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1.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 29-38, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880916

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancers in North American men. While androgen deprivation has remained as the cornerstone of prostate cancer treatment, resistance ensues leading to lethal disease. Forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) encodes a pioneer factor that induces open chromatin conformation to allow the binding of other transcription factors. Through direct interactions with the Androgen Receptor (AR), FOXA1 helps to shape AR signaling that drives the growth and survival of normal prostate and prostate cancer cells. FOXA1 also possesses an AR-independent role of regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In prostate cancer, mutations converge onto the coding sequence and cis-regulatory elements (CREs) of FOXA1, leading to functional alterations. In addition, FOXA1 activity in prostate cancer can be modulated post-translationally through various mechanisms such as LSD1-mediated protein demethylation. In this review, we describe the latest discoveries related to the function and regulation of FOXA1 in prostate cancer, pointing to their relevance to guide future clinical interventions.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha/metabolism , Histone Demethylases/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Male , Mutation , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Binding , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription, Genetic
2.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828747

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
3.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828583

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828528

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of calmodulin (CaM) and its mutants on binding to voltage-gated Na channel isoleucine-glutamine domain (Na1.2 IQ).@*METHODS@#The cDNA of Na1.2 IQ was constructed by PCR technique, CaM mutants CaM, CaM and CaM were constructed with Quickchange site-directed mutagenesis kit (QIAGEN). The binding of Na1.2 IQ to CaM and CaM mutants under calcium and calcium free conditions were detected by pull-down assay.@*RESULTS@#Na1.2 IQ and CaM were bound to each other at different calcium concentrations, while GST alone did not bind to CaM. The binding affinity of CaM and Na1.2 IQ at [Ca]-free was greater than that at 100 nmol/L [Ca] ( < 0.05). In the absence of calcium, the binding amount of CaM wild-type to Na1.2 IQ was greater than that of its mutant, and the binding affinity of CaM to Na1.2 IQ was the weakest among the three mutants ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The binding ability of CaM and CaM mutants to Na1.2 IQ is Ca-dependent. This study has revealed a new mechanism of Na1.2 regulated by CaM, which would be useful for the study of ion channel related diseases.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Metabolism , Calmodulin , Genetics , Metabolism , Mutation , Metabolism , Protein Binding , Genetics
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827439

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To select potential molecules that can target viral spike proteins, which may potentially interrupt the interaction between the human angiotension-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and viral spike protein by virtual screening.@*METHODS@#The three-dimensional (3D)-coordinate file of the receptor-binding domain (RBD)-ACE2 complex for searching a suitable docking pocket was firstly downloaded and prepared. Secondly, approximately 15,000 molecular candidates were prepared, including US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs from DrugBank and natural compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP), for the docking process. Then, virtual screening was performed and the binding energy in Autodock Vina was calculated. Finally, the top 20 molecules with high binding energy and their Chinese medicine (CM) herb sources were listed in this paper.@*RESULTS@#It was found that digitoxin, a cardiac glycoside in DrugBank and bisindigotin in TCMSP had the highest docking scores. Interestingly, two of the CM herbs containing the natural compounds that had relatively high binding scores, Forsythiae fructus and Isatidis radix, are components of Lianhua Qingwen (), a CM formula reportedly exerting activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-Cov-2. Moreover, raltegravir, an HIV integrase inhibitor, was found to have a relatively high binding score.@*CONCLUSIONS@#A class of compounds, which are from FDA-approved drugs and CM natural compounds, that had high binding energy with RBD of the viral spike protein. Our work provides potential candidates for other researchers to identify inhibitors to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, and highlights the importance of CM and integrative application of CM and Western medicine on treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
China , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Drug Repositioning , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Glycoproteins , Metabolism , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Mass Screening , Methods , Molecular Docking Simulation , Methods , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Protein Binding , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To select potential molecules that can target viral spike proteins, which may potentially interrupt the interaction between the human angiotension-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and viral spike protein by virtual screening.@*METHODS@#The three-dimensional (3D)-coordinate file of the receptor-binding domain (RBD)-ACE2 complex for searching a suitable docking pocket was firstly downloaded and prepared. Secondly, approximately 15,000 molecular candidates were prepared, including US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs from DrugBank and natural compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP), for the docking process. Then, virtual screening was performed and the binding energy in Autodock Vina was calculated. Finally, the top 20 molecules with high binding energy and their Chinese medicine (CM) herb sources were listed in this paper.@*RESULTS@#It was found that digitoxin, a cardiac glycoside in DrugBank and bisindigotin in TCMSP had the highest docking scores. Interestingly, two of the CM herbs containing the natural compounds that had relatively high binding scores, Forsythiae fructus and Isatidis radix, are components of Lianhua Qingwen (), a CM formula reportedly exerting activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-Cov-2. Moreover, raltegravir, an HIV integrase inhibitor, was found to have a relatively high binding score.@*CONCLUSIONS@#A class of compounds, which are from FDA-approved drugs and CM natural compounds, that had high binding energy with RBD of the viral spike protein. Our work provides potential candidates for other researchers to identify inhibitors to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, and highlights the importance of CM and integrative application of CM and Western medicine on treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
China , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Drug Repositioning , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Glycoproteins , Metabolism , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Mass Screening , Methods , Molecular Docking Simulation , Methods , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Protein Binding , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827018

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 969-978, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826879

ABSTRACT

Drugs targeting immune checkpoint are used for cancer treatment, but resistance to single drug may occur. Combination therapy blocking multiple checkpoints simultaneously can improve clinical outcome. Therefore, we designed a recombinant protein rPC to block multiple targets, which consists of extracellular domains of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4). The coding sequence was inserted into expression vector and stably transfected into HEK293 cells. The culture supernatant was collected and rPC was affinity-purified. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to evaluate the expression levels of ligands for PD-1 and CTLA-4 in several human cancer cell lines. The binding of rPC with cancer cells was examined by immunofluorescence cell staining, the influence of rPC on cancer cell growth was assayed by CCK-8. The results showed that rPC could be expressed and secreted by stably transfected HEK293 cells, the purified rPC could bind to lung cancer NCI-H226 cells which have high levels of ligands for PD-1 and CTLA-4, no direct impact on cancer cell growth could be observed by rPC treatment. The recombinant protein rPC can be functionally assayed further for developing novel immunotherapeutic drugs for cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , CTLA-4 Antigen , Genetics , Cell Proliferation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Metabolism , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Genetics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 73-80, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) is a major cause of adult limb loss worldwide. Autophagy of vascular endothelial cell (VEC) contributes to the ASO progression. However, the molecular mechanism that controls VEC autophagy remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of the GRB2 associated binding protein 1 (GAB1) in regulating VEC autophagy.@*METHODS@#In vivo and in vitro studies were applied to determine the loss of adapt protein GAB1 in association with ASO progression. Histological GAB1 expression was measured in sclerotic vascular intima and normal vascular intima. Gain- and loss-of-function of GAB1 were applied in VEC to determine the effect and potential downstream signaling of GAB1.@*RESULTS@#The autophagy repressor p62 was significantly downregulated in ASO intima as compared to that in healthy donor (0.80 vs. 0.20, t = 6.43, P < 0.05). The expression level of GAB1 mRNA (1.00 vs. 0.24, t = 7.41, P < 0.05) and protein (0.72 vs. 0.21, t = 5.97, P < 0.05) was significantly decreased in ASO group as compared with the control group. Loss of GAB1 led to a remarkable decrease in LC3II (1.19 vs. 0.68, t = 5.99, P < 0.05), whereas overexpression of GAB1 significantly led to a decrease in LC3II level (0.41 vs. 0.93, t = 7.12, P < 0.05). Phosphorylation levels of JNK and p38 were significantly associated with gain- and loss-of-function of GAB1 protein.@*CONCLUSION@#Loss of GAB1 promotes VEC autophagy which is associated with ASO. GAB1 and its downstream signaling might be potential therapeutic targets for ASO treatment.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Adult , Arteriosclerosis Obliterans/genetics , Autophagy , GRB2 Adaptor Protein , Humans , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Binding , Signal Transduction
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776910

ABSTRACT

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has led to an intense interest in developing its inhibitors as anti-diabetes, anti-obesity and anti-cancer agents. The fruits of Rubus chingii (Chinese raspberry) were used as a kind of dietary traditional Chinese medicine. The methanolic extract of R. chingii fruits exhibited significant PTP1B inhibitory activity. Further bioactivity-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of three PTP1B inhibitory ursane-type triterpenes: ursolic acid (1), 2-oxopomolic acid (2), and 2α, 19α-dihydroxy-3-oxo-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (3). Kinetics analyses revealed that 1 was a non-competitive PTP1B inhibitor, and 2 and 3 were mixed type PTP1B inhibitors. Compounds 1-3 and structurally related triterpenes (4-8) were further analyzed the structure-activity relationship, and were evaluated the inhibitory selectivity against four homologous protein tyrosine phosphatases (TCPTP, VHR, SHP-1 and SHP-2). Molecular docking simulations were also carried out, and the result indicated that 1, 3-acetoxy-urs-12-ene-28-oic acid (5), and pomolic acid-3β-acetate (6) bound at the allosteric site including α3, α6, and α7 helix of PTP1B.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Inhibitors , Chemistry , Metabolism , Fruit , Chemistry , Humans , Kinetics , Methanol , Chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1 , Metabolism , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases , Rubus , Chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Metabolism
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775256

ABSTRACT

G protein-coupled receptors(GPCRs)represent the largest class of cell surface receptors,mediating wide range of cellular and physiological processes through their transducers,G proteins and the-arrestins participate in almost all pathological processes. Recent technological advances are revolutionizing the utility of cryo-electron microscopy(cryo-EM),leading to a tremendous progress in the structural studies of biological macromolecules and cryo-EM has played a leading role in the structural biology of GPCR signaling complex. New discoveries of high-resolution threedimensional structures of GPCR signaling complexes based on cryo-EM have emerged vigorously,which depict the common structural characteristics of intermolecular interaction between GPCR and G protein complex-the conformational changes of the transmembrane helix 6 of receptors,and also demonstrate the structural basis of G protein subtype selectivity. Single-particle cryo-EM becomes an efficient tool for identifying the molecular mechanism of receptor-ligand interaction,providing important information for understanding GPCR signaling and the structure-based drug design.


Subject(s)
Cryoelectron Microscopy , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled , Chemistry
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774533

ABSTRACT

To determine the plasma protein binding rate of the nine compounds in Inula cappa extraction by the method of equilibrium dialysis. The proteins in plasma samples were precipitated by methanol, and the ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for determination of the concentrations of the nine active compounds, namely chlorogenic acid, scopolin, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, galuteolin, 3,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, with the internal standard of puerarin. We found that all components have a good linearity(r≥0.999), and accuracy, precision, extraction recovery and stability conformed to the requirements of determination, without endogenous compounds disturbing within the range of optimum concentration. This suggested that the method was stable and reliable, and could be used for the determination of the plasma protein binding rates of the nine active compounds in rat and human plasma of I. cappa. The plasma protein binding rates of the nine active compounds in rat and human plasma respectively were(41.07±0.046)%-(94.95±0.008)%, and(37.66±0.043)%-(97.46±0.013)%. According to the results, there were differences in the plasma protein binding rates of the nine compounds in I. cappa extraction between rat and human.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Proteins , Metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Humans , Inula , Chemistry , Phytochemicals , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Metabolism , Protein Binding , Rats , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
13.
Immune Network ; : e34-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764026

ABSTRACT

Neutrophilic granule protein (NGP) was previously reported as a granular protein of neutrophils in mouse, but the function has not been known clearly. We found the presence of the possible signal peptide in NGP and validated this protein is circulating in the bloodstream. In our findings, NGP is being modified post-translationally in Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum, which is a universal character of secretory molecules with a signal peptide. The secreted NGP protein could be detected both in vitro and in vivo. NGP has sequence similarity with an antimicrobial protein cathelicidin, and we observed the aspect of inflammation of NGP. Interestingly, NGP interacts with the complex of LPS and LPS binding protein (LBP). This interaction blocks the binding of the complex of LPS and LBP to TLR4 and the downstream inflammatory signals. Furthermore, the inhibitory function of NGP against the inflammatory effect of LPS could be observed in both in vitro and in vivo. With these findings, we report NGP is a novel secretory protein to mask LPS and inhibit its function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carrier Proteins , Cytokines , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Golgi Apparatus , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Lipopolysaccharides , Masks , Mice , Neutrophils , Protein Binding , Protein Sorting Signals
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773226

ABSTRACT

Small molecules with physiological or pharmacological activities need to interact with biological macromolecules in order to function in the body. As the protein with the highest proportion of plasma protein,serum albumin is the main protein binding to various endogenous or exogenous small molecules. Serum albumin interacts with small molecules in a reversible non-covalent manner and transports small molecules to target sites. Bovine serum albumin( BSA) is an ideal target protein for drug research because of its low cost and high homology with human serum albumin. The research on the interaction between drugs and BSA has become a hotspot in the fields of pharmacy,medicine,biology and chemistry. In this research,molecular docking method was used to study the interaction between three small ginsenosides with high pharmacological value( Rg_1,Rb_1,Ro) and bovine serum albumin( BSA),and the binding mode information of three ginsenosides interacting with BSA was obtained. The results of molecular docking showed that ginsenosides and amino acid residues in the active pocket of proteins could be combined by hydrophobic action,hydrogen bonding and electrostatic action. The interaction between small ginsenosides and bovine serum albumin is not the only form,and their interaction has many forms of force. The interaction between these molecules and various weak forces is the key factor for the stability of the complex. The results of this study can provide the structural information of computer simulation for the determination of the interaction patterns between active components and proteins of ginseng.


Subject(s)
Animals , Binding Sites , Cattle , Computer Simulation , Ginsenosides , Chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , Serum Albumin, Bovine , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Fluorescence , Thermodynamics
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773163

ABSTRACT

To determine the inhibitory effect of endophytic fungi from Dysosma versipellis on HIV-1 IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction,the protein-protein interaction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1( HIV-1) integrase and lens epithelial growth factor p75 protein( LEDGF/p75) was used as a target. The homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence( HTRF) technique was used in the inhibitory activity assay. The results showed that eight endophytic fungi with anti-IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction activity were screened out from fifty-three strains with different morphological characteristic. Among them,106 strain showed strong inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction with IC50 value of 5. 23 mg·L-1,and was identified as a potential novel species of Magnaporthaceae family by the analyses of ITS-rDNA,LSU and RPB2 sequences data. This study demonstrated that potential natural active ingredients against the HIV-1 IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction exist in the endophytic fungi of D. versipellis. These results may provide available candidate strain resources for the research and development of new anti-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome drugs.


Subject(s)
Berberidaceae , Microbiology , Endophytes , Fungi , Chemistry , HIV Integrase , Metabolism , HIV-1 , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Metabolism , Protein Binding
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761793

ABSTRACT

In drug discovery or preclinical stages of development, potency parameters such as IC₅₀, K(i), or K(d) in vitro have been routinely used to predict the parameters of efficacious exposure (AUC, C(min), etc.) in humans. However, to our knowledge, the fundamental assumption that the potency in vitro is correlated with the efficacious concentration in vivo in humans has not been investigated extensively. Thus, the present review examined this assumption by comparing a wide range of published pharmacokinetic (PK) and potency data. If the drug potency in vitro and its in vivo effectiveness in humans are well correlated, the steady-state average unbound concentrations in humans [C(u_ss.avg) = f(u)·F·Dose/(CL·τ) = f(u)·AUCss/τ] after treatment with approved dosage regimens should be higher than, or at least comparable to, the potency parameters assessed in vitro. We reviewed the ratios of C(u_ss.avg)/potency in vitro for a total of 54 drug entities (13 major therapeutic classes) using the dosage, PK, and in vitro potency reported in the published literature. For 54 drugs, the C(u_ss.avg)/in vitro potency ratios were < 1 for 38 (69%) and < 0.1 for 22 (34%) drugs. When the ratios were plotted against f(u) (unbound fraction), “ratio < 1” was predominant for drugs with high protein binding (90% of drugs with f(u) ≤ 5%; i.e., 28 of 31 drugs). Thus, predicting the in vivo efficacious unbound concentrations in humans using only in vitro potency data and f(u) should be avoided, especially for molecules with high protein binding.


Subject(s)
Drug Discovery , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Plasma , Protein Binding
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 183-194, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771388

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies have become the main type of antibody drug because of their high specificity and strong affinity to antigen. However, with the intensive study of the natural monoclonal antibody, many defects have faced, such as the limit times of binding to antigen, the unanticipated antibody clearance and antigen accumulation. Therefore, studies are no longer limited to the natural antibody screening, but rather to improve the efficiency of antibody drugs by engineering. In recent years, the bottlenecks in the development of conventional antibody have been solved effectively since the discovery of a novel recycling antibody. Recycling antibody binds to an antigen in plasma and dissociates from the antigen in endosome, thus maximizing the use of antibody and reducing antigen-mediated antibody clearance and antibody-mediated antigen accumulation. In addition, recycling antibodies can enhance the affinity with Fc receptors through further Fc modification. This paper reviews the research progress of circulating antibodies, including its characteristics, transformation methods and prospects.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Allergy and Immunology , Antigens , Endosomes , Protein Binding , Receptors, Fc
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 558-566, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771353

ABSTRACT

Bacterial biofilm refers to a tunicate-like biological group composed of polysaccharide, protein and nucleic acid secreted by bacteria on the surface of the mucous membrane or biological material. The biofilm formation is a major cause of chronic infections. Bacteria could produce some secondary metabolites during the growth and reproduction. Some of them act as signaling molecules allowing bacteria to communicate and regulate many important physiological behaviors at multiple-cell level, such as bioluminescence, biofilm formation, motility and lifestyles. Usually, these signal molecules play an important role in the formation of bacterial biofilm. We review here the effects of related signal molecules of Quorum Sensing, cyclic diguanylate, Two-Component Systems and sRNA on the biofilm formation. Focusing on these regulation mechanism of signal molecules in the process of biofilm formation is necessary for the prevention and treatment of some chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins , Biofilms , Cyclic GMP , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Protein Binding , Quorum Sensing
19.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 553-567, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757973

ABSTRACT

ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K) are energy sensors on the plasma membrane. By sensing the intracellular ADP/ATP ratio of β-cells, pancreatic K channels control insulin release and regulate metabolism at the whole body level. They are implicated in many metabolic disorders and diseases and are therefore important drug targets. Here, we present three structures of pancreatic K channels solved by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), at resolutions ranging from 4.1 to 4.5 Å. These structures depict the binding site of the antidiabetic drug glibenclamide, indicate how Kir6.2 (inward-rectifying potassium channel 6.2) N-terminus participates in the coupling between the peripheral SUR1 (sulfonylurea receptor 1) subunit and the central Kir6.2 channel, reveal the binding mode of activating nucleotides, and suggest the mechanism of how Mg-ADP binding on nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) drives a conformational change of the SUR1 subunit.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Binding Sites , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Ligands , Mesocricetus , Mice , Models, Molecular , Nucleotides , Metabolism , Pancreas , Metabolism , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying , Chemistry , Metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Multimerization , Protein Structure, Quaternary , Protein Subunits , Chemistry , Metabolism , Sf9 Cells , Spodoptera , Sulfonylurea Receptors , Chemistry , Metabolism
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 22-41, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777048

ABSTRACT

The voltage-gated Na channel subtype Nav1.7 is important for pain and itch in rodents and humans. We previously showed that a Nav1.7-targeting monoclonal antibody (SVmab) reduces Na currents and pain and itch responses in mice. Here, we investigated whether recombinant SVmab (rSVmab) binds to and blocks Nav1.7 similar to SVmab. ELISA tests revealed that SVmab was capable of binding to Nav1.7-expressing HEK293 cells, mouse DRG neurons, human nerve tissue, and the voltage-sensor domain II of Nav1.7. In contrast, rSVmab showed no or weak binding to Nav1.7 in these tests. Patch-clamp recordings showed that SVmab, but not rSVmab, markedly inhibited Na currents in Nav1.7-expressing HEK293 cells. Notably, electrical field stimulation increased the blocking activity of SVmab and rSVmab in Nav1.7-expressing HEK293 cells. SVmab was more effective than rSVmab in inhibiting paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia. SVmab also bound to human DRG neurons and inhibited their Na currents. Finally, potential reasons for the differential efficacy of SVmab and rSVmab and future directions are discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Therapeutic Uses , Biotin , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ganglia, Spinal , Cell Biology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hybridomas , Chemistry , Hyperalgesia , Drug Therapy , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Metabolism , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Neuralgia , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Protein Binding , Recombinant Proteins , Therapeutic Uses , Sensory Receptor Cells , Physiology
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