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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 241-245, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153370

ABSTRACT

Pet rabbits have increased their popularity in a lot of countries. However, most of the laboratory profiles in rabbit medicine come from the observations made in rabbit as biomodels or meat production. So that further researches are necessary to obtain reference values for hematology and biochemical profiles in pet rabbits and the different breeds, especially, in relation to acid-base balance. The aim of this report was to offer the mean values of the main parameters connected with acid-base profile in Netherland Dwarf breed. Thirty-five healthy rabbits (15 males and 20 females) were studied. Venous blood sample from lateral saphenous vein was analyzed to measure: haematocrit, haemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, blood pH, partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), total CO2, ions bicarbonate, chloride, sodium, potassium, base excess and anion Gap. Results showed a shorter range that those reported by different researchers. Moreover, differences between genders were showed in pCO2, its values were higher in males. It may be associated with a greater cellular metabolism. Values obtained in this research should be taken into account by veterinary clinicians for this breed in their clinical assessments. Besides, these values provide new results in parameters with few reference values.


A popularidade de coelhos como animais de estimação aumentou em muitos países. No entanto, a maioria dos perfis de laboratório em medicina de coelhos advém das observações de biomodelos animais ou da produção de carne. Assim, são necessárias pesquisas adicionais para obter valores de referência para hematologia e perfis bioquímicos em coelhos de estimação, e das diferentes raças, especialmente, em relação ao equilíbrio ácido-base. O objetivo deste relatório foi oferecer os valores médios dos principais parâmetros ligados ao perfil ácido-base na raça Anã Holandês. Trinta e cinco coelhos saudáveis ​​(15 machos e 20 fêmeas) foram estudados. A amostra de sangue venoso da veia safena lateral foi analisada para mensuração: hematócrito, hemoglobina, nitrogênio ureico sanguíneo, glicose, pH sanguíneo, pressão parcial de CO2 (pCO2), CO2 total, íons bicarbonato, cloreto, sódio, potássio, excesso de base e ânion Gap. Os resultados apresentaram um intervalo menor do que aqueles relatados por diferentes pesquisadores. Além disso, as diferenças entre os gêneros foram mostradas na pCO2, seus valores foram maiores no sexo masculino. Pode estar associado a um maior metabolismo celular. Os valores obtidos nesta pesquisa devem ser levados em consideração pelos clínicos veterinários para esta raça em suas avaliações clínicas. Além disso, esses valores fornecem novos resultados em parâmetros com poucos valores de referencia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Potassium/blood , Sodium/blood , Acid-Base Equilibrium , Pets/blood , Reference Values , Blood Specimen Collection/veterinary
2.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s31-s36, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057105

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Hyperkalemia is a frequent finding in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This increase in serum potassium levels is associated with decreased renal ion excretion, as well as the use of medications to reduce the progression of CKD or to control associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus and heart failure. Hyperkalemia increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmia episodes and sudden death. Thus, the control of potassium elevation is essential for reducing the mortality rate in this population. Initially, the management of hyperkalemia includes orientation of low potassium diets and monitoring of patients' adherence to this procedure. It is also important to know the medications in use and the presence of comorbidities to guide dose reduction or even temporary withdrawal of any of the potassium retention-related drugs. And finally, the use of potassium binders is indicated in both acute episodes and chronic hyperkalemia.


RESUMO A hiperpotassemia é um achado frequente em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC). Esta elevação do nível sérico de potássio está associada à diminuição da excreção renal do íon, assim como ao uso de medicações para retardar a progressão da DRC ou para controlar doenças associadas, como diabetes mellitus e insuficiência cardíaca. A hiperpotassemia aumenta o risco de episódios de arritmia cardíaca e morte súbita. Assim, o controle da elevação de potássio é essencial para a diminuição da taxa de mortalidade nessa população. O manejo da hiperpotassemia inclui, inicialmente, orientação de dietas com baixo teor de potássio e acompanhamento da aderência dos pacientes a esse procedimento. Também é importante conhecer as medicações em uso e a presença de comorbidades, a fim de orientar a redução de doses ou até mesmo a suspensão temporária de alguma das drogas relacionadas à retenção de potássio. E, finalmente, o uso de quelantes de potássio é indicado tanto em episódios agudos como nos casos de hiperpotassemia crônica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Potassium/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Hyperkalemia/etiology , Polystyrenes/therapeutic use , Potassium/blood , Comorbidity , Silicates/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Hyperkalemia/drug therapy , Hyperkalemia/blood
3.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 481-491, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056601

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: It is unclear whether residual renal function (RRF) in dialysis patients can attenuate the metabolic impact of the long 68-hour interdialytic interval, in which water, acid, and electrolyte accumulation occurs. Objective: to evaluate serum electrolyte levels, water balance, and acid-base status in dialytic patients with and without RRF over the long interdialytic interval (LII). Methodology: this was a single-center, cross-sectional, and analytical study that compared patients with and without RRF, defined by diuresis above 200 mL in 24 hours. Patients were weighed and serum samples were collected for biochemical and gasometric analysis at the beginning and at the end of the LII. Results: 27 and 24 patients with and without RRF were evaluated, respectively. Patients without RRF had a higher increase in serum potassium during the LII (2.67 x 1.14 mEq/L, p < 0.001), reaching higher values at the end of the study (6.8 x 5.72 mEq/L, p < 0.001) and lower pH value at the beginning of the interval (7.40 x 7.43, p = 0.018). More patients with serum bicarbonate < 18 mEq/L (50 x 14.8%, p = 0.007) and mixed acid-base disorder (57.7 x 29.2%, p = 0.042), as well as greater interdialytic weight gain (14.67 x 8.87 mL/kg/h, p < 0.001) and lower natremia (137 x 139 mEq/L, p = 0.02) at the end of the interval. Calcemia and phosphatemia were not different between the groups. Conclusion: Patients with RRF had better control of serum potassium, sodium, acid-base status, and volemia throughout the LII.


Resumo Introdução: Não se sabe ao certo se a função renal residual (FRR) de pacientes dialíticos pode atenuar o impacto metabólico do maior intervalo interdialítico (MII) de 68 horas, no qual ocorre acúmulo de volume, ácidos e eletrólitos. Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis séricos de eletrólitos, balanço hídrico e status ácido-básico de pacientes dialíticos com e sem FRR ao longo do MII. Metodologia: Tratou-se de estudo unicêntrico, transversal e analítico, que comparou pacientes com e sem FRR, definida como diurese acima de 200 mL em 24 horas. Para tal, os pacientes foram pesados e submetidos à coleta de amostras séricas para análise bioquímica e gasométrica no início e fim do MII. Resultados: Foram avaliados 27 e 24 pacientes com e sem FRR, respectivamente. Pacientes sem FRR apresentaram maior aumento de potássio sérico durante o MII (2,67 x 1,14 mEq/L, p < 0,001) atingindo valores mais elevados no fim (6,8 x 5,72 mEq/L, p < 0,001); menor valor de pH no início do intervalo (7,40 x 7,43, p = 0,018), maior proporção de pacientes com bicarbonato sérico < 18 mEq/L (50 x 14,8 %, p = 0,007) e distúrbio ácido-básico misto (70,8 x 42,3 %, p = 0,042), além de maior ganho de peso interdialítico (14,67 x 8,87 mL/kg/h, p < 0,001) e menor natremia (137 x 139 mEq/L, p = 0,02) no fim do intervalo. A calcemia e fosfatemia não foram diferentes entre os grupos. Conclusão: Pacientes com FRR apresentaram melhor controle dos níveis séricos de potássio, sódio, status ácido-básico e da volemia ao longo do MII.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Water-Electrolyte Balance/physiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency/blood , Kidney/physiopathology , Phosphates/blood , Potassium/blood , Sodium/blood , Acid-Base Imbalance/physiopathology , Bicarbonates/blood , Weight Gain , Calcium/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Renal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency/urine , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/chemistry , Kidney Function Tests/methods
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 17(1): 35-37, jan.-mar. 2019. graf., tab.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026181

ABSTRACT

A doença de Addison é uma endocrinopatia rara, de etiologia autoimune. É caracterizada por défice na secreção de glicocorticoides e mineralocorticoides. A esclerose múltipla consiste em patologia neurológica, de origem autoimune, que resulta na desmielinização da bainha de mielina. O objetivo deste relato foi demonstrar a associação rara entre essas duas patologias e suas possíveis relações imunológicas. A paciente analisada é do sexo feminino, 41 anos, portadora de esclerose múltipla, que posteriormente foi diagnosticada com insuficiência adrenal primária. (AU)


Addison's disease is a rare endocrinopathy of autoimmune etiology. It is characterized by a secretion's deficit of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Multiple sclerosis is a neurological pathology of autoimmune origin, which results in demyelination of the myelin sheath. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the uncommon association between these two pathologies and their possible immunological relationships. The analyzed patient is a woman, 41 years old, with multiple sclerosis, who was later diagnosed with primary adrenal insufficiency. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Addison Disease/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Potassium/blood , Asthenia , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Sodium/blood , Vomiting , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/blood , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Addison Disease/complications , Addison Disease/genetics , Addison Disease/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tomography , Weight Loss , Abdominal Pain , Hyperpigmentation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adrenal Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Glucose Tolerance Test , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hypotension/etiology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/genetics , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Nausea
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(4): 758-764, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954079

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Phyllanthus niruri (P.niruri) or stone breaker is a plant commonly used to reduce stone risk, however, clinical studies on this issue are lacking. Objective: To prospectively evaluate the effect of P. niruri on the urinary metabolic parameters of patients with urinary lithiasis. Materials and Methods: We studied 56 patients with kidney stones <10mm. Clinical, metabolic, and ultrasonography assessment was conducted before (baseline) the use of P. niruri infusion for 12-weeks (P. niruri) and after a 12-week (wash out) Statistical analysis included ANOVA for repeated measures and Tukey's/McNemar's test for categorical variables. Significance was set at 5%. Results: Mean age was 44±9.2 and BMI was 27.2±4.4kg/m2. Thirty-six patients (64%) were women. There were no significant changes in all periods for anthropometric and several serum measurements, including total blood count, creatinine, uric acid, sodium, potassium, calcium, urine volume and pH; a significant increase in urinary potassium from 50.5±20.4 to 56.2±21.8 mg/24-hour (p=0.017); magnesium/creatinine ratio 58±22.5 to 69.1±28.6mg/gCr24-hour (p=0.013) and potassium/creatinine ratio 39.3±15.1 to 51.3±34.7mg/gCr24-hour (p=0.008) from baseline to wash out. The kidney stones decreased from 3.2±2 to 2.0±2per patient (p<0.001). In hyperoxaluria patients, urinary oxalate reduced from 59.0±11.7 to 28.8±16.0mg/24-hour (p=0.0002), and in hyperuricosuria there was a decrease in urinary uric acid from 0.77±0.22 to 0.54±0.07mg/24-hour (p=0.0057). Conclusions: P.niruri intake is safe and does not cause significant adverse effects on serum metabolic parameters. It increases urinary excretion of magnesium and potassium caused a significant decrease in urinary oxalate and uric acid in patients with hyperoxaluria and hyperuricosuria. The consumption of P.niruri contributed to the elimination of urinary calculi.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Kidney Calculi/metabolism , Kidney Calculi/prevention & control , Phyllanthus/chemistry , Teas, Herbal , Oxalates/urine , Potassium/urine , Potassium/blood , Reference Values , Sodium/urine , Sodium/blood , Urea/urine , Urea/blood , Uric Acid/urine , Uric Acid/blood , Kidney Calculi/diagnostic imaging , Calcium/urine , Calcium/blood , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Creatinine/urine , Creatinine/blood , Magnesium/urine , Middle Aged
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(1): 41-45, Apr.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888244

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a gold standard for long term enteral feeding. Neurologic dysphagia and head/neck cancer are the most common indications for PEG as they can lead to protein-energy malnutrition and serum electrolyte abnormalities, with potential negative impact on metabolic balance. Refeeding syndrome may also be related with severe electrolyte changes in PEG-fed patients and contribute to poor prognosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the changes in serum concentrations of the main electrolytes and its possible association with the outcome. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients followed in our Artificial Nutrition Clinic, submitted to PEG from 2010 to 2016, having head/neck cancer or neurologic dysphagia, who died under PEG feeding. Serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus) were evaluated immediately before the gastrostomy procedure. Survival after PEG until death was recorded in months. RESULTS: We evaluated 101 patients, 59 with electrolyte alterations at the moment of the gastrostomy. Sodium was altered in 32 (31.7%), magnesium in 21 (20.8%), chlorine in 21 (20.8%), potassium in 14 (13.8%), calcium in 11 (10.9 %) and phosphorus in 11 (10.9%). The survival of patients with low sodium (<135 mmol/L) was significantly lower when compared to patients with normal/high values, 2.76 months vs 7.80 months, respectively (P=0.007). CONCLUSION: Changes in serum electrolytes of patients undergoing PEG were very common. More than half showed at least one abnormality, at the time of the procedure. The most frequent was hyponatremia, which was associated with significantly shorter survival, probably reflecting severe systemic metabolic distress.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A gastrostomia endoscópica percutânea (PEG) é a via de eleição preferencial para a nutrição entérica de longa duração. A disfagia neurológica e as neoplasias cervico-faciais constituem as principais indicações para PEG por poderem conduzir a desnutrição energético-proteica e alterações hidroeletrolíticas, com potencial impacto negativo no equilíbrio metabólico. A síndrome de realimentação pode também estar associada a alterações hidroeletrolíticas graves em doentes alimentados por PEG e contribuir para um mau prognóstico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações das concentrações séricas dos principais eletrólitos e a eventual associação entre os valores séricos alterados e o prognóstico dos doentes gastrostomizados. Métodos - Estudo retrospetivo realizado em doentes seguidos na Consulta de Nutrição Artificial do Hospital Garcia de Orta, propostos e submetidos a PEG, de 2010 a 2016 e que faleceram sob nutrição por PEG. Consideraram-se os valores séricos dos iões em estudo avaliados imediatamente antes do procedimento endoscópico de gastrostomia, obtidos por consulta do processo clínico. A sobrevida, após a realização da PEG até à morte foi registrada em meses. RESULTADOS: Avaliaram-se 101 doentes. A sobrevida média pós-gastrostomia foi 6,55 meses. Destes, 59 apresentaram alterações de alguns iões no momento da realização da PEG. O sódio estava alterado em 31 (30,6%), magnésio em 20 (19,8%), cloro em 19 (18,8%), potássio em 14 (13,8%), cálcio em 10 (9,9%) e o fósforo em 9 (8,9%). Quando comparada a sobrevida dos doentes com valores de sódio baixo (<135 mmol/L) com a dos doentes com valores normais/elevados, esta foi 2,76 meses vs 7,80 meses, respectivamente (P=0,007). CONCLUSÃO: As alterações dos eletrólitos séricos nos doentes submetidos a PEG foram muito frequentes, com mais de metade dos doentes a apresentarem pelo menos uma alteração aquando da realização do procedimento. A alteração mais frequente foi a hiponatrémia, associando-se a pior prognóstico com sobrevida significativamente mais curta, refletindo provavelmente um grave compromisso metabólico sistêmico.


Subject(s)
Gastrostomy/methods , Deglutition Disorders/blood , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Electrolytes/blood , Endoscopy/methods , Head and Neck Neoplasms/blood , Phosphorus/blood , Portugal/epidemiology , Potassium/blood , Prognosis , Gastrostomy/mortality , Sodium Chloride/blood , Deglutition Disorders/mortality , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Calcium/blood , Retrospective Studies , Endoscopy/mortality , Head and Neck Neoplasms/mortality , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Magnesium/blood , Middle Aged
7.
Anaesthesia, Pain and Intensive Care. 2017; 21 (2): 283-283
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189163
8.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 92(6): 631-637, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829119

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess clinical and laboratory data, and acute kidney injury (AKI) in HIV-infected children using and not using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) prior to admission. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with HIV-infected pediatric patients (<16 years). Children who were using and not using HAART prior to admission were compared. Results: Sixty-three patients were included. Mean age was 5.3 ± 4.27 years; 55.6% were females. AKI was observed in 33 (52.3%) children. Patients on HAART presented lower levels of potassium (3.9 ± 0.8 vs. 4.5 ± 0.7 mEq/L, p = 0.019) and bicarbonate (19.1 ± 4.9 vs. 23.5 ± 2.2 mEq/L, p = 0.013) and had a higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (102.2 ± 36.7 vs. 77.0 ± 32.8 mL/min/1.73 m2, p = 0.011) than those not on HAART. In the multivariate analysis, the use of HAART prior to the admission was a protective factor for AKI (p = 0.036; OR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.097-0.926). Conclusion: AKI is a common complication of pediatric HIV infection. Use of HAART prior to the admission preserved glomerular filtration and was a protective factor for AKI, but increased medication side effects, such as hypokalemia and renal metabolic acidosis.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar dados clínicos e laboratoriais, bem como ocorrência de lesão renal aguda (LRA), em crianças HIV positivas com e sem uso de terapia antirretroviral altamente ativa (TARV) antes da admissão. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo em pacientes pediátricos HIV positivos (< 16 anos). Foram comparadas as crianças que estavam em uso com aquelas sem uso de TARV prévia à internação. Resultados: Foram incluídos 63 pacientes, com média de 5,3 ± 4,27 anos, 55,6% do sexo feminino. LRA foi encontrada em 33 casos (52,3%). Os pacientes que usavam TARV apresentaram menores níveis de potássio (3,9 ± 0,8 vs. 4,5 ± 0,7 mEq/L, p = 0,019) e bicarbonato (19,1 ± 4,9 vs. 23,5 ± 2,2 mEq/L, p = 0,013), bem como maior taxa de filtração glomerular estimada (102,2 ± 36,7 vs. 77,0 ± 32,8 mL/min/1,73m2, p = 0,011), do que o pacientes sem TARV prévia. Na análise multivariada o uso de TARV prévia à internação foi fator protetor contra LRA (p = 0,036; RC = 0,30; IC de 95% = 0,097-0,926). Conclusão: A LRA é uma complicação comum da infecção pediátrica pelo HIV. O uso de TARV antes da internação foi associado a melhor taxa de filtração glomerular e foi fator de proteção contra LRA, porém desencadeou efeitos colaterais como hipocalemia e acidose metabólica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , HIV Infections/complications , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Potassium/blood , Bicarbonates/blood , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Protective Agents/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Glomerular Filtration Rate/drug effects
9.
Clinics ; 71(8): 470-473, Aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794636

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of the Taql and Bsml vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in hospital mortality of burn patients. METHODS: In total, 105 consecutive burn injury patients over 18 years in age who were admitted to the Burn Unit of Bauru State Hospital from January to December 2013 were prospectively evaluated. Upon admission, patient demographic information was recorded and a blood sample was taken for biochemical analysis to identify the presence of the Taql(rs731236) and Bsml(rs1544410) polymorphisms. All of the patients were followed over their hospital stay and mortality was recorded. RESULTS: Eighteen of the patients did not sign the informed consent form, and there were technical problems with genotype analysis for 7 of the patients. Thus, 80 patients (mean age, 42.5±16.1 years) were included in the final analysis. In total, 60% of the patients were male, and 16.3% died during the hospital stay. The genotype frequencies for the Taql polymorphism were 51.25% TT, 41.25% TC and 7.50% CC; for the Bsml polymorphism, they were 51.25% GG, 42.50% GA and 6.25% AA. In logistic regression analysis, after adjustments for age, gender and total body surface burn area, there were no associations between the Taql (OR: 1.575; CI95%: 0.148-16.745; p=0.706) or Bsml (OR: 1.309; CI95%: 0.128-13.430; p=0.821) polymorphisms and mortality for the burn patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the Taql and Bsml vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms are not associated with hospital mortality of burn patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic , Burns/genetics , Burns/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Potassium/blood , Sodium/blood , Urea/blood , Serum Albumin , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Creatinine/blood , Genotype , Length of Stay
10.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 28(1): 19-26, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780002

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: A hipercapnia resultante da ventilação protetora na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo desencadeia uma compensação metabólica do pH que ainda não foi completamente caracterizada. Nosso objetivo foi descrever esta compensação metabólica. Métodos: Os dados foram recuperados a partir de uma base de dados registrada de forma prospectiva. Foram obtidas as variáveis dos pacientes no momento da admissão e quando da instalação da hipercapnia até o terceiro dia após sua instalação. Analisamos 41 pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo, incluindo 26 com hipercapnia persistente (pressão parcial de gás carbônico acima de 50mmHg por mais de 24 horas) e 15 sem hipercapnia (Grupo Controle). Para a realização da análise, utilizamos uma abordagem físico-química quantitativa do metabolismo acidobásico. Resultados: As médias de idade dos Grupos com Hipercapnia e Controle foram, respectivamente, de 48 ± 18 anos e 44 ± 14 anos. Após a indução da hipercapnia, o pH diminuiu acentuadamente e melhorou gradualmente nas 72 horas seguintes, de forma coerente com os aumentos observados no excesso de base padrão. A adaptação metabólica acidobásica ocorreu em razão de diminuições do lactato sérico e do strong ion gap e de aumentos na diferença aparente de strong ions inorgânicos. Além do mais, a elevação da diferença aparente de strong ions inorgânicos ocorreu por conta de ligeiros aumentos séricos de sódio, magnésio, potássio e cálcio. O cloreto sérico não diminuiu por até 72 horas após o início da hipercapnia. Conclusão: A adaptação metabólica acidobásica, que é desencadeada pela hipercapnia aguda persistente em pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo, foi complexa. Mais ainda, aumentos mais rápidos no excesso de base padrão em pacientes com hipercapnia envolveram diminuições séricas de lactato e íons não medidos, e aumentos na diferença aparente de strong ions inorgânicos, por meio de ligeiros aumentos séricos de sódio, magnésio, cálcio e potássio. Não ocorreu redução do cloreto sérico.


ABSTRACT Objective: Hypercapnia resulting from protective ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome triggers metabolic pH compensation, which is not entirely characterized. We aimed to describe this metabolic compensation. Methods: The data were retrieved from a prospective collected database. Variables from patients' admission and from hypercapnia installation until the third day after installation were gathered. Forty-one patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome were analyzed, including twenty-six with persistent hypercapnia (PaCO2 > 50mmHg > 24 hours) and 15 non-hypercapnic (control group). An acid-base quantitative physicochemical approach was used for the analysis. Results: The mean ages in the hypercapnic and control groups were 48 ± 18 years and 44 ± 14 years, respectively. After the induction of hypercapnia, pH markedly decreased and gradually improved in the ensuing 72 hours, consistent with increases in the standard base excess. The metabolic acid-base adaptation occurred because of decreases in the serum lactate and strong ion gap and increases in the inorganic apparent strong ion difference. Furthermore, the elevation in the inorganic apparent strong ion difference occurred due to slight increases in serum sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium. Serum chloride did not decrease for up to 72 hours after the initiation of hypercapnia. Conclusion: In this explanatory study, the results indicate that metabolic acid-base adaptation, which is triggered by acute persistent hypercapnia in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, is complex. Furthermore, further rapid increases in the standard base excess of hypercapnic patients involve decreases in serum lactate and unmeasured anions and increases in the inorganic apparent strong ion difference by means of slight increases in serum sodium, magnesium, calcium, and potassium. Serum chloride is not reduced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Acid-Base Equilibrium/physiology , Hypercapnia/complications , Potassium/blood , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Sodium/blood , Calcium/blood , Retrospective Studies , Databases, Factual , Lactic Acid/blood , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypercapnia/etiology , Magnesium/blood , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(6): 609-617, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-773266

ABSTRACT

Background: Cotrimoxazole is a therapeutic option for bone-related infections but is associated to hyperkalemia and renal failure. Tolerance to this drug may reduce length of stay (LOS) and hospital charges. Aims: To evaluate renal, potassium toxicity, clinical outcome, and use of hospital resources in patients treated with cotrimoxazole for bone-related infections. Methods: Retrospective analysis of adult patients with bone-related infections confirmed by culture and treated with this drug. Serum potassium and creatinine levels were analyzed during follow-up and risk factors for hyperkalemia were searched. Length of stay (LOS) and hospital charges were compared. Clinical outcome was evaluated as a secondary endpoint. Results: From 2011 to 2014, 23 patients were identified (mean age 64.7 years). Diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, and previous amputations prevalence were high (82.6%, 47.8%, and 43.5%, respectively). Median serum potassium concentration increased significantly at first control (4.35 mEq/L to 4.9 mEq/L; p < 0.001), and also creatinine serum concentration (0.9 to 1.1 mg/dL; p < 0.05). Seven patients developed hyperkalemia. Cotrimoxazole was discontinued in 10 patients (43.5%), and in 6, discharge was postponed. Drugs active against the renin-angiotensin system (DAARAS) were associated with kyperkalemia (OR 10.8 IC95 1.37-85; p < 0.05). LOS was higher among patients with cotrimoxazole toxicity (median LOS 56 versus 30 days, p < 0.05). Patients with no cotrimoxazole interruption had less drug-related hospital charges (median values of 563 versus 2820 USD, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: Cotrimoxazole use must be monitored in order to detect hyperkalemia or renal toxicity and suspend its prescription. Patients that use DAARAS have a higher risk of kyperkalemia. LOS and drug-related hospital charges are reduced when patients can tolerate cotrimoxazole.


Antecedentes: Cotrimoxazol es una alternativa en infecciones óseas pero se ha asociado al desarrollo de falla renal e hiperkalemia. Objetivo: Evaluar toxicidad renal, hiperkalemia, estadía y gastos hospitalarios y evolución clínica en un grupo de pacientes con infecciones óseas tratados con este compuesto. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo-descriptivo de pacientes adultos con infecciones óseas confirmadas con cultivos y tratados con este compuesto. Seguimiento de creatinina y kalemia y búsqueda de factores de riesgo para hiperkalemia, comparación de gastos y estadía hospitalaria y análisis de eficacia clínica. Resultados: Desde el año 2011 al 2014 se identificaron 23 pacientes (promedio de edad 64,7 años). La prevalencia de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (82,6%), enfermedad vascular periférica (47,8%) y amputaciones previas (43,5%) fue elevada. La mediana de la kalemia basal aumentó significativamente al primer control (4,35 a 4,9 mEq/L) al igual que la creatinina plasmática (0,9 a 1,1 mg/dL). Siete pacientes desarrollaron hiperkalemia (30,4%). Se suspendió cotrimoxazol en 10 casos (43,5%) y en 6 casos se postergó el alta. El uso de fármacos activos contra el sistema renina-angiotensina (FASRA) se asoció a hiperkalemia (OR 10,8 IC95 1,37-85; p < 0,05). La estadía hospitalaria fue mayor en el grupo con toxicidad a cotrimoxazol (mediana de 56 versus 30 días; p < 0,05) y los pacientes sin suspensión de terapia tuvieron menos gastos por fármacos (medianas de 563 vs 2.820 USD, p < 0,01). Conclusiones: El uso de cotrimoxazol debe ser monitorizado para detectar hiperkalemia o toxicidad renal y suspender su prescripción. Los pacientes que usan FASRA tienen mayor riesgo de hiperkalemia. La estadía y gastos hospitalarios por fármacos son menores en pacientes que toleran el cotrimoxazol.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Bone Diseases, Infectious/drug therapy , Hyperkalemia/chemically induced , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/economics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Creatinine/blood , Health Care Costs , Length of Stay , Potassium/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/economics , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(5): 441-447, Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764113

ABSTRACT

Objectives Primary aldosteronism (PA) is characterized by the autonomous overproduction of aldosterone. Its prevalence has increased since the use of the aldosterone (ALD)/plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR). The objective of this study is to determine ARR and ARC (ALD/plasma renin concentration ratio) cut-off values (COV) and their diagnostic concordance (DC%) in the screening for PA in an Argentinian population.Design multicenter prospective study.Subjects and methods We studied 353 subjects (104 controls and 249 hypertensive patients). Serum aldosterone, PRA and ARR were determined. In 220 randomly selected subjects, 160 hypertensive patients and 60 controls, plasma renin concentration (PRC) was simultaneously measured and ARC was determined.Results According to the 95th percentile of controls, we determined a COV of 36 for ARR and 2.39 for ARC, with ALD ≥ 15 ng/dL. In 31/249 hypertensive patients, ARR was ≥ 36. PA diagnosis was established in 8/31 patients (23/31 patients did not complete confirmatory tests). DC% between ARR and ARC was calculated. A significant correlation between ARR and ARC (r = 0.742; p < 0.0001) was found only with PRA > 0.3 ng/mL/h and PRC > 5 pg/mL. DC% for ARR and ARC above or below 36 and 2.39 was 79.1%, respectively.Conclusion This first Argentinian multicenter study determined a COV of 36 for ARR and 2.39 for ARC. Applying an ARR ≥ 36 in the hypertensive group, we confirmed PA in a higher percentage of patients than the previously reported one in our population. As for ARC, further studies are needed for its clinical application, since DC% is acceptable only for medium range renin values.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Mass Screening/standards , Aldosterone/blood , Argentina/epidemiology , Hyperaldosteronism/complications , Hyperaldosteronism/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Potassium/blood , Radioimmunoassay , Reference Standards , Renin/blood , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 52(2): 94-99, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748174

ABSTRACT

Background Patients with short bowel syndrome have significant fluid and electrolytes loss. Objective Evaluate the mineral and electrolyte status in short bowel syndrome patients receiving intermittent parenteral nutrition or oral feeding. Methods Twenty two adults with short bowel syndrome, of whom 11 were parenteral nutrition dependent (PN group), and the 11 remaining had been weaned off parenteral nutrition for at least 1 year and received all nutrients by oral feeding (OF group). The study also included 14 healthy volunteers paired by age and gender (control group). Food ingestion, anthropometry, serum or plasma levels of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, zinc, iron and copper were evaluated. PN group subjects were evaluated before starting a new parenteral nutrition cycle. Results The levels of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and zinc were similar between the groups. The magnesium value was lower in the PN group (1.0 ± 0.4 mEq /L) than other groups. Furthermore, this electrolyte was lower in the OF group (1.4 ± 0.3 mEq /L) when compared to the Control group (1.8 ± 0.1 mEq/L). Lower values of copper (69±24 vs 73±26 vs 109±16 µg/dL) were documented, respectively, for the PN and OF groups when compared to the control group. Conclusion Hypomagnesemia and hypocupremia are electrolyte disturbances commonly observed in short bowel syndrome. Patients with massive intestinal resection require monitoring and supplementation in order to prevent magnesium and copper deficiencies. .


Contexto Ressecções intestinais extensas resultam em perda de fluídos e eletrólitos. Objetivo Avaliar os níveis séricos de minerais e eletrólitos em pacientes com síndrome do intestino curto, dependentes ou não de nutrição parenteral. Métodos O estudo incluiu 22 adultos com síndrome de intestino curto, sendo 11 dependentes de nutrição parenteral (Grupo NP) e 11 sujeitos que recebiam todo aporte nutricional por via oral (Grupo VO). Foram incluídos 14 voluntários saudáveis, pareados para a idade e o gênero (Grupo Controle). A avaliação da ingestão alimentar, antropometria, níveis sanguíneos de sódio, potássio, fósforo, magnésio, cálcio, zinco, ferro e cobre foram documentados em todos os voluntários. Resultados Os níveis sanguíneos de sódio, potássio, fósforo, cálcio e zinco foram similares entre os grupos de estudo. Os níveis séricos de magnésio foram menores no Grupo NP (1,0±0,4 mEq/L) em relação aos demais grupos. Além disso, a concentração desse eletrólito foi menor no Grupo VO (1,4±0,3 mEq/L) em relação ao Grupo Controle (1,8±0,1 mEq/L). Foram documentados menores valores cobre (69±24 vs 73±26 vs 109±16 µg/dL) nos grupos NP e VO quando comparados com o Grupo Controle, respectivamente. Conclusão Hipomagnesemia e hipocupremia são distúrbios eletrolíticos comumente observados na síndrome de intestino curto. Os pacientes com ressecção intestinal extensa requerem monitorização e suplementação de magnésio e cobre a fim de prevenir deficiências. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Copper/deficiency , Magnesium Deficiency/blood , Short Bowel Syndrome/blood , Case-Control Studies , Calcium/blood , Energy Intake , Parenteral Nutrition , Phosphorus/blood , Potassium/blood , Sodium/blood , Zinc/blood
14.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 30(2): 173-181, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748938

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Pharmacological therapy is a strategy for the prevention of complications associated with ischemia and reperfusion injury that occurs after volume replacement in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine associated with fluid resuscitation in cardiac injury in a rat hemorrhagic shock model. Methods: Mice Wister male rats were randomly and subjected to controlled hemorrhagic shock for 60 min. and then, subjected to resuscitation with Ringer lactate. In a group of six animals, 150mg/kg of N-acetylcysteine were added to fluid volume replacement. The animals were observed for 120 min and after this period, were euthanized and cardiac tissue was collected for histopathological analysis and measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and pro-and anti-inflammatory interleukin. Results: Cardiac tissue of the group treated with N-acetylcysteine showed lower concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (0.20±0.05 vs. 0.27±0.05, P=0.014) and reduced histopathological damage and edema when compared to the group whose volume replacement occurred only with Ringer lactate. There was no difference in the expression of cytokines interleukin 6 (2,138.29±316.89 vs. 1,870.16±303.68, P=0.091) and interleukin 10 (1.019,83±262,50 vs. 848.60±106.5, P=0.169) between the treated groups. Conclusion: The association of N-acetylcysteine on volume replacement attenuates oxidative stress in the heart, as well myocardial damage and edema, but does not modify the expression of inflammatory cytokines. .


Resumo Introdução: A terapia farmacológica é uma estratégia de prevenção das complicações associadas à lesão de isquemia e reperfusão tecidual que ocorre após a reposição volêmica no tratamento do choque hemorrágico. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a repercussão da N-acetilcisteína associada à reposição volêmica na lesão cardíaca em modelo de choque hemorrágico em ratos. Métodos: Ratos Wistar, machos, foram randomizados e submetidos ao choque hemorrágico controlado por 60 minutos e, depois, submetidos à reposição volêmica com Ringer Lactato. Em um grupo de seis animais, foram adicionados 150 mg/Kg de N-acetilcisteína ao fluido de reposição volêmica. Os animais foram observados por 120 minutos e após este período foram submetidos à eutanásia e coleta do tecido cardíaco para análise histopatológica e dosagem de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico e interleucinas pró e anti-inflamatórias. Resultados: Foi observada menor concentração de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (0,20±0,05 vs. 0,27±0,05, P=0,014) e menor dano histopatológico e edema no tecido cardíaco do grupo tratado com N-acetilcisteína em relação ao grupo cuja reposição volêmica ocorreu somente com Ringer Lactato. Não foi observada diferença da expressão das citocinas interleucina 6 (2.138,29±316,89 vs. 1.870,16±303,68, P=0,091) e interleucina 10 (1.019,83±262,50 vs. 848,60±106,5, P=0,169) entre os grupos tratados. Conclusão: A associação da N-acetilcisteína na reposição volêmica atenua o estresse oxidativo no coração, assim como dano e edema miocárdicos, porém, não modifica a expressão de citocinas inflamatórias. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Shock, Hemorrhagic/drug therapy , Arterial Pressure , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Fluid Therapy/methods , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , /analysis , /analysis , Isotonic Solutions/pharmacology , Isotonic Solutions/therapeutic use , Lactic Acid/blood , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Potassium/blood , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Resuscitation/methods , Shock, Hemorrhagic/metabolism , Time Factors , Thiobarbiturates/analysis
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(4): 277-288, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744279

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate biomarkers of acute renal injury in Wistar rats, subjected to left renal ischemia for 10 minutes, and then compare reperfusion at 24 hours, and at 5, 7, 14 and 21 days after the procedure. METHODS: Eight female and male rats between 60 and 81 days old were used in the Central Animal Facility of the UFMS. Assessed biomarkers included urine protein, urea, creatinine, glucose, sodium, potassium, urine alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities, and protein-to-creatinine ratio; and in serum: urea, creatinine, sodium and potassium, fractional excretion of sodium, potassium, urine flow and creatinine clearance. RESULTS: Greater variance was observed in the parameters at 24 hours and at five days (p<0.05) after reperfusion. On the 21st day, these parameters approximated those obtained for the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Renal ischemia for 10 minutes was sufficient to raise urine levels of protein, glucose, fractional excretion of potassium, urea, creatinine clearance, urine activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes in the first 24 hours, up to five days after reperfusion, which may indicate risk of acute kidney injury, according to the RIFLE classification. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Acute Kidney Injury/urine , Biomarkers/urine , Ischemia/urine , Kidney/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/urine , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/urine , Biomarkers/blood , Creatinine/blood , Creatinine/urine , Glycosuria , Ischemia/blood , Potassium/blood , Potassium/urine , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Risk Factors , Reperfusion Injury/blood , Sex Factors , Sodium/blood , Sodium/urine , Time Factors , Urea/blood , Urea/urine , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/urine
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate abnormalities in blood electrolyte levels during severe hypoglycemia in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a clinical setting. METHODS: Blood electrolyte levels in adult T2DM patients during severe hypoglycemia were collected from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012. Patients who maintained normal serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were utilized in the study. Severe hypoglycemia was defined as a condition requiring medical assistance, such as administering carbohydrates when serum glucose levels less than 70 mg/dL were observed, in conjunction with other symptoms of hypoglycemia. RESULTS: A total of 1,068 patients who visited the emergency room with severe hypoglycemia were screened, of which 219 patients were included in this study. The incidence of abnormal levels for any electrolyte was 47%. Hypokalemia ( 100 beats per minute) and severe hypertension (> or = 180/120 mmHg) were 30 mg/dL (range, 14 to 62) and 35 mg/dL (range, 10 to 69; p = 0.04), 18.8% and 7.2% (p = 0.02), and 20.8% and 10.2% (p = 0.05) in the hypokalemia and normokalemia groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: During severe hypoglycemia, hypokalemia occurred in 21.9% of T2DM patients and was associated with tachycardia and severe hypertension. Therefore, the results suggest that severe hypoglycemia may increase cardiovascular events in T2DM.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Hypertension/chemically induced , Hypoglycemia/blood , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypokalemia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Potassium/blood , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Tachycardia/chemically induced , Water-Electrolyte Balance/drug effects
17.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(7): 779-781, 10/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-726264

ABSTRACT

A paralisia periódica hipocalêmica tireotóxica (PPHT) é uma urgência endocrinológica caracterizada por ataques recorrentes de fraqueza muscular, associados à hipocalemia e à tireotoxicose. Essa patologia ocorre mais frequentemente em pacientes do sexo masculino, de origem asiática, sendo rara sua apresentação em pessoas de ascendência africana. O caso descrito mostra um paciente afrodescendente que apresentou tetraparesia associada à hipocalemia. Durante esse episódio foi realizado o diagnóstico de hipertireoidismo. A PPHT, embora rara, é potencialmente letal. Portanto, em casos de crises de paresias flácidas, essa hipótese diagnóstica deve ser sempre considerada, principalmente se associada à hipocalemia. Nessa situação, se não houver diagnóstico prévio de hipertireoidismo, este também deve ser considerado.


Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP) is an endocrine emergency marked by recurrent attacks of muscle weakness associated with hypokalemia and thyrotoxicosis. Asiatic male patients are most often affected. On the other hand, African descents rarely present this disease. The case described shows an afrodescendant patient with hypokalemia and tetraparesis, whose diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was considered during this crisis. The THPP, although rare, is potentially lethal. Therefore, in cases of flaccid paresis crisis this diagnosis should always be considered, especially if associated with hypokalemia. In this situation, if no previous diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, this should also be regarded.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Graves Disease/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Hypokalemia/blood , Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis/ethnology , Muscle Weakness/diagnosis , Paresis/diagnosis , Potassium/blood
18.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 90(5): 512-517, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723170

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the results of a long-term follow-up of Bartter syndrome patients treated with different drugs. Method: Patients were diagnosed according to clinical and laboratory data. Treatment protocol was potassium supplementation, sodium, spironolactone, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Patients who developed proteinuria were converted to angiotensin conversion enzyme inhibitor. The variables evaluated for each drug were Z-score for weight and stature, proteinuria, creatinine clearance, gastrointestinal complaints, amount of potassium supplementation, serum potassium and bicarbonate levels, and findings of upper digestive endoscopy. Results: 20 patients were included. Follow-up was 10.1 ± 5.2 years. 17 patients received indomethacin for 5.9 ± 5.3 years; 19 received celecoxib, median of 35 months; and five received enalapril, median of 23 months. During indomethacin, a statistically significant increase was observed in the Z-score for stature and weight, without a change in the creatinine clearance. Seven of 17 patients had gastrointestinal symptoms, and upper digestive endoscopy evidenced gastritis in three patients and gastric ulcer in four patients. During celecoxib use, a significant increase was detected in the Z-score for stature and weight and a reduction of hyperfiltration; seven patients presented gastrointestinal symptoms, and upper digestive endoscopy evidenced mild gastritis in three. During enalapril use, no significant changes were observed in the Z-score for stature, weight and creatinine clearance. The conversion to enalapril resulted in a significant reduction in proteinuria. Conclusion: The authors suggest starting the treatment with celecoxib, and replacing by ACEi if necessary, monitoring the renal function. The safety and efficacy of celecoxib need to be assessed in larger controlled studies. .


Objetivo: Descrever os resultados de um acompanhamento de longo prazo de pacientes com síndrome de Bartter tratados com diferentes medicamentos. Método: Pacientes diagnosticados segundo os dados clínicos e laboratoriais. Protocolo de tratamento: suplementação de potássio, sódio, espironolactona e medicamento anti-inflamatório não esteroidal. Os pacientes que desenvolveram proteinúria foram submetidos a inibidor da enzima de conversão da angiotensina. As variáveis avaliadas durante o uso de cada medicamento foram: escore Z para peso e estatura, proteinúria, depuração da creatinina, queixas gastrointestinais, quantidade da suplementação de potássio, níveis séricos de potássio e bicarbonato e achados da endoscopia digestiva alta. Resultados: Foram incluídos 20 pacientes. O acompanhamento foi de 10,1 ± 5,2 anos. No total, 17 pacientes receberam indometacina por 5,9 ± 5,3 anos, 19 receberam celecoxib por aproximadamente 35 meses e cinco receberam enalapril por aproximadamente 23 meses. Durante o uso de indometacina, observamos um aumento estatístico significativo no escore Z para estatura e peso, sem alteração na depuração da creatinina. 7/17 pacientes apresentaram sintomas gastrointestinais, e a endoscopia digestiva alta mostrou gastrite em três pacientes e úlcera gástrica em quatro. Durante o uso de celecoxib, detectamos um aumento significativo no escore Z para estatura e peso e uma redução da hiperfiltração; sete pacientes apresentaram sintomas gastrointestinais e a endoscopia digestiva alta mostrou gastrite leve em três pacientes. Durante o uso de enalapril, não observamos alterações significativas no escore Z para estatura, peso e depuração da creatinina. A mudança da medicação para enalapril resultou em uma ...


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Bartter Syndrome/drug therapy , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Enalapril/therapeutic use , Indomethacin/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Bartter Syndrome/complications , Bicarbonates/blood , Body Height/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Creatinine/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Potassium/blood , Proteinuria/drug therapy , Proteinuria/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is now widely recognized to have a higher prevalence than was once thought. In view of its increasing prevalence, we compared chronological changes in clinical manifestations of PA according to different times of diagnosis. METHODS: In total, 85 patients diagnosed with PA from January 1986 through March 2012 were reviewed retrospectively, based on their medical records. During two periods-1986 to 2005 and 2006 to 2012-41 and 44 patients, respectively, were diagnosed with PA. We compared the clinical and biological characteristics of PA between these periods. RESULTS: The results demonstrate an increasing trend in the prevalence of idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA; p = 0.19). In the 2006 to 2012 period, patients with PA presented with higher serum potassium levels at the time of diagnosis than in the 1986 to 2005 period (p < 0.0002). Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) was performed mostly in the latter period (82.3%) and the diagnostic accuracy of adrenal computed tomography, compared with AVS, was only 56.2%. About 78.0% versus 86.3% of patients had at least one target organ damage (TOD) in the 1986 to 2005 and 2006 to 2012 periods, respectively (p = 0.39). However, patients with TOD were older and had longer durations of hypertension than patients without, in both periods. CONCLUSIONS: PA is becoming more prevalent. There was an increasing tendency for IHA, and more PA patients presented with normokalemia than in the earlier period. Early and accurate diagnosis of PA with AVS and proper treatment should have substantial prognostic value.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adrenal Glands/diagnostic imaging , Adrenocortical Adenoma/diagnosis , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Hyperaldosteronism/blood , Hyperkalemia/diagnosis , Hyperplasia , Hypertension/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Potassium/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1348-1353, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44331

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe hyperkalemia leads to significant morbidity and mortality if it is not immediately recognized and treated. The concentration of potassium (K+) in the serum increases along with deteriorating renal function. The use of point-of-care K+ (POC-K+) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) could reduce the time for an accurate diagnosis and treatment, saving lives. We hypothesized that POC-K+ would accurately report K+ serum level without significant differences compared to reference testing, regardless of the renal function of the patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective study was performed between January 2008 and September 2011 at an urban hospital in Seoul. The screening program using POC was conducted as a critical pathway for rapid evaluation and treatment of hyperkalemia since 2008. When a patient with CKD had at least one warning symptom or sign of hyperkalemia, both POC-K+ and routine laboratory tests were simultaneously ordered. The reliability of the two assays for serum-creatinine was assessed by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis using absolute agreement of two-way mixed model. RESULTS: High levels of reliability were found between POC and the laboratory reference tests for K+ (ICC=0.913, 95% CI 0.903-0.922) and between two tests for K+ according to changes in the serum-creatinine levels in CKD patients. CONCLUSION: The results of POC-K+ correlate well with values obtained from reference laboratory tests and coincide with changes in serum-creatinine of patients with CKD.


Subject(s)
Blood Chemical Analysis/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Hyperkalemia/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , Potassium/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
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