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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e243238, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360207

ABSTRACT

The use of alternative nutritional sources is an important topic for animal production such as poultry. This study examined the effect of replacing soybean meal with sunflower leaf meal in the diet of laying shaver brown pullets. A total of 30 laying birds were assigned to three treatments of 0% (as control group), 10% and 15% MSFLM inclusion. Four eggs per replicate were randomly taken for three consecutive days at two weeks interval for five times, and 18 weeks individuals were selected after 40 days of experimental time. External parameters of the eggs (egg weight, egg length, egg breadth and egg shape index, shell thickness), and body parameters (Final body weight, weight gain), feed intake and hen day production were measured. For egg length, egg breadth and shell thickness showed significant difference (p< 0.05) in from the control birds. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and hen day production showed comparable results with values from eggs of birds on control diet. The study revealed the ability of birds to easily utilize the nutrients in the protein sources. MSFLM utilization up to 15% in pullets' diet revealed no detrimental effect on the performance of the laying birds and the external qualities of eggs produced.


O uso de fontes nutricionais alternativas é um tópico importante para a produção animal, como a avicultura. Este estudo examinou o efeito da substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de folha de girassol na dieta de frangas marrons barbeadoras poedeiras. Um total de 30 aves poedeiras foram designadas a três tratamentos de 0% (como grupo controle), 10% e 15% de inclusão MSFLM. Quatro ovos por repetição foram retirados aleatoriamente por três dias consecutivos em intervalos de duas semanas por cinco vezes, e indivíduos de 18 semanas foram selecionados após 40 dias do tempo experimental. Parâmetros externos dos ovos (peso do ovo, comprimento do ovo, largura do ovo e índice de forma do ovo, espessura da casca) e parâmetros corporais (peso corporal final, ganho de peso), consumo de ração e produção diária da galinha foram medidos. Para comprimento do ovo, largura do ovo e espessura da casca apresentaram diferença significativa (p <0,05) nas aves controle. Peso corporal final, ganho de peso, consumo de ração e produção de dia de galinha mostraram resultados comparáveis ​​com valores de ovos de aves em dieta controle. O estudo revelou a capacidade das aves de utilizar facilmente os nutrientes das fontes de proteína. A utilização de MSFLM até 15% na dieta das frangas não revelou nenhum efeito prejudicial no desempenho das aves poedeiras e nas qualidades externas dos ovos produzidos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry/growth & development , Chickens/growth & development , Diet , Helianthus
2.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 26(1cont): 134-151, jan.-jun. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1437896

ABSTRACT

A avicultura de corte levou ao Brasil a ser o no líder exportador de carne de frango, desde 2011, e o terceiro produtor global desta proteína. Portanto, é importante que todo produtor possua e mantenha um programa de biosseguridade continuado, respeitando rigorosamente cada etapa ou prática de manejo a fim de obter o sucesso econômico de sua produção. Sustentado pela medicina veterinária preventiva, um programa de biosseguridade deve apresentar aspectos direcionados a cada sistema de proteção em particular, para prevenir e controlar a presença e/ou introdução de microrganismos patogênicos nos rebanhos. O objetivo deste trabalho e apresentar uma revisão atualizada de literatura sobre programas de biosseguridade para evitar a proliferação de agentes patogênicos na avicultura de corte como os dois tipos de Salmonella que causam riscos à saúde pública e à dos animais. A pesquisa é qualitativa de cunho exploratório bibliográfico-documental, com pesquisa em sites como o Google Acadêmico, da revista de veterinária da Unipar, SCIELO, portal CAPES e sites governamentais. O resultado da pesquisa apresentou um panorama real sobre emprego de programas de biosseguridade no Brasil, direcionados à avicultura de corte, demonstrando que os produtores estão se conscientizando sobre a importância destes programas, devido à pressão do mercado exportador global. Conclui-se que ainda falta uma maior conscientização por parte de todos os produtores brasileiros, para evitar que o plantel produzido seja contaminado por agentes patogênicos, principalmente a Salmonella, evitando que a saúde pública e animal esteja comprometida. Somente desta maneira, o Brasil conseguirá manter e expandir mais o mercado avícola a nível global.(AU)


Poultry farming has led Brazil to be the leading exporter of chicken meat, since 2011, and the third global producer of this protein. Therefore, it is important that every producer has and maintains a continuous biosecurity program, strictly respecting each stage or management practice in order to obtain the economic success of their production. Supported by preventive veterinary medicine, a biosecurity program must present aspects directed to each protection system in particular, to prevent and control the presence and/or introduction of pathogenic microorganisms in herds. The objective of this work is to present an updated review of the literature on biosecurity programs to prevent the proliferation of pathogenic agents in poultry farming, such as the two types of Salmonella that pose risks to public and animal health. The research is qualitative, bibliographical-documentary exploratory, with research on sites such as Google Scholar, Unipar's veterinary magazine, SCIELO, CAPES portal and government sites. The result of the research presented a real panorama on the use of biosecurity programs in Brazil, directed to poultry production, demonstrating that producers are becoming aware of the importance of these programs, due to the pressure of the global export market. It is concluded that there is still a lack of greater awareness on the part of all Brazilian producers, to prevent the produced herd from being contaminated by pathogenic agents, mainly Salmonella, preventing public and animal health from being compromised. Only in this way will Brazil be able to maintain and further expand the poultry market at a global level.(AU)


La avicultura llevó a Brasil a ser el principal exportador de carne de pollo, desde 2011, y el tercer productor mundial de esta proteína. Por ello, es importante que todo productor cuente y mantenga un programa de bioseguridad continuo, respetando estrictamente cada etapa o práctica de manejo para obtener el éxito económico de su producción. Apoyado en la medicina veterinaria preventiva, un programa de bioseguridad debe presentar aspectos dirigidos a cada sistema de protección en particular, para prevenir y controlar la presencia y/o introducción de microorganismos patógenos en los rebaños. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una revisión actualizada de la literatura sobre programas de bioseguridad para prevenir la proliferación de agentes patógenos en la avicultura, como los dos tipos de Salmonella que presentan riesgos para la salud pública y animal. La investigación es cualitativa, bibliográfico-documental exploratoria, con pesquisa en sitios como Google Scholar, revista veterinaria de la Unipar, SCIELO, portal de la CAPES y sitios gubernamentales. El resultado de la investigación presentó un panorama real sobre el uso de programas de bioseguridad en Brasil, dirigidos a la producción avícola, demostrando que los productores están tomando conciencia de la importancia de estos programas, debido a la presión del mercado mundial de exportación. Se concluye que aún falta una mayor conciencia por parte de todos los productores brasileños, para evitar que el hato producido sea contaminado por agentes patógenos, principalmente Salmonella, evitando que se comprometa la salud pública y animal. Solo así Brasil podrá mantener y expandir aún más el mercado avícola a nivel mundial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry , Salmonella Infections, Animal/prevention & control , Disease Prevention , Biosecurity , Salmonella
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246514, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285640

ABSTRACT

Abstract The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.


Resumo O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genetics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Poultry , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chickens , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-6, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468854

ABSTRACT

The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey’s medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.


O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry/genetics , Poultry/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Mycoplasma/pathogenicity , Polymerase Chain Reaction
5.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(4): 623-630, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1411907

ABSTRACT

La calidad de los alimentos que consumimos se ha convertido en uno de los principales problemas de salud pública a nivel mundial, ya que son la puerta de entrada de patógenos y vectores para la trasmisión de diversas enfermedades. Se estimó que el 17,9% de las enfermedades trasmitidas por el consumo de alimentos, está relacionada con aves de corral, y el 19% de estas enfermedades, están asociadas a la contaminación por Salmonella entérica. La Salmonelosis es una enfermedad invasiva que afecta en gran medida a las poblaciones altamente vulnerables (niños, ancianos e inmunocomprometidos), causando la necesidad de hospitalización y en ocasiones la muerte. A nivel mundial se estima que anualmente hay más de 94 millones de personas afectadas por gastroenteritis causada por el consumo de aves contaminadas con Salmonella, así como más de 155.000 fallecidos. Sin embargo, los orígenes de esta cepa: Salmonella entérica y otras de mayor alcance patógeno están influenciadas muy de cerca por el control de dos cepas con poca acción en la población humana: la S. polloroum y la S. gallinarum. La casi desaparición de estos dos serovares impulsó la colonización de cepas más resistente a los antibióticos y más perjudiciales para los seres humanos(AU)


The quality of the food we consume has become one of the main public health problems worldwide, since it is the gateway for pathogens and vectors for the transmission of various diseases. It was estimated that 17.9% of diseases transmitted by food consumption are related to poultry, and 19% of these diseases are associated with contamination by Salmonella enterica. Salmonellosis is an invasive disease that greatly affects highly vulnerable populations (children, the elderly and immunocompromised), causing the need for hospitalization and sometimes death. Worldwide, it is estimated that annually there are more than 94 million people affected by gastroenteritis caused by the intake of poultry contaminated with Salmonella, as well as more than 155,000 deaths. However, the origins of this strain: Salmonella enterica and others with a greater pathogenic scope are closely influenced by the control of two strains with little action in the human population: S. polloroum and S. gallinarum. The near disappearance of these two serovars prompted the colonization of strains more resistant to antibiotics and more harmful to humans(AU)


Subject(s)
Poultry , Salmonella , Food Quality , Salmonella Infections , Public Health , Environmental Pollution , Gastroenteritis
6.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(4): 873-878, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1416645

ABSTRACT

Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae) es la mosca más común en todo el mundo. Más de 100 patógenos pueden causar enfermedades en humanos y animales por este tipo de insectos. Estos patógenos incluyen: diarrea infantil, ántrax, cólera, oftalmía, disentería bacilar, fiebre tifoidea y tuberculosis. Además, las moscas domésticas transmiten muchos de los huevos de helmintos como Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis, y especies de Dipylidium, Diphyllobothriam, Hymenolepis, Taenia y Trichomonas. También puede transmitir quistes de protozoos y trofozoítos como E. histolytica y Giardia lamblia. Se determinó el índice de infestación por Musca domestica L. (Díptera, Muscidae) en una faenadora avícola ubicada en el Perú. Para ello se evaluó no sólo el tratamiento aplicado: protocolo de cola entomológica (T1), monitoreo de insfectación de mosca (T2) o comincación de lámparas LED UV más tabla de pegamento adhesivo (T3), sino también las diferentes zonas de faenadora: zonas sucias de descarga y estabulación (ZDE), preparación (ZP), zonas adicionales de sacrificio sanitario (ZSS), preparación de residuos orgánicos (ZPRO), conservación de los residuos orgánicos (ZCRO) y de conservación de sangre (ZCS). Los resultados demoestraron que, independientemente de la zona de operación, el tratamiento más efectivo para determinar la infestación por la mosca doméstica fue el combinado de lámpara LED junto con tablas de pegamento (T3), seguido del tratamiento de protocolo de cola entomológica (T1) y el tratamiento por Monitoreo de infestación de moscas (T2) independientemente de los días de recolección. Es importante seguir las diferentes normativas a fin de controlar y eliminar la presencia de moscas (y de otros insectos voladores) para evitar la contaminación y, por ende, enfermedades(AU)


Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae) is the most common fly in the world. More than 100 pathogens can cause diseases in humans and animals by these types of insects. These pathogens include: infant diarrhea, anthrax, cholera, ophthalmia, bacillary dysentery, typhoid fever, and tuberculosis. In addition, houseflies transmit many of the eggs of helminths such as Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis, and Dipylidium, Diphyllobothriam, Hymenolepis, Taenia, and Trichomonas species. It can also transmit cysts of protozoa and trophozoites such as E. histolytica and Giardia lamblia. The infestation index by Musca domestica L. (Diptera, Muscidae) was determined in a poultry slaughterhouse located in Peru. For this, not only the applied treatment was evaluated: entomological glue protocol (T1), fly infestation monitoring (T2) or combination of UV LED lamps plus adhesive glue table (T3), but also the different slaughter areas: unloading and holding areas (ZDE), preparation (ZP), additional stamping-out areas (ZSS), preparation of organic waste (ZPRO), conservation of organic waste (ZCRO) and blood conservation (ZCS). The results showed that, regardless of the area of operation, the most effective treatment to determine housefly infestation was the LED lamp combined with glue boards (T3), followed by the entomological glue protocol treatment (T1 ) and the treatment by Monitoring of fly infestation (T2) regardless of the days of collection. It is important to follow the different regulations in order to control and eliminate the presence of flies (and other flying insects) to avoid contamination and, therefore, diseases(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry , Diptera , Houseflies , Insecta , Food Contamination , Cholera , Diarrhea, Infantile , Dysentery, Bacillary , Eggs
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06990, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365240

ABSTRACT

The current techniques used in the disinfection of reused poultry litter, such as lime addition, windrowing and plastic cover on the surface, do not guarantee the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, causing damage to the environment and animal health. Gram negative bacteria, i.e., Salmonella and Escherichia coli, can be transmitted from one batch to another through reused litter, causing health damage to broilers and humans that consume food contaminated by these agents. Our study assessed the effectiveness of the methods plastic cover on the surface (PCS) and plastic cover on the surface with ammonia gas injection (PCSAI) in the control of Gram negative bacteria. The results obtained, both in laboratory conditions (Experiment 1) and in the field (Experiment 2), demonstrate that the method PCSAI with 0.22% ammonia gas had a significant reduction (P<0.05) of Gram negative bacteria in the period of 48 hours This new methodology for disinfecting poultry litter will allow its reuse in a practical and safe way, improving the preservation of the environment, of the health of broilers and consumers of poultry products.


O reaproveitamento de camas aviárias na criação de frangos de corte é uma prática muito utilizada no Brasil. Essa prática reduz custos de produção e contribui na conservação do meio ambiente. As técnicas atuais utilizadas na desinfecção de camas aviárias reaproveitadas, como adição de cal, enleiramento e lona na superfície, não garantem a eliminação de microrganismos patogênicos porque não geram quantidade suficiente de amônia. O gás amônia, em concentrações elevadas, tem efeito biocida. Bactérias Gram negativas, como as Salmonelas e Escherichia coli, podem ser transmitidas de um lote para outro através do reaproveitamento da cama, ocasionando prejuízos para a saúde das aves e dos humanos que consomem alimentos contaminados por estes agentes. Este trabalho avaliou a eficácia do método lona na superfície com injeção de gás amônia no controle de microrganismos Gram negativos. Os resultados obtidos demostraram que esse método controlou os microrganismos Gram negativos num período de 48 horas em camas de frangos de corte reaproveitadas. Assim, essa nova metodologia de desinfecção de camas de aviário permitirá sua reutilização de forma prática e segura, melhorando a saúde das aves e dos consumidores dos produtos avícolas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry/microbiology , Chickens , Disinfection/methods , Ammonia/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacteria
8.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(2): 12-18, 30 Diciembre 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368209

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Según datos de la Organización Mundial de Salud los trastornos musculoesqueléticos son la principal causa de discapacidad en el mundo; retrasar su diagnóstico provocaría una discapacidad prevenible. OBJETIVO. Determinar la prevalencia de síntomas osteomusculares en galponeros de granjas avícolas asociados a condiciones del trabajo. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra aleatoria estratificada de 223 trabajadores, divididos en 106 galponeros y 117 personal administrativo de granjas avícolas de la provincia de Manabí. Criterios de inclusión: trabajadores mayores de 18 años de edad con al menos un año en la misma actividad. Para el análisis de datos, se utilizó Epi Info versión 7. RESULTADOS. La prevalencia de síntomas osteomusculares en los últimos 12 meses fue mayor en los galponeros en: hombro 81,69% y columna lumbar 56,96%. Mediante un análisis a través de regresión logística se determinó que los galponeros que trabajan por más de 10 años y que realizan movimientos repetitivos en menos de un minuto, tienen mayor riesgo de presentar dolor en el hombro (IC del 95% 1,26 ­ 4,98) e (IC del 95% 1,65 ­ 5,29). CONCLUSIÓN. Se registró la prevalencia de síntomas osteomusculares en galponeros de granjas avícolas asociados a condiciones del trabajo. RECOMENDACIÓN. Es necesario contar con sistemas de vigilancia a fin de proponer estrategias públicas en la industria avícola del Ecuador


INTRODUCTION. According to data from the World Health Organization musculoskeletal disorders are the leading cause of disability in the world; delaying their diagnosis would result in preventable disability. OBJECTIVE. To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in poultry farm workers associated with working conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Stratified random sample of 223 workers, divided into 106 poultry sheds workers and 117 administrative personnel of poultry farms in the province of Manabí. Inclusion criteria: Workers over 18 years of age with at least 1 year in the same activity. Fort he data analysis, Epi Info version 7 was used. RESULTS. The prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the last 12 months was higher in sheds workers in: shoulder 81,69% and lumbar spine 56,96%. Using logistic regression analysis, it was determined that the sheds workers who have been working for more than 10 years and who perform repetitive movements in less than one minute have a greater risk of presenting shoulder pain (95% CI 1,26 ­ 4,98) and (95% CI 1,65 ­ 5,29). CONCLUSION. The prevalence of osteomuscular symptoms in poultry farm workers associated with working conditions was recorded. RECOMMENDATION. It is necessary to have surveillance systems in order to propose public strategies in the Ecuadorian poultry industry


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Poultry , Poultry Products , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Spine , Occupational Risks , Workload , Ankle Injuries , Neck Pain , Shoulder Pain , Hip Injuries , Knee Injuries
9.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 23(2): 41-46, jul.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360963

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los marcadores moleculares son una herramienta de gran utilidad para estudios de diversidad genética, que permite identificar poblaciones con características genéticas particulares, que soportan el establecimiento de programas de conservación y mejoramiento genético. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el grado de información generada por un panel de 30 marcadores microsatélites en la población avícola Rustipollos. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre de 50 individuos, la amplificación de fragmentos se realizó mediante PCR, utilizando 30 microsatélites recomendados por la FAO-ISAG para estudios de biodiversidad en gallinas. La estimación de los tamaños de los fragmentos se realizó en un secuenciador automático ABI Prism 377. Fueron determinados el número de alelos por locus y el Contenido de Información Polimórfica (PIC), mediante el programa Microsatellite-Toolkit. El número total de alelos reportados fue de 99 en los 30 marcadores microsatélites, con un valor medio de 3.3 ±1.06 alelos por locus. La determinación del PIC registró un promedio de 0.46, con un rango de 0.18 a 0.76 en los marcadores MCW016 y ADL278, respectivamente. El 43% de los marcadores empleados resultaron altamente informativos para la población evaluada. En general, los marcadores microsatélites demostraton ser útiles para estudios genéticos en la población avícola Rustipollos.


ABSTRACT Molecular markers are a very useful tool for genetic diversity studies, allowing the identification of populations with particular genetic characteristics, in order to establish conservation and genetic improvement programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of information generated by a panel of 30 microsatellite markers in the Rustipollos poultry population. Blood samples were obtained from 50 individuals, the fragments were amplified by PCR, using 30 microsatellites recommended by FAO-ISAG for biodiversity studies in chickens. The estimation of the fragment sizes was carried out in an ABI Prism 377 automatic sequencer. The number of alleles per locus and the Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) were determined using the Microsatellite-Toolkit program. The total number of alleles reported was 99 in the 30 microsatellite markers, with a mean value of 3.3 ± 1.06 alleles per locus. The PIC determination registered an average of 0.46, with a range of 0.18 to 0.76 in the MCW016 and ADL278 markers, respectively. 43% of the markers used were highly informative for the population evaluated. In general, microsatellite markers proved to be useful for genetic studies in the Rustipollos poultry population.


Subject(s)
Poultry , Paraguay
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(5): 1493-1501, oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385512

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study evaluates the effect of probiotics Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus subtilis on production parameters and intestinal histomorphology of broilers of 45 days of age. Eleven 45-day-old Ross 500 broilers were used and classified as control group (CG) (n = 5) or supplemented with probiotics group (n = 8). Histopathological evaluation of duodenum, ileum, and jejunum was performed. The area of the villi height, base and apex were evaluated as well as the size and number of crypts. In addition, mucus production was quantified in different portions of the small intestine. The villi present duodenum of broilers supplemented with probiotics had a greater area (p = 0.0127), a greater basal width (p = 0.0049) and a greater apical width (p = 0.0024), as well as a greater crypt area (p = 0.0189). Significantly higher levels of mucus were noted in the duodenum (p = 0.0480) and jejunum (p = 0.0480) of broilers supplemented with probiotics. We suggest that probiotic supplementation improve the intestinal nutrients absorption.


RESUMEN: Este estudio evalúa el efecto del uso de probióticos como: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus subtilis en parámetros productivos e histomorfologia intestinal de pollos de engorde de 45 días de edad. Fueron usados 11, los cuales fueron clasificados en grupo control (CG) (n = 5) y grupo suplementado con probióticos (PG) (n = 8). Fue realizado análisis histopatológico de secciones de duodeno, íleon y yeyuno. Fue evaluado ancho, altura y área del ápice de la vellosidad, área y número de criptas. Además, fue estimada la producción de moco en los diferentes segmentos del intestino delgado. Fue observada mayor área de la vellosidad en duodeno, PG (p = 0.0127), ancho basal mayor en PG (p = 0.0049) ancho apical mayor en PG (p = 0.0024), así como mayor área de criptas en PG (p = 0.0189). No fueron encontradas diferencias significativas respecto a los segmentos de yeyuno e íleon. PG presentó mayor producción de moco en duodeno (p = 0.0480) y en yeyuno (p = 0.0480). Concluimos que la suplementación con probióticos en pollos de engorde genera cambios en la histomorfologia intestinal, evidenciables en áreas apicales y basales de las vellosidades intestinales. Soporte financiero: Dirección General de Investigaciones - Universidad de los Llanos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Intestines/anatomy & histology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/physiology , Bacillus subtilis/physiology , Chickens , Dietary Supplements , Intestines/microbiology , Lactobacillus acidophilus/physiology
11.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 118-125, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1353017

ABSTRACT

En Guatemala en el 2015, el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social (MSPAS) reportó nuevos casos de la enfermedad de Chagas en la región suroriental del país, siendo Santa Rosa uno de los departamentos endémicos en donde Triatoma dimidiata es el principal transmisor. Se estimó la infestación de T. dimidiata en la aldea Chuchuapa, municipio de Santa María Ixhuatán, de abril a junio de 2019, se calcularon los índices en-tomológicos y se caracterizaron intra y peridomiciliar 149 viviendas (79.67% de las viviendas habitadas). Los datos se obtuvieron mediante un cuestionario mixto, en entrevista cara a cara y evaluación de las viviendas, por un equipo profesional experimentado, mediante el método y protocolo estándar hombre-hora. Se capturaron 20 triatominos en 10 viviendas, con un índice de infestación de 6.71% (10/149), un índice de densidad de 13.42% (20/149), 19 triatominos intradomiciliares y uno peridomiciliar, con un índice de infección natural por Tr y pano-soma cruzi intradomiciliar de 26.3% (5/19), índice de infección natural por T. cr u z i peridomiciliar de 100.0% (1/1) e índice de infección natural por T. c r u z i en los triatominos capturados de 30.0 % (6/20). Las viviendas infestadas presentaron techo de lámina, pared de bajareque con grietas y sin repello, piso de tierra y afiches en la pared, acumulación de leña u otros materiales tanto intra como peridomiciliar, convivencia con animales domésticos y tenencia de animales de corral. Los resultados representan un alto riesgo para la transmisión de la enfermedad de Chagas entre los habitantes de la aldea.


In Guatemala in 2015, the Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance reported new cases of Chagas disease in the southeastern region of the country, with Santa Rosa being one of the endemic departments where Tr ia-toma dimidiata is the main transmitter. The infestation of T. dimidiata was estimated in the Chuchuapa village, municipality of Santa María Ixhuatán, from April to June 2019, the entomological indices were calculated and 149 dwellings were characterized intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary (79.67% of the inhabited dwellings). The data were obtained through a mixed questionnaire, in a face-to-face interview and evaluation of the dwellings, by an experienced professional team, using the standard man-hour method and protocol. 20 triatomines were captured in 10 homes, with an infestation index of 6.71% (10/149), a density index of 13.42% (20/149), 19 intradomiciliary triatomines and one peridomiciliary, with a natural infection index by intradomiciliary Trypanosomacruzi of 26.3% (5/19), natural infection index by peridomiciliary T. c r u z i of 100.0% (1/1) and natural infection index by T. c r u z i in captured triatomines of 30.0% (6/20). The infested dwellings have a sheet roof, awattle and daub wall with cracks and no wall plaster, dirt and posters on the wall, accumulation of firewood and other materials in both intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary, living with domestic animals and keeping poultry animals. The results represent a high risk for the transmission of Chagas disease among the villager.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Adult , Young Adult , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Chagas Disease/transmission , Housing , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Poultry , Rural Population , Health Surveys , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Guatemala/epidemiology , Animals, Domestic
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e026920, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251388

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this research was to evaluate the control of coccidiosis in the litter of commercial poultry housing in the Western region of Paraná, Brazil, which adopts sanitary management to control Salmonellosis. Three litter treatments were selected, proposed by an integrating company in the region: fermentation associated with liming (FL); liming (L) and fermentation (F). Stool samples were collected from 18 poultry housing, in a completely randomized experimental design, testing different collection areas in the sheds, from the 5th day of the birds' housing, repeated weekly until the 40th day, during five successive flocks. The incidence of coccidiosis was determined by oocysts count in feces (OoPG), testing the interactions between treatment, age of birds and the number of flocks housed. Samples were selected to identify, through the Multiplex PCR, species of the genus Eimeria. circulating in the shed. The results showed that in litter where fermentation was adopted, the efficiency to control the sporulation of Eimeria spp. was significantly (p <0.05) higher than in the other treatments. The use of the Multiplex PCR technique requires improvements in the preparation of samples for the extraction of genetic material.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência dos manejos sanitários aplicados à cama de aviários comerciais para o controle da salmonelose nas criações de frango de corte, na região Oeste do Paraná, e verificar seu efeito no controle da coccidiose. Foram selecionados três tratamentos de cama: a fermentação associada à calagem (FL); calagem (L) e fermentação (F). As amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 18 aviários, com um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, testando-se diferentes áreas de coleta. As coletas foram realizadas a partir do 5° dia do alojamento e se repetiram semanalmente até o 40° dia, durante cinco lotes sucessivos. A incidência da parasitose foi determinada pela contagem de oocistos por grama de fezes (OoPG), testando as interações entre tratamento, idade das aves e número de lotes alojados. Amostras de fezes foram selecionadas para identificar os oocistos esperulados das espécies do gênero Eimeria circulantes no galpão, por meio do Multiplex PCR. Observou-se que a fermentação foi significativamente (p<0,05) mais eficiente, comparando-se o mesmo lote ao longo de todos os observados. A utilização da técnica de PCR Multiplex, precisa ser padronizada para amostras de campo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Coccidiosis/prevention & control , Coccidiosis/drug therapy , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Coccidiostats/therapeutic use , Eimeria , Poultry , Brazil , Chickens , Housing
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06818, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340351

ABSTRACT

Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness worldwide, and poultry and its derived products are the most common food products associated with salmonellosis outbreaks. Some countries, including Brazil, have experienced an increased prevalence of Salmonella Heidelberg among their poultry flocks. Some isolates have also presented high resistance to antimicrobial agents and persist in the poultry farm environment. This study aimed to compare the susceptibility of S. Heidelberg strains isolated in 2006 with those isolated in 2016 against disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. The results showed that all the strains were highly susceptible to sodium hypochlorite, regardless of the conditions and year of isolation. Resistance to benzalkonium chloride varied according to the conditions applied, but not to the year of isolation. Increased antimicrobial resistance from 2006-2016 was observed only for tetracycline. The results suggest that the antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance of S. Heidelberg did not increase for ten years (2006-2016). However, further analysis should include a larger number of S. Heidelberg isolates from poultry origin and additional antimicrobial agents for more precise conclusions about the increasing in antimicrobial resistance in the last years.(AU)


Salmonella é uma das principais causas das doenças transmitidas por alimento em todo o mundo, e a carne de frango e produtos derivados são os principais alimentos associados com surtos de salmonelose em humanos. Alguns países, incluindo o Brasil, têm observado um aumento da ocorrência de Salmonella Heidelberg nas suas granjas avícolas. Além disto, alguns isolados têm apresentado alta resistência aos antimicrobianos e têm persistido no ambiente de produção avícola. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a susceptibilidade de cepas de S. Heidelberg isoladas em 2006 com aquelas isoladas em 2016 contra desinfetantes e agentes antimicrobianos. Os resultados demonstraram que as cepas foram altamente resistentes a hipoclorito de sódio, independentemente das condições e do ano de isolamento. A resistência ao cloreto de benzalcônio variou de acordo com as condições testadas, mas não com o ano de isolamento. Um aumento da resistência aos antimicrobianos de 2006 a 2016 foi observado apenas para tetraciclina. Os resultados sugerem que a resistência aos desinfetantes e aos antimicrobianos não aumentou em um período de dez anos (2006-2016). Entretanto, novas análises devem incluir um número maior de cepas de S. Heidelberg isoladas de fontes avícolas e outros agentes antimicrobianos para uma conclusão mais precisa sobre o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana nos últimos anos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry/microbiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Disinfectants/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis
14.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00402020, 2021. mapas, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349004

ABSTRACT

The epidemiology of salmonellosis in poultry is complex, which makes it difficult to identify the origin and spread of this disease in poultry farms. The aims of this study were to characterize the spatial distribution of Salmonella enterica in epidemiological units in Paraná, Brazil; and to investigate correlations between this microorganism and associated factors. Among the epidemiological units, 78 of 243 (32.10%) were positive. Spatially, the northwestern and western regions had higher concentrations of positive cases than the other regions. In bivariate analyses, the presence of other animal species in the epidemiological unit (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.64; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.43­0.95; p = 0.022) and proximity to establishments at risk (PR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32­0.81; p = 0.001) did not influence positivity, but the average population per poultry shed (between 30,501 and 32,500; PR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.72­3.83; p = 0.001) was associated with Salmonella positivity. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that the average population per poultry shed, presence of surrounding risk-posing establishments and presence of surrounding poultry sheds produced a significant multiple model for S. enterica. The results indicated that the presence of S. enterica may be related to higher density broiler in poultry sheds, presence of surrounding poultry sheds, proximity between positive and negative epidemiological units and altitude of the municipality. The information obtained showed that some factors were related to positivity for this microorganism and emphasizes the importance of serotyping to obtain other epidemiological data.


Subject(s)
Poultry , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella enterica , Birds , Serotyping , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence Ratio , Farms
15.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06685, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279539

ABSTRACT

To increase the amount of meat produced, researchers have promoted intensive genetic selection for growth rate and muscling and have improved nutrition and management conditions. However, there has been an increase in the number of reports of breast muscle myopathies observed in poultry processing plants, including white striping (WS) and wooden breast (WB). This study aimed to evaluate and to compare the occurrence of WS and WB myopathies in three poultry processing plants and to perform an anatomopathological characterization, including macroscopic and microscopic analyses. A total of 408,334 carcasses were condemned or downgraded due to the presence of WB or WS, which represents 0.73% of the total number of slaughtered animals during the evaluated period. WB was more frequent than WS, but the occurrence of each myopathy varied significantly according to each establishment. WB was more frequent in the establishment which includes only male flocks, an average age of 45 days, and an average live weight of 2775g (B). WS was more frequent in establishment with male, female and mixed flocks, average ages ranging from 41 to 44 days, and average live weight 1731g-2830g (A). It is probably related with specific condition of each poultry company, including genetics, age, nutrition and management conditions. Macroscopically, WB and WS lesions are characterized by hypertrophy and stiffness of the pectoralis major muscle. Under microscopy, the myopathies showed similarities regarding the detected histological abnormalities, characterized by a process of myodegeneration, although the connective tissue infiltrate was more severe in the breasts with WB than in those with WS myopathy. The results found in this study demonstrate that the rates of condemnation for these myopathies are high, vary significantly among the analyzed companies and may cause major economic losses for the productive sector in the region.(AU)


Para melhorar a quantidade de carne produzida, os pesquisadores têm promovido ao longo dos anos uma seleção genética intensiva para a taxa de crescimento e desenvolvimento de músculos, além de melhorias nas condições nutricionais, sanitárias e de manejo. No entanto, houve um aumento no número de relatos de miopatias dos músculos do peito observados em abatedouros-frigoríficos de aves, incluindo white striping (WS) e wooden breast (WB). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de WB e WS em três abatedouros-frigoríficos de aves e realizar uma caracterização anatomopatológica, incluindo análises macroscópicas e microscópicas. Um total de 408.334 carcaças foi condenado (total ou parcialmente) devido à presença WB ou WS, o que representou 0,73% do número total de animais abatidos durante o período avaliado. Apesar de a ocorrência de WB ter sido maior do que a de WS, a frequência de cada uma variou significativamente de acordo com o estabelecimento. WB foi mais frequente no estabelecimento que incluía apenas lotes de machos, com média de 45 dias de idade e peso médio ao abate de 2775g (B). WS foi mais frequente no estabelecimento com lotes de machos, fêmeas e mistos, com idade entre 41 e 44 dias e peso médio ao abate entre 1731g-2830g (A). Isto pode ser justificado por condições específicas de cada empresa, incluindo genética, idade das aves, nutrição e condições de manejo. Macroscopicamente, as lesões de WB e de WS foram caracterizadas principalmente por hipertrofia e rigidez do músculo pectoralis major. À microscopia, ambas as miopatias mostraram semelhanças em relação às anormalidades histológicas detectadas, caracterizadas principalmente por um processo de miodegeneração. Nos músculos apresentando WB, o infiltrado de tecido conjuntivo foi mais intenso quando comparado àqueles com WS. Os resultados encontrados neste trabalho demonstram que os índices de condenação por essas miopatias são altos, variam significativamente entre as empresas analisadas e podem causar grandes perdas econômicas para o setor produtivo da região.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry/injuries , Organizations/economics , Abattoirs/organization & administration , Poultry/anatomy & histology
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06831, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250487

ABSTRACT

Avian colibacillosis is an acute and globally occurring infectious disease of domestic and wild birds caused by Escherichia coli, and it is associated with considerable economic losses mainly due to the morbidity and mortality associated. The present study aimed to describe the pathological, bacteriological and immunohistochemical aspects of avian colibacillosis in broiler chickens of Mozambique. Forty-nine broiler chicken presented anorexia, decreased weight gain, ataxia, diarrhea, dyspnea, and death in a clinical course of 3-5 days. The birds were raised in five farms (small, medium and large farms) with manual and automatic breeding system, with flocks ranging from 100 to 20,000 birds. At the necropsy, all birds had poor body condition, and the pericardium and the Glisson's capsule of all avian exhibited different degrees of adherence often associated with severe fibrin deposition. The thoracic and abdominal air sacs were thickened and adhered to the costal wall. Mild, moderate or marked hepatomegaly associated with white pinpoint multifocal areas (100%, 49/49) and mild to moderate splenomegaly in 75.5% (37/49) with a mottled surface were observed. The lungs and kidney were enlarged and reddish. Histologically, a multiorgan fibrinoheterophilic polyserositis was observed in 75.5% of the cases (37/49), which were characterized by inflammatory infiltrates composed mainly of degenerative heterophils, macrophages and plasma cells, associated with fibrin deposits and intermixed by coccobacillary bacterial basophilic aggregates. These affected mainly the pericardium (28.6%, 14/49), the pleura (18.4%, 9/49), the Glisson's capsule (10.2%, 5/49), the ventriculus (10.2, 5/33), and the proventriculus (8.2%, 4/49) serosa. Multifocal to coalescing areas of coagulative necrosis associated with similar inflammatory cells were observed mainly in the spleen (28.6%, 14/49), liver (24.5%, 12/49), and intestines (22.4%, 11/49). A similar infiltrate was also observed affecting the the lungs (16.3%, 8/49), the kidney (16.3%, 8/49) and the myocardium (14.3%, 7/49). Isolation and identification of E. coli was obtained in 12 cases through bacterial culture. Some organs (2 cases of each farms) were selected and submitted to immunohistochemistry anti-E. coli, and a positive stain was observed in all tested cases in liver (3/3), heart (4/4), spleen (1/1), lungs (4/4), intestines (4/4), bursa of Fabricius (1/1), ventriculus (1/1), and proventriculus (1/1) tissue sections. These results demonstrate that E. coli was the cause of mortality in these birds. Therefore, biosecurity and management measures should be employed to prevent and control the disease occurrence in Mozambique's poultry farming.(AU)


A colibacilose aviária é uma doença aguda de ocorrência mundial que acomete aves domésticas e silvestres, causada por Escherichia coli e resulta em perdas econômicas consideráveis devido à elevada morbidade e mortalidade das aves. O presente estudo teve o objetivo de descrever os aspectos patológicos, bacteriológicos e imuno-histoquímicos de colibacilose aviária em frangos de corte de Moçambique. Um total de 49 frangos de corte apresentaram anorexia, baixo ganho de peso, ataxia, diarreia, dispneia e morte em um curso clínico de 3 a 5 dias. As aves eram provenientes de 5 granjas (pequenas, média e grandes), com sistema de criação manual e automático, com rebanhos que variavam de 100 a 20.000 aves. À necropsia, todas as aves exibiam condição corporal ruim a caquética, além de pericárdio e cápsula de Glisson de todas aves (100%; n=49) com diferentes graus de aderência e deposição de fibrina de forma difusa acentuada. Os sacos aéreos torácicos e abdominais estavam espessados e aderidos à parede costal. Foi observado ainda hepatomegalia discreta, moderada a severa frequentemente associada com áreas multifocais puntiformes brancacentas (100%; 49/49), e esplenomegalia discreta a moderada, associado a áreas multifocais moteadas (75,5%; 37/49). Os pulmões e rins estavam aumentados e com coloração avermelhada. Histologicamente, observou-se majoritariamente serosite fibrinoheterofílica em 75,5% dos casos (37/49), caracterizadas por infiltrado inflamatório composto por heterófilos degenerados, macrófagos, linfócitos e plasmócitos, com deposição de fibrina entremeada por uma miríade de estruturas bacterianas cocobacilares. Esta lesão foi observada principalmente em pericárdio (28,6%; 14/49), pleura (18,4%; 9/49), cápsula de Glisson (10,2%; 5/49), ventrículo (10,2; 5/33) e em proventrículo (8,2%; 4/49). Áreas multifocais a coalescentes de necrose de coagulação associada a infiltrado inflamatório semelhante ao descrito foi observado principalmente no baço (28,6%; 14/49), fígado (24.5%; 12/49), e intestinos (8,2%; 4/49). Um infiltrado inflamatório semelhante também foi visualizado em pulmões (16,3%; 8/49), rins (16,3%; 8/49) e miocárdio (14,3%; 7/49), Colônias puras de E. coli foram identificadas e isoladas em 12 casos. Alguns órgãos (2 de cada granja) foram submetidos ao exame imuno-histoquímico anti-E. coli e marcação positiva foi visualizada em todos casos testados, como em fígado (3/3), coração (4/4), baço (1/1), pulmão (4/4), intestinos (4/4), bursa de Fabricius (1/1), rim (1/1), ventrículo (1/1) e proventrículo (1/1). Estes resultados demonstram que E. coli foi a causa de morte destas aves. Sendo assim, a adoção de boas medidas de biosseguridade e de manejo são indispensáveis para a prevenção e controle da ocorrência da doença nas granjas de frango de corte de Moçambique.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry , Weights and Measures , Immunohistochemistry , Chickens/microbiology , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Weight Gain , Mortality , Bacterial Structures/pathogenicity
17.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1843, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363591

ABSTRACT

Feed is the main route of transmission of pathogenic microorganisms and is responsible for a large part of the cost of poultry production, so the inclusion of alternative foods in diets for monogastrics has been a constant. Among alternative foods most used in modern poultry farming are animal meal, however, when contaminated they constitute a route of transmission of several pathogenic agents, including Escherichia coli. In addition, there is a zoonotic potential, as poultry products are intended for human consumption. The objective of this research was to detect virulence genes, as well as to evaluate the resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolates from meat meal samples. A total of 40 Escherichia coli isolates were analyzed and the virulence genes surveyed iss, ompT, hlyF, iutA, and fimA identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The antimicrobial agents tested were: amoxycillin (30 µg), ceftiofur (30 µg), ciprofloxacin (5 µg), doxycycline (30 µg), florfenicol (30 µg), fosfomycin (200 µg), gentamicin (10 µg), norfloxacin (10 µg) and oxacillin (1 µg). It was possible to observe the occurrence of the iss resistance gene in 100% of Escherichia coli isolates, followed by hlyF (85%), fimA (75%), ompT (17.5%) and iutA (5%). Regarding the simultaneous detection for the genes, a greater association between the genes iss, hlyF and fimA (60%) was verified. All isolates showed resistance to oxacillin (100%), followed by doxycycline (25%), amoxicillin (22.5%), norfloxacin (17.5%), ceftiofur (15%), florfenicol (12.5%), fosfomycin (12.5%), ciprofloxacin (10%) and gentamycin (2.5%). In this study, a variation of the multiple antimicrobial resistance index (IRMA) was observed between 0.22 and 0.77. The indiscriminate use of of antimicrobials as performance enhancers in production animals, may have contributed to the increase in antimicrobial resistance, with the occurrence of multiresistant Escherichia coli carrying virulence genes. Virulence genes present in Escherichia coli isolates are studied to understand the degree of influence they exert in the establishment of the disease, one of the most researched genes is the iss gene, involved in the processes that promote serum resistance. In this study, iss (100%) was present in all the isolates analyzed, although it is not the only mechanism used by these bacteria to reach internal organs and trigger an infection, this gene encodes an important mechanism associated with high levels of virulence. The second highest prevalence found was of the hlyF gene (85%), the high prevalence of hlyF suggests virulence potential, involved with the production of hemolysin and improvement of outer membrane vesicles associated with the release of toxins. The fimA gene (75%) was detected in a slightly lower percentage when compared to iss and hlyF. With the second lowest prevalence, the ompT gene (17.5%), is involved in a process that includes the proteolytic degradation of antimicrobial peptides and with the lowest prevalence the iutA gene (5%). Certain combinations of virulence genes make the strains easier to survive, adhere to, colonize and even the ability to develop septicemic conditions. Multiresistant E. coli strains, is a fact of concern for both animal and human health, since the presence of multiresistant strains, originating from poultry, can be transmitted from chicken carcasses. In this sense, the importance of sanitary control of the inputs used in animal feed is emphasized, as well as the prudent use of antimicrobials in animal production, with a view to producing a safe food, minimizing not only the economic losses, but also the risks to human health.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry , Diet/veterinary , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Animal Feed/analysis , Identity and Quality Standard for Products and Services
18.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 507-527, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888744

ABSTRACT

The avian influenza A (H7N9) virus is a zoonotic virus that is closely associated with live poultry markets. It has caused infections in humans in China since 2013. Five waves of the H7N9 influenza epidemic occurred in China between March 2013 and September 2017. H7N9 with low-pathogenicity dominated in the first four waves, whereas highly pathogenic H7N9 influenza emerged in poultry and spread to humans during the fifth wave, causing wide concern. Specialists and officials from China and other countries responded quickly, controlled the epidemic well thus far, and characterized the virus by using new technologies and surveillance tools that were made possible by their preparedness efforts. Here, we review the characteristics of the H7N9 viruses that were identified while controlling the spread of the disease. It was summarized and discussed from the perspectives of molecular epidemiology, clinical features, virulence and pathogenesis, receptor binding, T-cell responses, monoclonal antibody development, vaccine development, and disease burden. These data provide tools for minimizing the future threat of H7N9 and other emerging and re-emerging viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poultry , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2148-2156, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, ilus, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142290

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a epidemiologia da presença de ácaros hematófagos em granjas de postura no estado de Minas Gerais. Foi utilizado um banco de dados secundário, com informações de 402 galpões de 42 propriedades comerciais. As variáveis utilizadas para compor o modelo de correspondência foram selecionadas por meio do teste qui-quadrado (P≤0,05). Foi construído um índice para a presença de ácaros hematófagos, considerando alguns fatores de risco. Além disso, um estudo da análise espacial foi realizado para avaliar a presença de ácaros hematófagos em Minas Gerais. Observou-se a presença de ácaros hematófagos em 48% dos galpões, sendo a de O. sylviarum de 45,5%, O. bursa de 17,4% e D. gallinae de 2,7%. Houve associação entre o índice de risco com os intervalos de remoção de fezes e com a presença ou a ausência de aves sinantrópicas. Verificou-se que granjas mais tecnificadas não utilizam acaricida em seus galpões. A presença de ácaros hematófagos foi observada na mesorregião Sul/Sudoeste de Minas Gerais e entre as mesorregiões Oeste de Minas e Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Esses resultados fornecem conhecimento sobre a epidemiologia desses ectoparasitos e podem contribuir na tomada de decisões, reduzindo os riscos de possíveis infestações em aves de postura.(AU)


This study aimed to characterize the epidemiology of the presence of hematophagous mites in posture farms in the state of Minas Gerais. Was used a secondary database with information from 402 chicken houses in 42 commercial properties. The variables used to compose the correspondence model were selected through chi-square tests (P≤0.05). A risk index was built to the presence of hematophagous mites considering some risk factors. Additionally, a study of the spatial analysis was done to evaluate the presence of hematophagous mites in Minas Gerais. Was observed the presence of hematophagous mites in 48% of chicken houses, the presence of O. sylviarum was 45.5%, O. bursa 17.4% and D. gallinae 2.7%. There was an association between the risk index with the intervals for the removal of manure and the presence or absence of synanthropic birds. It was verified that more technified farms do not use acaricide in their chicken houses. The presence of hematophagous mites was observed in the Messoregions South/Southwest of Minas Gerais and between the West and Metropolitan Mesoregion of Belo Horizonte. These results provide knowledge about the epidemiology of these ectoparasites and may contribute to decision making by reducing the risks of possible infestations in poultry.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Mite Infestations/epidemiology , Mites , Poultry/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Assessment
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2348-2354, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142292

ABSTRACT

The energetic values of crude glycerin (CG) were determined for broilers at different ages using the method proposed by Matterson and by polynomial regressions. Two trials were performed with broilers from 11 to 21 and from 31 to 41 days of age. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a reference ration (RR), without CG, and three ration tests with replacement of 5%, 10%, and 15% of RR by CG. The metabolizable energy values were calculated by the Matterson method, and the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values were used in polynomial regression analysis. The mean values of AME, apparent corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn), metabolizable coefficient of gross energy (CAMEB), and corrected for nitrogen balance (CAMEBn) of CG, for the phase from 11 to 21 days by the Matterson method were 10.08 MJ kg-1, 10.04 MJ kg-1, 67.06%, and 66.74%, respectively. The inclusion of CG presented an increasing linear effect for CAMEB and CAMEBn in this period. From 31 to 41 days, these values were 10.38 MJ kg-1, 10.27 MJ kg-1, 69.02%, and 62.24%, respectively. The predicted AMEn value through the polynomial regression equations was 10.49 MJ kg-1 and 10.18 MJ kg-1, respectively. According to the equations proposed by Matterson, the crude glycerin EMAn values for broilers from 11 to 21 and 31 to 41 days of age were 10.04 MJ kg-1 and 10.26 MJ kg-1, respectively. According to Adeola's method the AMEn values were 10.49 and 10.20 MJ kg-1 for each phase.(AU)


Os valores energéticos da glicerina bruta (GB) foram determinados para frangos de corte em diferentes idades, por meio da utilização do método proposto por Matterson e de regressões polinomiais. Foram realizados dois ensaios: de 11 a 21 dias e de 31 a 41 dias de idade das aves; em ambos, as aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com uma ração referência (RR), sem GB, e três rações testes com substituição de 5%, 10% e 15% da RR por GB. Foram calculados os valores de energia metabolizável pelo método de Matterson, sendo os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA) utilizados na análise de regressão polinomial. Os valores médios da EMA corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn), o coeficiente de metabolizabilidade da EB (CMAEB) e o corrigido para o balanço de nitrogênio (CMAEBn) da GB, na matéria natural, para a fase de 11 a 21 dias, pelo método de Matterson, foram de 10,08 MJ kg-1, 10,04 MJ kg-1, 67,06% e 66,74%, respectivamente. A inclusão de GB apresentou um efeito linear crescente para os CMAEB e os CMAEBn. Na fase de 31 a 41 dias, foram de 10,38 MJ kg-1, 10,27 MJ kg-1, 69,02% e 62,24%, respectivamente. Por meio das equações de regressões polinomiais, o valor de EMAn estimada foi de 10,49 MJ kg-1 e 10,18 MJ kg-1, respectivamente. Os valores de EMAn da GB para as idades 11 a 21 e 31 a 41 dias foram de 10,04 MJ kg-1 e 10,26 MJ kg-1, respectivamente. De acordo com as equações propostas por Matterson e com o método de Adeola, os valores de EMAn foram 10,49 e 10,20 MJ kg-1 para cada fase.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens/metabolism , Biofuels/analysis , Glycerol/administration & dosage , Poultry/growth & development
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