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2.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(3): e3455, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289633

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La cirrosis hepática es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes en nuestro país, y la presencia de infecciones y su descompensación constituyen motivos de ingreso hospitalario en estos pacientes. Objetivo: Identificar las enfermedades asociadas al cuidado sanitario más frecuentes en pacientes cirróticos ingresados. Método: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte en 90 pacientes con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática, ingresados en el Hospital General Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" de provincia Granma, en el período comprendido desde enero de 2017 hasta septiembre de 2020. La población estuvo conformada por la totalidad de pacientes mayores de 18 años y de ambos sexos. Los datos se recogieron de las historias clínicas hospitalarias. En el análisis estadístico se empleó el estadígrafo Chi-cuadrado obtenido a partir de tablas de contingencia, y para medir la fuerza de la misma los riesgos relativos (RR), se utilizó un nivel de significación (valor p) menor de 0,05. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes fueron del sexo masculino, descompensados con Child-Pugh (B), el alcohol como la etiología más frecuente de la cirrosis, a los que se les realizaron cuidados sanitarios como la colocación de sonda vesical, abordaje venoso central y periférico, así como intubación endotraqueal. Las principales infecciones asociadas al cuidado sanitario observadas en estos pacientes fueron la flebitis, bacteriemia, la infección del tracto urinario y la neumonía. Conclusiones: Las infecciones asociadas al cuidado sanitario según orden de frecuencia fueron la flebitis, la bacteriemia, la pielonefritis, neumonía y cistitis.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Liver cirrhosis has been confirmed as one of the most common diseases in Cuba. Infection and decompensated cirrhosis constitute the cause of hospitalization. Objective: To identify the most frequent health care-associated diseases in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Method: A cohort study involving 90 hospitalized patients with cirrhosis was conducted at the Hospital General Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" in Granma, from January 2017 through September 2020. The total patients underwent study were over 18 years old and both sex. Data were collected from patients´ hospitalization history. Chi-square test was utilized for statistical analysis and to measure its power (the relative risk), a P-value less than 0.05 was used. Results: Most patients were male, decompensated with Child-Pugh class B. All hospitalized patients who underwent health care such as bladder catheter placement, central and peripheral venous approach, as well as endotracheal intubation, alcohol was considered the major etiological factor cause of cirrhosis. The main healthcare-associated infections observed in these patients were phlebitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection and pneumonia. Conclusions: The healthcare-associated infections in order of frequency were phlebitis, bacteremia, pyelonephritis, pneumonia and cystitis.


RESUMO Introdução: A cirrose hepática é uma das doenças mais frequentes em nosso país, e a presença de infecções e sua descompensação constituem motivos de internação nesses pacientes. Objetivo: Identificar as doenças associadas aos cuidados de saúde mais frequentes em pacientes cirróticos hospitalizados. Método: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte em 90 pacientes com diagnóstico de cirrose hepática, internados no Hospital Geral Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" da província de Granma, no período de janeiro de 2017 a setembro de 2020. A população foi constituída por para todos os pacientes com mais de 18 anos de idade e de ambos os sexos. Os dados foram coletados em prontuários hospitalares. Na análise estatística, foi utilizada a estatística Qui-quadrado obtida em tabelas de contingência e, para medir a força dos riscos relativos (RR), foi utilizado um nível de significância (p-valor) menor que 0,05. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino, descompensados com Child-Pugh (B), sendo o álcool a etiologia mais frequente da cirrose, que realizaram cuidados de saúde como colocação de cateter vesical, abordagem venosa central e periférica, além de intubação endotraqueal. As principais infecções associadas aos cuidados de saúde observadas nestes pacientes foram flebite, bacteremia, infecção do trato urinário e pneumonia. Conclusões: As infecções associadas aos cuidados de saúde em ordem de frequência foram flebite, bacteremia, pielonefrite, pneumonia e cistite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Infections , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Phlebitis , Pneumonia , Pyelonephritis , Prospective Studies , Bacteremia , Cystitis , Ethanol
4.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(4): 2130-2139, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139303

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La pielonefritis enfisematosa se considerada una entidad clínica inusual. Constituye una infección necrotizante aguda, con formación de gas en el parénquima renal, sistema colector y/o espacio perirrenal. La población diabética es más propensa a este tipo de pielonefritis, pero se han descrito casos de pielonefritis enfisematosa recurrente en pacientes con obstrucción de la vía urinaria en ausencia de diabetes mellitus. Del 69 al 97 % de los casos, el germen implicado en la génesis de la enfermedad es la Escherichia coli, seguido por la klebsiella pneumoniae; responsable de una enfermedad con alto impacto en la morbimortalidad de los pacientes diabéticos. El conocer esta entidad clínica, permite realizar un diagnóstico precoz con el fin de establecer el tratamiento más adecuado que contribuya a una mejor sobrevida en el paciente. Los estudios tomográficos orientan en el diagnóstico, facilitan tener la opción de un tratamiento conservador y cuando lo requiera un correcto tratamiento invasivo, que debe ser individualizado según la posible causa que lo genera (AU).


ABSTRACT Emphysematous pyelonephritis is considered an unusual clinical entity. It is an acute necrotizing infection, with gas formation in the renal parenchyma, the collector system and/or perinephric space. Diabetic population is more prone to this kind of pyelonephritis, but cases of emphysematous pyelonephritis have been described in patients with urinary tract obstruction in absence of Diabetes mellitus. On 69 to 97 % of the cases, the germ implied in the disease genesis is Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella pneumonia, that are responsible for a disease having a high impact on the diabetic patients´ morbidity and mortality. Knowing this clinical entity allows arriving to a precocious diagnosis with the aim of establishing the most suitable treatment contributing to a better patients´ survival. Tomographic studies guide in the diagnosis, facilitate the option of a conserving treatment, and when it is required a correct invasive treatment individualized according to the possible cause generating it (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pyelonephritis/diagnosis , Infections/diagnosis , Pyelonephritis/complications , Pyelonephritis/epidemiology , Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Sepsis/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(7): 554-558, July 2020. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1135654

ABSTRACT

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is a highly diverse pathotype of E. coli which colonizes the intestine, and it is considered an important etiological agent associated with bacteremia and other systemic infections, among them urinary tract infection. Retrospective studies evaluating morbidity and mortality of nondomestic felids have demonstrated that urinary tract diseases are among the main causes of death for geriatric animals. Also, mesenchymal neoplasms of the uterus are common in wild felids, and they possess variable morphologic characteristics related to invasiveness and malignancy. This report describes a case of bilateral pyelonephritis due to extraintestinal uropathogenic E. coli infection in a captive jaguar (Panthera onca). The diagnosis was confirmed through pathological, bacterial and immunohistochemical findings. According to molecular analysis, this E. coli strain was classified in the phylogroup F, possessing the following virulence-associated genes: usp, cnf-1, hlyA, papC and sfa. Additionally, this E. coli was highly resistant to beta-lactams and first-generation cephalosporin. This jaguar also presented a uterine leiomyoma with distinct distribution, and severe degenerative articular disease, both of them described as frequently seen lesions in geriatric animals from the Panthera genus.(AU)


Escherichia coli extraintestinal patogênica (ExPEC) é um patotipo altamente diverso de E. coli que coloniza o intestino e é considerada um agente etiológico importante, associado com bacteremia e outras infecções sistêmicas, dentre elas infecções do trato urinário. Estudos retrospectivos avaliando morbidade e mortalidade de felídeos não domésticos demostram que doenças do trato urinário estão entre as principais causas de morte de animais geriátricos. Ainda, neoplasias mesenquimais uterinas são comuns em felídeos de cativeiro e possuem características morfológicas variáveis relacionadas a invasividade e malignidade. Neste relato é descrito um caso de pielonefrite bilateral por E. coli extraintestinal uropatogênica em uma onça-pintada de cativeiro (Panthera onca). O diagnóstico foi confirmado através dos achados patológicos, bacteriológicos e imuno-histoquímicos. A partir da análise molecular, esta cepa de E. coli foi classificada no filogrupo F, possuindo os seguintes genes associados a virulência: usp, cnf-1, hlyA, papC and sfa. Adicionalmente, a bactéria isolada foi altamente resistente a ß-lactâmicos e cefalosporinas de primeira geração. Foi observado ainda um leiomioma uterino com distribuição distinta e doença articular degenerativa severa, ambas descritas na literatura como comumente observadas em animais geriátricos do gênero Panthera.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pyelonephritis/etiology , Uterine Neoplasms/veterinary , Panthera , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli , Leiomyoma/veterinary , Animals, Zoo
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 229-240, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125074

ABSTRACT

La Sociedad Argentina de Infectología y otras sociedades científicas han actualizado estas recomendaciones utilizando, además de información internacional, la de un estudio multicéntrico prospectivo sobre infecciones del tracto urinario del adulto realizado en Argentina durante 2016-2017. La bacteriuria asintomática debe ser tratada solo en embarazadas, a quienes también se las debe investigar sistemáticamente; los antibióticos de elección son nitrofurantoína, amoxicilina, amoxicilina-clavulánico, cefalexina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Ante procedimientos que impliquen lesión con sangrado del tracto urinario se recomienda solicitar urocultivo para pesquisar bacteriuria asintomática, y, si resultara positivo, administrar antimicrobianos según sensibilidad desde inmediatamente antes hasta 24 horas luego de la intervención. En mujeres, la cistitis puede ser tratada con nitrofurantoina, cefalexina, o fosfomicina y no se recomienda usar trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol o fluoroquinolonas; en pielonefritis puede emplearse ciprofloxacina, cefixima o cefalexina si el tratamiento es ambulatorio o ceftriaxona, cefazolina o amikacina si es hospitalario. En los hombres, las infecciones del tracto urinario se consideran siempre complicadas. Se recomienda tratamiento con nitrofurantoina o cefalexina por 7 días, o bien monodosis con fosfomicina. Para la pielonefritis en hombres se sugiere ciprofloxacina, ceftriaxona o cefixima si el tratamiento es ambulatorio y ceftriaxona o amikacina si es hospitalario. Se sugiere tratar las prostatitis bacterianas agudas con ceftriaxona o gentamicina. En cuanto a las prostatitis bacterianas crónicas, si bien su tratamiento de elección hasta hace poco fueron las fluoroquinolonas, la creciente resistencia y ciertas dudas sobre la seguridad de estas drogas obligan a considerar el uso de alternativas como fosfomicina.


The Argentine Society of Infectious Diseases and other scientific societies have updated these recommendations based on data on urinary tract infections in adults obtained from a prospective multicenter study conducted in Argentina during 2016-2017. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should be treated only in pregnant women, who should also be systematically investigated; the antibiotics of choice are nitrofurantoin, amoxicillin, clavulanic/amoxicillin, cephalexin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In procedures involving injury to the urinary tract with bleeding, it is recommended to request urine culture and, in the presence of bacteriuria, antimicrobial treatment according to sensitivity should be prescribed from immediately before up to 24 hours after the intervention. In women, cystitis can be treated with nitrofurantoin, cephalexin or fosfomycin, while trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones are not recommended; pyelonephritis can be treated with ciprofloxacin, cefixime or cephalexin in ambulatory women or ceftriaxone, cefazolin or amikacin in those who are hospitalized. In men, urinary tract infections are always considered complicated; nitrofurantoin or cephalexin are recommended for 7 days, alternatively fosfomycin should be given in a single dose. In men, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone or cefixime are suggested for pyelonephritis on ambulatory treatment whereas ceftriaxone or amikacin are recommended for hospitalized patients. Acute bacterial prostatitis can be treated with ceftriaxone or gentamicin. Fluoroquinolones were the choice treatment for chronic bacterial prostatitis until recently; they are no longer recommended due to the increasing resistance and recent concerns regarding the safety of these drugs; alternative antibiotics such as fosfomycin are to be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Argentina , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Consensus , Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary/therapeutic use , Prostatitis/diagnosis , Prostatitis/drug therapy , Pyelonephritis/diagnosis , Pyelonephritis/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Cystitis/diagnosis , Cystitis/drug therapy
7.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; Vol.3(2): 3-8, ene. 27, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050912

ABSTRACT

La pielonefritis enfisematosa, más que una entidad poco frecuente, se considera subdiagnosticada, pues requiere gran agudeza clínica para su identificación. Se define como una complicación necrotizante del riñón, que pone en peligro la vida del paciente y que se caracteriza por la acumulación de gas en el parénquima renal y los tejidos vecinos. Este caso se presentó de forma epidemiológicamente atípica por tratarse de un hombre con una anomalía renal y del tracto urinario, el riñón en herradura, lo que vuelve aún más complejo el abordaje diagnóstico y manejo de esta patología. Este caso es una referencia de la experiencia en el abordaje con catéter percutáneo como opción no tradicional de tratamiento. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura para tratar de comprender mejor las opciones en estudios de imagen para su diagnóstico y las características clínicas de esta afección, la cual sigue siendo controversial por tener una mortalidad tan alta.


Emphysematous pyelonephritis, rather than a rare entity, is considered underdiagnosed because it requires great clinical acuity for its identification; It is defined as a necrotizing complication of the kidney, which threats the life of the patient and is characterized by the accumulation of gas in the renal parenchyma and neighboring tissues. This case was presented epidemiologically atypical because it is a man with an abnormality of the kidney and urinary tract, such as the horseshoe kidney, which makes the diagnostic approach and management of this pathology even more complex. This case is a reference of the experience in the approach with percutaneous catheter as a non-traditional treatment option; conducting a review of the literature to try to better understand the options in imaging studies for diagnosis and the clinical characteristics of this condition, which remains controversial for having such a high mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pyelonephritis , Drainage , Kidney , Hydronephrosis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the clinical importance of the immunological benefits of breastfeeding has been emphasized for decades, their direct relationship with acute pyelonephritis (APN) is still not clear. Our goal was to determine whether breastfeeding truly provides protection against APNs, while investigating the effects of other factors such as sex, age, mode of delivery, and birth weight on APN.METHODS: A total of 62 infants under 6 months of age who had both microbiologically and radiologically-confirmed APN were enrolled in the case group. Healthy infants (n = 178) who visited the hospital for scheduled vaccinations were enrolled in the control group. The following participant characteristics were compared between the case and control groups: age, sex, birth order among siblings, feeding methods, weight percentile by month, birth weight percentile by gestational age, gestational age at birth, and mode of delivery.RESULTS: Babies exclusively fed with manufactured infant formulae before 6 months of age had significantly higher risk for APN than breastfed or mixed-fed infants (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.687–7.031; P = 0.001). Firstborn babies had lower risk for APN than 2nd- or 3rd-born babies (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.210–0.919). Other factors that increased the risk for APN were low birth weight percentiles (OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 2.300–30.166) and birth via caesarean section (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.097–4.887). There were more preterm births in the case group (10.9% vs. 1.7%; P = 0.002), but this did not increase the risk for APN (OR, 4.47; P = 0.063).CONCLUSION: Feeding exclusively with formula before 6 months of age was related to higher risk for APN, which demonstrates that breastfeeding has a protective effect against APN. The other risk factors for APN were birth order (≥ 2nd-born), low birth weight, and birth via caesarean section.


Subject(s)
Birth Order , Birth Weight , Breast Feeding , Cesarean Section , Feeding Methods , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant Formula , Infant , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Parturition , Pregnancy , Premature Birth , Pyelonephritis , Reproductive History , Risk Factors , Siblings , Urinary Tract Infections , Vaccination
9.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(1): 19-21, mar. 2019. ilus., graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022121

ABSTRACT

La policitemia primaria es producida por una mutación adquirida o heredada en las células progenitoras de los glóbulos rojos, mientras que la poliglobulia secundaria está relacionada con un aumento de la eritropoyetina sérica como respuesta a la hipoxia tisular o a la producción autónoma tumoral. Hace más de medio siglo que se conoce que la hidronefrosis puede actuar como una rara causa de eritrocitosis debido al aumento de producción de eritropoyetina por un riñón que censa una disminución de oxígeno, mecanismo también observado en la estenosis de la arteria renal y en los quistes renales. Se describe a continuación el caso de un paciente de 38 años con poliglobulia atendido en el Hospital Italiano de San Justo (Argentina), que presenta como hallazgo una hidronefrosis unilateral severa y cuya resolución quirúrgica a través de una nefrectomía revierte el cuadro hematológico de base. (AU)


Primary polycythemia is produced by an acquired or inherited mutation in progenitor cells of red blood cells, while secondary polyglobulia is related to an increase in serum erythropoietin in response to tissue hypoxia or autonomous tumor production. Since the middle of the twentieth century, the hydronephrosis is known to be a rare etiology of secondary polycythemia, with increased erythropoietin production caused by diminished oxygen sensing by the kidney, also seen in renal artery stenosis and kidney cysts. We describe a case of a 38 year old patient with polycythemia studied in the "Hospital Italiano de San Justo" (Argentina) that presented an incidental severe unilateral hydronephrosis, and nephrectomy was carried out as a final resolution of the hematological disorder. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Polycythemia/diagnosis , Pyelonephritis/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Erythropoietin/blood , Hydronephrosis/diagnosis , Nephrectomy/trends , Polycythemia/complications , Polycythemia/etiology , Pyelonephritis/blood , Renal Artery Obstruction/pathology , Low Back Pain , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Erythrocytes/physiology , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/pathology , Dysuria , Fever , Hydronephrosis/surgery , Hydronephrosis/complications , Anemia , Nephrectomy/methods
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) are commonly observed in patients with acute pyelonephritis. The goal of this study was to examine the clinical significance of elevated serum AP and γ-GT levels and to explore the mechanisms underlying these changes. METHODS: We examined serum AP and γ-GT levels in 438 patients with acute pyelonephritis. Urine AP/creatinine (Cr), urine γ-GT/Cr, fractional excretion of AP, and fractional excretion of γ-GT (FE(γ-GT)) were evaluated in patients with elevated and normal serum levels. AP isoenzymes were also examined. RESULTS: We identified 77 patients (17.6%) with elevated serum AP and 134 patients (30.6%) with elevated serum γ-GT. Among them, both enzymes were elevated in 64 patients (14.6%). Older age, longer hospital stay, elevated baseline serum Cr, and complicated pyelonephritis were associated with increases in serum AP and γ-GT. Multivariate analysis showed that high serum AP levels were significantly correlated with renal impairment (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–4.19; P = 0.029). FE(γ-GT) was significantly lower in patients with elevated serum enzyme levels. The liver fraction for AP isoenzyme profile did not increase in patients with elevated serum AP. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that elevated serum AP and γ-GT levels are associated with complicated pyelonephritis and renal impairment. Lower FE(γ-GT) levels in patients with elevated serum enzymes may be the result of decreased urinary excretion of these enzymes.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , gamma-Glutamyltransferase , Humans , Isoenzymes , Length of Stay , Liver , Multivariate Analysis , Pyelonephritis , Transferases
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758440

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to compare the diagnostic performance of initial procalcitonin, lactate, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) for predicting bacteremia in female patients with acute pyelonephritis (APN). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of female APN patients who visited the emergency department (ED) at the studied hospital between January 2015 and December 2016. The main outcome was bacteremia, which was reported via the first blood culture at ED. The patient demographics, co-morbidities, physiologies, and laboratory variables including initial procalcitonin, lactate, and hsCRP levels, were collected and analyzed to identify associations with the presence of bacteremia. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) and sensitivity (SE)/specificity (SP) were calculated for each variable. RESULTS: During the study period, 282 patients were enrolled. A total of 105 (37.2%) patients had bacteremia. Escherichia coli was the most frequent pathogen. The AUROC was 0.70 (0.63–0.76), 0.70 (0.63–0.76), and 0.56 (0.49–0.63) for the procalcitonin, lactate, and hsCRP, respectively. At a cut-off value of 0.163 ng/mL, the procalcitonin level predicted bacteremia, with a SE/SP of 95.2%/22.6%, respectively. At a cut-off value of 0.7 mmol/L, the lactate level predicted bacteremia with a SE/SP of 96.2%/20.9%, respectively. The combination of a procalcitonin level >0.447 ng/mL or a lactate level >0.7 mmo/L was chosen, as they showed 100% SE and a 100% negative predictive value. CONCLUSION: The initial serum procalcitonin and lactate levels showed similar and fair discriminative performance for predicting bacteremia in female APN patients, while the hsCRP level showed poor performance. The combination of procalcitonin and lactate (procalcitonin level≤0.447 ng/mL and lactate≤0.7 mmol/L) can be used to identify patients at low risk of bacteremia.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , C-Reactive Protein , Demography , Emergency Service, Hospital , Escherichia coli , Female , Humans , Lactic Acid , Pyelonephritis , Retrospective Studies
12.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 53(1): 44-47, Ene.-Abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021910

ABSTRACT

La pielonefritis aguda es una infección frecuente que puede progresar a absceso o pielonefritis enfisematosa (PE); la mayoría de los casos se produce por Escherichia coli. La presentación clínica puede oscilar desde síntomas leves hasta septicemia. La posibilidad de bacteremia depende de factores del huésped: pacientes gravemente enfermos, inmunocomprometidos, con obstrucción del tracto urinario y mayores de 65 años. Más del 90% de PE se presenta en pacientes con diabetes. La nefritis intersticial afecta el intersticio renal, puede ser aguda o crónica, la mayoría de las veces debido a AINES o antibióticos. Ambas patologías son predominantes en mujeres


Acute pyelonephritis is a frequent infection that can progress to abscess or emphysematous pyelonephritis (EP); most cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The clinical onset can range from mild symptoms to septicemia. The possibility of bacteremia depends on host factors: patients who are seriously ill, immunocompromised, with urinary tract obstruction and >65 years of age. More than 90% of EP occurs in patients with diabetes. Interstitial nephritis affecting the renal interstitium, can be acute or chronic, in most cases due to NSAIDs or antibiotics. Both pathologies are predominant in women


Subject(s)
Pyelonephritis , Sepsis , Nephritis, Interstitial
13.
Repert. med. cir ; 28(1): 39-44, 2019. Il., tablas
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1007488

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar la incidencia de los trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo en pacientes con infección del tracto urinario (ITU) en los Hospitales de San José e Infantil Universitario de San José, Bogotá, Colombia, en 2015. Materiales y métodos: cohorte de embarazadas que asistieron a urgencias con ITU que requirieron tratamiento intrahospitalario y seguimiento para establecer la ocurrencia de trastornos hipertensivos. La frecuencia de estos se describe sobre la base de incidencias acumuladas, así como en términos de la incidencia en cada nivel individual de gravedad de la ITU. Resultados: 138 embarazadas cumplieron con los criterios requeridos, edad media de 25 años (RIQ: 21-29), 42% cursaban el primer embarazo. El germen más aislado fue Escherichia coli. La incidencia de trastornos hipertensivos fue 21,7%. El trastorno más frecuente fue la preeclampsia y el tipo de ITU que más se presentó fue bacteriuria asintomática (35.5%). Conclusión: la ocurrencia de trastornos hipertensivos en embarazadas con infección del tracto urinario fue de 21,7%. Es importante investigar las infecciones del tracto urinario durante el embarazo como posibles factores generadores de preeclampsia


Objective: to present the basic mathematical, physical and radiological principles behind tractography, as well as, providing a review of the main tracts in the brain and their applications in neuroscience from the Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud (FUCS) in Bogota D.C., Colombia experience. Materials and Methods: bibliographic review and use of a 1.5 T or 3T MR imaging system to describe tractography images in central nervous system disorders. Results: the main features of tractography are shown based on cases at our institution. Discussion: there are no identified studies on the usefulness of tractography in the vast majority of brain related pathologies. Although this procedure is currently available, clinical information is scarce, as the image-processing techniques are lengthy and in most institutions, protocols have not been determined to reconstruct each of the tracts in the brain. Conclusions: it is possible to reconstruct brain tracts using 1.5T and 3T scanners, identifying the major brain tracts and their relationship with brain tumors, cranioencephalic trauma, substance abuse and other conditio


Subject(s)
Humans , Pyelonephritis , Pre-Eclampsia , Proteinuria , Cystitis , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Eclampsia , Asymptomatic Diseases
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763265

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated whether a renal size discrepancy on a renal sonogram (US) in children with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) was correlated with the presence of cortical defects on their dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan. METHODS: We examined 911 children who were admitted consecutively to our hospital with their first episode of febrile UTI from March 2001 to September 2014. All enrolled children underwent a US and DMSA scan during admission. According to the US findings, including the renal size discrepancy, data were compared between children with positive and negative DMSA scan results. A positive DMSA scan result was defined as reduced or absent tracer localization and indistinct margins that did not deform the renal contour. RESULTS: Mean renal lengths of the right and left kidneys were larger in children with positive DMSA scan results than in children with negative DMSA scan results (63.2±11.3 mm vs. 58.4±7.8 mm, P<0.001; 64.9±11.2 mm vs. 59.9±7.9 mm, P<0.001; respectively). A significant difference was observed in both renal lengths between children with positive and negative DMSA scan results (4.6±3.8 mm vs. 3.3±2.6 mm, P<0.001). A multiple logistic regression analysis, revealed that a small kidney, cortical thinning, and a renal length discrepancy on US findings were significant factors for predicting the presence of cortical defects on an acute DMSA scan [P=0.028, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.054–2.547; P=0.004, 95% CI 1.354–4.810; P<0.001, 95% CI 1.077–1.190, respectively]. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, a renal size discrepancy on US findings in children with their first episode of febrile UTI was a helpful tool for predicting the presence of cortical defects on an acute DMSA scan.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Kidney , Logistic Models , Pyelonephritis , Succimer , Urinary Tract Infections
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of 2011, among 250 administrative districts in Korea, 54 districts did not have obstetrics and gynecology clinics or hospitals providing prenatal care and delivery services. The Korean government designated 38 regions among 54 districts as “Obstetric Care Underserved Areas (OCUA).” However, little is known there are any differences in pregnancy, prenatal care, and outcomes of women dwelling in OCUA compared to women in other areas. The purposes of this study were to compare the pregnancy related indicators (PRIs) and adequacy of prenatal care between OCUA region and non-OCUA region. METHODS: Using National Health Insurance database in Korea from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014, we constructed the whole dataset of women who terminated pregnancy including delivery and abortion. We assessed incidence rate of 17 PRIs and adequacy of prenatal care. All indicators were compared between OCUA group and non-OCUA group. RESULTS: The women dwelling in OCUA regions were more likely to get abortion (4.6% in OCUA vs. 3.6% in non-OCUA) and receive inadequate prenatal care (7.2% vs. 4.4%). Regarding abortion rate, there were significant regional differences in abortion rate. The highest abortion rate was 10.3% and the lowest region was 1.2%. Among 38 OCUA regions, 29 regions' abortion rates were higher than the national average of abortion rate (3.56%) and there were 10 regions in which abortion rates were higher than 7.0%. In addition, some PRIs such as acute pyelonephritis and transfusion in obstetric hemorrhage were more worse in OCUA regions compared to non-OCUA regions. CONCLUSION: PRIs are different according to the regions where women are living. The Korean government should make an effort reducing these gaps of obstetric cares between OCUA and non-OCUA.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Dataset , Female , Gynecology , Hemorrhage , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Medically Underserved Area , National Health Programs , Obstetrics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Care , Pyelonephritis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786364

ABSTRACT

Acute pyelonephritis (APN) should be detected and treated as soon as possible to reduce the risk of the development of acquired renal scarring. However, in the medical field, urine culture results are not available or considered when the prompt discrimination of APN is necessary and empirical treatment is started. Furthermore, urine culture cannot discriminate APN among children with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) (pyelitis, lower UTI with other fever focus). Therefore, the usefulness of urine culture for diagnostic purposes is small and the sampling procedure is invasive. Congenital hypoplastic kidney is the most common cause of chronic kidney injury in children. Thus, it is desirable that a main target be detected as early as possible when imaging studies are performed in children with APN. However, if APN does not recur, no medical or surgical treatment or imaging studies would be needed because the acquired renal scar would not progress further. Therefore, the long-term prognosis of APN in young children, particularly infants, depends on the number of recurrent APN, not other febrile UTI. New methods that enable prompt, practical, and comfortable APN diagnosis in children are needed as alternatives to urinary catheterization for urine culture sampling.


Subject(s)
Child , Cicatrix , Diagnosis , Discrimination, Psychological , Fever , Humans , Infant , Kidney , Methods , Prognosis , Pyelitis , Pyelonephritis , Urinary Catheterization , Urinary Catheters , Urinary Tract Infections
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786361

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Pyelonephritis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786202

ABSTRACT

Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children are associated with development of pyelonephritis and renal scarring. Traditionally, continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) has been used to prevent recurrent UTI. Recent studies have challenged the efficacy of CAP for preventing renal scarring and have raised concerns about inducing bacterial resistance. This review focuses on studies published between January 2000 and April 2019 and evaluates the use of CAP in children for avoiding recurrent UTIs and renal scarring. A systematic literature search was carried out using the following search terms and related medical subject headings in the MEDLINE electronic database: ‘urinary tract infection’, ‘antimicrobial/antibiotic prophylaxis’, and ‘children/pediatrics’. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs), original research articles, guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses describing antibiotic prophylaxis for UTIs were included. A total of 34 RCTs, 9 systematic reviews, and 3 guidelines describing antibiotic prophylaxis were included in this review. The efficacy of CAP for preventing recurrent UTI remains unclear due to non-generalizability of results obtained from suboptimally designed clinical trials. CAP has not been proven as beneficial for preventing new renal scarring in children. Additionally, CAP is associated with increased risk of multidrug resistant infections in children. No conclusive evidence can be drawn from the available clinical data to support routine use of CAP for prevention of renal scarring. Accumulation of evidence from additional well designed studies may result in different conclusions in the future. It is important to identify specific risks for recurrent UTI and ensuing renal injury to ensure more judicious use of CAP.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Child , Cicatrix , Humans , Medical Subject Headings , Pediatrics , Pyelonephritis , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(4): 542-547, ago. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950047

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar la relación entre reflujo vesicoureteral (RVU) y daño renal en pacientes con infección urinaria (IU) sin fiebre, primera IU febril e IU recurrente. El objetivo secundario, determinar si la proteína C-reactiva (PCR) actuaría como predictor de nefroesclerosis en las IU febriles. Población y métodos. Estudio prospectivo; pacientes pediátricos con IU sin fiebre, primera IU febril e IU recurrente. Los análisis de laboratorio de rutina incluyeron hemograma completo, urea, creatinina, análisis de orina completamente automatizado, urocultivo y PCR. Se realizó ecografía urológica luego del diagnóstico de IU, cistouretrografía miccional tras seis semanas y gammagrafía renal estática con ácido dimercaptosuccínico marcado con 99mTc tras seis meses a todos los participantes. Resultados. Participaron 47 niños con IU sin fiebre, 48 con primera IU febril y 61 con IU recurrente. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos respecto de RVU y nefroesclerosis (p= 0,001 y p= 0,011, respectivamente). También hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa respecto de nefroesclerosis entre los pacientes con y sin RVU (p= 0,001). Además, se estableció una diferencia estadísticamente significativa respecto de nefroesclerosis (p < 0,05) en los pacientes con PCR cinco veces mayor o menor que el valor de corte aceptado (5 mg/dl). Conclusión. La proporción de nefroesclerosis fue paralela a la frecuencia de RVU. Cuanto mayor era el grado de RVU, mayor era el daño renal. Se determinó una correlación positiva entre PCR elevada y nefroesclerosis, lo que señala esclerosis durante el diagnóstico de pielonefritis.


Introduction. The aim was to investigate the relationship between vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and renal damage in non-febrile, febrile for the first time and recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) patients. The secondary aim was to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP) in febrile UTIs could be a predictor of renal scarring. Population and methods. This prospective study included non-febrile, febrile for the first time and recurrent pediatric UTI cases. The routine lab analyses comprised a complete blood count, urea, creatinine, fully automated urinalysis, urine culture and CRP analyses. All the participants were examined using urine ultrasonography subsequent to their UTI diagnosis, voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) after six weeks and Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) static renal scintigraphy after six months. Results. There were included 47 children with non-febrile UTIs, 48 with first febrile UTIs and 61 with recurrent UTIs. A statistically significant difference was found among the groups in terms of VUR and renal scarring (p= 0.001 and p= 0.011, respectively). A statistically significant difference was also found in terms of renal scarring between patients with and without VUR (p= 0.001). Moreover, a statistically significant difference was also present in relation to renal scarring (p <0.05) in patients with five-fold lower or higher CRP values than the accepted cut-off value (5mg/dl). Conclusion. The ratio of renal scars detected was found to be parallel to the VUR frequency. The higher the VUR grade, the more renal damage was found. A positive correlation between elevated CRP and renal scarring was determined, indicating the presence of scarring during the diagnosis of pyelonephritis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/epidemiology , Cicatrix/epidemiology , Kidney/pathology , Pyelonephritis/complications , Pyelonephritis/diagnosis , Recurrence , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography/methods , Cicatrix/etiology , Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid/administration & dosage , Fever/etiology , Fever/epidemiology , Kidney/diagnostic imaging
20.
Cienc. Serv. Salud Nutr ; 9(1): 20-27, abr. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-981829

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: Las infecciones del sistema urinario constituyen un problema de salud muy frecuente, afectan tanto a niños como a adultos. El incremento en la resistencia bacteriana, favorecida por el uso indiscriminado de antibióticos, determina la necesidad de normar conductas para el abordaje y tratamiento inicial. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión bibliográfica narrativa de la literatura actual sobre la génesis de las infecciones del tracto urinario, con la finalidad de proporcionar instrumentos para hacer diagnóstico oportuno y adecuado de esta enfermedad. Métodos: Revisión bibliográfica narrativa en idioma español e inglés en las bases de datos PubMed­Medline, Scielo y Lilacs. Resultados: Continúa siendo el sexo femenino el mayormente afectado, los factores de riesgo son variados aunque se puede asociar a patologías como la diabetes mellitus, a las hospitalizaciones frecuentes y el uso de catéteres vesicales entre otras. La Escherichia Coli es el principal germen encontrado. Para establecer el diagnóstico se hace indispensable la presencia de bacteriuria en la primera orina de la mañana. Conclusiones: El objetivo de la terapia es el control de la sintomatología y la erradicación de las bacterias del tracto urinario, teniendo en cuenta algunas características de los pacientes como la edad, sexo y historia previa de infecciones del tracto urinario.


Background: Urinary tract infections are a very frequent health problem, affecting both children and adults. The increase in bacterial resistance, favored by the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, determines the need of regulations and a critical approach for the initial therapy. Objective: To perform a narrative review of the current literature on the origins of urinary tract infections, in order to provide instruments to make an early and adequate diagnosis of this disease. Methods: A narrative review in Spanish and English was carried out with a search in following data bases: PubMed­Medline, Scielo and Lilacs. Results: The female gender is still the most affected. The risk factors are varied, although the infection is associated to pathologies such as diabetes mellitus, frequent hospitalizations and the use of bladder catheters among others. Escherichia coli is the main germ found. The presence of bacteriuria in the first morning urine is indispensable to establish the diagnosis. Conclusions: The aim of the treatment is to control the sympthomps and erradicate bacteria from the urinary tract, taking into account some characteristics of the patient like the age, sex and previous infections of the urinary tract.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pyelonephritis , Urinary Tract , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Photochemotherapy , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus , Escherichia coli
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