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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1157-1172, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982467

ABSTRACT

Hv1 is the only voltage-gated proton-selective channel in mammalian cells. It contains a conserved voltage-sensor domain, shared by a large class of voltage-gated ion channels, but lacks a pore domain. Its primary role is to extrude protons from the cytoplasm upon pH reduction and membrane depolarization. The best-known function of Hv1 is the regulation of cytosolic pH and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent production of reactive oxygen species. Accumulating evidence indicates that Hv1 is expressed in nervous systems, in addition to immune cells and others. Here, we summarize the molecular properties, distribution, and physiological functions of Hv1 in the peripheral and central nervous systems. We describe the recently discovered functions of Hv1 in various neurological diseases, including brain or spinal cord injury, ischemic stroke, demyelinating diseases, and pain. We also summarize the current advances in the discovery and application of Hv1-targeted small molecules in neurological diseases. Finally, we discuss the current limitations of our understanding of Hv1 and suggest future research directions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Protons , Ion Channels/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , NADPH Oxidases , Mammals/metabolism
2.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 845-862, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982425

ABSTRACT

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is well-known as a universal source of energy in living cells. Less known is that this molecule has a variety of important signaling functions: it activates a variety of specific metabotropic (P2Y) and ionotropic (P2X) receptors in neuronal and non-neuronal cell membranes. So, a wide variety of signaling functions well fits the ubiquitous presence of ATP in the tissues. Even more ubiquitous are protons. Apart from the unspecific interaction of protons with any protein, many physiological processes are affected by protons acting on specific ionotropic receptors-acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). Both protons (acidification) and ATP are locally elevated in various pathological states. Using these fundamentally important molecules as agonists, ASICs and P2X receptors signal a variety of major brain pathologies. Here we briefly outline the physiological roles of ASICs and P2X receptors, focusing on the brain pathologies involving these receptors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acid Sensing Ion Channels , Protons , Neurons , Brain Diseases , Adenosine Triphosphate/physiology
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982248

ABSTRACT

The proton treatment control system is the supporting software of the proton therapy device, which specifically coordinates and controls the status and work of each subsystem. In this study, the software architecture and hardware implementation of the proton treatment control system was developed and built a foundation for the overall debugging. Using C# programming language and WPF programming techniques, TCP network communication protocol specified by the proton treatment technical document and MVVM pattern in Windows system, the logic design and implementation of each level were studied. Meanwhile, the communication interface between the subsystems under TCP communication protocol was agreed. The logic design and research of the setup field and treatment field were carried out. And the User Interface was designed and developed using the above technology. The program realizes the communication and interaction between the proton treatment control system and each subsystem, so as to control and monitor the whole treatment process. The proton treatment control system provides a software basis for the remote overall debugging and on-line monitor and control of proton treatment device.


Subject(s)
Protons , User-Computer Interface , Software , Computers , Logic
4.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(3): 186-190, 20200000. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1369103

ABSTRACT

In this research, the electronic stopping power was calculated using Bethe and Bragg rule equations for the protons in Human tissues (Bone, Muscle (skeletal) and Adipose tissue) all within energy range (0.01-1000) MeV. The equations were programmed using MATLAB 2017, the calculations were compared with the experimental data of the SRIM2013program and PSTAR code, this comparison showed a good agreement with experimental data


Subject(s)
Humans , Protons , Radiation, Ionizing , Time , Potency , Latent Class Analysis
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942724

ABSTRACT

As a new type of magnetic resonance imaging method, amide proton transfer (APT) imaging can detect the chemical exchange characteristics of free proprotein, peptide amide proton and water proton by water signal changes, reflecting the changes of protein and pH in tissues. In recent years, clinical research on brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, hepatic encephalopathy and cervical cancer have been carried out. It is a radiation-free and non-invasive new magnetic resonance molecular imaging technology. This study briefly reviews the principle of APT technology and its clinical application, and prospects its application prospects in children's abdominal tumors.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Abdomen/pathology , Amides , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Protons
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880394

ABSTRACT

Compared with conventional high energy X-ray radiotherapy, proton/carbon ion has obvious advantages because of its Bragg peak dose distribution. However, proton heavy ion facility has complex structure, high energy and various radiation types due to various nuclear reaction processes, the radiation protection safety brought by the operation of facilities has gradually attracted attention. Taking the proton/carbon ion radiotherapy facility of Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center as an example, the author mainly analyzed the operation principle of proton/carbon ion treatment facility, the basis of radiation protection, analysis of key radiation source points, etc., so as to provide theoretical support and experience for radiation protection.


Subject(s)
China , Heavy Ion Radiotherapy , Heavy Ions , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Protons , Radiation Protection , Radiotherapy
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772571

ABSTRACT

Cancer therapy with accelerated proton or heavy ion beam is the most advanced radiotherapy technology, which is recognized by the international community at present. It is of great practical significance to study the medical proton and heavy ion accelerators and the radiotherapy technology, in order to promote the development of the advanced medical radiotherapy equipments and improve the quality of life of cancer patients in China. After a brief overview of cancer therapy with proton and heavy ion beam, this paper summarized and analyzed the application status of medical proton accelerators and medical heavy ion accelerators at home and abroad, and finally put forward the future development trends of medical proton and heavy ion accelerators and the radiotherapy technology, it can provide a reference for the progress and development strategies of the advanced radiotherapy equipments in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Heavy Ions , Neoplasms , Therapeutics , Particle Accelerators , Proton Therapy , Protons , Quality of Life
8.
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increase in the numbers of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms has recently been observed. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy on intestinal inflammation in children and adolescents as confirmed by clinical manifestations and objectively assessed by fecal calprotectin (FC) level measurement. METHODS: Consecutive children (aged 3–18 years) who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms and were treated with or without PPI for at least 1 month were enrolled. Patients were divided into PPI and non-PPI groups. The PPI group was further subdivided by treatment duration and type of PPI used. Stool samples were collected for FC evaluation at baseline and after treatment and clinical data and FC levels were compared between the groups. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients (15 boys, 36 girls) were enrolled in the study. The PPI group included 37 patients, while the non-PPI group included 14 patients. Clinical symptoms were not significantly different. FC levels and laboratory results, including C-reactive protein levels, white blood cell count, and absolute neutrophil count, were not statistically different before versus after PPI treatment. After treatment, FC levels decreased to 8.1 mg/kg (-575.4 to 340.3 mg/kg) in the PPI group and increased to 5.6 mg/kg (-460.0 to 186.9 mg/kg) in the non-PPI group compared to those before treatment (P=0.841). The number of patients with increased FC levels was not significantly different between the 2 groups (48.6% vs. 64.3%, P=0.363), similar to that observed in patients with an FC level > 50 mg/kg (24.3% and 7.1%, P=0.250). PPI therapy type and duration did not affect the FC levels (P=0.811 and P=0.502, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although we aimed to confirm the evidence of intestinal inflammation due to PPI use in children and adolescents through clinical symptoms and FC measurement, no significant changes were observed.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , C-Reactive Protein , Inflammation , Leukocyte Count , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Neutrophils , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Proton Pumps , Protons
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a prevalent condition with an increasing incidence, and several recent studies have reported the association of LPR with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). In this study, we studied the effect of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) on symptom improvement for LPR and comorbid CRS. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Enrolled in the study from January 2017 to December 2017 were 164 patients (54 male, 110 female, mean age 48.8 years) who were diagnosed as LPR by reflux symptom index (RSI) or reflux finding scores (RFS) and comorbid CRS. Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT)-20 and Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scores were evaluated for CRS severity. The study group was divided into PPI treatment group (Ilaprazole 20 mg, once a day for 8 weeks) and non-treatment group. The RSI, RFS, SNOT-20, and Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scores were repeated at the end of treatment. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were prescribed PPI and 72 patients were not. Initial RSI, RFS, SNOT-20, and Lund-Kennedy score did not differ between the two groups. RSI and RFS decreased significantly after eight weeks of PPI medication (p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively). In the non-treatment group, only RFS showed statistically significant decrease. SNOT-20 and Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scores decreased significantly in the treatment group (p=0.005 and p<0.001, respectively) compared to the non-treatment group. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that PPI treatment for 8 weeks was effective in reducing signs and symptoms of both LPR and CRS.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Incidence , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux , Methods , Proton Pumps , Protons
12.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 232-248, 2019.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786567

ABSTRACT

Proton beams have been used for cancer treatment for more than 28 years, and several technological advancements have been made to achieve improved clinical outcomes by delivering more accurate and conformal doses to the target cancer cells while minimizing the dose to normal tissues. The state-of-the-art intensity modulated proton therapy is now prevailing as a major treatment technique in proton facilities worldwide, but still faces many challenges in being applied to the lung. Thus, in this article, the current status of proton therapy technique is reviewed and issues regarding the relevant uncertainty in proton therapy in the lung are summarized.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Proton Therapy , Protons , Uncertainty
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741436

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging could improve diagnostic accuracy for suspected posterior ligamentous complex (PLC) disruption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used 20 freshly harvested goat spine samples with 60 segments and intact surrounding soft tissue. The animals were aged 1–1.5 years and consisted of 8 males and 12 females, which were sexually mature but had not reached adult weights. We created a paraspinal contusion model by percutaneously injecting 10 mL saline into each side of the interspinous ligament (ISL). All segments underwent T2-weighted sagittal and coronal short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) scans as well as coronal and sagittal 3D proton density-weighted spectrally selective inversion recovery (3D-PDW-SPIR) scans acquired at 1.5T. Following scanning, some ISLs were cut and then the segments were re-scanned using the same magnetic resonance (MR) techniques. Two radiologists independently assessed the MR images, and the reliability of ISL tear interpretation was assessed using the kappa coefficient. The chi-square test was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of images obtained using the different MR techniques. RESULTS: The interobserver reliability for detecting ISL disruption was high for all imaging techniques (0.776–0.949). The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the coronal 3D-PDW-SPIR technique for detecting ISL tears were 100, 96.9, and 97.9%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of the sagittal STIR (p = 0.000), coronal STIR (p = 0.000), and sagittal 3D-PDW-SPIR (p = 0.001) techniques. CONCLUSION: Compared to other MR methods, coronal 3D-PDW-SPIR provides a more accurate diagnosis of ISL disruption. Adding coronal 3D-PDW-SPIR to a routine MR protocol may help to identify PLC disruptions in cases with nearby contusion.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Contusions , Diagnosis , Goats , Ligaments , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Models, Animal , Protons , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spine , Tears , Weights and Measures
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741415

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare conventional sensitivity encoding (SENSE) to compressed sensing plus SENSE (CS) for high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) of intracranial and extracranial arteries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HR-MRI was performed in 14 healthy volunteers. Three-dimensional T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and proton density-weighted imaging (PD) were acquired using CS or SENSE under the same total acceleration factors (AF(t))-5.5, 6.8, and 9.7 for T1WI and 3.2, 4.0, and 5.8 for PD-to achieve reduced scanning times in comparison with the original imaging sequence (SENSE T1WI, AF(t) 3.5; SENSE PD, AF(t) 2.0) using the 3-tesla system. Two neuroradiologists measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and used visual scoring systems to assess image quality. Acceptable imaging was defined as a visual score ≥ 2. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Cochran's Q test were performed. RESULTS: CS yielded better image quality and vessel delineation than SENSE in T1WI with AF(t) of 5.5, 6.8, and 9.7, and in PD with AF(t) of 5.8 (p 0.05). SNR and CNR in CS were higher than they were in SENSE, but lower than they were in the original images (p < 0.05). CS yielded higher proportions of acceptable imaging than SENSE (CS T1WI with AF(t) of 6.8 and PD with AF(t) of 5.8; p < 0.0167). CONCLUSION: CS is superior to SENSE, and may be a reliable acceleration method for vessel HR-MRI using AF(t) of 5.5 for T1WI, and 3.2 and 4.0 for PD.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Arteries , Healthy Volunteers , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Protons , Signal-To-Noise Ratio
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740299

ABSTRACT

The persistent antibiotics resistant issue has emerged as an influencing factor to deteriorate community health. So, new antibiotics development is urgent for the treatment of bacterial infections. Alternatively, delafloxacin is an eminent new fluoroquinolone, and chemically distinct from older fluoroquinolones. There is lack of proton substituent that indicates the poor acidic property of the drug. It also has a good intracellular penetration capacity that increases the intensity of the bactericidal property in acidic environment. Delafloxacin is a super active drug against the skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Delafloxacin also exhibits better efficacy against pathogens which are resistant to other fluoroquinolones, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Delafloxacin received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSI). Phase III clinical trial among patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is ongoing to evaluate the effectiveness of delafloxacin. From the aforementioned arguments, delafloxacin will be a prominent candidate for the upcoming antibacterial agent. Similarly, delafloxacin can be a crucial drug to fight against ABSSI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacterial Infections , Fluoroquinolones , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pneumonia , Protons , Respiratory Tract Infections , Skin , Soft Tissue Infections , United States Food and Drug Administration
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766820

ABSTRACT

Angiosarcomas are rare, but aggressive malignancies. Reports of brain metastasis are uncommon. In this report, we describe the clinical features of a 62 year-old man who presented with hemoptysis and right-sided weakness. Chest computed tomography showed multiple ill-defined part solid nodules in both lungs and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple hemorrhagic bran masses. The patient underwent whole body proton emission tomography to identify biopsy site and showed multiple bone lesions. A right acetabulum biopsy in confirmed the diagnosis of angiosarcoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetabulum , Biopsy , Brain , Diagnosis , Hemangiosarcoma , Hemoptysis , Lung , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis , Protons , Thorax
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766331

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the association between the systemic intake of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and the early failure of dental implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study involving 1,918 dental implants in 592 patients (69 implants in 24 PPI users and 1,849 implants in 568 nonusers, respectively) was conducted. The effect of PPI intake on the osseointegration of dental implants was evaluated using patient- and implant-level models. RESULTS: Among 24 PPI users, two patients experienced implant failure, one of whom had three and the other of whom had one failed implant, respectively. Thus, the rate of failure for this population was 8.3%. Separately, 11 nonusers each experienced one implant failure, and the failure rate for these patients was 1.9%. Fisher's exact test revealed statistically significant differences between PPI users and nonusers at the implant level (P=0.002) but failed to show any significance at the patient level (P=0.094). The odds of implant failure were 4.60 times greater among PPI users versus nonusers. Dental implants that were placed in patients using PPIs were found to be 4.30 times more likely to fail prior to loading. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that PPI intake may be associated with an increased risk of early dental implant failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cohort Studies , Dental Implantation , Dental Implants , Morinda , Osseointegration , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Proton Pumps , Protons , Rehabilitation , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 136-142, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765716

ABSTRACT

Proton beam therapy (PBT) is one of the advances in radiotherapy techniques, which enables dose escalation with lower probability of radiation-induced liver or gastrointestinal injuries. However, the chest wall proximal to the tumor can be affected by high dose irradiation. Here, we report on a 58-year-old male patient who presented with huge hepatocellular carcinoma, received treatment with transarterial chemoembolization and PBT, and developed severe chest wall pain due to radiation-induced myositis. The patient's symptoms were controlled by oral steroids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver , Myositis , Proton Therapy , Protons , Radiotherapy , Steroids , Thoracic Wall
19.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 159-164, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765712

ABSTRACT

The treatment options available for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein invasion (PVI) include sorafenib, transarterial radioembolization (TARE), radiation therapy (RT), transarterial chemoembolization with RT, and proton beam irradiation. Herein, we present a case of HCC with segmental PVI that was managed via TARE. The patient had a 4 cm HCC that invaded the segment VIII portal vein branch without extrahepatic spread. Liver function was Child-Pugh grade A, and performance status was good. TARE was performed without any adverse events, and a radiological complete response (CR) was achieved. Thereafter, the patient was followed-up every 3–6 months without any further treatment, and the CR was maintained for >3 years. Therefore, TARE may be a useful alternative therapeutic option for patients with HCC exhibiting segmental PVI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Embolization, Therapeutic , Liver , Portal Vein , Protons , Radiotherapy , Venous Thrombosis
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774161

ABSTRACT

The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule damage simulations with an atom level geometric model use the traversal algorithm that has the disadvantages of quite time-consuming, slow convergence and high-performance computer requirement. Therefore, this work presents a density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) clustering algorithm based on the spatial distributions of energy depositions and hydroxyl radicals (·OH). The algorithm with probability and statistics can quickly get the DNA strand break yields and help to study the variation pattern of the clustered DNA damage. Firstly, we simulated the transportation of protons and secondary particles through the nucleus, as well as the ionization and excitation of water molecules by using Geant4-DNA that is the Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for radiobiology, and got the distributions of energy depositions and hydroxyl radicals. Then we used the damage probability functions to get the spatial distribution dataset of DNA damage points in a simplified geometric model. The DBSCAN clustering algorithm based on damage points density was used to determine the single-strand break (SSB) yield and double-strand break (DSB) yield. Finally, we analyzed the DNA strand break yield variation trend with particle linear energy transfer (LET) and summarized the variation pattern of damage clusters. The simulation results show that the new algorithm has a faster simulation speed than the traversal algorithm and a good precision result. The simulation results have consistency when compared to other experiments and simulations. This work achieves more precise information on clustered DNA damage induced by proton radiation at the molecular level with high speed, so that it provides an essential and powerful research method for the study of radiation biological damage mechanism.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Computer Simulation , DNA , Radiation Effects , DNA Damage , Linear Energy Transfer , Monte Carlo Method , Protons
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