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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1360-1375, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402290

ABSTRACT

A ocorrência das infecções do trato urinário (ITU) causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida estão aumentando consideravelmente nas últimas décadas, sendo a Candida albicans a mais comumente diagnosticada como causadora deste tipo de infecções. Contudo, outras espécies, como exemplo da Candida tropicalis, estão emergindo como preocupantes causadores da doença. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente trabalho é revisar os aspectos relacionados com as ITU causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida. Foi realizada uma pesquisa na base de dados PubMed, buscando artigos sobre a epidemiologia, patogenia e tratamento das ITU causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida. As espécies de Candida são os fungos patogênicos oportunistas mais relevantes causadores de infecções nosocomiais e podem causar infecção no trato urinário, tanto inferior (ureteres, bexiga e uretra) quanto superior (rins), principalmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Existem alguns fatores predisponentes, como gênero feminino, idade avançada, diabetes mellitus, hospitalização prolongada, imunossupressão, gravidez, hipertensão, neutropenia, cálculos renais, infecções nosocomiais, terapia antibiótica e procedimentos, como a cateterização, que atuam como facilitadores das ITU por Candida spp. A doença pode ocorrer de forma assintomática, porém, pode evoluir para casos mais graves com comprometimento sistêmico em situações de candidemia que pode causar a morte do paciente, principalmente se tratando de indivíduos imunocomprometidos. Sendo assim, devido ao risco existente, a doença não pode ser negligenciada e um diagnóstico preciso e um tratamento adequado devem ser estabelecidos.


The occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by yeasts of the genus Candida has increased considerably in recent decades, with Candida albicans being the most commonly diagnosed as causing this type of infections. However, other species, such as Candida tropicalis, are emerging as worrisome causes of the disease. In this sense, the objective of the present paper is to review the aspects related to the UTI caused by yeasts of the genus Candida. A search was carried out in the PubMed database, searching for articles on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of UTI caused by yeasts of the genus Candida. Candida species are the most relevant opportunistic pathogenic fungi that cause nosocomial infections and can cause both lower (ureters, bladder and urethra) and upper (kidneys) urinary tract infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There are some predisposing factors, such as female gender, advanced age, diabetes mellitus, prolonged hospitalization, immunosuppression, pregnancy, hypertension, neutropenia, kidney stones, nosocomial infections, antibiotic therapy and procedures, such as catheterization, that act as facilitators of UTI by Candida spp. The disease can occur asymptomatically, however, it can progress to more severe cases with systemic involvement in situations of candidemia that can cause the death of the patient, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, due to the existing risk, the disease cannot be neglected and an accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment must be established.


La aparición de infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) causadas por levaduras del género Candida ha aumentado considerablemente en las últimas décadas. Candida albicans es la infección por levaduras más comúnmente diagnosticada. Sin embargo, otras especies, como la Candida tropicalis, están surgiendo como causa preocupante de la enfermedad. En este sentido, el objetivo del presente trabajo es revisar los aspectos relacionados con la ITU causada por levaduras del género Candida. Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos PubMed, buscando artículos sobre la epidemiología, la patogénesis y el tratamiento de la ITU causada por levaduras del género Candida. Las especies de Candida son los hongos patógenos oportunistas más relevantes que causan infecciones nosocomiales y pueden provocar infecciones del tracto urinario inferior (uréteres, vejiga y uretra) y superior (riñones), especialmente en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Existen algunos factores predisponentes, como el sexo femenino, la edad avanzada, la diabetes mellitus, la hospitalización prolongada, la inmunosupresión, el embarazo, la hipertensión, la neutropenia, los cálculos renales, las infecciones nosocomiales, la terapia con antibióticos y los procedimientos como el cateterismo, que actúan como facilitadores de la ITU por Candida spp. La enfermedad puede presentarse de forma asintomática, pero puede evolucionar a casos más graves con afectación sistémica en situaciones de candidemia que pueden causar la muerte del paciente, especialmente en individuos inmunodeprimidos. Por lo tanto, debido al riesgo existente, no se puede descuidar la enfermedad y se debe establecer un diagnóstico preciso y un tratamiento adecuado.


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Candida tropicalis/pathogenicity , Pyelonephritis/complications , Urinary Tract/injuries , Cross Infection/complications , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Immunocompromised Host/physiology , Biofilms , Cystitis/complications , Candidemia/complications , Hospitalization
2.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022204, 06 abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363533

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation (KT) is the renal replacement therapy (RRT) of choice for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, not every KT is successful and some patients persist on RRT. OBJECTIVE: To model a logistic regression with pre- and post-KT risk covariates capable of predicting secondary allograft dysfunction in need of RRT or reaching stage V of CKD until the first six months post-KT. METHODS: Cohort with KT recipients from Northeastern Brazil. Medical records of KT performed between 2011-2018 were analyzed. KT-recipients with insufficient data or who abandoned follow-up were excluded. The covariables analyzed were: demographic; infectious; pre- and post-KT comorbidities; panel reactive-antibodies; number of HLA mismatches; acute rejection episodes mediated by T-cell (ACR) or antibodies (AAR) six months after KT; and laboratory tests six months after KT. RESULTS: Covariates with higher risk for the analyzed outcomes six months after KT were: elderly KT recipients (OR:1.41; CI95%:1.01-1.99), time between onset of RRT and KT (ΔT-RRT&KT)>10years (OR:3.54; CI95%:1.27-9.87), diabetes mellitus (DM) pre-KT (OR:3.35; CI95%:1.51-7.46), pyelonephritis (OR:2.45; CI95%:1.24-4.84), polyomavirus nephropathy (OR:4.99; CI95%:1.87-13.3), AAS (OR:4.82; CI95%:1.35-17.2), 24h-proteinuria ≥300mg/24h (OR:5.05; CI95%:2.00-12.7) and serum calcium (Ca) <8.5mg/dL (OR:4.72; CI95%:2.00-11.1). The multivariate model presented an accuracy of 88.1% and the mean variance inflation factor is 1.81. CONCLUSION: Elderly-recipients, ΔT-RRT&KT>10 years, pre-KT DM, and post-KT aggressions until six months (pyelonephritis, polyomavirus nephropathy, ABMR, 24h-proteinuria≥300mg/24h, and Ca<8.5mg/dL) are associated with high predictive power for secondary allograft dysfunction in need of RRT or reaching CKD stage V until the first six months post-KT.


INTRODUÇÃO: Transplante renal (TR) é a terapia renal substitutiva (TRS) de escolha para pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC). Entretanto, nem todo TR é bem-sucedido e alguns pacientes persistem em TRS. OBJETIVO: Modelar uma regressão logística com covariáveis de risco pré e pós-TR preditora da disfunção secundária do aloenxerto com necessidade de TRS ou alcance ao estágio V da DRC até os primeiros seis meses pós-TR. MÉTODOS: Coorte com receptores transplantados realizado em hospital no Nordeste brasileiro. Analisou-se registros médicos dos TR realizados entre 2011-2018. Receptores com dados insuficientes ou que abandonaram seguimento foram excluídos. Foram analisadas covariáveis: demográficas; infecciosas; comorbidades pré e pós-TR; painel de reatividade; incompatibilidades de HLA; episódios de rejeições agudas mediadas por células-T ou por anticorpos; exames laboratoriais seis meses pós-TR. RESULTADOS: Receptores idosos (OR:1,41; IC95%:1,01-1,99), tempo entre início da TRS e TR (∆T-TRS&TR)>10 anos (OR:3,54; IC95%:1,27-9,87), diabetes mellitus (DM) pré-TR (OR:3,35; IC95%:1,51-7,46), pielonefrite (OR:2,45; IC95%:1,24-4,84), nefropatia por poliomavírus (OR:4,99; IC95%:1,87-13,3), RAMA (OR:4,82; IC95%:1,35-17,2), proteinúria de 24h (Pt24h) ≥300mg/24h (OR:5,05; IC95%:2,00-12,7) e cálcio sérico (Ca)<8,5mg/dL (OR:4,72; IC95%:2,00-11,1) foram identificadas como covariáveis de maior risco para os desfechos analisados até seis meses pós-TR. O modelo multivariado apresentou acurácia de 88,1% e fator de inflação da variância médio de 1,81. CONCLUSÃO: Receptores idosos, ∆T-TRS&TR>10anos, DM pré-TR e agressões até seis meses pós-TR (pielonefrite, nefropatia por poliomavírus, RAMA, Pt24h≥300mg/24h e Ca<8,5mg/dL), apresentam alto poder preditivo para disfunção secundária do aloenxerto com necessidade de TRS ou alcance ao estágio V da DRC até os primeiros seis meses pós-TR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Allografts , Proteinuria , Pyelonephritis , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , Immunosuppression Therapy , BK Virus , Disease Progression , Hypocalcemia
3.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 159-163, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935595

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the modalities of treatment and clinical outcomes of emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN), in order to improve the survival rate of EPN patients. Methods: Totally 14 patients diagnosed as EPN between October 2011 and November 2020 at Department of Urology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine were included in this article. Data collection including patient demographics, clinical manifestations, management and clinical outcomes were conducted by retrospective charts review, after receiving the institutional review board's approval. There were 11 females and 3 males with a median age of 59 years (range: 52 to 73 years). The lesions were located on the left side in 10 patients and right side in 4 patients. All the 14 patients suffered from fever, and present with severe sepsis or septic shock. The median time from symptom onset to admission to hospital was 3 days(range: 2 to 5 days). All cases had diabetes mellitus. Escherichia coli was the most common organism been cultured (11 cases), while Klebsiella pneumonia was the second (3 cases). CT scan showed bubbly or located gas in the renal parenchyma in 5 cases and presence of steaky or mottled gas in the renal parenchyma in 9 cases. All patients had been admitted to ICU for anti-septic shock therapy. Three patients had undergone percutaneous catheter drainage along with broad-spectrum antibiotics therapy while 3 patients had immediate nephrectomy, the other 8 cases had a combination of an initial percutaneous catheter drainage and second stage nephrectomy. Results: In this case series, 3 patients were died from EPN while the other 11 were survived. The median ICU stay time was 6 days (range: 3 to 11 days). Of the 3 patients died from EPN, 2 had undergone percutaneous catheter drainage along and 1 had received immediate nephrectomy. Among the 11 patients who were survived, only 1 had received percutaneous catheter drainage while the other 10 received nephrectomy (8 patients had staged nephrectomy). Follow-up was performed 6 months after discharge. Of the 11 surviving patients, 2 were lost to follow-up, and the remaining 9 patients had an creatine level of (118.4±29.4) μmol/L (range: 89 to 176 μmol/L). Conclusions: For patients coupled with diabetes who were initially diagnosed as acute pyelonephritis, the possibility of EPN should be considered when the disease progressed rapidly especially septic shock occurred. On the basis of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics therapy and standardized anti-septic shock treatment, a combination of an initial percutaneous catheter drainage and second stage nephrectomy could be efficacious.


Subject(s)
Aged , Emphysema/therapy , Escherichia coli Infections , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pyelonephritis/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
4.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(3): e3455, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289633

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La cirrosis hepática es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes en nuestro país, y la presencia de infecciones y su descompensación constituyen motivos de ingreso hospitalario en estos pacientes. Objetivo: Identificar las enfermedades asociadas al cuidado sanitario más frecuentes en pacientes cirróticos ingresados. Método: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte en 90 pacientes con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática, ingresados en el Hospital General Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" de provincia Granma, en el período comprendido desde enero de 2017 hasta septiembre de 2020. La población estuvo conformada por la totalidad de pacientes mayores de 18 años y de ambos sexos. Los datos se recogieron de las historias clínicas hospitalarias. En el análisis estadístico se empleó el estadígrafo Chi-cuadrado obtenido a partir de tablas de contingencia, y para medir la fuerza de la misma los riesgos relativos (RR), se utilizó un nivel de significación (valor p) menor de 0,05. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes fueron del sexo masculino, descompensados con Child-Pugh (B), el alcohol como la etiología más frecuente de la cirrosis, a los que se les realizaron cuidados sanitarios como la colocación de sonda vesical, abordaje venoso central y periférico, así como intubación endotraqueal. Las principales infecciones asociadas al cuidado sanitario observadas en estos pacientes fueron la flebitis, bacteriemia, la infección del tracto urinario y la neumonía. Conclusiones: Las infecciones asociadas al cuidado sanitario según orden de frecuencia fueron la flebitis, la bacteriemia, la pielonefritis, neumonía y cistitis.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Liver cirrhosis has been confirmed as one of the most common diseases in Cuba. Infection and decompensated cirrhosis constitute the cause of hospitalization. Objective: To identify the most frequent health care-associated diseases in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Method: A cohort study involving 90 hospitalized patients with cirrhosis was conducted at the Hospital General Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" in Granma, from January 2017 through September 2020. The total patients underwent study were over 18 years old and both sex. Data were collected from patients´ hospitalization history. Chi-square test was utilized for statistical analysis and to measure its power (the relative risk), a P-value less than 0.05 was used. Results: Most patients were male, decompensated with Child-Pugh class B. All hospitalized patients who underwent health care such as bladder catheter placement, central and peripheral venous approach, as well as endotracheal intubation, alcohol was considered the major etiological factor cause of cirrhosis. The main healthcare-associated infections observed in these patients were phlebitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection and pneumonia. Conclusions: The healthcare-associated infections in order of frequency were phlebitis, bacteremia, pyelonephritis, pneumonia and cystitis.


RESUMO Introdução: A cirrose hepática é uma das doenças mais frequentes em nosso país, e a presença de infecções e sua descompensação constituem motivos de internação nesses pacientes. Objetivo: Identificar as doenças associadas aos cuidados de saúde mais frequentes em pacientes cirróticos hospitalizados. Método: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte em 90 pacientes com diagnóstico de cirrose hepática, internados no Hospital Geral Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" da província de Granma, no período de janeiro de 2017 a setembro de 2020. A população foi constituída por para todos os pacientes com mais de 18 anos de idade e de ambos os sexos. Os dados foram coletados em prontuários hospitalares. Na análise estatística, foi utilizada a estatística Qui-quadrado obtida em tabelas de contingência e, para medir a força dos riscos relativos (RR), foi utilizado um nível de significância (p-valor) menor que 0,05. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino, descompensados com Child-Pugh (B), sendo o álcool a etiologia mais frequente da cirrose, que realizaram cuidados de saúde como colocação de cateter vesical, abordagem venosa central e periférica, além de intubação endotraqueal. As principais infecções associadas aos cuidados de saúde observadas nestes pacientes foram flebite, bacteremia, infecção do trato urinário e pneumonia. Conclusões: As infecções associadas aos cuidados de saúde em ordem de frequência foram flebite, bacteremia, pielonefrite, pneumonia e cistite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Infections , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Phlebitis , Pneumonia , Pyelonephritis , Prospective Studies , Bacteremia , Cystitis , Ethanol
6.
In. Castillo Pino, Edgardo A. Manual de ginecología y obstetricia para pregrados y médicos generales. Montevideo, Oficina del Libro-FEFMUR, 2 ed; 2021. p.289-293.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1372570
8.
Cambios rev. méd ; 19(2): 38-43, 2020-12-29.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179341

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Las infecciones del tracto urinario por variedad de bacterias uropatógenas multiresistentes se deben al uso de tratamiento empírico o automedicación. OBJETIVO. Describir en las infecciones de tracto urinario los métodos diagnósticos, tratamiento empírico y la multirresistencia. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo. Población y muestra de 73 Historias Clínicas de pacientes atendidos en la Unidad de Adultos Área de Emergencias del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín en el período enero a diciembre 2018. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 18 años, de ambos sexos, con diagnóstico clínico y por laboratorio de infección del tracto urinario superior e inferior. La información se obtuvo mediante la base de datos AS400, y se procesó en Epi-info y Excel. RESULTADOS. El 71,23% (52; 73) de mujeres tuvieron infección del tracto urinario. Escherichia coli fue frecuente en un 48,39% (15; 31), con mayor resistencia al Clotrimoxazol. El tratamiento empírico con Ciprofloxacino fue utilizado en 27,40% (20; 73). DISCUSIÓN: Se observó controversia en los tipos de estudios de imagen solicitados para el diagnóstico acorde a la clase de infección de tracto urinario así como el tratamiento empírico por factores propios de cada localidad que evitaron resistencia. CONCLUSIÓN. Escherichia coli se aisló de manera frecuente y registró mayor resistencia al Clotrimoxazol; el principal antibiótico prescrito como tratamiento empírico fue la Ciprofloxacina; el examen más solicitado fue la Urotomografía.


INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infections due to a variety of multi-resistant uropathogenic bacteria are due to the use of empirical treatment or self-medication. OBJECTIVE. Describe diagnostic methods, empirical treatment and multidrug resistance in urinary tract infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Observational, descriptive, retrospective study. Population and sample of 73 Medical Records of patients treated in the Emergency Area Adult Unit of the Carlos Andrade Marín Specialty Hospital in the period january to december 2018. Patients older than 18 years of age, of both sexes, with clinical diagnosis and due to upper and lower urinary tract infection laboratory. The information was obtained through the AS400 database, and was processed in Epi-info and Excel. RESULTS. 71,23% (52; 73) of women had urinary tract infection. Escherichia coli was frequent in 48,39% (15; 31), with greater resistance to Clotrimoxazole. Empirical treatment with Ciprofloxacin was used in 27,40% (20; 73). DISCUSSION: Controversy was observed in the types of imaging studies requested for diagnosis according to the class of urinary tract infection as well as the empirical treatment due to factors specific to each locality that prevented resistance. CONCLUSION. Escherichia coli was frequently isolated and showed greater resistance to Clotrimoxazole; the main antibiotic prescribed as empirical treatment was Ciprofloxacin; the most requested examination was the Urotomography.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pyelonephritis , Urinary Tract , Cystitis , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Emergencies , Escherichia coli Infections , Urinary Tract Infections , Ciprofloxacin , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Diagnosis , Microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents
9.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(4): 2130-2139, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139303

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La pielonefritis enfisematosa se considerada una entidad clínica inusual. Constituye una infección necrotizante aguda, con formación de gas en el parénquima renal, sistema colector y/o espacio perirrenal. La población diabética es más propensa a este tipo de pielonefritis, pero se han descrito casos de pielonefritis enfisematosa recurrente en pacientes con obstrucción de la vía urinaria en ausencia de diabetes mellitus. Del 69 al 97 % de los casos, el germen implicado en la génesis de la enfermedad es la Escherichia coli, seguido por la klebsiella pneumoniae; responsable de una enfermedad con alto impacto en la morbimortalidad de los pacientes diabéticos. El conocer esta entidad clínica, permite realizar un diagnóstico precoz con el fin de establecer el tratamiento más adecuado que contribuya a una mejor sobrevida en el paciente. Los estudios tomográficos orientan en el diagnóstico, facilitan tener la opción de un tratamiento conservador y cuando lo requiera un correcto tratamiento invasivo, que debe ser individualizado según la posible causa que lo genera (AU).


ABSTRACT Emphysematous pyelonephritis is considered an unusual clinical entity. It is an acute necrotizing infection, with gas formation in the renal parenchyma, the collector system and/or perinephric space. Diabetic population is more prone to this kind of pyelonephritis, but cases of emphysematous pyelonephritis have been described in patients with urinary tract obstruction in absence of Diabetes mellitus. On 69 to 97 % of the cases, the germ implied in the disease genesis is Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella pneumonia, that are responsible for a disease having a high impact on the diabetic patients´ morbidity and mortality. Knowing this clinical entity allows arriving to a precocious diagnosis with the aim of establishing the most suitable treatment contributing to a better patients´ survival. Tomographic studies guide in the diagnosis, facilitate the option of a conserving treatment, and when it is required a correct invasive treatment individualized according to the possible cause generating it (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pyelonephritis/diagnosis , Infections/diagnosis , Pyelonephritis/complications , Pyelonephritis/epidemiology , Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Sepsis/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(7): 554-558, July 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135654

ABSTRACT

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is a highly diverse pathotype of E. coli which colonizes the intestine, and it is considered an important etiological agent associated with bacteremia and other systemic infections, among them urinary tract infection. Retrospective studies evaluating morbidity and mortality of nondomestic felids have demonstrated that urinary tract diseases are among the main causes of death for geriatric animals. Also, mesenchymal neoplasms of the uterus are common in wild felids, and they possess variable morphologic characteristics related to invasiveness and malignancy. This report describes a case of bilateral pyelonephritis due to extraintestinal uropathogenic E. coli infection in a captive jaguar (Panthera onca). The diagnosis was confirmed through pathological, bacterial and immunohistochemical findings. According to molecular analysis, this E. coli strain was classified in the phylogroup F, possessing the following virulence-associated genes: usp, cnf-1, hlyA, papC and sfa. Additionally, this E. coli was highly resistant to beta-lactams and first-generation cephalosporin. This jaguar also presented a uterine leiomyoma with distinct distribution, and severe degenerative articular disease, both of them described as frequently seen lesions in geriatric animals from the Panthera genus.(AU)


Escherichia coli extraintestinal patogênica (ExPEC) é um patotipo altamente diverso de E. coli que coloniza o intestino e é considerada um agente etiológico importante, associado com bacteremia e outras infecções sistêmicas, dentre elas infecções do trato urinário. Estudos retrospectivos avaliando morbidade e mortalidade de felídeos não domésticos demostram que doenças do trato urinário estão entre as principais causas de morte de animais geriátricos. Ainda, neoplasias mesenquimais uterinas são comuns em felídeos de cativeiro e possuem características morfológicas variáveis relacionadas a invasividade e malignidade. Neste relato é descrito um caso de pielonefrite bilateral por E. coli extraintestinal uropatogênica em uma onça-pintada de cativeiro (Panthera onca). O diagnóstico foi confirmado através dos achados patológicos, bacteriológicos e imuno-histoquímicos. A partir da análise molecular, esta cepa de E. coli foi classificada no filogrupo F, possuindo os seguintes genes associados a virulência: usp, cnf-1, hlyA, papC and sfa. Adicionalmente, a bactéria isolada foi altamente resistente a ß-lactâmicos e cefalosporinas de primeira geração. Foi observado ainda um leiomioma uterino com distribuição distinta e doença articular degenerativa severa, ambas descritas na literatura como comumente observadas em animais geriátricos do gênero Panthera.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pyelonephritis/etiology , Uterine Neoplasms/veterinary , Panthera , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli , Leiomyoma/veterinary , Animals, Zoo
11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 229-240, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125074

ABSTRACT

La Sociedad Argentina de Infectología y otras sociedades científicas han actualizado estas recomendaciones utilizando, además de información internacional, la de un estudio multicéntrico prospectivo sobre infecciones del tracto urinario del adulto realizado en Argentina durante 2016-2017. La bacteriuria asintomática debe ser tratada solo en embarazadas, a quienes también se las debe investigar sistemáticamente; los antibióticos de elección son nitrofurantoína, amoxicilina, amoxicilina-clavulánico, cefalexina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Ante procedimientos que impliquen lesión con sangrado del tracto urinario se recomienda solicitar urocultivo para pesquisar bacteriuria asintomática, y, si resultara positivo, administrar antimicrobianos según sensibilidad desde inmediatamente antes hasta 24 horas luego de la intervención. En mujeres, la cistitis puede ser tratada con nitrofurantoina, cefalexina, o fosfomicina y no se recomienda usar trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol o fluoroquinolonas; en pielonefritis puede emplearse ciprofloxacina, cefixima o cefalexina si el tratamiento es ambulatorio o ceftriaxona, cefazolina o amikacina si es hospitalario. En los hombres, las infecciones del tracto urinario se consideran siempre complicadas. Se recomienda tratamiento con nitrofurantoina o cefalexina por 7 días, o bien monodosis con fosfomicina. Para la pielonefritis en hombres se sugiere ciprofloxacina, ceftriaxona o cefixima si el tratamiento es ambulatorio y ceftriaxona o amikacina si es hospitalario. Se sugiere tratar las prostatitis bacterianas agudas con ceftriaxona o gentamicina. En cuanto a las prostatitis bacterianas crónicas, si bien su tratamiento de elección hasta hace poco fueron las fluoroquinolonas, la creciente resistencia y ciertas dudas sobre la seguridad de estas drogas obligan a considerar el uso de alternativas como fosfomicina.


The Argentine Society of Infectious Diseases and other scientific societies have updated these recommendations based on data on urinary tract infections in adults obtained from a prospective multicenter study conducted in Argentina during 2016-2017. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should be treated only in pregnant women, who should also be systematically investigated; the antibiotics of choice are nitrofurantoin, amoxicillin, clavulanic/amoxicillin, cephalexin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In procedures involving injury to the urinary tract with bleeding, it is recommended to request urine culture and, in the presence of bacteriuria, antimicrobial treatment according to sensitivity should be prescribed from immediately before up to 24 hours after the intervention. In women, cystitis can be treated with nitrofurantoin, cephalexin or fosfomycin, while trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones are not recommended; pyelonephritis can be treated with ciprofloxacin, cefixime or cephalexin in ambulatory women or ceftriaxone, cefazolin or amikacin in those who are hospitalized. In men, urinary tract infections are always considered complicated; nitrofurantoin or cephalexin are recommended for 7 days, alternatively fosfomycin should be given in a single dose. In men, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone or cefixime are suggested for pyelonephritis on ambulatory treatment whereas ceftriaxone or amikacin are recommended for hospitalized patients. Acute bacterial prostatitis can be treated with ceftriaxone or gentamicin. Fluoroquinolones were the choice treatment for chronic bacterial prostatitis until recently; they are no longer recommended due to the increasing resistance and recent concerns regarding the safety of these drugs; alternative antibiotics such as fosfomycin are to be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Argentina , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Consensus , Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary/therapeutic use , Prostatitis/diagnosis , Prostatitis/drug therapy , Pyelonephritis/diagnosis , Pyelonephritis/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Cystitis/diagnosis , Cystitis/drug therapy
12.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; Vol.3(2): 3-8, ene. 27, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050912

ABSTRACT

La pielonefritis enfisematosa, más que una entidad poco frecuente, se considera subdiagnosticada, pues requiere gran agudeza clínica para su identificación. Se define como una complicación necrotizante del riñón, que pone en peligro la vida del paciente y que se caracteriza por la acumulación de gas en el parénquima renal y los tejidos vecinos. Este caso se presentó de forma epidemiológicamente atípica por tratarse de un hombre con una anomalía renal y del tracto urinario, el riñón en herradura, lo que vuelve aún más complejo el abordaje diagnóstico y manejo de esta patología. Este caso es una referencia de la experiencia en el abordaje con catéter percutáneo como opción no tradicional de tratamiento. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura para tratar de comprender mejor las opciones en estudios de imagen para su diagnóstico y las características clínicas de esta afección, la cual sigue siendo controversial por tener una mortalidad tan alta.


Emphysematous pyelonephritis, rather than a rare entity, is considered underdiagnosed because it requires great clinical acuity for its identification; It is defined as a necrotizing complication of the kidney, which threats the life of the patient and is characterized by the accumulation of gas in the renal parenchyma and neighboring tissues. This case was presented epidemiologically atypical because it is a man with an abnormality of the kidney and urinary tract, such as the horseshoe kidney, which makes the diagnostic approach and management of this pathology even more complex. This case is a reference of the experience in the approach with percutaneous catheter as a non-traditional treatment option; conducting a review of the literature to try to better understand the options in imaging studies for diagnosis and the clinical characteristics of this condition, which remains controversial for having such a high mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pyelonephritis , Drainage , Kidney , Hydronephrosis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the clinical importance of the immunological benefits of breastfeeding has been emphasized for decades, their direct relationship with acute pyelonephritis (APN) is still not clear. Our goal was to determine whether breastfeeding truly provides protection against APNs, while investigating the effects of other factors such as sex, age, mode of delivery, and birth weight on APN.METHODS: A total of 62 infants under 6 months of age who had both microbiologically and radiologically-confirmed APN were enrolled in the case group. Healthy infants (n = 178) who visited the hospital for scheduled vaccinations were enrolled in the control group. The following participant characteristics were compared between the case and control groups: age, sex, birth order among siblings, feeding methods, weight percentile by month, birth weight percentile by gestational age, gestational age at birth, and mode of delivery.RESULTS: Babies exclusively fed with manufactured infant formulae before 6 months of age had significantly higher risk for APN than breastfed or mixed-fed infants (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.687–7.031; P = 0.001). Firstborn babies had lower risk for APN than 2nd- or 3rd-born babies (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.210–0.919). Other factors that increased the risk for APN were low birth weight percentiles (OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 2.300–30.166) and birth via caesarean section (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.097–4.887). There were more preterm births in the case group (10.9% vs. 1.7%; P = 0.002), but this did not increase the risk for APN (OR, 4.47; P = 0.063).CONCLUSION: Feeding exclusively with formula before 6 months of age was related to higher risk for APN, which demonstrates that breastfeeding has a protective effect against APN. The other risk factors for APN were birth order (≥ 2nd-born), low birth weight, and birth via caesarean section.


Subject(s)
Birth Order , Birth Weight , Breast Feeding , Cesarean Section , Feeding Methods , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant Formula , Infant , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Parturition , Pregnancy , Premature Birth , Pyelonephritis , Reproductive History , Risk Factors , Siblings , Urinary Tract Infections , Vaccination
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886669

ABSTRACT

@#INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the severe complications in dengue hemorrhagic fever, usually occurred in shock. We report an interesting case of AKI in a hemodynamically stable dengue hemorrhagic fever patient. CASE PRESENTATION: An 18-year-old male dengue fever patient referred to our institution in his day eight of illness due to three days of decreased urine output. He was hemodynamically stable with thrombocytopenia, increase in creatinine, positive for Anti dengue IgM, proteinuria, and hematuria. Ultrasound examination showed ascites. He was diagnosed with AKI stage III related to dengue hemorrhagic fever and underwent hemodialysis. A total of four series of hemodialysis and furosemide drip were performed during 12 days of admission and he was finally improved. CONCLUSION: Renal injury might occur in hemodynamically stable dengue hemorrhagic patients. It is a reversible condition; hence, appropriate treatment and close monitoring result in good outcomes


Subject(s)
Severe Dengue , Acute Kidney Injury , Dengue , Pyelonephritis , Hemodynamics
15.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(1): 19-21, mar. 2019. ilus., graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022121

ABSTRACT

La policitemia primaria es producida por una mutación adquirida o heredada en las células progenitoras de los glóbulos rojos, mientras que la poliglobulia secundaria está relacionada con un aumento de la eritropoyetina sérica como respuesta a la hipoxia tisular o a la producción autónoma tumoral. Hace más de medio siglo que se conoce que la hidronefrosis puede actuar como una rara causa de eritrocitosis debido al aumento de producción de eritropoyetina por un riñón que censa una disminución de oxígeno, mecanismo también observado en la estenosis de la arteria renal y en los quistes renales. Se describe a continuación el caso de un paciente de 38 años con poliglobulia atendido en el Hospital Italiano de San Justo (Argentina), que presenta como hallazgo una hidronefrosis unilateral severa y cuya resolución quirúrgica a través de una nefrectomía revierte el cuadro hematológico de base. (AU)


Primary polycythemia is produced by an acquired or inherited mutation in progenitor cells of red blood cells, while secondary polyglobulia is related to an increase in serum erythropoietin in response to tissue hypoxia or autonomous tumor production. Since the middle of the twentieth century, the hydronephrosis is known to be a rare etiology of secondary polycythemia, with increased erythropoietin production caused by diminished oxygen sensing by the kidney, also seen in renal artery stenosis and kidney cysts. We describe a case of a 38 year old patient with polycythemia studied in the "Hospital Italiano de San Justo" (Argentina) that presented an incidental severe unilateral hydronephrosis, and nephrectomy was carried out as a final resolution of the hematological disorder. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Polycythemia/diagnosis , Pyelonephritis/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Erythropoietin/blood , Hydronephrosis/diagnosis , Nephrectomy/trends , Polycythemia/complications , Polycythemia/etiology , Pyelonephritis/blood , Renal Artery Obstruction/pathology , Low Back Pain , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Erythrocytes/physiology , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/pathology , Dysuria , Fever , Hydronephrosis/surgery , Hydronephrosis/complications , Anemia , Nephrectomy/methods
16.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(2): 97-101, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003529

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the prescription of antimicrobial agents for pregnant women admitted into the obstetrics service who presented with acute pyelonephritis. Methods Three cross-sectional studies were performed comparing the prescription of antimicrobials for pyelonephritis in pregnant women in the time periods evaluated (2010-2011: 99 patients evaluated; 2013: 116 patients evaluated; 2015: 107 patients evaluated), at the Hospital Fêmina, Porto Alegre, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The analysis was performed before and after the promotion of an institutional protocol for the treatment of pyelonephritis during pregnancy, and on a third occasion after the introduction of a smartphone-based mobile educational tool. Results The evaluation of the prescribing physicians and the adequacy of the prescriptions between the different periods studied revealed a significant increase in appropriate conduct for the choice of antimicrobial (2010: 83.8%; 2013: 95.7%; and 2015: 100%), route of administration (2010: 97%; 2013: 100%; and 2015: 100%), and interval (2010: 91.9%; 2013: 95.7%; and 2015: 100%), following the introduction of the protocol, and again after the implementation of the softwareapplicationwithorientationsontheantimicrobial treatment. Conclusion The use of specific mobile applications should be encouraged to attain a better quality and accuracy in prescriptions and to include strategies that not only reduce the risk of negative outcomes, but also improve the quality of care and treatment for maintaining the health both of the mother and of the baby.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar a prescrição de antimicrobianos para gestantes admitidas no serviço de obstetrícia que apresentaram pielonefrite aguda. Métodos Foram realizados três estudos transversais comparando a prescrição de antimicrobianos para pielonefrite em gestantes nos períodos avaliados (2010-2011: 99 indivíduos avaliados; 2013: 116 indivíduos avaliados; 2015: 107 indivíduos avaliados), no Hospital Fêmina, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. A análise foi realizada antes e após a promoção de um protocolo institucional para o tratamento da pielonefrite durante a gravidez e, em uma terceira ocasião, após a introdução de uma ferramenta educacional móvel para uso por smartphone. Resultados A avaliação das prescrições médicas e a adequação das prescrições entre os diferentes períodos estudados revelaram um aumento significativo na conduta adequada para a escolha do antimicrobiano (2010: 83,8%; 2013: 95,7%; e 2015: 100%), via de administração (2010: 97%; 2013: 100%; e 2015: 100%) e intervalo (2010: 91,9%; 2013: 95,7%; e 2015: 100%), após a introdução do protocolo, e novamente após a implementação do aplicativo com orientações sobre tratamento antimicrobiano. Conclusão O uso de aplicativos móveis específicos deve ser incentivado para obter melhor qualidade e precisão nas prescrições e incluir estratégias que não apenas reduzam o risco de resultados negativos, mas que também melhorem a qualidade dos cuidados e do tratamento para manter a saúde conjunta da mãe e do bebê.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pyelonephritis/drug therapy , Mobile Applications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Obstetrics/education , Drug Prescriptions/standards , Quality of Health Care , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Brazil , Clinical Protocols , Acute Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Cell Phone , Education, Medical/methods , Hospitalization
17.
Repert. med. cir ; 28(1): 39-44, 2019. Il., tablas
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1007488

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar la incidencia de los trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo en pacientes con infección del tracto urinario (ITU) en los Hospitales de San José e Infantil Universitario de San José, Bogotá, Colombia, en 2015. Materiales y métodos: cohorte de embarazadas que asistieron a urgencias con ITU que requirieron tratamiento intrahospitalario y seguimiento para establecer la ocurrencia de trastornos hipertensivos. La frecuencia de estos se describe sobre la base de incidencias acumuladas, así como en términos de la incidencia en cada nivel individual de gravedad de la ITU. Resultados: 138 embarazadas cumplieron con los criterios requeridos, edad media de 25 años (RIQ: 21-29), 42% cursaban el primer embarazo. El germen más aislado fue Escherichia coli. La incidencia de trastornos hipertensivos fue 21,7%. El trastorno más frecuente fue la preeclampsia y el tipo de ITU que más se presentó fue bacteriuria asintomática (35.5%). Conclusión: la ocurrencia de trastornos hipertensivos en embarazadas con infección del tracto urinario fue de 21,7%. Es importante investigar las infecciones del tracto urinario durante el embarazo como posibles factores generadores de preeclampsia


Objective: to present the basic mathematical, physical and radiological principles behind tractography, as well as, providing a review of the main tracts in the brain and their applications in neuroscience from the Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud (FUCS) in Bogota D.C., Colombia experience. Materials and Methods: bibliographic review and use of a 1.5 T or 3T MR imaging system to describe tractography images in central nervous system disorders. Results: the main features of tractography are shown based on cases at our institution. Discussion: there are no identified studies on the usefulness of tractography in the vast majority of brain related pathologies. Although this procedure is currently available, clinical information is scarce, as the image-processing techniques are lengthy and in most institutions, protocols have not been determined to reconstruct each of the tracts in the brain. Conclusions: it is possible to reconstruct brain tracts using 1.5T and 3T scanners, identifying the major brain tracts and their relationship with brain tumors, cranioencephalic trauma, substance abuse and other conditio


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Pyelonephritis , Cystitis , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Asymptomatic Diseases , Pre-Eclampsia , Proteinuria , Eclampsia
18.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 53(1): 44-47, Ene.-Abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021910

ABSTRACT

La pielonefritis aguda es una infección frecuente que puede progresar a absceso o pielonefritis enfisematosa (PE); la mayoría de los casos se produce por Escherichia coli. La presentación clínica puede oscilar desde síntomas leves hasta septicemia. La posibilidad de bacteremia depende de factores del huésped: pacientes gravemente enfermos, inmunocomprometidos, con obstrucción del tracto urinario y mayores de 65 años. Más del 90% de PE se presenta en pacientes con diabetes. La nefritis intersticial afecta el intersticio renal, puede ser aguda o crónica, la mayoría de las veces debido a AINES o antibióticos. Ambas patologías son predominantes en mujeres


Acute pyelonephritis is a frequent infection that can progress to abscess or emphysematous pyelonephritis (EP); most cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The clinical onset can range from mild symptoms to septicemia. The possibility of bacteremia depends on host factors: patients who are seriously ill, immunocompromised, with urinary tract obstruction and >65 years of age. More than 90% of EP occurs in patients with diabetes. Interstitial nephritis affecting the renal interstitium, can be acute or chronic, in most cases due to NSAIDs or antibiotics. Both pathologies are predominant in women


Subject(s)
Pyelonephritis , Sepsis , Nephritis, Interstitial
19.
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 30(3): 5203-5206, Sept. 2019.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1290946

ABSTRACT

La cistitis y la pielonefritis enfisematosa (PNE) son las infecciones del tracto urinario más frecuentes en mujeres, un 90 %, con factores de riesgo como diabetes y obstrucción. Son provocadas por la colonización de patógenos gramnegativos (E. Coli, Klebsiella), los cuales producen gas lo que genera un patrón clínico e imagenológico característico. Se presenta un caso en el que el paciente diagnosticado con pielonefritis enfisematosa no cuenta con las características habituales ni con los factores de riesgo frecuentes de esta entidad. Se destaca que un análisis correcto de las imágenes radiológicas y una evaluación clínica adecuada son fundamentales para su diagnóstico y apropiado tratamiento.vvvvvv


Cystitis and emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) are the most common urinary tract infections in women, 90%, with risk factors such as diabetes and obstruction. They are caused by the colonization of gram-negative pathogens (E. Coli, Klebsiella), which are capable of producing gas and cause the corresponding clinical and imaging pattern. We present a case in which the patient diagnosed with emphysematous pyelonephritis does not have the usual characteristics or frequent risk factors of this entity. It is emphasized that a correct analysis of the radiological images and an adequate clinical evaluation are fundamental for its diagnosis and appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Pyelonephritis , Adult , Cystitis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) are commonly observed in patients with acute pyelonephritis. The goal of this study was to examine the clinical significance of elevated serum AP and γ-GT levels and to explore the mechanisms underlying these changes. METHODS: We examined serum AP and γ-GT levels in 438 patients with acute pyelonephritis. Urine AP/creatinine (Cr), urine γ-GT/Cr, fractional excretion of AP, and fractional excretion of γ-GT (FE(γ-GT)) were evaluated in patients with elevated and normal serum levels. AP isoenzymes were also examined. RESULTS: We identified 77 patients (17.6%) with elevated serum AP and 134 patients (30.6%) with elevated serum γ-GT. Among them, both enzymes were elevated in 64 patients (14.6%). Older age, longer hospital stay, elevated baseline serum Cr, and complicated pyelonephritis were associated with increases in serum AP and γ-GT. Multivariate analysis showed that high serum AP levels were significantly correlated with renal impairment (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–4.19; P = 0.029). FE(γ-GT) was significantly lower in patients with elevated serum enzyme levels. The liver fraction for AP isoenzyme profile did not increase in patients with elevated serum AP. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that elevated serum AP and γ-GT levels are associated with complicated pyelonephritis and renal impairment. Lower FE(γ-GT) levels in patients with elevated serum enzymes may be the result of decreased urinary excretion of these enzymes.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , gamma-Glutamyltransferase , Humans , Isoenzymes , Length of Stay , Liver , Multivariate Analysis , Pyelonephritis , Transferases
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