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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-12, 2023. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468979

ABSTRACT

The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an important pest in the subtropical region of Brazil. This insect has tritrophic relation between wild fruits and parasitoids and is associated with apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards adjacent to the Atlantic Forest in Paraná. We thus investigated the degree of infestation of the fruit fly and natural parasitism in wild and cultivated fruits surrounding apple orchards. For this purpose, we collected fruits of Acca sellowiana (Berg.) Burret, Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart), Eugenia uniflora L., Eugenia pyriformis Cambessèdes, Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava (L.), Annona neosericea Rainer and Eriobotrya japonica (Thumb) in apple orchards adjacent to the Atlantic Forest located in Campo do Tenente, Lapa and Porto Amazonas counties. In total, we collected 18,289 fruits during four growing years. The occurrence of A. fraterculus depends on the susceptible period of apple fruits. A. sellowiana and P. cattleianum were considered primary fruit fly multipliers and P. guajava was secondary, all occurring after the apple harvest (IS period). The group of parasitoids with A. fraterculus was Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, 1924) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911) and Doryctobracon brasiliensis (Szépligeti, 1911) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) all of which are first records in the Atlantic Forest in Paraná. First record of O. bellus occurring in the State of Paraná, as well as, first record of the tritrophic association between host plant A. neosericea, parasitoids D. areolatus and O. bellus and fruit fly A. fraterculus. The host P. cattleianum stood out among the Myrtaceae species in regard to the high diversity of parasitoid species (81% of parasitoids). The total number of Figitidae species (76.5%) was higher [...].


Mosca-das-frutas sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae), é uma importante praga da região subtropical do Brasil. Este inseto tem relação tritrófico entre frutos silvestres e parasitoides e está associado a pomares de macieiras (Malus domestica Borkh.) adjacentes à Mata Atlântica no Paraná. Assim, investigamos o grau de infestação da mosca-das-frutas e o parasitismo natural em frutas silvestres e cultivadas ao redor de pomares de maçã. Para tanto, foram coletados frutos de Acca sellowiana (Berg.) Burret, Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart), Eugenia uniflora L., Eugenia pyriformis Cambessèdes, Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava (L.), Annona neosericea Rainer e Eriobotrya japonica (Thumb) em pomares de maçã adjacentes à Mata Atlântica localizados nos municípios de Campo do Tenente, Lapa e Porto Amazonas. No total, coletamos 18.289 frutos durante quatro anos de cultivo. A ocorrência de A. fraterculus depende do período de suscetibilidade dos frutos da maçã. A. sellowiana e P. cattleianum foram considerados multiplicadores primários de mosca-das-frutas e P. guajava foi secundário, todos ocorrendo após a colheita da maçã (período IS). Os parasitóides a associados a A. fraterculus foram Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, 1924) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911) e Doryctobracon brasiliensis (Szépligeti, 1911) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), todos os quais são primeiros registros na Mata Atlântica no Paraná. Primeiro registro de O. bellus ocorrendo no Estado do Paraná, assim como, primeiro registro da associação tritrófica entre o hospedeiro A. neosericea, parasitoides D. areolatus e O. bellus e mosca-das-frutas A. fraterculus. O hospedeiro P. cattleianum se destacou entre as espécies de Myrtaceae pela alta diversidade de parasitóides associados (81% dos parasitóides). O número total de espécies de Figitidae (76,5%) foi superior [...].


Subject(s)
Animals , Annona , Eriobotrya , Eugenia , Host-Parasite Interactions , Malus , Psidium , Tephritidae/parasitology
2.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 89: e00022022, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1416790

ABSTRACT

The state of Piauí is in a Cerrado/Caatinga transition area, which is known the richness of its fauna and flora. Therefore, this work aims to know the diversity of fruit fly species in cashew orchards and native forest fragments in the south-central region of Piauí. Fruit flies were collected in McPhail traps and by sampling fruits. The material collected from the traps and the fruits in the two areas were taken to the Laboratory of Phytotechnics from Campus Prof. Cinobelina Elvas at the Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI/CPCE), municipality of Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brazil. In McPhail traps, six species of the genus Anastrepha: A. alveata, A. dissimilis, A. fraterculus, A. manihoti, A. obliqua, and A. zenildae were captured, of which A. fraterculus, A. obliqua, and A. zenildae were present in both areas. Anastrepha alveata, A. dissimilis and A. manihoti occurred only in the cashew orchard. In fruit sampling, A. fraterculus, A. obliqua, and A. zenildae infested wild-guava fruits, Myrcia tomentosa (Myrtaceae), in native forest. Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua and A. zenildae were obtained directly from M. tomentosa fruits and from traps. The availability of host fruits is the factor that most influences the population fluctuation of fruit flies, mainly in the native forest area. Anastrepha manihoti is reported for the first time in the state of Piauí. This is the first record of A. fraterculus, A. obliqua and A. zenildae, infesting wildguava fruits, M. tomentosa.


Subject(s)
Tephritidae/classification , Psidium/parasitology , Biodiversity
3.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210080, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1386816

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava fractions and their effects on adhesion of a multispecies biofilm consisting of Streptococcus gordonii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. Material and Methods: Guava leaves were obtained from the mountains of northern Peru, where they grow wild and free of pesticides. The antimicrobial activity of 25 mg/mL petroleum ether, 25 mg/mL dichloromethane and 25 mg/mL methanol fractions of P. guajava was evaluated by measuring inhibition halos, as well as the effect on the adhesion of multispecies biofilms at 4, 7 and 10 days of growth by measuring the optical density. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and its multiple comparison tests, and differences in mean biofilm adhesion between each fraction were assessed by repeated measures analysis and the Tukey multiple comparison test. Results: The rank-based Kruskal-Wallis test highlighted differences in the effects of the fractions on the zone of inhibition for each oral bacterium, including S. gordonii (p=0.000), F. nucleatum (p=0.000), and P. gingivalis (p=0.000), the Tukey test showed that the group treated with 0.12% chlorhexidine exhibited the least amount of adhesion, followed by the group treated with the 1.56 mg/mL methanol fraction. Conclusion: The methanol fraction of P. guajava had an antibacterial effect on S. gordonii and P. gingivalis, and the 1.56 mg/mL methanol fraction decreased biofilm adhesion.


Subject(s)
Periodontitis/microbiology , Biofilms , Psidium/chemistry , Streptococcus gordonii/pathogenicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Streptococcal Infections , In Vitro Techniques , Intervention Studies , Analysis of Variance
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 728-736, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153401

ABSTRACT

Abstract Xylella fastidiosa is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that lives inside host xylem vessels, where it forms biofilm which is believed to be responsible for disrupting the passage of water and nutrients. Pectobacterium carotovorum is a Gram-negative plant-specific bacterium that causes not only soft rot in various plant hosts, but also blackleg in potato by plant cell wall degradation. Chagas disease, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, has been commonly treated with nifurtimox and benzonidazole, two drugs that cause several side effects. As a result, the use of natural products for treating bacterial and neglected diseases has increased in recent years and plants have become a promising alternative to developing new medicines. Therefore, this study aimed to determine, for the first time, the chemical composition of essential oil from Psidium guajava flowers (PG-EO) and to evaluate its in vitro anti-Xylella fastidiosa, anti-Pectobacterium carotovorum, anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and cytotoxic activities. PG-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus while its chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major compounds identified in PG-EO were α-cadinol (37.8%), β-caryophyllene (12.2%), nerolidol (9.1%), α-selinene (8.8%), β-selinene (7.4%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.2%). Results showed that the PG-EO had strong trypanocidal activity against the trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (IC50 = 14.6 μg/mL), promising antibacterial activity against X. fastidiosa (MIC = 12.5 μg/mL) and P. carotovorum (MIC = 62.5 μg/mL), and moderate cytotoxicity against LLCMK2 adherent epithelial cells in the concentration range (CC50 = 250.5 μg/mL). In short, the PG-EO can be considered a new source of bioactive compounds for the development of pesticides and trypanocide drugs.


Resumo Xylella fastidiosa é uma bactéria patogênica que vive dentro dos vasos do xilema hospedeiro, onde forma um biofilme responsável por interromper a passagem de água e nutrientes. Pectobacterium carotovorum é uma bactéria Gram-negativa que causa não só podridão macia em várias plantas hospedeiras, mas também canela-preta na batata por degradação da parede celular da planta. A doença de Chagas, causada pelo Trypanosoma cruzi, é comumente tratada com nifurtimox e benzonidazol, duas drogas que causam vários efeitos colaterais. Como resultado, o uso de produtos naturais para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas e negligenciadas aumentou nos últimos anos e as plantas continuam sendo uma alternativa promissora para o desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos. Portanto, este estudo teve como objetivo determinar, pela primeira vez, a composição química do óleo essencial de flores de Psidium guajava (PG-EO) e avaliar suas propriedades anti-Xylella fastidiosa, anti-Pectobacterium carotovorum, anti-Trypanosoma cruzi e citotóxica in vitro. PG-EO foi obtido por hidrodestilação em um aparelho Clevenger, enquanto sua composição química foi determinada por cromatografia em fase gasosa com detecção por ionização por chama (CG-DIC) e por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa (CG-EM). Os principais compostos identificados no PG-EO foram α-cadinol (37,8%), β-cariofileno (12,2%), nerolidol (9,1%), α-selineno (8,8%), β-selineno (7,4%) e óxido de cariofileno (7,2%). Os resultados mostraram que o PG-EO apresentou forte atividade tripanocida contra as formas tripomastigotas de T. cruzi (CI50 = 14,6 μg/mL), promissora atividade antibacteriana contra X. fastidiosa (MIC = 12,5 μg/mL) e P. carotovorum (MIC = 62,5 μg/mL) e citotoxicidade moderada contra células epiteliais aderentes (LLCMK2) na faixa de concentração (CC50 = 250,5 μg/mL). Em suma, o PG-EO pode ser considerado uma nova fonte de compostos bioativos para o desenvolvimento de pesticidas e drogas tripanocidas.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Myrtaceae , Psidium , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Leaves , Flowers , Xylella
5.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(3): 1-7, 2021-08-11. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363287

ABSTRACT

Background: the current research studies why it is effective using Anrederacordifolia, Psidium guajava, and Pogostemon cablin by the local community as a traditional medicine for diarrhea treatment caused by Escherichiacoli bacteria. Objectives: We compared the inhibitor effectiveness of three leaf extracts against Escherichia coli; we also identified the anti-bacterial substances contained in leaf extracts. Methods: We determined the bacterial test activity using the "agar diffusion" method and the thin layer chromatography (TLC) as qualitative analysis for determining the anti-bacterial substances contained in the extract. Results: The Pogostemon cablin leaf extract contained terpenoids, phenolic, and flavonoids compound as bacterial inhibitors, and the comparison showed that Pogostemon cablin leaf extract had the greatest bacterial inhibition power. Conclusion: The antibiotic substances found in the leaf extracts of Anredera cordifolia, Psidium guajava, and Pogostemon cablin can be used as traditional medicine. The breakthrough was evidenced by the ability to inhibit Escherichia coli bacteria. This research shows that traditional medicine has ancient knowledge used by this paper


Antecedentes: la presente investigación estudia la eficacia del uso de Anredera cordifolia, Psidium guajava y Pogostemoncablin por la comunidad local como medicina tradicional para el tratamiento de la diarrea causada por la bacteria Escherichia coli. Objetivos: Comparamos la eficacia inhibidora de los extractos de tres hojas contra Escherichia coli; también identificamos las sustancias antibacterianas contenidas en los extractos de hojas. Métodos: Determinamos la actividad de la prueba bacteriana mediante el método de "difusión en agar" y la cromatografía en capa fina (TLC) como análisis cualitativo para determinar las sustancias antibacterianas contenidas en el extracto. Resultados: el extracto de hoja de Pogostemoncablin contenía compuestos terpenoides, fenólicos y flavonoides como inhibidores bacterianos, y la comparación mostró que el extracto de hoja de Pogostemon cablin tenía el mayor poder de inhibición bacteriana. Conclusión: El contenido de sustancias antibióticas que se encuentran en el extracto de hoja de Anredera cordifolia, Psidium guajava y Pogostemoncablin puede utilizarse como medicina tradicional. Esto se evidencia por la capacidad de inhibir la bacteria Escherichiacoli. Esta investigación muestra que la medicina tradicional tiene un conocimiento antiguo utilizado por este artículo


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Agar , Psidium , Escherichia coli , Pogostemon , Anti-Infective Agents
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3877-3885, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888112

ABSTRACT

Twenty-six compounds, including sixteen meroterpenoids(1-16), a triterpenoid(17), four terpenoid derivatives(18-21), and five aromatic compounds(22-26), were isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analyses including NMR and MS. Compounds 21-26 were obtained from plants of Psidium for the first time. Based on the structure,(R)-2-ethylhexyl 2H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylate(24 a), an α-glucosidase inhibitor recently isolated from Paramignya trimera, should be revised as compound 24. Meroterpenoids 1-16 were evaluated for their antitumor and antifungal activities. Meroterpenoids psiguajadial D(4), guapsidial A(5), 4,5-diepipsidial A(7), guadial A(14), and guadial B(15) showed cytotoxicities against five human tumor cell lines(HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW-480), among which 5 was the most effective with an IC_(50) of 3.21-9.94 μmol·L~(-1).


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Plant Extracts , Plant Leaves , Psidium , Terpenes
7.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(3): 412-441, 26 de noviembre 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1141472

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones respiratorias constituyen una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad a nivel mundial, incrementándose su relevancia ante la reciente infección por SARS-CoV-2, causante de la pandemia de COVID-19. Las opciones terapéuticas para esta infección respiratoria son escasas y sin eficacia comprobada. El objetivo de esta revisión fue buscar la información sobre plantas con actividad antiviral o viricida publicada en los últimos 10 años, en las bases de datos de Google Scholar, Scopus y PubMed. La búsqueda priorizó aquellas especies disponibles en Guatemala, la cual se complementó con la búsqueda de moléculas con actividad antiviral para finalmente postular aquellas que puedan prevenir la infección o aminorar la patogénesis del SARS-CoV-2. Se detectaron más de 170 especies con actividad antiviral y se organizó la información por país o región y tipo de actividad antiviral contra virus específicos. De las especies de mayor disponibilidad en Guatemala se seleccionaron 20. La revisión culmina con 15 artículos que proponen plantas o moléculas con potencial actividad específica en el manejo de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2. Se concluye que existen especies vegetales (Curcuma longa, Echinacea purpurea, Psidium guajava, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis y Eucalyptus globulus) y fitocompuestos vegetales (hesperidina, rutina, diosmina, apiina, aloe-emodina, piperina, capsaicina, curcumina, oleuropeina, rhamnetina y gallato de epicatequina) que podrían contribuir al manejo de la enfermedad. Se insta a académicos y autoridades a poner más atención a estas opciones terapéuticas que nos ofrece la naturaleza y que podrían contribuir a aliviar el colapso de los sistemas de salud prevalentes.


Respiratory infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, increasing their relevance by the recent SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the COVID-19 pandemic. Therapeutic options for this respiratory infection are scarce and without proven effectiveness. The objective of this review was the search for information on plants with antiviral or viricidal activity published in the last 10 years in the Google Scholar, Scopus, and PubMed databases. The search prioritized those species available in Guatemala, was completed with the search of molecules with potential to prevent infection or reduce the activity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. More than 170 species with antiviral activity were detected and the information organized in surveys by country or region, activity against specific viruses and antiviral information on the 20 most commonly available species in the country. It is complemented with a summary of 15 articles that proposed plants or molecules with potential specific activity in the management of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. It is concluded there are plant species (Curcuma longa, Echinacea purpurea, Psidium guajava, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis and Eucalyptus globulus) and phytocompounds isolated from these species (hesperidin, rutin, diosmin, apiine, aloe-emodin, piperine, capsaicin, curcumin, oleuropein and epicatechin gallate) that could contribute to the management of the disease. Academics and authorities are urged to pay more attention to these therapeutic options that nature offer to us and could contribute to alleviate the collapse of the prevailing health systems in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Respiratory Tract Infections , Therapeutics , Catechin/therapeutic use , Echinacea , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Salvia officinalis , Psidium , Diosmin , Aloe , Eucalyptus , Betacoronavirus , Garlic , COVID-19 , Guatemala , Hesperidin
8.
Hig. aliment ; 34(291): e1025, Julho/Dezembro 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482547

ABSTRACT

As polpas de fruta congeladas são uma boa opção de aproveitamento das frutas, uma vez que eleva a sua vida útil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de polpas de fruta comercializadas no Gama-DF. Foram selecionadas quatro marcas comerciais de polpas de fruta congeladas (A, B, C e D) dos sabores goiaba e manga. Avaliou-se o pH, teor de umidade, sólidos totais e açúcares totais determinados baseando-se nos métodos descritos pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Todas as marcas apresentaram teor de umidade e de açúcar total condizentes com a legislação. No entanto, os resultados de pH obtidos para as marcas A, B e C apresentaram valores em discordância com os Padrões de Identidade e Qualidade regulamentados, para pelo menos um dos sabores de polpa de fruta. Adicionalmente, os valores do teor de sólidos totais das marcas comerciais B e C do sabor goiaba e B e D do sabor manga apresentaram discrepância em relação aos valores preconizados pela legislação. Assim, verificou-se que todas as marcas apresentaram, pelo menos, um parâmetro em desacordo com a legislação. Conclui-se que é necessário a adoção de boas práticas de fabricação e padronização das matérias-primas no processo de fabricação de polpas de fruta.


The frozen fruit pulps are a good option for the utilization of fruits, since they increase their useful life. The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of fruit pulps sold in Gama-DF. Four commercial brands of frozen fruit pulps (A, B, C and D) of the guava and mango flavors were selected. The pH, water content, total solids and total sugars were determined based on the methods described by Adolfo Lutz Institute. All brands had moisture and total sugar content in line with the legislation. However, the pH results obtained for brands A, B and C showed values in disagreement with the regulated Identity and Quality Standards, for at least one of the fruit pulp flavors. Additionally, the values of the total solids content of the trademarks B and C of the guava flavor and B and D of the mango flavor presented discrepancy in relation to the values recommended by the legislation. Thus, it was found that all the pulps had at least one parameter without compliance with the legislation. The conclusion is that is necessary to adopt good manufacturing practices and standardization of raw materials in the fruit pulp manufacturing process.


Subject(s)
Mangifera/chemistry , Food Handling , Psidium/chemistry , Food Quality
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 15-28, ene. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102865

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and acaricidal effect of two Psidium species essential oils and selected compounds on Tetranychus urticae. Essential oils from the leaves of Psidium laruotteanum and Psidium myrsinites were obtained through hydrodistillation, analyzed using CG-FID and CG-MS and evaluated for toxicity to T. urticae by fumigation and residual contact. The susceptibility of T. urticae to monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes was also investigated. The major constituents of the P. laruotteanum oil were (E)-nerolidol (9.6 ± 0.4%) and γ-terpinene (9.4 ± 0.6%) and the major constituents of the P. myrsinites oil were ß-caryophyllene (21.2 ± 0.9%) and α-humulene (10.3 ± 0.5%). Based on the LC50 estimates, no significant differences were found between the two oils regarding toxicity by fumigation or residual contact. ß-Caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol had the highest level of toxicity, independently of the method investigated. The findings indicate that both oils and selected constituents, especially ß-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol, are promising as natural acaricidal agents that affect T. urticae through more than one mode of action.


Los aceites esenciales de las hojas de Psidium laruotteanum y Psidium myrsinites se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación, se analizaron por CG-FID y CG-MS, y se evaluaron sus toxicidades por fumigación y contacto residual contra Tetranychus urticae. Se investigó también la susceptibilidad del T. urticae a monoterpenos y sesquiterpenos. En el aceite esencial de P. laruotteanum, (E)-nerolidol (9.6 ± 0.4%) y γ-terpinene (9.4 ± 0.6%) se identificaron como constituyentes mayoritarios, mientras que en el aceite esencial de P. myrsinites, ß-caryophyllene (21.2 ± 0.9%) y α-humulene (10.3 ± 0.5%) se encontraron como mayoritarios. Con base en las CL50 estimadas, no se observaron diferencias significativas entre las toxicidades de los aceites por fumigación, y tampoco por contacto residual. ßCaryophyllene y (E)-nerolidol presentaron las mayores toxicidades, independientemente del método investigado. Estos resultados indican, que los dos aceites, así como los constituyentes seleccionados, entre los que se destacan ß-caryophyllene y (E)-nerolidol, son promisores agentes acaricidas naturales por actuar en el T. urticae por más de un mecanismo de acción.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Tetranychidae/drug effects , Psidium/chemistry , Acaricides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Pest Control , Fumigation , Acaricides/chemistry , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
10.
The Filipino Family Physician ; : 37-41, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969535

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To determine the efficacy of Guava 5% cream compared to Clotrimazole 1% cream in the treatment of Tinea corporis of patients seen at Family Medicine Department of Quezon City General Hospital@*Design@#Randomized therapeutic clinical trial@*Setting@#Department of Family and Community Medicine Out Patient Department of Quezon City General Hospital@*Study Subjects@#Patients, male or female, 19 years old and above who consulted at Family and Community Medicine Department of Quezon City General Hospital@*Method@#The study was done from August- September 2019. Fifty subjects were randomly assigned to either Group A (25) or Group B (25) using systematic sampling method. Patients in Group A were instructed to apply on affected area Clotrimazole 1% Cream twice a day for 2 weeks, while patients on Group B applied Guava 5% cream twice a day for 2 weeks. Patients were instructed follow up on Week 1 for improvement, Week 2 for evaluating outcome of treatment and Week 4 to check for recurrences@*Results@#Total severity scores of both Groups A and B at Week 1, Week 2 and Week 4 were similar with p-values of 0.014, 0.480 and 0.386 respectively. Both groups were comparable as to the treatment outcome for Tinea corporis. Guava 5% cream is shown to be cost-effective considering the equally-effective treatment outcome and the lower average treatment cost@*Conclusion@#This study has shown that Guava 5% cream is equally effective as, and cheaper than Clotrimazole 1% cream, thus considered to be a cost-effective treatment for Tinea corporis.


Subject(s)
Tinea , Psidium , Clotrimazole
11.
Article in English | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145981

ABSTRACT

La búsqueda de fuentes naturales para controlar los microorganismos es de interés en la producción de alimentos. Este estudio evaluó la composición química y la actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial de las hojas de Psidium cattleianum. El aceite esencial se extrajo por hidrodestilación y se identificó por GC-MS. La clase predominante de compuestos fueron los sesquiterpenos (47,6%) y los principales fueron trans-ß-cariofileno (14,7%), 1,8-cineol (11,7%) y É£-muuroleno (5,6%). Actividad antimicrobiana se realizó mediante la técnica de microdilución contra ocho hongos y ocho bacterias. Concentración inhibitoria mínima varió de 0,17 a 11,25 mg mL-1 para hongos y de 1,40 a 16,87 mg mL-1 para bacterias. Principales actividades fueron contra hongos Aspergillus fumigatus (ATCC 1022), Aspergillus ochraceus (ATCC 12066), Aspergillus versicolor (ATCC 11730) y Trichoderma viride (IAM 5061), y bacterias Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Bacillus cereus (clinical isolate) y Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) con potencial para prevenir enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos.


The search for natural sources to control microorganisms is of interest in food production. This study evaluated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Psidium cattleianum leaves. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, and identified by GC-MS. The predominant class of compounds was sesquiterpenes (47.6%) and the major compounds were trans-ß-caryophyllene (14.7%), 1,8-cineole (11.7%) and É£-muurolene (5.6%). The antimicrobial activity was carried out by microdillution technique against eight fungi and eight bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged from 0.17 to 11.25 mg mL-1 for fungi, and from 1.40 to 16.87 mg mL-1 for bacteria. The highest activities were against fungi Aspergillus fumigatus (ATCC 1022), Aspergillus ochraceus (ATCC 12066), Aspergillus versicolor (ATCC 11730), and Trichoderma viride (IAM 5061), and bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Bacillus cereus (clinical isolate), and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) with potential to prevent foodborne diseases.


Subject(s)
Psidium/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents , Aspergillus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Trichoderma , Aspergillus ochraceus , Plant Extracts
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190196, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132166

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endodontic infections result from oral pathogenic bacteria which reach and infect dental pulp, as well as surrounding tissues, through cracks, unrepaired caries and failed caries restorations. This study aims to determine the chemical composition of essential oil from Psidium cattleianum leaves (PC-EO) and to assess its antibacterial activity against endodontic bacteria. Antibacterial activity of PC-EO was evaluated in terms of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values by the broth microdilution method on 96-well microplates. Bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis (MIC = 20 µg/mL), Prevotella nigrescens (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL), Fusobacterium nucleatum (MIC = 12.5 µg/mL), Actinomyces naeslundii (MIC = 50 µg/mL), Bacteroides fragilis (MIC = 12.5 µg/mL), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (MIC = 6.25 µg/mL) and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL) were evaluated and compared to chlorhexidine dihydrochloride (CDH), the positive control. PC-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation with the use of a Clevenger-type apparatus whereas its chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Viridiflorol (17.9%), β-caryophyllene (11.8%), 1,8-cineole (10.8%) and β-selinene (8.6%) were the major constituents found in PC-EO, which exhibited high antibacterial activity against all endodontic pathogens under investigation. Therefore, PC-EO, a promising source of bioactive compounds, may provide therapeutic solutions for the field of endodontics.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Psidium/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Peptostreptococcus/drug effects , Bacteroides fragilis/drug effects , Actinomyces/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fusobacterium nucleatum/drug effects , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/drug effects , Porphyromonas gingivalis/drug effects , Prevotella nigrescens/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 697-702, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001477

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of the essential oil of Psidium guajava leaves (PG-EO), traditionally used in folk medicine. The essential oil was obtained from fresh leaves by hydrodistillation, using a modified Clevenger apparatus. The major PG-EO chemical constituents were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID as being β-caryophyllene (16.1%), α-humulene (11.9%), aromadendrene oxide (14.7%), δ-selinene (13.6%), and selin-11-en-4α-ol (12.5%). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil of P. guajava leaves was determined in terms of its minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) using the broth microdilution method in 96-well microplates. PG-EO had moderate activity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 200 µg/mL), S. mitis (MIC = 200 µg/mL), S. sanguinis (MIC = 400 µg/mL), S. sobrinus (MIC = 100 µg/mL), and S. salivarius (MIC = 200 µg/mL). The antiproliferative activity was evaluated against different tumor cell lines: breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), and human gliobastoma (M059J). A normal human cell line (GM07492A, lung fibroblasts) was included. The antiproliferative activity was evaluated using the XTT assay and the results were expressed as IC50. The essential oil showed significantly lower IC50 values against MCF-7 and M059J lines than that obtained for the normal line, showing selectivity. Our results suggest that the essential oil of Psidium guajava L. has promising biological activities and can be considered a new source of bioactive compounds.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou as atividades antibacteriana e antiproliferativa do óleo essencial das folhas frescas de Psidium guajava (PG-OE), tradicionalmente utilizadas na medicina popular. O óleo essencial foi obtido por hidrodestilação das folhas frescas, utilizando aparelho do tipo Clevenger. Os principais constituintes químicos de PG-OE identificados por CG-EM e CG-DIC foram: β-cariofileno (16,1%), α-humuleno (11,9%), óxido de aromadendreno (14,7%), δ-selineno (13,6%) e selin-11-en-4α-ol (12,5%). A atividade antibacteriana do óleo essencial das folhas de P. guajava foi determinada em termo de sua concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) utilizando o método de microdiluição de caldo em microplacas de 96 poços. PG-OE apresentou moderada atividade contra Streptococcus mutans (CIM = 200 μg/mL), S. mitis (CIM = 200 μg/mL), S. sanguinis (CIM = 400 μg/mL), S. sobrinus (CIM = 100 μg/mL) e S. salivarius (CIM = 200 μg/mL). A atividade antiproliferativa foi avaliada frente a diferentes linhagens de células tumorais como: adenocarcinoma de mama (MCF-7), adenocarcinoma cervical humano (HeLa) e gliobastoma humano (M059J). Foi incluída uma linhagem celular humana normal (GM07492A, fibroblastos pulmonares). A atividade antiproliferativa foi avaliada utilizando o ensaio XTT e os resultados foram expressos como CI50. As linhagens MCF-7 e M059J mostraram valores significativamente mais baixos de CI50 do que os obtidos para a linhagem normal, mostrando seletividade. Nossos resultados sugerem que o óleo essencial das folhas frescas de Psidium guajava L. possui atividades biológicas promissoras e pode ser considerado como uma nova fonte de compostos bioativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Leaves , Psidium , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Azulenes/pharmacology , Monocyclic Sesquiterpenes , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1245-1255, july/aug. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048928

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate how the surrounding vegetation affects the assemblage of fruit flies. For this, flies were collected in guava orchards with distinct types of surrounding vegetation (exotic pasture, native forest and fruit tree intercropping). The experiment was conducted in Itaporã and Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Weekly samples were collected from March to April 2015. McPhail traps were baited with 5% hydrolyzed corn protein. Species richness, diversity index and abundance were evaluated for each orchard, as well as the species composition of fruit fly between the environments surrounding the orchard and, finally, the sex ratio. A total of 579 individuals were collected of the species Anastrepha fraterculus, A. montei, A. obliqua, A. sororcula, A. striata, A. turpiniae and A. zenildae. The orchard surrounded by native forest had the highest species richness and Shannon diversity. The species composition differed between environments, with the formation of three distinct groups. The environment surrounding the guava orchard influences the richness, diversity, abundance and sex ratio of fruit flies, indicating that the native forest may provide more resources for the maintenance of these insects.


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar como a vegetação do entorno dos pomares afeta a assembleia de moscas-das-frutas. Para isto, foram coletadas moscas em pomares de goiabeiras com distintos tipos de vegetação no entorno (pastagens exóticas, mata nativa e fruticultura). O experimento foi conduzido em Itaporã e Dourados, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Amostras semanais foram coletadas de março a abril de 2015. As armadilhas McPhail foram iscadas com 5% de proteína hidrolisada de milho. A riqueza de espécies, o índice de diversidade e a abundância foram avaliados para cada pomar, assim como a composição de espécies de moscas-das-frutas entre os ambientes do entorno do pomar e razão sexual. Um total de 579 indivíduos foram coletados das espécies Anastrepha fraterculus, A. montei, A. obliqua, A. sororcula, A. striata, A. turpiniae e A. zenildae. O pomar cercado por mata nativa apresentou maior riqueza de espécies e diversidade de Shannon. A composição das espécies diferiu entre os ambientes, com a formação de três grupos distintos. O ambiente do entorno do pomar de goiabeira influencia a riqueza, diversidade, abundância e razão sexual das moscas-das-frutas, indicando que a mata nativa pode fornecer mais recursos para a manutenção desses insetos.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Tephritidae , Psidium , Drosophila
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 837-848, may./jun. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048690

ABSTRACT

Using nitrogen (N) to increase plant tolerance to salinity has been tested in many species. However, in addition to controversial results, most studies are conducted with annual species and/or in the initial growth stage and there are almost no studies with perennial fruit crops in the production stage. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the production components and post-harvest quality of 'Paluma' guava irrigated with water of increasing salinity in soil fertilized with N. The experiment was carried out for two years in drainage lysimeters in an experimental area of the Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Pombal, PB, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with of five levels of water salinity ­ ECw (NaCl)(0.3, 1.1, 1.9, 2.7 and 3.5 dS m-1) and four N doses (ureia) (70, 100, 130 and 160% of the recommended dose - 541.1 mg of N dm-3 of soil per year), with three replicates. Number of fruits, mean fruit weight, production per plant, polar and equatorial diameters of fruit and contents of soluble solids and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) decreased linearly with the increase in irrigation water salinity from 0.3 dS m-1. The interaction between water salinity and N doses and the isolated action of N did not interfere statistically with the studied variables.


O uso de nitrogênio como forma de aumentar a tolerância das plantas à salinidade tem sido testado em muitas espécies. No entanto, além de resultados controversos, se observa que a maioria dos estudos são realizados com espécies anuais e, ou na fase inicial de crescimento, sendo praticamente inexistentes estudos com frutíferas perenes em fase de produção. Nessa direção, o trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os componentes de produção e a qualidade pós-colheita de goiabeira 'Paluma' irrigada com águas de salinidade crescente no solo com nitrogênio. O experimento foi conduzido durante dois anos em lisímetros de drenagem numa área experimental da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Pombal, PB. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5 x 4, com salinidades de água ­ CEa (NaCl) de 0,3, 1,1, 1,9, 2,7 e 3,5 dS m-1 e quatro doses de nitrogênio (ureia) de 70, 100, 130 e 160% da dose recomendada de 541,1 mg de N dm-3 por ano, com três repetições. A interação salinidade da água x doses de nitrogênio e ação isolada de N não influenciaram estatisticamente as variáveis estudadas. O número de frutos, a massa média de frutos, a produção por planta, o diâmetro polar e equatorial dos frutos, os teores de sólidos solúveis e ácido ascórbico (vitamina C), decresceram linearmente com o aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação a partir de 0,3 dS m-1.


Subject(s)
Saline Waters , Saltpetre Soils , Psidium , Agricultural Irrigation , Nitrogen
16.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 618-622, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482008

ABSTRACT

O Brasil é um grande produtor de frutas e vegetais e esta grande produção está associada a um considerável prejuízo no pós-colheita. A desidratação osmótica é uma operação importante para transformar frutos perecíveis em novos produtos com agregação de valor, além de estender a vida de prateleira. Os frutos goiaba e manga foram desidratados osmoticamente em solução de sacarose nas concentrações de 45%, 55% e 65% por um período de 24 horas. Os resultados mostraram que para a goiaba o teor de umidade variou de 57% a 41% enquanto que para a manga a umidade variou de 56% a 45% para as concentrações de 45% e 65%, respectivamente. A umidade diminuiu com o aumento da concentração de sacarose apenas para a goiaba enquanto que para a manga a umidade se manteve estável na concentração de 55%. O valor de compostos fenólicos nos frutos variou 112,86 a 153,3 mg EAG.100(-1) para a goiaba e de 78,21 a 85,87 mg EAG.100(-1). A concentração de sacarose na desidratação osmótica influenciou positivamente no teor de compostos fenólicos dos frutos.


Subject(s)
Phenolic Compounds , Food Preservation , Mangifera/chemistry , Psidium/chemistry , Sucrose/administration & dosage , Food Quality
17.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 769-773, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482039

ABSTRACT

Com este trabalho objetivou-se desenvolver uma bebida vegetal do extrato hidrossolúvel da amêndoa da macaíba adicionada de polpa de goiaba e avaliar a sua aceitação sensorial. Para elaboração da bebida, foi obtido o extrato hidrossolúvel da amêndoa nas proporções de 1:3 (amêndoa:água) e adicionado os ingredientes. O produto foi avaliado quanto a parâmetros sensoriais utilizando escala hedônica de 9 pontos, e a intenção de compra através de escala de 5 pontos. Na análise sensorial a bebida, atingiu escores acima de 7,0 para todos os atributos avaliados, e escore 4,3 para intenção de compra. O índice de aceitação foi de 88,8%. Assim, a bebida vegetal é uma alternativa viável no desenvolvimento de novos produtos, oferecendo a indivíduos alérgicos ou com hipersensibilidade ao leite a possibilidade de consumir um alimento de boa qualidade sensorial, além de estimular o aproveitamento e consumo da amêndoa da macaíba.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arecaceae , Consumer Behavior , Psidium , Milk Substitutes/methods , Beverages , Plant Extracts , Perception
18.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1192-1195, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482126

ABSTRACT

As frutas são constituídas por substâncias que exercem ação antioxidante, dentre tais substâncias estão incluídas as vitaminas. Os ácidos orgânicos mais comuns e presentes em frutas são: ácido ascórbico e ácido cítrico. Tais ácidos orgânicos bem como os tocoferóis ocorrem de forma natural nos alimentos e são potentes antioxidantes que possuem a capacidade de eliminar diversos radicais livres. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar e quantificar ácidos orgânicos (ascórbico e cítrico) e α-tocoferol presentes na polpa da goiaba araçá fazendo-se uso da Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE). Os teores de ácido ascórbico e ácido cítrico encontrados no presente estudo foram de 2,501 mg.g-1 e 9,240 mg.g-1, respectivamente, enquanto que o teor α-tocoferol foi de 3,399 µg.g-1. Comparadas a outras frutas, os teores de ácidos orgânicos e α-tocoferol encontrados no presente estudo indicam que a goiaba araçá é rica em compostos antioxidantes.


Subject(s)
Psidium/chemistry , alpha-Tocopherol/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Citric Acid/analysis , Antioxidants , Organic Acids/analysis
19.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 2141-2145, abr.-maio 2019. graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482286

ABSTRACT

A goiaba é uma das fruticulturas que se destaca no Brasil, por ser rica em nutrientes e ter elevada produção, porém há uma elevada perda/desperdício desse fruto pela sua alta perecibilidade. Logo, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana das nanoestruturas de ZnO, a fim de aplicá-las em filmes de goma tara para preservação da goiaba. Foi feita a análise da curva de crescimento das bactérias Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella typhimurium e Staphylococcus aureus na presença da nanoestrutura no leitor de microplaca. Estas apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana frente às bactérias, visto que houve o retardo do crescimento com o passar do tempo de análise. Verifica-se o potencial uso desta nanoestrutura para aumentar vida útil da goiaba.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Psidium/drug effects , Psidium/microbiology , Zinc Oxide , Anti-Infective Agents , Nanostructures
20.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 2828-2832, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482346

ABSTRACT

O consumo das frutas minimamente processadas vem crescendo cada dia mais devido a praticidade que estes produtos trazem para a vida das pessoas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a qualidade microbiológica de goiabas minimamente processadas comercializadas em hipermercados da cidade de João Pessoa, Paraíba. A pesquisa foi realizada com doze amostras de goiabas minimamente processadas. As análises microbiológicas foram realizadas para coliformes termotolerantes (45° C) e Salmonella spp. sendo os resultados comparados com os padrões legais. Verificou-se que a totalidade das amostras apresentaram valores <3 NMP/g para coliformes a 45º C, e em 25% houve presença de Salmonella spp. Este índice gera preocupação em relação à deficiência de práticas higiênico-sanitárias adequadas no processamento dos produtos.


Subject(s)
Coliforms/analysis , Food Microbiology , Psidium/microbiology , Salmonella/isolation & purification
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