T3 cells were exposed to concentrations of 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm of a solution of soursop leaf extract powder. The MTT assay showed that soursop leaf extracts were toxic to both cell lines in general, however, the ethanolic extract at 25 and 50 ppm demonstrated inhibition in cell viability against the HeLa cancer line and low cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblast cells. In conclusion, the novel microwave-ultrasound hybridization technology allows the extraction of polyphenols that may have a potential cytotoxic effect on cancer cells.

Humans , Female , HeLa Cells , Annona/chemistry , Polyphenols/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Catechin/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Ethanol , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200179, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153293


HIGHLIGHTS L. duriusculum n-BuOH extract reduces inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo. L. duriusculum n-BuOH extract inhibits NF-κB-dependent transcriptional responses. L. duriusculum n-BuOH extract decreases the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 genes.

Abstract Limonium duriusculum is used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders and has gained attention due to its richness in apigenin. The present investigation was performed to evaluate and confirm its anti-inflammatory properties, in cell lines and animal models. The potential anti-inflammatory properties of n-butanol (n-BuOH) extract of L. duriusculum (BEL) and isolated apigenins were examined on NF-κB transcriptional activity in TNFα- or LPS-stimulated cells, and on in vivo acute inflammatory models (carrageenan induced paw edema and peritonitis). BEL treatment was able to inhibit the activity of an NF-κB reporter gene in HCT116 cells both in the absence and in the presence of exogenous TNFα, used as NF-κB pathway inducer. This anti-inflammatory effect was even more potent compared to Apigenin (APG1) and was confirmed using monocyte-derived THP-1 cells treated with LPS to stimulate NF-κB-dependent transcription of IL-6 and TNFα mRNAs. Apigenin7-O-β-(6''-methylglucuronide) (APG2) was instead inactive both in HCT116 and THP-1 cells. BEL (oral, 200 mg/kg) led to paw swelling inhibition, vascular permeability and peritoneal leukocyte and PN migration diminution. Apigenins (intraperitoneal, APG1, APG2: 20 mg/kg) also evoked a significant anti-edema effect, early vascular permeability and leukocyte influx reduction. Collectively, this study demonstrates for the first time the effectiveness of L. duriusculum to inhibit NF-κB-dependent transcriptional responses in HCT116 and THP-1 cells. In vivo studies also established that L. duriusculum possesses a potential anti-inflammatory effect, confirm its traditional, empirical use, that could be attributed to its richness in apigenin.

Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plumbaginaceae/chemistry , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , THP-1 Cells
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879185


Rhus chinensis is an important resource plant. The aqueous extract of R. chinensis roots or stems was to produce Shuguantong Syrup, which is mainly used for the treatment of coronary heart disease and angina pectoris with definite curative effect. On this basis, the crude phenolic part of R. chinensis prepared by macroporous resin was evaluated for the cardio protective effect against myocardial ischemia in mice. The results showed that the phenolic part group with oral administration at the dosages of 190.8-381.6 mg·kg~(-1), compared with the model group, reduced the values of left ventricular end systolic diameter(LVEDs) and the left ventricular end diastolic diameter(LVEDd), and increased the cardiac ejection fraction(EF) and left ventricular fractional shortening(FS) rate, which could effectively improve cardiac function and exert its anti-myocardial ischemia effect, and reduce the rising levels of creatine kinase isoenzyme(CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) in serum. HE staining showed that the phenolic part group reduced the infiltration of myocardial inflammatory cells and alleviated the degree of myocardial fibrosis and collagen deposition. TUNEL staining showed that the blue-green fluorescence of the phenolic part group decreased successively, and the degree of myocardial cell apoptosis was reduced. Immunohistochemical staining suggested that it could reduce the number of positive cells for p53 protein expression and significantly improve myocardial cell damage. All above data suggested that the phenolic part group had an anti-mycardial ischemis effect. Related mechanism studies revealed that the crude phenolic part could regulate the expressions of the p53 gene(p53), Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax), B lymphoma-2 gene(Bcl-2), and caspase-3 protein(caspase-3) in myocardial tissue, suggesting that it could reduce cardiac remodeling and myocardial ischemic damage, and improve cardiac function by inhibiting myocardial apoptosis.This research laid a foundation for the elucidation of the pharmacological ingredients R. chinensis.

Animals , Apoptosis , Mice , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy , Myocardium , Myocytes, Cardiac , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rhus , bcl-2-Associated X Protein
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879150


To explore the effect of light intensity in cultivating environment on the hepetoprotective activity of Sedum sarmentosum, S. sarmentosum were planted under five water treatments for 60 days, namely 100% full sunlight(G1), 77% full sunlight(G2), 60% full sunlight(G3), 38% full sunlight(G4), and 16% full sunlight(G5) and CCl_4 drug-induced liver injury model in vitro was used. Cell viability, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis were individually detected by MTT, PI single staining, and Annexin-V FITC/PI double staining assays. Additionally, ALT, AST and antioxidant index in supernatant were determined by colorimetry. And the relationship among the protective effects, chemical composition and antioxidant activity were also analyzed. The results showed that S. sarmentosum aqueous extract could significantly improve the HepG2 cell viability. Among the five S. sarmentosum groups, the cell viability of G1(100% full sunlight) treatment was the highest, and the cell apoptosis was the least. Meanwhile, the level of ALT, AST, and MDA in G1 was the lowest, but it achieved the highest level of SOD and GSH. Moderate light shading(60% full light) also improved the effect of protecting liver and reducing the enzyme. It was found that cell viability was positively correlated with ferricion reducing capacity. ALT activity was positively correlated with isorhamnetin content. Taken together, different light intensity had great influence on hepatoprotective effect of S. sarmentosum, which may be related to its antioxidant capacity. From the perspective of hepetoprotective activity, S. sarmentosum should be planted under full light.

Antioxidants , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Liver , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sedum , Water
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879132


The chemical constituents from the extract of the twigs of Euscaphis konishii with anti-hepatoma activity were investigated, twelve compounds by repeated chromatography with silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative-HPLC. The structures of the chemical components were elucidated by spectroscopy methods, as konilignan(1),(7R, 8S)-dihydrodehydrodico-niferylalcohol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(2),illiciumlignan B(3),threo-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2-methoxyphenoxy]-1,3-panediol(4),erythro-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2-methoxyphenoxy]-1,3-panediol(5), matairesinol(6), wikstromol(7), isolariciresinol(8),(+)-lyoniresinol(9), 4-ketopinoresinol(10), syringaresin(11), and vladinol D(12). Among them, compound 1 is a new lignan. Compounds 10 and 12 had moderate inhibitory activity on HepG2 cells, with IC_(50) values of 107.12 μmol·L~(-1) and 183.56 μmol·L~(-1), respectively.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Lignans/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 25(6): 43-48, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154053


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate different concentrations of Galla chinensis extract (GCE) added to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which is widely used for fabrication of removable orthodontic appliances, regarding the effectiveness of this herbal extract on antimicrobial effect and flexural strength of PMMA. Methods: Acrylic resin samples containing 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.6% GCE were prepared. Flexural strength was investigated via three-point flexural strength test for the 15 acrylic resin blocks of each concentration. Disk diffusion test was used to evaluate antibacterial effects of incorporating the same concentrations of GCE into acrylic resin. All these three groups were compared with the control group, with no added GCE, regarding flexural strength and antibacterial properties. Results: Comparison of flexural strength between the three study groups and the control group showed significant differences between the groups (P=0.018). However, there was no significant difference between the groups containing GCE. There were significant differences in antimicrobial activity between the four groups (P=0.026). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it is suggested that incorporation of GCE into PMMA would be beneficial for antimicrobial activity and flexural strength of PMMA, but further studies on other physical properties and antimicrobial effects on other bacterial strain would be beneficial prior to clinical investigations.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar se diferentes concentrações de extrato de Galla chinensis (EGC) adicionado ao polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA), que é amplamente utilizado para a fabricação de aparelhos ortodônticos removíveis, interferem no efeito antimicrobiano desse extrato e na resistência à flexão do PMMA. Métodos: Foram preparadas amostras de resina acrílica com concentrações de 0,4%, 0,8% e 1,6% de EGC. Para a avaliação da resistência à flexão, utilizou-se o teste de flexão em três pontos para as 15 amostras de resina em cada concentração. O teste de disco-difusão foi utilizado para avaliar os efeitos antibacterianos da incorporação das mesmas concentrações de EGC na resina acrílica. Esses três grupos foram comparados ao grupo controle, sem adição do EGC, em relação à resistência à flexão e quanto às propriedades antimicrobianas. Resultados: As comparações dos três grupos com o grupo controle mostraram diferenças significativas (p=0,018) para a resistência à flexão. Entretanto, não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos contendo EGC. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas na atividade antimicrobiana entre os quatro grupos (p=0,026). Conclusão: Dentro das limitações desse estudo, parece que a incorporação de EGC no PMMA seria benéfica para a atividade antimicrobiana e a resistência à flexão do PMMA. Porém, estudos adicionais sobre outras propriedades físicas e sobre os efeitos antimicrobianos contra diferentes cepas de bactérias seriam interessantes antes de se fazer pesquisas clínicas.

Acrylic Resins , Denture Bases , Flexural Strength , Anti-Infective Agents , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1330-1335, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134444


SUMMARY: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Protocatechuic acid and Corchorus olitorius on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat testis tissue. Randomly selected Wistar Albino rats were divided into five groups as; Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes Mellitus treated with Corchorus Olitorus (STZ+CO), Diabetes Mellitus treated with Protacatechuic acid (STZ+PCA), Corchorus olitorius (CO), Protocatechuic acid (PCA) and Control. Diabetic model was generated by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg Streptozotosin. After 48 hours of the STZ injection, blood samples were collected from tail vein in order to measure blood glycose levels. Over 250 mg/dL accepted as diabetic subjets and fed with 250 mg/kg Corchorus olitorius or 20 mg/kg PCA by oral gavage for three weeks. At the end of the experiment, right testes were removed and fixed in 10 % neutral formaldehyde for paraffine embedding. Sections were stained by HE, Masson trichrome, PAS and TUNEL for microscopic evaluation. Control, PCA-only and Corchorus olitorius-only treated group testes tissues showed a normal tissue organization, when degeneration in seminiferous tubules, the vacuolization, seperations in spermatogenic cell series, outpouring of cell groups in the lumen, vesicular body formation, liquid accumulation in the interstitial region and edema were observed in STZ induced diabetic models and untreated groups. Besides, higher amount of TUNEL (+) stained cells were determined in STZ group. On the other hand, blood glucose level and number of TUNEL (+) stained cells were decreased as a result of PCA and Corchorus olitorius treatment. Because of the reduction of blood glucose level and apoptotic cell numbers, PCA and Corchorus olitorius decreace the complications of diabetes mellitus induced rat testis.

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los efectos del ácido protocatéquico y Corchorus olitorius sobre el tejido testicular de rata diabética inducida por estreptozotocina (STZ). Las ratas Wistar Albino fueron seleccionadas al azar y se dividieron en cinco grupos; Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes Mellitus tratada con Corchorus olitorius (STZ + CO), Diabetes Mellitus tratada con ácido protocatéquico (STZ + PCA), Corchorus olitorius (CO), ácido protocatéquico (PCA) y Control. El modelo diabético se generó por inyección intraperitoneal de 60 mg/kg de estreptozotosina. Después de 48 horas de la inyección de STZ, se recogieron muestras de sangre de la vena de la cola para medir los niveles de glucosa. Niveles mayores a 250 mg/dL fueron considerados como especímenes diabéticos y alimentados con Corchorus olitorius de 250 mg/kg o PCA de 20 mg/kg por sonda oral durante tres semanas. Al final del experimento, se extirparon los testículos derechos y se fijaron en formaldehído neutro al 10 % para la inclusión en parafina. Las secciones se tiñeron con HE, tricromo de Masson, PAS y TUNEL para evaluación microscópica. Los tejidos de los testículos de los grupos control, tratados solo con PCA y con Corchorus olitorius mostraron una organización tisular normal. En cambio en modelos diabéticos inducidos por STZ y grupos no tratados se observó degeneración en los túbulos seminíferos, vacuolización, separaciones en series de células espermatogénicas, efusión de grupos celulares en la luz, formación del cuerpo vesicular, acumulación de líquido en la región intersticial y edema. Además, se determinó una mayor cantidad de células teñidas con TUNEL (+) en el grupo STZ. Por otro lado, el nivel de glucosa en sangre y el número de células teñidas con TUNEL (+) disminuyeron como resultado del tratamiento con PCA y Corchorus olitorius. Debido a la reducción del nivel de glucosa en sangre y el número de células apoptóticas, se observó que PCA y Corchorus olitorius disminuyen las complicaciones de los testículos de rata inducidos por diabetes mellitus.

Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Corchorus/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Hydroxybenzoates/pharmacology , Seminiferous Tubules/drug effects , Blood Glucose/analysis , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Hydroxybenzoates/therapeutic use
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 89-99, sept. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253101


BACKGROUND: Koelreuteria henryi Dummer is an indigenous plant in Taiwan. The species has been used in traditional folk medicine for the promotion of liver functions and for treating malaria and urethritis. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of the flower extract of Koelreuteria henryi Dummer. The extraction conditions were optimized by the contents of total phenolic acids and total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity assays. Moreover, an in vitro study for investigating antioxidant activity of K. henryi flower extract was demonstrated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis. RESULTS: K. henryi flower extracted for 150 min showed high contents of total phenolic acids and total flavonoids. In an in vitro model, L929 cells were pretreated with K. henryi flower extract, and then treated with H2O2 to induce oxidative damage. Results demonstrated that H2O2-induced apoptosis was inhibited by the treatment of 200 µg/ml K. henryi flower extract through the mitochondria-mediated pathway and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The caspase 8/9 activity and expression of p-p38 and pERK were repressed by K. henryi flower extract. In addition, the prevention of H2O2-induced apoptosis by K. henryi flower extract activated the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) stress response pathway to transcript heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Also, K. henryi flower extract prevented H2O2-induced apoptosis through HO-1 production, as evident by the use of HO-1 inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that K. henryi flower extract could inhibit the H2O2-induced apoptosis in L929 cells through the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Flavonoids/analysis , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis , Flowers/chemistry , Heme Oxygenase-1 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Caspase 8 , Hydrogen Peroxide