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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246514, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285640


Abstract The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.

Resumo O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.

Animals , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genetics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Poultry , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chickens , Cross-Sectional Studies
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1843, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363591


Feed is the main route of transmission of pathogenic microorganisms and is responsible for a large part of the cost of poultry production, so the inclusion of alternative foods in diets for monogastrics has been a constant. Among alternative foods most used in modern poultry farming are animal meal, however, when contaminated they constitute a route of transmission of several pathogenic agents, including Escherichia coli. In addition, there is a zoonotic potential, as poultry products are intended for human consumption. The objective of this research was to detect virulence genes, as well as to evaluate the resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolates from meat meal samples. A total of 40 Escherichia coli isolates were analyzed and the virulence genes surveyed iss, ompT, hlyF, iutA, and fimA identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The antimicrobial agents tested were: amoxycillin (30 µg), ceftiofur (30 µg), ciprofloxacin (5 µg), doxycycline (30 µg), florfenicol (30 µg), fosfomycin (200 µg), gentamicin (10 µg), norfloxacin (10 µg) and oxacillin (1 µg). It was possible to observe the occurrence of the iss resistance gene in 100% of Escherichia coli isolates, followed by hlyF (85%), fimA (75%), ompT (17.5%) and iutA (5%). Regarding the simultaneous detection for the genes, a greater association between the genes iss, hlyF and fimA (60%) was verified. All isolates showed resistance to oxacillin (100%), followed by doxycycline (25%), amoxicillin (22.5%), norfloxacin (17.5%), ceftiofur (15%), florfenicol (12.5%), fosfomycin (12.5%), ciprofloxacin (10%) and gentamycin (2.5%). In this study, a variation of the multiple antimicrobial resistance index (IRMA) was observed between 0.22 and 0.77. The indiscriminate use of of antimicrobials as performance enhancers in production animals, may have contributed to the increase in antimicrobial resistance, with the occurrence of multiresistant Escherichia coli carrying virulence genes. Virulence genes present in Escherichia coli isolates are studied to understand the degree of influence they exert in the establishment of the disease, one of the most researched genes is the iss gene, involved in the processes that promote serum resistance. In this study, iss (100%) was present in all the isolates analyzed, although it is not the only mechanism used by these bacteria to reach internal organs and trigger an infection, this gene encodes an important mechanism associated with high levels of virulence. The second highest prevalence found was of the hlyF gene (85%), the high prevalence of hlyF suggests virulence potential, involved with the production of hemolysin and improvement of outer membrane vesicles associated with the release of toxins. The fimA gene (75%) was detected in a slightly lower percentage when compared to iss and hlyF. With the second lowest prevalence, the ompT gene (17.5%), is involved in a process that includes the proteolytic degradation of antimicrobial peptides and with the lowest prevalence the iutA gene (5%). Certain combinations of virulence genes make the strains easier to survive, adhere to, colonize and even the ability to develop septicemic conditions. Multiresistant E. coli strains, is a fact of concern for both animal and human health, since the presence of multiresistant strains, originating from poultry, can be transmitted from chicken carcasses. In this sense, the importance of sanitary control of the inputs used in animal feed is emphasized, as well as the prudent use of antimicrobials in animal production, with a view to producing a safe food, minimizing not only the economic losses, but also the risks to human health.(AU)

Animals , Poultry , Diet/veterinary , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Animal Feed/analysis , Identity and Quality Standard for Products and Services
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06831, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250487


Avian colibacillosis is an acute and globally occurring infectious disease of domestic and wild birds caused by Escherichia coli, and it is associated with considerable economic losses mainly due to the morbidity and mortality associated. The present study aimed to describe the pathological, bacteriological and immunohistochemical aspects of avian colibacillosis in broiler chickens of Mozambique. Forty-nine broiler chicken presented anorexia, decreased weight gain, ataxia, diarrhea, dyspnea, and death in a clinical course of 3-5 days. The birds were raised in five farms (small, medium and large farms) with manual and automatic breeding system, with flocks ranging from 100 to 20,000 birds. At the necropsy, all birds had poor body condition, and the pericardium and the Glisson's capsule of all avian exhibited different degrees of adherence often associated with severe fibrin deposition. The thoracic and abdominal air sacs were thickened and adhered to the costal wall. Mild, moderate or marked hepatomegaly associated with white pinpoint multifocal areas (100%, 49/49) and mild to moderate splenomegaly in 75.5% (37/49) with a mottled surface were observed. The lungs and kidney were enlarged and reddish. Histologically, a multiorgan fibrinoheterophilic polyserositis was observed in 75.5% of the cases (37/49), which were characterized by inflammatory infiltrates composed mainly of degenerative heterophils, macrophages and plasma cells, associated with fibrin deposits and intermixed by coccobacillary bacterial basophilic aggregates. These affected mainly the pericardium (28.6%, 14/49), the pleura (18.4%, 9/49), the Glisson's capsule (10.2%, 5/49), the ventriculus (10.2, 5/33), and the proventriculus (8.2%, 4/49) serosa. Multifocal to coalescing areas of coagulative necrosis associated with similar inflammatory cells were observed mainly in the spleen (28.6%, 14/49), liver (24.5%, 12/49), and intestines (22.4%, 11/49). A similar infiltrate was also observed affecting the the lungs (16.3%, 8/49), the kidney (16.3%, 8/49) and the myocardium (14.3%, 7/49). Isolation and identification of E. coli was obtained in 12 cases through bacterial culture. Some organs (2 cases of each farms) were selected and submitted to immunohistochemistry anti-E. coli, and a positive stain was observed in all tested cases in liver (3/3), heart (4/4), spleen (1/1), lungs (4/4), intestines (4/4), bursa of Fabricius (1/1), ventriculus (1/1), and proventriculus (1/1) tissue sections. These results demonstrate that E. coli was the cause of mortality in these birds. Therefore, biosecurity and management measures should be employed to prevent and control the disease occurrence in Mozambique's poultry farming.(AU)

A colibacilose aviária é uma doença aguda de ocorrência mundial que acomete aves domésticas e silvestres, causada por Escherichia coli e resulta em perdas econômicas consideráveis devido à elevada morbidade e mortalidade das aves. O presente estudo teve o objetivo de descrever os aspectos patológicos, bacteriológicos e imuno-histoquímicos de colibacilose aviária em frangos de corte de Moçambique. Um total de 49 frangos de corte apresentaram anorexia, baixo ganho de peso, ataxia, diarreia, dispneia e morte em um curso clínico de 3 a 5 dias. As aves eram provenientes de 5 granjas (pequenas, média e grandes), com sistema de criação manual e automático, com rebanhos que variavam de 100 a 20.000 aves. À necropsia, todas as aves exibiam condição corporal ruim a caquética, além de pericárdio e cápsula de Glisson de todas aves (100%; n=49) com diferentes graus de aderência e deposição de fibrina de forma difusa acentuada. Os sacos aéreos torácicos e abdominais estavam espessados e aderidos à parede costal. Foi observado ainda hepatomegalia discreta, moderada a severa frequentemente associada com áreas multifocais puntiformes brancacentas (100%; 49/49), e esplenomegalia discreta a moderada, associado a áreas multifocais moteadas (75,5%; 37/49). Os pulmões e rins estavam aumentados e com coloração avermelhada. Histologicamente, observou-se majoritariamente serosite fibrinoheterofílica em 75,5% dos casos (37/49), caracterizadas por infiltrado inflamatório composto por heterófilos degenerados, macrófagos, linfócitos e plasmócitos, com deposição de fibrina entremeada por uma miríade de estruturas bacterianas cocobacilares. Esta lesão foi observada principalmente em pericárdio (28,6%; 14/49), pleura (18,4%; 9/49), cápsula de Glisson (10,2%; 5/49), ventrículo (10,2; 5/33) e em proventrículo (8,2%; 4/49). Áreas multifocais a coalescentes de necrose de coagulação associada a infiltrado inflamatório semelhante ao descrito foi observado principalmente no baço (28,6%; 14/49), fígado (24.5%; 12/49), e intestinos (8,2%; 4/49). Um infiltrado inflamatório semelhante também foi visualizado em pulmões (16,3%; 8/49), rins (16,3%; 8/49) e miocárdio (14,3%; 7/49), Colônias puras de E. coli foram identificadas e isoladas em 12 casos. Alguns órgãos (2 de cada granja) foram submetidos ao exame imuno-histoquímico anti-E. coli e marcação positiva foi visualizada em todos casos testados, como em fígado (3/3), coração (4/4), baço (1/1), pulmão (4/4), intestinos (4/4), bursa de Fabricius (1/1), rim (1/1), ventrículo (1/1) e proventrículo (1/1). Estes resultados demonstram que E. coli foi a causa de morte destas aves. Sendo assim, a adoção de boas medidas de biosseguridade e de manejo são indispensáveis para a prevenção e controle da ocorrência da doença nas granjas de frango de corte de Moçambique.(AU)

Animals , Poultry , Weights and Measures , Immunohistochemistry , Chickens/microbiology , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Weight Gain , Mortality , Bacterial Structures/pathogenicity
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06685, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279539


To increase the amount of meat produced, researchers have promoted intensive genetic selection for growth rate and muscling and have improved nutrition and management conditions. However, there has been an increase in the number of reports of breast muscle myopathies observed in poultry processing plants, including white striping (WS) and wooden breast (WB). This study aimed to evaluate and to compare the occurrence of WS and WB myopathies in three poultry processing plants and to perform an anatomopathological characterization, including macroscopic and microscopic analyses. A total of 408,334 carcasses were condemned or downgraded due to the presence of WB or WS, which represents 0.73% of the total number of slaughtered animals during the evaluated period. WB was more frequent than WS, but the occurrence of each myopathy varied significantly according to each establishment. WB was more frequent in the establishment which includes only male flocks, an average age of 45 days, and an average live weight of 2775g (B). WS was more frequent in establishment with male, female and mixed flocks, average ages ranging from 41 to 44 days, and average live weight 1731g-2830g (A). It is probably related with specific condition of each poultry company, including genetics, age, nutrition and management conditions. Macroscopically, WB and WS lesions are characterized by hypertrophy and stiffness of the pectoralis major muscle. Under microscopy, the myopathies showed similarities regarding the detected histological abnormalities, characterized by a process of myodegeneration, although the connective tissue infiltrate was more severe in the breasts with WB than in those with WS myopathy. The results found in this study demonstrate that the rates of condemnation for these myopathies are high, vary significantly among the analyzed companies and may cause major economic losses for the productive sector in the region.(AU)

Para melhorar a quantidade de carne produzida, os pesquisadores têm promovido ao longo dos anos uma seleção genética intensiva para a taxa de crescimento e desenvolvimento de músculos, além de melhorias nas condições nutricionais, sanitárias e de manejo. No entanto, houve um aumento no número de relatos de miopatias dos músculos do peito observados em abatedouros-frigoríficos de aves, incluindo white striping (WS) e wooden breast (WB). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de WB e WS em três abatedouros-frigoríficos de aves e realizar uma caracterização anatomopatológica, incluindo análises macroscópicas e microscópicas. Um total de 408.334 carcaças foi condenado (total ou parcialmente) devido à presença WB ou WS, o que representou 0,73% do número total de animais abatidos durante o período avaliado. Apesar de a ocorrência de WB ter sido maior do que a de WS, a frequência de cada uma variou significativamente de acordo com o estabelecimento. WB foi mais frequente no estabelecimento que incluía apenas lotes de machos, com média de 45 dias de idade e peso médio ao abate de 2775g (B). WS foi mais frequente no estabelecimento com lotes de machos, fêmeas e mistos, com idade entre 41 e 44 dias e peso médio ao abate entre 1731g-2830g (A). Isto pode ser justificado por condições específicas de cada empresa, incluindo genética, idade das aves, nutrição e condições de manejo. Macroscopicamente, as lesões de WB e de WS foram caracterizadas principalmente por hipertrofia e rigidez do músculo pectoralis major. À microscopia, ambas as miopatias mostraram semelhanças em relação às anormalidades histológicas detectadas, caracterizadas principalmente por um processo de miodegeneração. Nos músculos apresentando WB, o infiltrado de tecido conjuntivo foi mais intenso quando comparado àqueles com WS. Os resultados encontrados neste trabalho demonstram que os índices de condenação por essas miopatias são altos, variam significativamente entre as empresas analisadas e podem causar grandes perdas econômicas para o setor produtivo da região.(AU)

Animals , Poultry/injuries , Organizations/economics , Abattoirs/organization & administration , Poultry/anatomy & histology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06818, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340351


Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness worldwide, and poultry and its derived products are the most common food products associated with salmonellosis outbreaks. Some countries, including Brazil, have experienced an increased prevalence of Salmonella Heidelberg among their poultry flocks. Some isolates have also presented high resistance to antimicrobial agents and persist in the poultry farm environment. This study aimed to compare the susceptibility of S. Heidelberg strains isolated in 2006 with those isolated in 2016 against disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. The results showed that all the strains were highly susceptible to sodium hypochlorite, regardless of the conditions and year of isolation. Resistance to benzalkonium chloride varied according to the conditions applied, but not to the year of isolation. Increased antimicrobial resistance from 2006-2016 was observed only for tetracycline. The results suggest that the antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance of S. Heidelberg did not increase for ten years (2006-2016). However, further analysis should include a larger number of S. Heidelberg isolates from poultry origin and additional antimicrobial agents for more precise conclusions about the increasing in antimicrobial resistance in the last years.(AU)

Salmonella é uma das principais causas das doenças transmitidas por alimento em todo o mundo, e a carne de frango e produtos derivados são os principais alimentos associados com surtos de salmonelose em humanos. Alguns países, incluindo o Brasil, têm observado um aumento da ocorrência de Salmonella Heidelberg nas suas granjas avícolas. Além disto, alguns isolados têm apresentado alta resistência aos antimicrobianos e têm persistido no ambiente de produção avícola. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a susceptibilidade de cepas de S. Heidelberg isoladas em 2006 com aquelas isoladas em 2016 contra desinfetantes e agentes antimicrobianos. Os resultados demonstraram que as cepas foram altamente resistentes a hipoclorito de sódio, independentemente das condições e do ano de isolamento. A resistência ao cloreto de benzalcônio variou de acordo com as condições testadas, mas não com o ano de isolamento. Um aumento da resistência aos antimicrobianos de 2006 a 2016 foi observado apenas para tetraciclina. Os resultados sugerem que a resistência aos desinfetantes e aos antimicrobianos não aumentou em um período de dez anos (2006-2016). Entretanto, novas análises devem incluir um número maior de cepas de S. Heidelberg isoladas de fontes avícolas e outros agentes antimicrobianos para uma conclusão mais precisa sobre o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana nos últimos anos.(AU)

Animals , Poultry/microbiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Disinfectants/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00402020, 2021. mapas, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349004


The epidemiology of salmonellosis in poultry is complex, which makes it difficult to identify the origin and spread of this disease in poultry farms. The aims of this study were to characterize the spatial distribution of Salmonella enterica in epidemiological units in Paraná, Brazil; and to investigate correlations between this microorganism and associated factors. Among the epidemiological units, 78 of 243 (32.10%) were positive. Spatially, the northwestern and western regions had higher concentrations of positive cases than the other regions. In bivariate analyses, the presence of other animal species in the epidemiological unit (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.64; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.43­0.95; p = 0.022) and proximity to establishments at risk (PR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32­0.81; p = 0.001) did not influence positivity, but the average population per poultry shed (between 30,501 and 32,500; PR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.72­3.83; p = 0.001) was associated with Salmonella positivity. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that the average population per poultry shed, presence of surrounding risk-posing establishments and presence of surrounding poultry sheds produced a significant multiple model for S. enterica. The results indicated that the presence of S. enterica may be related to higher density broiler in poultry sheds, presence of surrounding poultry sheds, proximity between positive and negative epidemiological units and altitude of the municipality. The information obtained showed that some factors were related to positivity for this microorganism and emphasizes the importance of serotyping to obtain other epidemiological data.

Poultry , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella enterica , Birds , Serotyping , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence Ratio , Farms
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 507-527, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888744


The avian influenza A (H7N9) virus is a zoonotic virus that is closely associated with live poultry markets. It has caused infections in humans in China since 2013. Five waves of the H7N9 influenza epidemic occurred in China between March 2013 and September 2017. H7N9 with low-pathogenicity dominated in the first four waves, whereas highly pathogenic H7N9 influenza emerged in poultry and spread to humans during the fifth wave, causing wide concern. Specialists and officials from China and other countries responded quickly, controlled the epidemic well thus far, and characterized the virus by using new technologies and surveillance tools that were made possible by their preparedness efforts. Here, we review the characteristics of the H7N9 viruses that were identified while controlling the spread of the disease. It was summarized and discussed from the perspectives of molecular epidemiology, clinical features, virulence and pathogenesis, receptor binding, T-cell responses, monoclonal antibody development, vaccine development, and disease burden. These data provide tools for minimizing the future threat of H7N9 and other emerging and re-emerging viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2.

Animals , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poultry , SARS-CoV-2
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 118-125, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1353017


En Guatemala en el 2015, el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social (MSPAS) reportó nuevos casos de la enfermedad de Chagas en la región suroriental del país, siendo Santa Rosa uno de los departamentos endémicos en donde Triatoma dimidiata es el principal transmisor. Se estimó la infestación de T. dimidiata en la aldea Chuchuapa, municipio de Santa María Ixhuatán, de abril a junio de 2019, se calcularon los índices en-tomológicos y se caracterizaron intra y peridomiciliar 149 viviendas (79.67% de las viviendas habitadas). Los datos se obtuvieron mediante un cuestionario mixto, en entrevista cara a cara y evaluación de las viviendas, por un equipo profesional experimentado, mediante el método y protocolo estándar hombre-hora. Se capturaron 20 triatominos en 10 viviendas, con un índice de infestación de 6.71% (10/149), un índice de densidad de 13.42% (20/149), 19 triatominos intradomiciliares y uno peridomiciliar, con un índice de infección natural por Tr y pano-soma cruzi intradomiciliar de 26.3% (5/19), índice de infección natural por T. cr u z i peridomiciliar de 100.0% (1/1) e índice de infección natural por T. c r u z i en los triatominos capturados de 30.0 % (6/20). Las viviendas infestadas presentaron techo de lámina, pared de bajareque con grietas y sin repello, piso de tierra y afiches en la pared, acumulación de leña u otros materiales tanto intra como peridomiciliar, convivencia con animales domésticos y tenencia de animales de corral. Los resultados representan un alto riesgo para la transmisión de la enfermedad de Chagas entre los habitantes de la aldea.

In Guatemala in 2015, the Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance reported new cases of Chagas disease in the southeastern region of the country, with Santa Rosa being one of the endemic departments where Tr ia-toma dimidiata is the main transmitter. The infestation of T. dimidiata was estimated in the Chuchuapa village, municipality of Santa María Ixhuatán, from April to June 2019, the entomological indices were calculated and 149 dwellings were characterized intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary (79.67% of the inhabited dwellings). The data were obtained through a mixed questionnaire, in a face-to-face interview and evaluation of the dwellings, by an experienced professional team, using the standard man-hour method and protocol. 20 triatomines were captured in 10 homes, with an infestation index of 6.71% (10/149), a density index of 13.42% (20/149), 19 intradomiciliary triatomines and one peridomiciliary, with a natural infection index by intradomiciliary Trypanosomacruzi of 26.3% (5/19), natural infection index by peridomiciliary T. c r u z i of 100.0% (1/1) and natural infection index by T. c r u z i in captured triatomines of 30.0% (6/20). The infested dwellings have a sheet roof, awattle and daub wall with cracks and no wall plaster, dirt and posters on the wall, accumulation of firewood and other materials in both intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary, living with domestic animals and keeping poultry animals. The results represent a high risk for the transmission of Chagas disease among the villager.

Humans , Animals , Male , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Vector Control , Entomology , Housing , Poultry , Rural Population , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/parasitology , Lamins , Guatemala/epidemiology , Animals, Domestic
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2148-2156, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, ilus, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142290


Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a epidemiologia da presença de ácaros hematófagos em granjas de postura no estado de Minas Gerais. Foi utilizado um banco de dados secundário, com informações de 402 galpões de 42 propriedades comerciais. As variáveis utilizadas para compor o modelo de correspondência foram selecionadas por meio do teste qui-quadrado (P≤0,05). Foi construído um índice para a presença de ácaros hematófagos, considerando alguns fatores de risco. Além disso, um estudo da análise espacial foi realizado para avaliar a presença de ácaros hematófagos em Minas Gerais. Observou-se a presença de ácaros hematófagos em 48% dos galpões, sendo a de O. sylviarum de 45,5%, O. bursa de 17,4% e D. gallinae de 2,7%. Houve associação entre o índice de risco com os intervalos de remoção de fezes e com a presença ou a ausência de aves sinantrópicas. Verificou-se que granjas mais tecnificadas não utilizam acaricida em seus galpões. A presença de ácaros hematófagos foi observada na mesorregião Sul/Sudoeste de Minas Gerais e entre as mesorregiões Oeste de Minas e Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Esses resultados fornecem conhecimento sobre a epidemiologia desses ectoparasitos e podem contribuir na tomada de decisões, reduzindo os riscos de possíveis infestações em aves de postura.(AU)

This study aimed to characterize the epidemiology of the presence of hematophagous mites in posture farms in the state of Minas Gerais. Was used a secondary database with information from 402 chicken houses in 42 commercial properties. The variables used to compose the correspondence model were selected through chi-square tests (P≤0.05). A risk index was built to the presence of hematophagous mites considering some risk factors. Additionally, a study of the spatial analysis was done to evaluate the presence of hematophagous mites in Minas Gerais. Was observed the presence of hematophagous mites in 48% of chicken houses, the presence of O. sylviarum was 45.5%, O. bursa 17.4% and D. gallinae 2.7%. There was an association between the risk index with the intervals for the removal of manure and the presence or absence of synanthropic birds. It was verified that more technified farms do not use acaricide in their chicken houses. The presence of hematophagous mites was observed in the Messoregions South/Southwest of Minas Gerais and between the West and Metropolitan Mesoregion of Belo Horizonte. These results provide knowledge about the epidemiology of these ectoparasites and may contribute to decision making by reducing the risks of possible infestations in poultry.(AU)

Animals , Chickens , Mite Infestations/epidemiology , Mites , Poultry/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Assessment
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2348-2354, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142292


The energetic values of crude glycerin (CG) were determined for broilers at different ages using the method proposed by Matterson and by polynomial regressions. Two trials were performed with broilers from 11 to 21 and from 31 to 41 days of age. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a reference ration (RR), without CG, and three ration tests with replacement of 5%, 10%, and 15% of RR by CG. The metabolizable energy values were calculated by the Matterson method, and the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values were used in polynomial regression analysis. The mean values of AME, apparent corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn), metabolizable coefficient of gross energy (CAMEB), and corrected for nitrogen balance (CAMEBn) of CG, for the phase from 11 to 21 days by the Matterson method were 10.08 MJ kg-1, 10.04 MJ kg-1, 67.06%, and 66.74%, respectively. The inclusion of CG presented an increasing linear effect for CAMEB and CAMEBn in this period. From 31 to 41 days, these values were 10.38 MJ kg-1, 10.27 MJ kg-1, 69.02%, and 62.24%, respectively. The predicted AMEn value through the polynomial regression equations was 10.49 MJ kg-1 and 10.18 MJ kg-1, respectively. According to the equations proposed by Matterson, the crude glycerin EMAn values for broilers from 11 to 21 and 31 to 41 days of age were 10.04 MJ kg-1 and 10.26 MJ kg-1, respectively. According to Adeola's method the AMEn values were 10.49 and 10.20 MJ kg-1 for each phase.(AU)

Os valores energéticos da glicerina bruta (GB) foram determinados para frangos de corte em diferentes idades, por meio da utilização do método proposto por Matterson e de regressões polinomiais. Foram realizados dois ensaios: de 11 a 21 dias e de 31 a 41 dias de idade das aves; em ambos, as aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com uma ração referência (RR), sem GB, e três rações testes com substituição de 5%, 10% e 15% da RR por GB. Foram calculados os valores de energia metabolizável pelo método de Matterson, sendo os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA) utilizados na análise de regressão polinomial. Os valores médios da EMA corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn), o coeficiente de metabolizabilidade da EB (CMAEB) e o corrigido para o balanço de nitrogênio (CMAEBn) da GB, na matéria natural, para a fase de 11 a 21 dias, pelo método de Matterson, foram de 10,08 MJ kg-1, 10,04 MJ kg-1, 67,06% e 66,74%, respectivamente. A inclusão de GB apresentou um efeito linear crescente para os CMAEB e os CMAEBn. Na fase de 31 a 41 dias, foram de 10,38 MJ kg-1, 10,27 MJ kg-1, 69,02% e 62,24%, respectivamente. Por meio das equações de regressões polinomiais, o valor de EMAn estimada foi de 10,49 MJ kg-1 e 10,18 MJ kg-1, respectivamente. Os valores de EMAn da GB para as idades 11 a 21 e 31 a 41 dias foram de 10,04 MJ kg-1 e 10,26 MJ kg-1, respectivamente. De acordo com as equações propostas por Matterson e com o método de Adeola, os valores de EMAn foram 10,49 e 10,20 MJ kg-1 para cada fase.(AU)

Animals , Chickens/metabolism , Biofuels/analysis , Glycerol/administration & dosage , Poultry/growth & development
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1353-1362, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131515


Objetivou-se avaliar características de virulência, perfil de resistência antimicrobiana e padrão de similaridade genética de 71 cepas de Salmonella Minnesota isoladas na cadeia produtiva de frangos de corte, entre 2009 e 2010, em duas unidades de uma empresa (A e B). Os isolados foram sorotipificados e submetidos ao teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana pelo teste de difusão em disco. Utilizando-se PCR, foi avaliada a presença dos genes invA, lpfA, agfA e sefA e os genes de resistência aos betalactâmicos (bla TEM , bla SHV e bla CTX-M ). A relação filogenética foi determinada por RAPD-PCR. Os maiores percentuais de resistência foram para tetraciclina e sulfonamida. Foram reconhecidos oito perfis de resistência aos antimicrobianos entre as cepas isoladas na indústria A, e 11 perfis de resistência na indústria B. Do total de cepas, 100% foram positivas para o gene invA, 98,6% para o gene agfA, 49,3% para o gene lpfA e nenhuma para o gene sefA. Três cepas foram positivas para o gene bla TEM (4,2%) e 11 (15,5%) para o gene bla CTX-M . A avaliação filogenética demonstrou a presença de sete clusters com similaridade superior a 80% e três perfis distintos. Com base no dendrograma, observou-se a disseminação de um mesmo perfil em ambas as empresas.(AU)

The aim of this study was to evaluate virulence characteristics, antimicrobial resistance profile and the pattern of genetic similarity of 71 strains of Salmonella Minnesota isolated in the production chain of broilers between 2009 and 2010, into two units of a company (A and B). Isolates were serotyped and submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion test. Using PCR, the presence of genes invA, lpfA, agfA and sefA and the genes conferring resistance to beta-lactam (blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M) were evaluated. The phylogenetic relationship was determined by the RAPD-PCR method. The highest percentages of resistance were to tetracycline and sulfonamide. Eight antimicrobial resistance profiles were recognized among strains isolated in industry A, and 11 resistance profiles in industry B. Of all strains of both industries, 100% were positive for the invA gene, 98.6% to agfA gene, 49.3% for lpfA gene, and no strain showed the sefA gene. Three strains were positive for the gene blaTEM (4.2%), 11 (15.5%) for the blaCTX-M gene. Phylogenetic evaluation showed the presence of seven clusters with similarity greater than 80% and three distinct profiles. Based on the dendrogram we observed the spread with similar profiles in both companies.(AU)

Humans , Animals , Poultry , Salmonella , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Chickens , Virulence Factors , Virulence , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Disease Susceptibility
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1346-1352, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131507


O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a prevalência de MG e MS e a filogenia das cepas circulantes, comparando-as com outras já descritas em poedeiras comerciais no Brasil. Foram coletados 140 suabes traqueais de poedeiras comerciais com sinais respiratórios em seis granjas da região centro-oeste de São Paulo. As amostras foram avaliadas por PCR, com posterior sequenciamento e análise filogenética das cepas identificadas. Das 140 amostras, 16,4% foram positivas para MG e 68,6% para MS. Houve diferença significativa nas frequências de MG e MS por granja, segundo o teste G de independência (P<0,05). Todas as cepas identificadas de MG e MS de granjas distintas apresentaram similaridade tanto pela lipoproteína para MG quanto pela região 16s rRNA para MS. Neste estudo, foi possível observar altas prevalências dos agentes estudados, sendo a de MS maior que a de MG. Foi detectada infecção mista por MG e MS em 11,4% das amostras e sabe-se que esses micoplasmas podem agir de forma sinérgica, agravando o quadro respiratório. As cepas circulantes identificadas, pela análise das regiões gênicas da lipoproteína para MG e 16S rRNA para MS, são similares em todas as granjas estudadas.(AU)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of MG and MS and the phylogeny of the circulating strains, comparing them with others already described in commercial laying hens from Brazil. A total of 140 tracheal swabs were collected from commercial laying hens with respiratory signs in six farms from the western region of São Paulo state. The samples were analyzed by PCR with subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the identified strains. From the 140 samples, 68.6% were positive for MS and 16.4% for MG. There was a significant difference in the frequencies of MG and MS per farm according to G Test of independence (P<0.05). All strains identified as MG and MS from distinct farms presented similarity both by lipoprotein to MG and by 16s rRNA region to MS. In this study, it was possible to observe a high prevalence of MS compared to MG. Mixed MG and MS infection was detected in 11.4% of the samples. These mycoplasmas may act synergistically, worsening the respiratory signs. The circulating strains identified by analysis of the lipoprotein for MG and 16S rRNA for MS are similar on all poultry farms studied.(AU)

Animals , Phylogeny , Poultry , Chickens/microbiology , Mycoplasma gallisepticum , Mycoplasma synoviae , Cross-Sectional Studies
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1363-1368, July-Aug. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131490


In this study we describe the epidemiology, clinical signs, and pathology of an outbreak of avian aspergillosis in alternative breeding in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Between the fifth and tenth day of life, 360 chicks from a flock of 4000 developed unspecific clinical signs and died. The birds were housed in a reused aviary litter, without previous treatment. In 11 six-day-old female ISA Brown chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus), necropsy revealed firm, yellowish-white, multinodular lesions extending from the pleura to the lung parenchyma. Histologically, a granulomatous, multifocal to coalescent pneumonia was observed. Granulomas were characterized by central necrosis, with heterophil and epithelioid macrophage infiltration and presence of countless Y-shaped intralesional septate hyphae morphologically compatible with Aspergillus spp. The diagnosis through isolation confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus. We highlight the importance of aspergillosis as a primary cause of diseases in the respiratory tract of young birds in alternative breeding. Measures to prevent aspergillosis mainly regarding the reuse of aviary litter are essential in poultry husbandry to prevent economic losses, reduce environmental contamination and mitigate the potential risk to public health.(AU)

Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos e patológicos de um surto de aspergilose aviária em criação alternativa na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. De um lote de 4000 pintainhas, entre o quinto e o 10º dia de vida, 360 aves apresentaram sinais clínicos inespecíficos e morreram. As aves foram alojadas em cama reutilizada do aviário, sem tratamento prévio. Na necropsia de 11 pintainhas (Gallus gallus domesticus), fêmeas, seis dias de idade da linhagem Isa Brown, foram observadas no pulmão lesões multinodulares, branco-amareladas e firmes, que se estendiam da pleura ao parênquima. Histologicamente foi observada pneumonia granulomatosa, multifocal a coalescente. Os granulomas eram caracterizados por necrose central, com infiltrado inflamatório de heterófilos, macrófagos, células epitelioides com presença de inúmeras hifas septadas intralesionais, semelhantes à letra "Y", morfologicamente compatíveis com Aspergillus spp. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo isolamento de Aspergillus fumigatus. Alerta-se para a importância da aspergilose como causa primária de afecções no trato respiratório de aves jovens em criações alternativas. Medidas preventivas relacionadas ao manejo dessas aves são indispensáveis principalmente quanto à reutilização da cama dos aviários, a fim de evitar perdas econômicas, reduzir a contaminação ambiental e o potencial risco à saúde pública.(AU)

Animals , Poultry/microbiology , Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Chickens/microbiology , Brazil
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0122020, 2020. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1145873


The poultry industry has been considered one of the most efficient agricultural activities, placing Brazil in the ranking of the largest producers of chicken meat. However, a threat to the poultry production chain is the entrance of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in the country, which would bring huge economic and social losses. Monitoring of the virus was conducted in domestic poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) farms on the migratory birds landing sites Mangue Seco and Cacha Pregos between 2013 and 2014 to control Newcastle disease (NCD) in these locations. Activities in health education, filling the questionnaire to define the sanitary profile of the farms, georeferenced registration and collection of blood samples, cloacal and tracheal swabs of the backyard birds were the epidemiological surveillance actions performed. A total of 133 serum samples were analyzed in Mangue Seco and 81 in Cacha Pregos. The results showed that both Mangue Seco (63.4%) and Cacha Pregos (88.9%) presented reactive animals for the NDV. The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral isolation analyses were negative, proving that the domestic poultry were not eliminating the virus at the time of sample collection. The high percentage of reactive animals by indirect ELISA test in both epidemiological units studied suggests the presence of NDV circulating lentogenic strain, since there was no death registration and the birds did not have characteristic symptoms of the disease.(AU)

A avicultura tem sido considerada uma das atividades agrícolas mais eficientes, colocando o Brasil no ranking dos maiores produtores de carne de frango. No entanto, uma ameaça à cadeia produtiva da avicultura é a entrada do vírus da doença de Newcastle (NDV) no país, o que acarretaria enormes prejuízos econômicos e sociais. O monitoramento do vírus foi realizado em granjas de aves domésticas (Gallus gallus domesticus) nos locais de desembarque de aves migratórias de Mangue Seco e Cacha Pregos entre 2013 e 2014 para controlar a doença de Newcastle (DCNT) nesses locais. Atividades de educação em saúde, preenchimento de questionário para definição do perfil sanitário das fazendas, cadastro georreferenciado e coleta de amostras de sangue e swabs cloacal e traqueal de aves de quintal foram as ações de vigilância epidemiológica realizadas. Um total de 133 amostras de soro foram analisadas em Mangue Seco e 81 em Cacha Pregos. Os resultados mostraram que tanto Mangue Seco (63,4%) quanto Cacha Pregos (88,9%) apresentaram animais reativos para o NDV. Os resultados da reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real (RT-PCR) e das análises de isolamento viral foram negativos, comprovando que as aves domésticas não estavam eliminando o vírus no momento da coleta das amostras. O alto percentual de animais reativos pelo teste ELISA indireto em ambas as unidades epidemiológicas estudadas sugere a presença de cepa lentogênica circulante de NDV, uma vez que não houve registro de óbito e as aves não apresentavam sintomas característicos da doença.(AU)

Poultry , Newcastle disease virus , Chickens , Viruses , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Records , Health Education , Surveys and Questionnaires , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Epidemiological Monitoring , Farms
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816636


Coccidiosis-causing Eimeria species are transmitted in poultry via the oral-fecal route and can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea and mortality. This results in enormous economic losses in the poultry industry. Furthermore, its resistance to some currently used antibiotics is increasing. This has prompted the development of new alternative drug therapies that address the issue of chemical-free meat production. Effective management of infectious diseases in veterinary practice includes the induction of protective and adaptive immunity by treatment with an alternative agent. In this study, we evaluated the anticoccidial effects of dietary supplementation of Chosun University (CS) 32 compounds (0.1% and 1.0%) against Eimeria tenella, which was isolated and purified from the supernatant of culture broth of Bacillus strain (KCTC18250P), as well as its effect on the growth rate and feed efficiency in chickens. Overall, we observed a decrease in lesion scores and oocyte output in CS 32 compounds-treated chickens. We concluded that 0.1% CS 32 compounds displayed anticoccidial effects against E. tenella infection.

Adaptive Immunity , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacillus , Chickens , Communicable Diseases , Diarrhea , Dietary Supplements , Drug Therapy , Eimeria tenella , Eimeria , Meat Products , Mortality , Oocytes , Poultry
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 37: 25-33, Jan. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051225


Background: Ammonium stress is a prime limiting phenomenon that occurs during methane formation from poultry manure. It is caused by elevated ammonium nitrogen concentrations that result from substrate decomposition. The amounts of methane formed depend on the activity of methanogenic microbes. Results: During the research reported in this paper, the response of a mesophilic consortium inhabiting a biogas reactor to rising load of poultry manure was investigated. The taxonomic composition of bacterial population was mostly typical, however syntrophic bacteria were not detected. This absence resulted in limitation of succession of some methanogenic microorganisms, especially obligate hydrogenotrophs. The methanogenic activity of the consortium was totally dependent on the activity of Methanosaeta. Inhibition of methanoganesis was noticed at ammonium nitrogen concentration of 3.68 g/L, total cessation occurred at 5.45 g/L. Significant amounts of acetic acid in the fermentation pulp accompanied the inhibition. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the consortium was totally dependent on the metabolic activity of the acetoclastic Methanoseata genus and lack of SAOB did not allow hydrogenotrophic methanogens to propagate and lead to cessation of biogas production at an elevated ammonium concentration at which acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited.

Methanosarcinaceae/metabolism , Biofuels , Microbiota , Anaerobiosis , Poultry , Stress, Physiological , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA Fingerprinting , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Archaea/metabolism , Biodiversity , Fermentation , Microbial Consortia , Ammonium Compounds , Manure , Methane , Nitrogen
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1639-1648, set.-out. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1038651


Objetivou-se verificar a viabilidade econômica da produção de frangos de corte sob mecanismos de governança híbrida e hierárquica. Estudos de caso foram escolhidos para avaliação da atividade em núcleos de empresas integradoras e de produtores rurais integrados. Realizou-se pesquisa de campo para coleta de dados em 36 unidades de produção em Minas Gerais. Informações provenientes de 216 lotes produzidos entre agosto de 2015 e agosto de 2016 foram utilizadas nas análises econômicas. O cálculo dos custos baseou-se na metodologia proposta pela Embrapa - CNPSA e IEA - SP. As análises econômicas se realizaram conforme proposto pelo DAE - Ufla e pela Conab. Constatou-se que o custo com mão de obra causou maior impacto sobre o desempenho econômico de núcleos com estruturas de governança distintas. No modelo de produção via governança hierárquica, mesmo se considerando receitas secundárias ao processo de produção de aves, verificou-se prejuízo financeiro na atividade. Concluiu-se que a estrutura de governança híbrida representou melhor alternativa econômica que a internalização do processo de criação de frangos pelas empresas integradoras. Assim, sugere-se que empresas integradoras esgotem as possibilidades de produção via contrato de integração antes de investirem recursos em instalações próprias de criação.(AU)

The objective was to verify the economic feasibility in the production of broilers under hybrid and hierarchical governance mechanisms. Case studies were used to evaluate the activity of the integrating company and the integrated rural producers. The primary data about costs, income, and zootechnical indicators were collected in 36 poultry production units belonging to an integrated company and five rural producers, in state of Minas Gerais. Data from 216 batches of broilers produced between August 2015 and August 2016 were used in the economic analysis. Costs calculation was based on the methodology proposed by EMBRAPA - CNPSA and IEA - SP. The economic analyzes were carried out as proposed by DAE UFLA and CONAB. It was verified that the cost of labor caused the greatest impact on the economic performance of cores with different governance structures. In all breeding sites via hierarchical governance, even considering secondary revenues, there was a financial loss in the activity. It was concluded that the hybrid governance represented a better economic alternative than the internalization of the broiler production by integrating companies. Thus, it is suggested that integrating companies deplete the production possibilities through an integration contract before investing resources in their own breeding facilities.(AU)

Poultry , Chickens , Governance/economics , Governance/organization & administration , Governance/statistics & numerical data , Animal Husbandry/economics , Animal Husbandry/organization & administration , Animal Husbandry/statistics & numerical data
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1631-1638, set.-out. 2019. ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038660


The objective of the present study was to establish the bioclimatic zoning by the temperature and humidity index (THI), considering a historical period and a future scenario, in order to represent the thermal environment for broiler breeding in the State of Minas Gerais. A historical series (1976 - 2014) of THI minimum, average and maximum calculated based on data from 48 conventional meteorological stations was used, belonging to the National Institute of Meteorology of the State of Minas Gerais. The analysis of the temporal series was based on the Mann-Kendall test and linear regression. A geostatistical analysis was also carried out to determine the comfort zoning of broilers as a function of the THI intervals. In this way, the THI spatial mapping methodologies and trend analysis for the prediction of a possible future climate scenario can help in the development of risk maps for monitoring thermal comfort of broilers, being indispensable in the planning of actions for the mitigation of the climatic change impacts on the productive chain of the State of Minas Gerais.(AU)

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estabelecer o zoneamento bioclimático por meio do índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU), considerando-se um período histórico e um cenário futuro, de forma a representar o ambiente térmico para criação de frangos de corte no estado de Minas Gerais. Foi utilizada uma série histórica (1976 - 2014) de ITU mínimo, médio e máximo, que foram calculados com base em dados oriundos de 48 estações meteorológicas convencionais, pertencentes ao Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia do Estado de Minas Gerais. A análise da série temporal se baseou no teste de Mann-Kendall e na regressão linear. Procedeu-se, também, à análise geoestatística para determinação do zoneamento do conforto de frangos de corte segundo os intervalos de ITU. Dessa forma, as metodologias de mapeamento espacial do ITU e a análise de tendência para predição de um possível cenário climático futuro podem auxiliar no desenvolvimento de mapas de risco para o monitoramento do conforto térmico de frangos de corte, sendo indispensáveis no planejamento de ações para mitigação dos impactos das mudanças climáticas sobre a cadeia produtiva do estado de Minas Gerais.(AU)

Animals , Poultry/growth & development , Temperature , Climate Change/statistics & numerical data , Chickens , Humidity
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1623-1630, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038682


O experimento foi realizado no setor de avicultura/UFRRJ, utilizando 348 galinhas semipesadas (linhagem Dekalb Brown), com 52 semanas de idade, criadas sob dois sistemas de produção: cage-free e em gaiolas. Os dados obtidos pela análise físico-química e microbiológica dos ovos e a resistência óssea à quebra foram submetidos à análise de variância. No caso de ocorrerem efeitos dos diferentes sistemas de produção, foi aplicado o teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade para comparação das médias. A qualidade físico-química foi igualmente favorecida pelos dois sistemas de produção, indicando que as circunstâncias experimentais propiciaram condições adequadas para a formação de ovos de boa qualidade. O sistema de gaiola não desfavoreceu as características ósseas das galinhas, apontando que, em densidades adequadas, a gaiola pode não exercer um fator prejudicial para a qualidade óssea. O sistema de produção cage-free piorou a contaminação da casca, comprovando que ovos postos em ninhos são mais contaminados em comparação aos produzidos em gaiolas.(AU)

The experiment was carried out in the poultry sector / UFRRJ, using 348 semi-heavy hens (Dekalb Brown line), 52 weeks old, raised under two cage-free production systems and cages. The data obtained by the physical-chemical and microbiological analysis of the eggs and the bone resistance to the break were submitted to analysis of variance, in case of effects of the different production systems, the Tukey's test was applied at 5% of probability for comparison of the means. The physical-chemical quality was also favored by the two production systems, indicating that the experimental circumstances provided adequate conditions for the formation of good quality eggs. The cage system did not disfavor the bony characteristics of the hens, indicating that at suitable densities, the cage may not exert a detrimental factor to bone quality. The cage-free production system worsened shell contamination by proving that nesting eggs are more contaminated compared to those produced in cages.(AU)

Animals , Poultry/growth & development , Chickens/growth & development , Egg Shell/growth & development , Eggs/analysis , Eggs/microbiology , Animal Husbandry , Animal Welfare
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 613-620, oct 2019. tab, fig, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046788


In searching for alternatives to traditional chemical medicines, including feed antibiotics, scientists around the world are developing a new generation of medicines, phytobiotics. This work was aimed at studying the phytobiotics (pharmaceutical substances) production technology using the method of low-temperature vacuum water-ethanol extraction of Siberian medicinal plants, followed by low-temperature vacuum drying and determination of the main biologically active substances that had the required pharmacological effect on the organisms of farm animals and poultry. The objects of the study in this work were Siberian medicinal plants and ready phytobiotics (pharmaceutical substances). The article describes the technological conditions for obtaining pharmaceutical substances and their properties concerning the content of biologically active substances. It has been found that for obtaining pharmaceutical substances, extraction should be performed in three stages: two water extractions and ethanol- water extraction. The article provides a list of medicinal plants and the amounts of biologically active substances that ensure certain pharmacological effects on the set of economically useful qualities in farm animals and poultry and contained in phytobiotics (pharmaceutical substances) based on extracts from medicinal plants.

Animals , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Poultry , Technology , Biopharmaceutics , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/classification , Food Additives , Animals, Domestic