Electric field stimulation (EFS) can effectively inhibit local Ca 2+ influx and secondary injury after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, after the EFS, the Ca 2+ in the injured spinal cord restarts and subsequent biochemical reactions are stimulated, which affect the long-term effect of EFS. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a hydrophilic polymer material that can promote cell membrane fusion and repair damaged cell membranes. This article aims to study the combined effects of EFS and PEG on the treatment of SCI. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to SCI and then divided into control group (no treatment, n = 10), EFS group (EFS for 30 min, n = 10), PEG group (covered with 50% PEG gelatin sponge for 5 min, n = 10) and combination group (combined treatment of EFS and PEG, n = 10). The measurement of motor evoked potential (MEP), the motor behavior score and spinal cord section fast blue staining were performed at different times after SCI. Eight weeks after the operation, the results showed that the latency difference of MEP, the amplitude difference of MEP and the ratio of cavity area of spinal cords in the combination group were significantly lower than those of the control group, EFS group and PEG group. The motor function score and the ratio of residual nerve tissue area in the spinal cords of the combination group were significantly higher than those in the control group, EFS group and PEG group. The results suggest that the combined treatment can reduce the pathological damage and promote the recovery of motor function in rats after SCI, and the therapeutic effects are significantly better than those of EFS and PEG alone.
Subject(s)Animals , Electric Stimulation , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Recovery of Function/physiology , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy
A series of N-(benzoylphenyl)-carboxamide derivatives (2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a and 6b) was prepared with good yields by reacting the corresponding carbonyl chlorides with aminobenzophenones at room temperature. This was followed by evaluating the hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of 3b, 5a and 5b. Triton WR-1339 (300 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to overnight-fasted rats to induce hyperlipidemia. Rats were divided into six groups: control, hyperlipidemic, hyperlipidemic plus compounds 3b, 5a and 5b and hyperlipidemic plus bezafibrate. Results showed that after 18 h of treatment at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight of each of the test compounds, the elevated plasma levels of triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were significantly lowered by compounds 5b and 3b (p < 0.001) and by 5a (p < 0.0001), compared to the hyperlipidemic control group. Compounds 3b and 5a significantly increased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by 58 and 71%, respectively. In addition, compounds 3b and 5a caused significant reduction (p < 0.0001) of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels compared to the control group. These results suggest a promising potential for compounds 3b, 5a and 5b as lipid-lowering agents, which may contribute to reducing the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease
Subject(s)Animals , Male , Rats , Pyridines/pharmacology , Hyperlipidemias/chemically induced , Lipids/blood , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Polyethylene Glycols , Pyridines/chemical synthesis , Triglycerides/blood , Cholesterol/blood , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Lipoproteins, HDL/drug effects , Lipoproteins, LDL/drug effects , Hypolipidemic Agents/chemical synthesis
Abstract In the work the andrographolide (AG)-solid dispersions (SDs) were prepared by the spray-drying method, using polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG8000), Poloxamer188, polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVPK30), Soluplus® as carrier materials. The effect of different polymers as carrier materials on the properties of the AG-SDs were studied. The results showed obvious differences in intermolecular interaction, thermal stability, drug state, powder properties, dissolution behavior, and so on of AG-SDs prepared using different polymers as carrier materials. AG-PEG8000-SD was a partial-crystalline and partial-amorphous powder with smaller surface area and pore volume, but it was easy to wetting and did not swell in contact with dissolved medium. AG-Soluplus®-SD was completely amorphous powder with larger specific surface area and pore volume, but it swelled in contact with water. Therefore, the dissolution profile of AG in AG-PEG8000-SD was similar to that in AG-Soluplus®-SD. Soluplus® and PEG8000 were suitable polymers to design AG-SDs, considering both physicochemical properties and dissolution behaviors. The results of this reseach showed that when selecting carrier materials for SD, we should not only consider the state of drugs in SD and the powder properties of SD, but also consider whether there is swelling when the carrier materials are in contact with the dissolution medium.
Subject(s)Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , Dissolution , Methods , Polymers/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Water , Spray Drying
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been widely applied in orthopedics because of its excellent mechanical properties, radiolucency, and biocompatibility. However, the bioinertness and poor osteointegration of PEEK have greatly limited its further application. Growing evidence proves that physical factors of implants, including their architecture, surface morphology, stiffness, and mechanical stimulation, matter as much as the composition of their surface chemistry. This review focuses on the multiple strategies for the physical modification of PEEK implants through adjusting their architecture, surface morphology, and stiffness. Many research findings show that transforming the architecture and incorporating reinforcing fillers into PEEK can affect both its mechanical strength and cellular responses. Modified PEEK surfaces at the macro scale and micro/nano scale have positive effects on cell-substrate interactions. More investigations are necessary to reach consensus on the optimal design of PEEK implants and to explore the efficiency of various functional implant surfaces. Soft-tissue integration has been ignored, though evidence shows that physical modifications also improve the adhesion of soft tissue. In the future, ideal PEEK implants should have a desirable topological structure with better surface hydrophilicity and optimum surface chemistry.
Subject(s)Benzophenones , Ketones/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Surface Properties
Carbon nanotube (CNT) composite materials are very attractive for use in neural tissue engineering and biosensor coatings. CNT scaffolds are excellent mimics of extracellular matrix due to their hydrophilicity, viscosity, and biocompatibility. CNTs can also impart conductivity to other insulating materials, improve mechanical stability, guide neuronal cell behavior, and trigger axon regeneration. The performance of chitosan (CS)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) composite scaffolds could be optimized by introducing multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs). CS/PEG/CNT composite scaffolds with CNT content of 1%, 3%, and 5% (1%=0.01 g/mL) were prepared by freeze-drying. Their physical and chemical properties and biocompatibility were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the composite scaffolds had a highly connected porous structure. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy proved that the CNTs were well dispersed in the CS/PEG matrix and combined with the CS/PEG nanofiber bundles. MWCNTs enhanced the elastic modulus of the scaffold. The porosity of the scaffolds ranged from 83% to 96%. They reached a stable water swelling state within 24 h, and swelling decreased with increasing MWCNT concentration. The electrical conductivity and cell adhesion rate of the scaffolds increased with increasing MWCNT content. Immunofluorescence showed that rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells grown in the scaffolds had characteristics similar to nerve cells. We measured changes in the expression of nerve cell markers by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and found that PC12 cells cultured in the scaffolds expressed growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), and class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) proteins. Preliminary research showed that the prepared CS/PEG/CNT scaffold has good biocompatibility and can be further applied to neural tissue engineering research.
Subject(s)Animals , Axons , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry , Nerve Regeneration , Polyethylene Glycols , Porosity , Rats , Tissue Engineering/methods , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical efficacy, advantages, and disadvantages of adaptive biofeedback training combined with oral administration of compound polyethylene glycol 4000-electrolyte powder in the treatment of children with outlet obstruction constipation (OOC).@*METHODS@#A total of 168 children with OOC were enrolled in this prospective study. All the subjects were randomly divided into a test group and a control group based on the order of visiting time, 84 in each group. The test group was treated with adaptive biofeedback training combined with oral administration of compound polyethylene glycol 4000-electrolyte powder, and the control group was treated with oral administration of compound polyethylene glycol 4000-electrolyte powder alone. Eleven children in the test group and two children in the control group withdrew from the study since they could not finish the whole treatment course. Finally, 73 children in the test group and 82 children in the control group were included in this analysis. As clinical outcomes, the total score of clinical symptoms and overall response rate were compared between the two groups at weeks 4 and 8 of treatment.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the total score of clinical symptoms between the two groups at beginning of treatment and at week 4 (P>0.05), while the test group had a significantly lower total score of clinical symptoms than the control group at week 8 (P<0.05). At week 4, there was no significant difference in overall response rate between the two groups (P>0.05), while the test group had a significantly higher overall response rate than the control group at week 8 (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Adaptive biofeedback training combined with oral administration of compound polyethylene glycol 4000-electrolyte powder is significantly associated with improvement of clinical outcomes in the treatment of children with OOC.
Subject(s)Administration, Oral , Biofeedback, Psychology , Child , Constipation/drug therapy , Electrolytes/therapeutic use , Humans , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Powders/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the influencing factors for the quality of bowel preparation before colonoscopy in children and the association of the interval from the last administration of laxative to the start of colonoscopy (shortly referred to as waiting time) with the quality of bowel preparation.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the children who were admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, from January to November 2020, and received bowel preparation with polyethylene glycol electrolyte powder combined with diet control before colonoscopy. According to the score of Boston bowel preparation scale, they were divided into two groups: adequate bowel preparation group (n=337) and inadequate bowel preparation group (n=30). Related data were collected from the children in both groups, including general information, possible influencing factors for the quality of bowel preparation, adverse reactions associated with bowel preparation, duration of colonoscopy, and postoperative diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to explore the influencing factors for the quality of bowel preparation.@*RESULTS@#The univariate analysis showed that age, body weight, and waiting time were associated with inadequate bowel preparation (P<0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that older age (OR=2.155, 95%CI: 1.087-4.273, P=0.028) and longer waiting time (OR=1.559, 95% CI: 1.191-2.041, P=0.001) were independent risk factors for inadequate bowel preparation. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the cut-off value of waiting time was 5.5 hours in determining whether bowel preparation was adequate or not, with a sensitivity of 90.0%, a specificity of 50.7%, and an area under the ROC curve of 0.708. After grouping based on waiting time, it was found that the incidence rate of inadequate bowel preparation in the ≥5.5 hours group was significantly higher than that in the <5.5 hours group [14.0% (27/193) vs 1.7% (3/174), P<0.001].@*CONCLUSIONS@#For children who use polyethylene glycol electrolyte powder combined with diet control for bowel preparation, older age is an independent risk factor for inadequate bowel preparation before colonoscopy, which may be associated with an insufficient dose of polyethylene glycol in older children. Longer waiting time is also an independent risk factor for inadequate bowel preparation, and it is recommended that the waiting time should not exceed 5.5 hours.
Subject(s)Cathartics , Child , Colonoscopy , Diet , Electrolytes , Humans , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , Powders , Retrospective Studies
OBJECTIVE@#To construct a polylactic acid-glycolic acid-polyethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG) nanocarrier (N-Pac-CD133) coupled with a CD133 nucleic acid aptamer carrying paclitaxel for eliminating lung cancer stem cells (CSCs).@*METHODS@#Paclitaxel-loaded N-Pac-CD133 was prepared using the emulsion/solvent evaporation method and characterized. CD133+ lung CSCs were separated by magnetic bead separation and identified for their biological behaviors and gene expression profile. The efficiency of paclitaxel-loaded N-Pac-CD133 for targeted killing of lung cancer cells was assessed in vitro. SCID mice were inoculated with A549 cells and received injections of normal saline, empty nanocarrier linked with CD133 aptamer (N-CD133), paclitaxel, paclitaxel-loaded nanocarrier (N-Pac) or paclitaxel-loaded N-Pac-CD133 (n=8, 5 mg/kg paclitaxel) on days 10, 15 and 20, and the tumor weight and body weight of the mice were measured on day 40.@*RESULTS@#Paclitaxel-loaded N-Pac-CD133 showed a particle size of about 100 nm with a high encapsulation efficiency (>80%) and drug loading rate (>8%), and was capable of sustained drug release within 48 h. The CD133+ cell population in lung cancer cells showed the characteristic features of lung CSCs, including faster growth rate (30 days, P=0.001) and high expressions of tumor stem cell markers OV6(P < 0.001), CD133 (P=0.001), OCT3/4 (P=0.002), EpCAM (P=0.04), NANOG (P=0.005) and CD44 (P=0.02). Compared with N-Pac and free paclitaxel, paclitaxel-loaded N-Pac-CD133 showed significantly enhanced targeting ability and cytotoxicity against lung CSCs in vitro (P < 0.001) and significantly reduced the formation of tumor spheres (P < 0.001). In the tumor-bearing mice, paclitaxel-loaded N-Pac-CD133 showed the strongest effects in reducing the tumor mass among all the treatments (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#CD133 aptamer can promote targeted delivery of paclitaxel to allow targeted killing of CD133+ lung CSCs. N-Pac-CD133 loaded with paclitaxel may provide an effective treatment for lung cancer by targeting the lung cancer stem cells.
Subject(s)Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Carriers , Lung , Mice , Mice, SCID , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Polyethylene Glycols/pharmacology
Objective@#This study aimed to investigate whether cytokine profiles and virological markers might add value in monitoring the effects of peginterferon (PEG-IFN) therapy for hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB).@*Methods@#HBeAg positive patients with CHB were treated with PEG-IFN for 48 weeks. Clinical biochemical, and HBV serological indexes, as well as cytokines, were detected at baseline and every 12 weeks.@*Results@#A total of 116 patients with CHB were enrolled in this study; 100 patients completed the 48-week treatment and follow-up, of whom 38 achieved serum HBeAg disappearance, 25 achieved HBeAg seroconversion, 37 showed HBsAg decreases ≥ 1 log 10 IU/mL, 9 showed HBsAg disappearance, and 8 became HBsAb positive. The cytokine levels at baseline and during treatment were similar between the HBeAg disappearance group and non-disappearance group. The disappearance of HBeAg was independently associated with HBeAg levels at weeks 12 and 24, and with the HBeAg decline at week 24 ( P < 0.05). The HBsAg response was independently associated with HBsAg, the HBsAg decline, HBeAg, the HBeAg decline at week 12, and HBsAg at week 24 ( P< 0.05).@*Conclusion@#There was no significant correlation between the response to interferon (IFN) and cytokines during PEG-IFN treatment. The changes in virological markers predicted the response to IFN after 48 weeks.
Subject(s)Biomarkers , Cytokines , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use
Resumen Objetivo: establecer las diferencias entre tres tipos de productos de preparación para colonoscopia, en cuanto a efectividad y tolerabilidad. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal, analítico, prospectivo, ciego para el evaluador de la escala de Boston. Se incluyeron pacientes adultos, mayores de 18 años con requerimiento de colonoscopia y diligenciamiento de la encuesta sobre el tipo de preparación realizada para la limpieza del colon. Resultados: se evaluaron 3 grupos de productos (polietilenglicol, picosulfatos, sales de sulfato) en 907 pacientes, se aplicó la escala de Boston total y por segmentos, sin encontrar diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ellos (Odds ratio [OR]: 1,10; intervalo de confianza [IC] 95 %: 0,6-1,8; p = 0,728). El 60 % de la población fueron mujeres y la edad promedio 52 años. Se observó el cumplimiento de la dieta en el 99 % de los participantes. La preparación dividida tuvo mejores resultados en la escala de Boston (OR: 5,06; IC 95 %: 3,2-8,01; p = 0,001). Los picosulfatos tuvieron mayor aceptabilidad (OR: 15,8; IC 95 %: 8,83-28,3; p = 0,001) y menores efectos secundarios como distensión abdominal (OR: 0,59; IC 95 %: 0,3-0,9; p = 0,033) y vómito (OR: 0,25; IC 95 %: 0,07-0,82; p = 0,015). Se observó mejor resultado cuando se realizó el examen antes de 6 horas de finalizada la preparación (OR: 6,38; IC 95 %: 3,84-10,6; p = 0,001). Conclusiones: los productos evaluados no presentaron diferencias entre sí con respecto a su efectividad. Los picosulfatos tuvieron menores efectos secundarios y mejor aceptabilidad. Se obtuvo una mejor preparación del colon con preparación dividida y si el examen es hasta 6 horas de finalizada la preparación.
Abstract Objective: To establish the differences between three types of colonoscopy preparation products in terms of effectiveness and tolerability. Materials and methods: An analytical, prospective, blind, cross-sectional study of the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale was carried out. Adult patients over 18 years of age with a requirement for colonoscopy and completion of the survey on the type of preparation carried out for colon cleansing were included. Results: Three groups of products (polyethylene glycol, picosulfates, and sulfate salts) were evaluated in 907 patients. Total and segment Boston Bowel Preparation Scale was applied, without finding statistically significant differences between them (OR 1.10; 95%CI: 0.6-1.8; p = 0.728). 60% of the population were women and the average age was 52 years. Compliance with the diet was observed in 99% of the participants. Split-dose bowel preparation performed best on the Boston scale (OR 5.06; 95%CI; 3.2-8.01; p= 0.001). Picosulfates had greater acceptability (OR 15.8; 95%CI: 8.83-28.3; p= 0.001) and fewer side effects such as abdominal distension (OR 0.59; 95%CI: 0.3-0.9; p= 0.033) and vomiting (OR 0.25; 95%CI: 0.07-0.82; p= 0.015). The best result was observed when the test was performed within 6 hours of completion of preparation (OR 6.38; 95%CI: 3.84-10.6; p = 0.001). Conclusions: The products evaluated did not show differences between them regarding their effectiveness. Picosulfates had fewer side effects and better acceptability. Split-dose and testing up to 6 hours after preparation resulted in better bowel preparation.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Polyethylene Glycols , Salts , Sulfates , Colonoscopy , Patients , Women , Effectiveness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Dosage , Methods
SUMMARY: The effectiveness of microsurgical technique has a direct impact on the recovery of the injured peripheral nerve. The aim of our study was to investigate the result of sciatic nerve regeneration in rats after complete neurotomy and after nerve repair techniques including: 1) epineural suture; 2) polyethylene glycol hydrogel (PEG) (DuraSeal); 3) fibrin sealant (Tisseel). The cross-section of distal sciatic nerve was studied at 14th, 30th and 60th days after nerve repair. Morphometry of myelinated nerve fibers in the distal stump of the sciatic nerve was performed. A significant increase in the number of myelinated nerve fibers was found, especially between 14 and 30 days. The density of myelinated nerve fibers in the distal stump at day 60 was significantly higher after using nerve repair technique including PEG and fibrin versus epineural suture (29.2 % and 32.1 % versus 21.5 %, P <0.05), and a higher level of remyelination of nerve fibers observed in the group with PEG. On day 60, complete elimination of PEG and fibrin sealant was not observed, encapsulation was found around the clusters of hydrogel. Thereby, three peripheral nerve repair techniques were equally effective, only with the use of PEG remyelination of nerve fibers was increasing.
RESUMEN: La efectividad de la técnica microquirúrgica tiene un impacto directo en la recuperación del nervio periférico lesionado. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue investigar el resultado de la regeneración del nervio ciático en ratas después de una neurotomía completa y después de técnicas de reparación nerviosa que incluyeron: 1) sutura epineural; 2) hidrogel de polietilenglicol (PEG) (DuraSeal); 3) sellante de fibrina (Tisseel). La sección transversal del nervio ciático distal se estudió a los 14, 30 y 60 días después de la reparación del nervio. Se realizó la morfometría de fibras nerviosas mielinizadas en el muñón distal del nervio ciático. Se observó un aumento significativo en el número de fibras nerviosas mielinizadas, especialmente entre los 14 y 30 días. La densidad de las fibras nerviosas mielinizadas en el muñón distal en el día 60 fue significativamente mayor después de usar una técnica de reparación nerviosa que incluye PEG y fibrina en comparación con la sutura epineural (29,2 % y 32,1 % versus 21,5 %, P <0,05), y un mayor nivel de remielinización del nervio en fibras observadas en el grupo con PEG. El día 60, no se observó la eliminación completa de PEG y sellador de fibrina, se encontró encapsulación alrededor de los grupos de hidrogel. Por lo tanto, tres técnicas de reparación de nervios periféricos fueron igualmente efectivas, solo que aumentaba la remielinización de fibras nerviosas con PEG.
Subject(s)Animals , Male , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/surgery , Sciatic Nerve/physiology , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive/therapeutic use , Suture Techniques , Hydrogels/therapeutic use , Nerve Regeneration , Polyethylene Glycols , Sciatic Nerve/anatomy & histology , Microsurgery
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Aged , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Sclerotherapy/methods , Endoscopy, Digestive System/methods , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Sclerosing Solutions/adverse effects , Sclerosing Solutions/therapeutic use , Chest Pain/etiology , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnosis , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Sclerotherapy/adverse effects , Ethiodized Oil , Cyanoacrylates/administration & dosage , Dyspnea/etiology
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface film-forming method was used to prepare hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis decoction pieces with stable effect.The preparation process of modified Indigo Naturalis was optimized and its microscopic properties,hydrophilicity,antipyretic efficacy,and safety were systematically evaluated.With equilibrium contact angle as assessment index,the influence of modifier type,modifier dosage,dispersant dosage,and co-grinding time on water solubility of Indigo Naturalis was investigated by single factor test.The results showed that the optimal preparation process was as follows.The 6%PEG6000 is dissolved in 10%anhydrous ethanol solution by sonification and then the mixture is ground with Indigo Naturalis for 2 min.The resultant product is dried on a square tray in an oven at 60℃to remove ethanol and thereby the PEG-modified hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis decoction pieces are yielded.The morphological observation under scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that the modified Indigo Naturalis had smoother surface than Indigo Naturalis,and energy spectrometer measurement showed that the nitrogen (N),calcium(Ca),oxygen (O),and silicon (Si) on the surface of modified Indigo Naturalis powder were less than those of Indigo Naturalis powder.Modified Indigo Naturalis had the equilibrium contact angle 18.96°smaller,polar component 22.222 m J·m~(-2)more,and nonpolar component 7.277 m J·m~(-2)smaller than the Indigo Naturalis powder.Multiple light scattering technique was employed to evaluate the dispersion in water and the result demonstrated that the transmittance of Indigo Naturalis and modified Indigo Naturalis was about85%and 75%,respectively,suggesting the higher dispersity of modified Indigo Naturalis.The suspension rate of modified Indigo Naturalis in water was determined by reflux treatment.The result showed that 57%of Indigo Naturalis was not wetted after refluxing for1 h,while the modified Indigo Naturalis was all wetted and dispersed into water.The dissolution of indigo and indirubin of modified Indigo Naturalis increased and the process was more stable.Then,rats were randomized into the blank group,model group,acetaminophen group,Indigo Naturalis group,and hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis group.The temperature changes of rats were observed after administration and the concentration of IL-1βand TNF-αin serum and IL-1βand PGE_2in hypothalamus was measured.The results indicated that the temperature of Indigo Naturalis group and hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis group dropped and the IL-1βlevel of the hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis group decreased (P<0.05) as compared with those in the model group.Thus,both Indigo Naturalis and hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis had antipyretic effect,particularly the hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis.The acute toxicity test of hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis verified that it had no toxicity to rats.In this study,the hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis decoction pieces were prepared with the PEG surface film-forming method,and the antipyretic efficacy and safety were evaluated,which expanded the technological means of powder modification for Chinese medicine and provided a method for clinical use of Chinese medicine.
Subject(s)Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Polyethylene Glycols , Rats
Objective@#To investigate the changes in the cytokine profiles of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients undergoing antiviral treatment.@*Methods@#Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients were treated with Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and entecavir (ETV). Clinical biochemistry and cytokines were detected at baseline and every 3 months.@*Results@#In all, 200 patients completed 48 weeks of treatment, 100 in the PEG-IFN group and 100 in the ETV group. During 3-6 months of treatment, compared with baseline, the PEG-IFN group showed a significant decrease in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-17A (IL-17A), interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-10(IL-10), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) ( @*Conclusion@#During antiviral therapy, a change in the cytokine profile occurred; in the aspect of immune control and functional cure, PEG-IFN was significantly better than ETV.
Subject(s)Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokines/blood , Female , Guanine/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Male , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use
OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL), and to analyze the factors that affecting the survival and prognostic of patients treated with pegaspargase based chemotherapy.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 61 ENKL patients treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2015 to June 2019 were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed. The clinical characteristics, survival rate and influencing factors of prognostic in patients were investigated.@*RESULTS@#The male and female ratio in the whole group was 2.8∶1. The median age was 46 years old (range, 17-67 years old). 30 patients were in stage I/II, while 31 patients were in stage III/IV. The ratio of nasal and non-nasal type was 4.1∶1. The common sites of extranodal involvement were skin and subcutaneous tissue (26.2%), liver (14.8%), lung (13.1%) and gastrointestinal tract (13.1%). 9.8% of patients showed central nervous system involvement and 11.5% showed bone marrow involvement. The median follow-up time was 22 months (range, 1-53 months). The 2-year PFS and OS rates of patients in the whole group were 51.6% and 53.2%, respectively. The 2-year OS rate of patients at stage I/II was 87.5%, while that of patients at stage III/IV was only 21.2%, the difference showed statistically significant (P60 years old and Ann Arbor stage III-IV were the independent adverse factors that affecting the prognosis of PFS and OS (HR=3.681, 95% CI 1.322-10.250; HR=4.611, 95% CI 1.118-19.009).@*CONCLUSION@#The survival of ENKL patients has been significantly improved by pegaspargase based chemotherapy. Patients with stage I/II disease have achieved a relatively good 2-year OS rate of 87.5%, but the prognosis of stage III/IV and non-nasal type patients are still poor. Age>60 years old and Ann Arbor stage III/IV are independent adverse prognostic factors for ENKL patients.
Subject(s)Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Asparaginase , Female , Humans , Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Polyethylene Glycols , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
OBJECTIVE@#To develop dexamethasone plus minocycline-loaded liposomes (Dex/Mino liposomes) and apply them to improve bioinert polyetheretherketone (PEEK) surface, which could prevent post-operative bacterial contamination, enhance ossification for physiologic osseointegration, and finally reduce implant failure rates.@*METHODS@#Dex/Mino liposomes were covalently grafted onto the PEEK surface using polydopamine (pDA) coating as a medium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to confirm the binding of fluorescently labeled liposomes onto the PEEK substrate, and a microplate reader was used to semiquantitatively measure the average fluorescence intensity of fluorescently labeled liposome-decorated PEEK surfaces. Moreover, the mouse subcutaneous infection model and the beagle femur implantation model were respectively conducted to verify the bioactivity of Dex/Mino liposome-modified PEEK in vivo, by means of micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining analysis.@*RESULTS@#The qualitative and quantitative results of fluorescently labeled liposomes showed that, the red fluorescence intensity of the PEEK-pDA-lipo group was stronger than that of the PEEK-NF-lipo group (P < 0.05); the liposomes were successfully and uniformly decorated on the PEEK surfaces due to the pDA coating. After mouse subcutaneous implantation of PEEKs for 24 hours, HE staining results showed that the number of inflammatory cells in the PEEK-Dex/Mino lipo group were lower than that in the inert PEEK group (P < 0.05), indicating a lower degree of infection in the test group. These results suggested that the Mino released from the liposome-functionalized surface provided an effective bacteriostasis in vivo. After beagle femoral implantation of PEEK for 8 weeks, micro-CT results showed that the PEEK-Dex/Mino lipo group newly formed more continuous bone when compared with the inert PEEK group; HE staining results showed that more new bones were formed in the PEEK-Dex/Mino lipo group than in the inert PEEK group, which were firmly bonded to the functionalized PEEK surface and extended along the PEEK interface. These results suggested that the Dex released from the liposome-functionalized surface induced effective bone regeneration in vivo.@*CONCLUSION@#Dex/Mino liposome modification enhanced the bioactivity of inert PEEK, the functionalized PEEK with enhanced antibacterial and osseointegrative capacity has great potential as an orthopedic/dental implant material for clinical application.
Subject(s)Animals , Benzophenones , Dogs , Ketones , Liposomes , Mice , Osseointegration , Polyethylene Glycols , Polymers , Surface Properties , X-Ray Microtomography
Subject(s)Humans , Polyethylene Glycols , COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , Anaphylaxis , RNA, Messenger , COVID-19 Vaccines
Abstract Introduction Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the cancer with the highest incidence in childhood and adolescence, and pharmacotherapy is the primary form of treatment. Objective and methods A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-asparaginase in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy in children and adolescents was conducted to compare it with native Escherichia coli L-asparaginase. PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Scopus, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) and EMBASE databases were selected. The following outcomes were analyzed: complete remission of the disease, event-free survival, overall survival, anti-asparaginase antibody level, hypersensitivity reactions, asparaginase and asparagine serum levels, number of postdiagnosis events, and overall mortality. Five randomized controlled trials were included. Analysis of the quality of evidence and risk of bias was performed using the Cochrane recommendation tool and the GRADE system. Results The assessment results suggest that the level of certainty on the technology addressed is relatively weak from a methodological point of view. Evidence is insufficient to assess the effects on health outcomes because of the limited number and power of studies and important flaws in their design or conduct in classifying PEG-asparaginase as a superior drug or not, in the pharmacotherapy of ALL in children and adolescents. PEG-asparaginase can be used as a substitute for native E. coli L-asparaginase, demonstrating similar efficacy and safety. Conclusion The study may help decision-makers in the public health system to offer a more in-depth judgment on the therapeutic alternatives used to treat this neoplasm in children and adolescents.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Asparaginase , Escherichia coli , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Polyethylene Glycols , Systematic Review
ABSTRACT Introduction: Adequate bowel preparation is one of the most important factors related to the yield of colonoscopy. Low quality bowel preparation has been associated with lower adenoma detection rates and increased healthcare expenses. Bowel preparation is a major impediment to undergo colonoscopy since it is perceived as an unpleasant experience by patients. Objective: This study was aimed to assess tolerance and acceptability of the bowel preparation using either polyethylene glycol (PEG) or mannitol solution. Materials and methods: We enrolled 140 patients with indications of screening for colorectal cancer or with suspected large bowel diseases. They received either mannitol solution or PEG as bowel preparation. Patients were asked to fill a questionnaire about the bowel preparation experience. Results: Patients perceived more burdensome the preparation with PEG than mannitol for the variables nausea overall experience, post-procedure discomfort, disagreeable flavor, volume ingested and cost (p<0.05). A similar tolerance was reported for abdominal pain, bloating and anal irritation (p>0.05). The acceptability was 82.9% and 71.4% in the Mannitol group and in the PEG group, respectively (p=0.10). Conclusion: Acceptance of the bowel preparation between mannitol solution and PEG was comparable. However, mannitol was better tolerated by the patients in regard to most of the evaluated items.
RESUMEN Introducción: La preparación intestinal adecuada es uno de los factores más importantes relacionados con el rendimiento de la colonoscopía. La preparación intestinal de baja calidad se ha asociado con tasas de detección de adenoma más bajas y mayores gastos de atención sanitaria. La preparación intestinal es un impedimento importante para someterse a una colonoscopía, ya que los pacientes la perciben como una experiencia desagradable. Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la tolerancia y la aceptabilidad de la preparación intestinal utilizando polietilenglicol (PEG) o solución de manitol. Materiales y métodos: Fueron incluidos 140 pacientes con indicación de pesquisa de cáncer colorrectal o con sospecha de enfermedades del intestino grueso. Los pacientes recibieron solución de manitol o PEG como preparación intestinal. Se pidió a los pacientes que completaran un cuestionario sobre la experiencia de preparación intestinal. Resultados: Los pacientes percibieron más agobiante la preparación con PEG que el manitol para las variables náuseas, experiencia general, molestias posteriores al procedimiento, sabor desagradable, volumen ingerido y costo (p<0,05). Se informó una tolerancia similar para el dolor abdominal, distensión abdominal e irritación anal (p>0,05). La aceptabilidad fue de 82,9% y 71,4% en el grupo de manitol y en el grupo de PEG, respectivamente (p=0,10). Conclusión: La aceptación de la preparación intestinal entre la solución de manitol y el PEG fue comparable. Sin embargo, el manitol fue mejor tolerado por los pacientes con respecto a la mayoría de las variables evaluadas.
Subject(s)Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , Cathartics/adverse effects , Colonoscopy , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Mannitol/adverse effects , Polyethylene Glycols/administration & dosage , Cathartics/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Mannitol/administration & dosage
A self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) composed of ethyl oleate, Tween 80 and polyethylene glycol 600 was prepared as a new route to improve the efficacy of imatinib. The drug-loaded SNEDDS formed nanodroplets of ethyl oleate stabilized by Tween 80 and polyethylene glycol 600 with a diameter of 81.0±9.5 nm. The nanoemulsion-based delivery system was stable for at least two months, with entrapment efficiency and loading capacity of 16.4±0.1 and 48.3±0.2%, respectively. Imatinib-loaded SNEDDS was evaluated for the drug release profiles, and its effectiveness against MCF-7 cell line was investigated. IC50 values for the imatinib-loaded SNEDDS and an imatinib aqueous solution were 3.1 and 6.5 µg mL-1, respectively.