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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(2): e00157921, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360300

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Mental disorders are the main cause of the young and economically active population worldwide and in Brazil to live with disabilities, being an important public health problem nowadays. The objective was to estimate the burden of mental disorders among professionals working to combat endemic diseases in a state in northeastern Brazil. Medical records of workers linked to the Brazilian Ministry of Health in Ceará State and fighting endemic diseases were surveyed and, from this, a historical cohort was made. The individual quantification of absenteeism by mental disorders (ICD F-chapter referring to mental disorders) was conducted considering a period of about 35 years, from admission (the 1980s) to December 2017. The global burden of disease was measured by the YLD indicator (years lost to disability). Considering that no deaths due to mental disorders were observed, the YLL indicator (years of life lost) was composed. The high mental disorders burden in this group of workers stands out, whose mood disorders, including depression, conferred a YLD equal to 18.6. This represents just over 18 years of work lived with a disability. Our findings reinforce the need to implement surveillance and health promotion actions in workers to promote effective interventions capable of contributing to the reduction of morbidity in workers and economically active people.


Resumo: Os transtornos mentais são a principal causa de anos vividos com incapacidade entre a população jovem e economicamente ativa no mundo e no Brasil. Os impactos representam um problema importante para a saúde pública hoje. O objetivo do estudo foi de estimar a carga de transtornos mentais entre profissionais que trabalham no combate às doenças endêmicas em um estado do Nordeste brasileiro. Foi realizada uma coorte histórica com base na revisão de prontuários médicos dos profissionais que trabalham no combate às doenças endêmicas e vinculados ao Ministério da Saúde no Ceará. Procedemos à quantificação individual do absenteísmo por transtorno mental (CID, capítulo F, sobre transtornos mentais) ao longo de um período de cerca de 35 anos, desde a admissão (anos 1980) até dezembro de 2017. A carga global de doença foi medida pelo indicador anos vividos com incapacidade, considerando que não foram observados óbitos por transtorno mental, que constitui o indicador de anos de vida perdidos por morte prematura. Destaca-se a alta carga de transtorno mental nesse grupo de trabalhadores, cujos transtornos de humor, inclusive depressão, conferiam 18,6 anos vividos com incapacidade, ou seja, mais de 18 anos de trabalho vividos com incapacidade. Nossos achados reforçam a necessidade de implementar medidas de vigilância e promoção da saúde nos trabalhadores para promover intervenções efetivas capazes de contribuir para a redução da morbidade entre trabalhadores e pessoas economicamente ativas.


Resumen: Los desórdenes mentales son la principal causa de años de vida vividos con discapacidad en la población joven y económicamente activa en el mundo y en Brasil. Sus impactos representan un problema importante para la salud pública hoy en día. El objetivo fue estimar la carga de los desórdenes mentales entre profesionales, que trabajan para combatir enfermedades endémicas en un estado del noreste brasileño. Se llevó a cabo con una cohorte histórica procedente de una investigación con registros médicos de trabajadores que luchaban contra enfermedades endémicas, relacionados con el Ministerio de Salud en Ceará. Se procedió a realizar una cuantificación individual del absentismo mediante desórdenes mentales (capítulo ICD F que se refiere a los desórdenes mentales) durante un período de aproximadamente 35 años, desde la admisión (en los años de 1980) hasta diciembre de 2017. Se midió la carga global de la enfermedad mediante el indicador YLD (años perdidos por la discapacidad). Considerando que no se observaron muertes debido a las desórdenes mentales, que conforman el indicador YLL (años de vida perdidos). Destaca la alta carga de desórdenes mentales en este grupo de trabajadores, cuyos trastornos del comportamiento, incluyendo la depresión, confirió un YLD igual a 18,6. Esto representa algo más de 18 años de trabajo vividos con una discapacidad. Nuestros resultados refuerzan la necesidad de implementar acciones de vigilancia y promoción de la salud en los trabajadores, con el fin de promover intervenciones efectivas capaces de contribuir a la reducción de la morbilidad en trabajadores y gente activa económicamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disabled Persons , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Public Health , Global Health , Morbidity , Cost of Illness , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922260

ABSTRACT

To analyze the global burden of periodontal disease and its relation with socioeconomic development. Data of global disability-adjusted life year (DALY) due to periodontal disease and human development index (HDI) from 1990 to 2019 were obtained from Global Health Data Exchange (GHDx) and human development reports. The trend of the global burden of periodontal disease from 1990 to 2019 was described. The correlation between age-standardized DALY rates and HDI were examined in 2019, and between-country periodontal disease burden inequality from 1990 to 2019 was measured using health-related Gini coefficients and concentration indexes. From 1990 to 2019, the global DALY rate due to periodontal disease increased from 78.63 to 85.48, and the epidemiological burden did not increase significantly. Statistical differences were found across different HDI categories for age-standardized DALY rates of periodontal disease ( 44.315, <0.01) in 2019. Linear regression analysis also revealed a negative correlation between age-standardized DALY rate of periodontal disease and HDI ( = -0.417, <0.01) . Gini coefficients decreased from 0.361 to 0.281 and concentration indexes fell from 0.0339 to -0.0538 between 1990 and 2019. The global burden of periodontal disease did not increase between 1990 and 2019, though the socioeconomic-associated inequality still existed. The burden of periodontal disease was more concentrated in less developed countries, and the socioeconomic-associated inequality has increased since 2000.


Subject(s)
Disability-Adjusted Life Years , Global Health , Humans , Periodontal Diseases/epidemiology , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Socioeconomic Factors
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878326

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To assess the association of socioeconomic status with the burden of cataract blindness in terms of year lived with disability (YLD) rates and to determine whether ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels modify the effect of socioeconomic status on this health burden.@*Methods@#National and subnational age-standardized YLD rates associated with cataract-related blindness were derived from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2017. The human development index (HDI) from the Human Development Report was used as a measure of socioeconomic status. Estimated ground-level UVR exposure was obtained from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) dataset of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).@*Results@#Across 185 countries, socioeconomic status was inversely associated with the burden of cataract blindness. Countries with a very high HDI had an 84% lower age-standardized YLD rate [95% confidence interval ( @*Conclusion@#Long-term high-UVR exposure amplifies the association of poor socioeconomic status with the burden of cataract-related blindness. The findings emphasize the need for strengthening UVR exposure protection interventions in developing countries with high-UVR exposure.


Subject(s)
Blindness/etiology , Cataract/etiology , Female , Global Burden of Disease/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects
4.
Medwave ; 20(11): e8086, dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146057

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes La osteoartritis destaca por su alta prevalencia y deterioro funcional, siendo la causa más común de incapacidad en mayores de 65 años. El régimen de Garantías Explícitas en Salud chileno otorga cobertura a tratamiento médico a las presentaciones leves y moderadas, excluyendo el manejo quirúrgico en la presentación severa. Objetivos Evaluar el costo-utilidad de incorporar el reemplazo total de rodilla al régimen de Garantías Explícitas en Salud para asegurados del seguro público sobre 65 años en Chile, versus la mantención con manejo farmacológico. Métodos Revisión sistemática explortaria para identificar los parámetros del modelo y evaluaciones económicas basadas en un modelo de Markov de seis estados de salud, desde la perspectiva del pagador público y horizonte lifetime. Se calculó la razón de costo-utilidad incremental que condujo al análisis de incertidumbre determinístico y probabilístico. Resultados Se seleccionaron 22 artículos como fuentes de referencia. Incorporar el procedimiento al alero del régimen, implicaría beneficiarse de 9,8 años de vida ajustados por calidad versus 2,4 en el escenario sin acceso a cirugía. La razón de costo-utilidad incremental es menos $445 689 pesos chilenos por años de vida ajustados por calidad (menos 633,8 dólares americanos por años de vida ajustados por calidad), siendo la incorporación de cirugía de reemplazo al régimen una alternativa dominante, versus el escenario de acceso insuficiente en otros regímenes de cobertura. Cada año de vida ajustado por calidad gracias a la cirugía ahorrará $445 689 pesos chilenos. A una voluntad de pago de $502 596 pesos chilenos por años de vida ajustados por calidad (714,7 dólares americanos por años de vida ajustados por calidad), la alternativa de acceso a reemplazo es costo-útil con 99,9% de certeza. Conclusión El reemplazo total de rodilla en mayores de 65 años es una alternativa dominante. El acceso a cirugía en el régimen de Garantías Explícitas en Salud para el sistema público es costo-útil a un umbral de un producto interno bruto per cápita.


Background Osteoarthritis is an important health condition due to its prevalence and functional deterioration, being the most common cause of disability in people over 65 years of age. The Chilean Explicit Health-Guarantees regime provides coverage for medical treatment in mild and moderate presentations, excluding surgical treatment in end-stage knee osteoarthritis. Objectives To evaluate the cost-utility of incorporating total knee replacement to the Explicit Health-Guarantees regime for over-65-years beneficiaries of the public insurance system, versus maintenance with medical treatment. Methods A Scoping review was coducted to identify model parameters and economic evaluation based in a 6 health states Markov Model, from the perspective of the public payer and lifetime horizon. The Incremental Cost-Utility Ratio (ICUR) was calculated, and deterministic and probabilistic uncertainty analysis were performed. Results Twenty-two articles were selected as reference sources. If the regime were to adopt the procedure, the implication would be a benefit of 9.8 Years of Life Adjusted by Quality (QALY) versus 2.4 QALY in the scenario without access to total knee replacement. The ICUR was $ -445 689 CLP/QALY (U$D -633.8/QALY), wherein the inclusion of total knee replacement to the regime becomes a dominant alternative versus the current scenario. Each quality-adjusted life-year gained by the surgery will save CLP 445 689. At a willingness to pay of CLP 502,596/QALY (U$D 714.7/QALY), access to surgery is cost-useful with a 99.9% certainty. Conclusion Total knee replacement in patients older than 65 years is a dominant alternative. Access to this procedure in the Chilean Explicit Health-Guarantees regime in the public system is cost-useful at a threshold of 1 GDP per capita.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/economics , Osteoarthritis, Knee/surgery , Chile , Markov Chains , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Osteoarthritis, Knee/economics
5.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(12): 762-771, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142381

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Dementia is a globally relevant health problem, which places a great burden on patients and their families. This study aimed to estimate the burden associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias in Brazil. Methods: In this descriptive study, we investigated the estimates obtained by the Global Burden of Disease study. We described the prevalence of AD and other dementias, years lived with disability (YLDs), age-standardized mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) among individuals aged 60 years or older between 2000 and 2016, with their respective 95% uncertainty intervals (95%UI). Results: During this period, the age-standardized prevalence of AD and other dementias per 100,000 people increased by 7.8%, from 961.7 (95%UI 828.3-1,117.5) to 1,036.9 (95%UI 882.0-1,219.5), with approximately 1.5 million people living with dementia in Brazil. The incidence increased by 4.5%. Similarly, all age-standardized rates had an upward trend (mortality: 3.1%; YLLs: 5.8%; YLDs: 7.9%; and DALYs: 6.3%). Mortality profiles increased with age in both years. Dementias were ranked fourth among the leading causes of death in people aged ≥70 years in 2000, rising to second place in 2016. In 2016, it also represented the second and third leading causes of disability among older women and men, respectively. Conclusion: Population growth and aging have resulted in an increased burden of AD and other dementias in Brazil. Preventive and early diagnostic measures are essential to mitigate the burden associated with these diseases.


RESUMO Introdução: A demência é um problema de saúde globalmente relevante, com grande carga para os pacientes e suas famílias. Este estudo teve como objetivo estimar a carga associada à doença de Alzheimer (DA) e outras demências no Brasil. Métodos: Neste estudo descritivo, foram avaliadas as estimativas obtidas pelo estudo de Carga Global de Doença (Global Burden Disease). Descrevemos a prevalência de DA e outras demências, anos vividos com incapacidade (AVIs), mortalidade padronizada por idade, anos de vida perdidos por morte prematura (AVPs) e anos de vida perdidos ajustados por incapacidade (AVAIs), com respectivos intervalos de incerteza de 95% (95%II), em idosos com 60+ anos, entre 2000 e 2016. Resultados: No período, a prevalência padronizada por idade de DA e de outros tipos de demência aumentou 7,8%, de 961,7 (95%II 828,3-1.117,5) para 1.036,9 (95%II 882,0-1.219,5) por 100.000 pessoas, com aproximadamente 1,5 milhão de pessoas vivendo com demência no Brasil. Houve um aumento de 4,5% na incidência. Todas as taxas padronizadas por idade apresentaram tendência de aumento (mortalidade: 3,1%; AVPs: 5,8%; AVIs: 7,9%; e AVAIs: 6,3%). Os perfis de mortalidade demonstraram aumento com o envelhecimento, em ambos os anos. As demências ocuparam o quarto lugar entre as principais causas de morte em pessoas com 70+ anos em 2000, subindo para a segunda posição em 2016. Em 2016, também representou a segunda e terceira principais causas de incapacidade entre mulheres e homens mais velhos, respectivamente. Conclusões: O crescimento e envelhecimento populacional resultaram em aumento da carga de DA e de outras demências no Brasil. Medidas preventivas e de diagnóstico precoce são essenciais para atenuar a carga associada a essas doenças.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Disabled Persons , Global Burden of Disease , Brazil/epidemiology , Global Health , Incidence , Prevalence , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(5): 282-289, May 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131704

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Disease burden indicators assess the impact of disease on a population. They integrate mortality and disability in a single indicator. This allows setting priorities for health services and focusing resources. Objective: To analyze the burden of neurological diseases in Peru from 1990-2015. Methods: A descriptive study that used the epidemiological data published by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation of Global Burden of Diseases from 1990 to 2015. Disease burden was measured using disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and their corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs), which results from the addition of the years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD). Results: The burden of neurological diseases in Peru were 9.06 and 10.65%, in 1990 and 2015, respectively. In 2015, the main causes were migraine, cerebrovascular disease (CVD), neonatal encephalopathy (NE), and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (ADD). This last group and nervous system cancer (NSC) increased 157 and 183% of DALY compared to 1990, respectively. Young population (25 to 44 years old) and older (>85 years old) were the age groups with the highest DALY. The neurological diseases produced 11.06 and 10.02% of the national YLL (CVD as the leading cause) and YLD (migraine as the main cause), respectively. Conclusion: The burden of disease (BD) increased by 1.6% from 1990 to 2015. The main causes were migraine, CVD, and NE. ADD and NSC doubled the DALY in this period. These diseases represent a significant cause of disability attributable to the increase in the life expectancy of our population among other factors. Priority actions should be taken to prevent and treat these causes.


RESUMEN Introducción: Los indicadores de carga de la enfermedad evalúan el impacto que producen las enfermedades en una población. Integran la mortalidad y discapacidad en un solo indicador. Esto permite fijar prioridades para los servicio de salud y enfocar los recursos. Objetivo: Analizar los datos de carga de enfermedades neurológicas en Perú para el periodo 1990-2015. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de datos del The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation de carga de enfermedad global desde el año 1990 al 2015. La medida de carga de la enfermedad utilizada fue los años de vida ajustados por discapacidad y sus correspondientes intervalos de incertidumbre (95%), que resultan de la suma de los años de vida perdidos debido a muerte prematura y los vividos con discapacidad. Resultados: La carga de enfermedades neurológicas en Perú fue de 9,06 y 10,65% en 1990 y 2015, respectivamente. En 2015, las principales causas fueron: migraña, enfermedad cerebrovascular, encefalopatía neonatal, enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias. Este último grupo y el cáncer del sistema nervioso presentaron un incremento del 157 y 183% de los años de vida ajustados por discapacidad con respecto a 1990, respectivamente. Los adultos jóvenes (25 a 44 años) y adultos mayores (>85 años) fueron los grupos de edad con más años de vida ajustado por discapacidad. Las enfermedades neurológicas produjeron el 11.06 y el 10.02% de los años de vida perdidos debido a muerte prematura (enfermedad cerebrovascular como la causa principal) y años vividos con discapacidad (migraña como la causa principal), respectivamente. Conclusiones: La carga de la enfermedad aumentó un 1,6% entre 1990 y 2015. Las principales causas fueron migraña, la enfermedad cerebrovascular y la encefalopatía neonatal. La enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias y cáncer del sistema nervioso duplicaron los años de vida ajustados por discapacidad en este período. Estas enfermedades representan una causa importante de discapacidad atribuible al aumento de la esperanza de vida de nuestra población, entre otros factores. Se deben tomar medidas prioritarias para prevenir y tratar estas causas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Disabled Persons , Nervous System Diseases , Peru , Global Health , Life Expectancy , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 48-54, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088948

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To study the cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab and bevacizumab for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Methods: We used a decision tree model to analyze the cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab and bevacizumab for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, from the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) perspective. Ranibizumab and bevacizumab were administered to patients with the same treatment procedure, and the difference in treatment costs was calculated based on the cost of the drugs. Direct costs were estimated using the information provided by the Brazilian SUS. Effectiveness in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) was calculated based on the utility values for visual impairment. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated by comparing both treatments. The analytical horizon was one year. Results: The decision tree analysis showed that the difference in treatment effectiveness was 0.01 QALY. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio showed that ranibizumab treatment required an incremental annual cost of more than R$ 2 million to generate 1 additional QALY, as compared to bevacizumab. Conclusions: From the Brazilian SUS perspective, bevacizumab is more cost-effective than ranibizumab for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Its use could allow potential annual savings in health budget.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estudar o custo-efetividade do ranibizumabe e bevacizumabe no tratamento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade neovascular. Métodos: Utilizamos um modelo de árvore de decisão para analisar a relação custo-efetividade do ranibizumabe e bevacizumabe no tratamento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade, sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde. O ranibizumabe e bevacizumabe foram administrados a pacientes com o mesmo procedimento de tratamento, e a diferença nos custos do tratamernto foi calculada com base no custo dos medicamentos. Os custos diretos foram estimados utilizando as informações fornecidas pelo SUS. A efetividade foi determinada em anos de vida ajustados pela qualidade (QALY) baseados em valores de utilidade em deficiênciavisual. A razãoincremental custo-efetividadefoicalculada comparando os dois tratamentos. O horizonte analítico foi de um ano. Resultados: A análise da árvore de decisão mostrou que a diferença na efetividade do tratamento foi de 0,01 QALY. A razão incremental de custo-efetividade mostrou que o tratamento com ranibizumabe exigiu um custo anual incremental de R$ 2 milhões para gerar um QALY adicional, em comparação ao bevacizumabe. Conclusões: Do ponto de vista do SUS, o bevacizumabe é mais custo-efetivo que o ranibizumabe no tratamento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade neovascular. O seu uso poderia gerar uma grande economia anual para o orçamento em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vision Disorders/economics , Vision Disorders/drug therapy , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/economics , Bevacizumab/economics , Ranibizumab/economics , Brazil , Visual Acuity , Health Care Costs , Drug Costs/statistics & numerical data , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Bevacizumab/administration & dosage , Ranibizumab/administration & dosage , National Health Programs
8.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(11): e00148920, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1132849

ABSTRACT

A COVID-19 é uma síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SRAG) infecciosa, causada por coronavírus. A doença tem alta transmissibilidade e ocasiona sintomas leves a graves, gerando elevada demanda por cuidados intensivos e milhares de óbitos. Em março de 2020, a COVID-19 foi caracterizada como pandemia e já soma mais de 5 milhões de casos e 300 mil óbitos pelo mundo. A história natural da doença ainda não é bem estabelecida, dificultando a elaboração de protocolos clínicos eficazes e medidas de prevenção. Apesar disso, pode-se afirmar que é uma doença de abordagem sistêmica, já que há evidências de complicações agudas e crônicas, além de efeitos catastróficos na saúde mental da população. Destaca-se então a necessidade de uma metodologia que capte de forma mais efetiva os efeitos da COVID-19, considerando aspectos como sua gravidade, duração e potencial de gerar complicações crônicas que aumentarão as demandas no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Nesse sentido, é de extrema utilidade o indicador DALY, ou anos de vida perdidos por morte prematura ajustados por incapacidade (DALY), que agrega a (1) mortalidade - estimativa dos anos de vida perdidos (YLL) e (2) morbidade - estimativa dos anos vividos com incapacidade (YLD). Este artigo discute a relevância e as dificuldades de estudar a carga da COVID-19 e de suas complicações, no contexto brasileiro, ressaltando a importância de caracterizar a história natural da doença e estimar indicadores como o YLD, que considerem a alta carga de morbidade no planejamento de estratégias para lidar com as consequências da COVID-19 pós-pandemia. Discute-se também os desafios futuros para o enfrentamento da doença no SUS e reflexões sobre o cálculo do DALY.


La COVID-19 es un síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SRAG) infeccioso, causado por coronavirus. La enfermedad posee una alta transmisibilidad y ocasiona de síntomas leves a graves, generando una elevada demanda de cuidados intensivos y millares de fallecimientos. En marzo de 2020, la COVID-19 se caracterizó como pandemia y ya suma más de 5 millones de casos y 300 mil fallecimientos por el mundo. La historia natural de la enfermedad todavía no ha sido bien establecida, dificultando la elaboración de protocolos clínicos eficaces y medidas de prevención. A pesar de eso, se puede afirmar que es una enfermedad de abordaje sistémico, ya que existen evidencias sobre complicaciones agudas y crónicas, además de efectos catastróficos en la salud mental de la población. Se destaca entonces la necesidad de una metodología que capte de forma más efectiva los efectos de la COVID-19, considerando aspectos como su gravedad, duración, potencial de generar complicaciones crónicas que aumentarán las demandas en el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS). En este sentido, es de extrema utilidad el indicador DALY o años de vida perdidos por muerte prematura ajustados por incapacidad, que agrega la (1) mortalidad - estimación de los años de vida perdidos (YLL) y (2) morbilidad - estimación de los años vividos con incapacidad (YLD). Este artículo discute la relevancia y las dificultades de estudiar la carga de la COVID-19 y sus complicaciones, en el contexto brasileño, resaltando la importancia de caracterizar la historia natural de la enfermedad y estimar indicadores como el YLD, que consideren la alta carga de morbilidad en la planificación de estrategias para lidiar con las consecuencias de la COVID-19 pospandemia. Se discuten también los desafíos futuros para el combate de la enfermedad en el SUS y reflexiones sobre el cálculo del DALY.


COVID-19 is an acute infectious respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The disease is highly communicable and produces mild to severe symptoms, generating a high demand for intensive care and thousands of deaths. In March 2020, COVID-19 was declared a pandemic and has already surpassed five million cases and 300,000 deaths in the world. The natural history of the disease has still not been fully established, hindering the elaboration of effective clinical protocols and preventive measures. Nevertheless, the disease requires a systemic approach, since there is evidence of acute and chronic complications, in addition to the catastrophic effects on the population's mental health. This highlights the need for a methodology that more effectively captures the effect of COVID-19, considering such aspects as severity, duration, and the potential to generate chronic complications that will increase the demands on Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). DALYs, or disability-adjusted life years, are thus an extremely useful indictor that adds mortality, an estimate of years of life lost (YLLs), and morbidity, an estimate of years of life lived with disability (YLDs). This article discusses the relevance and difficulties of studying the burden of COVID-19 and its complications in the Brazilian context, highlighting the natural history of the disease and estimating indicators such as YLDs, considering the high burden of disease in planning strategies to deal with the consequences of COVID-19 after the pandemic. The article also discusses the future challenges to deal with the disease in the SUS and the effects on the calculation of DALYs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral , Life Expectancy , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(2): e00036619, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055632

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Cost-effectiveness analysis is essential in health decision making. Several countries use it as synthesis of evidence to incorporate health technologies. The protease inhibitors (PI) boceprevir (BOC) and telaprevir (TVR) are indicated for chronic hepatitis C treatment and were incorporated in guidelines worldwide. Pre-marketing clinical trials showed higher sustained virological response rates in relation to previous therapies, but the incorporation of PIs generated a significant financial impact. The aim of this study was to discuss the relevance of cost-effectiveness analysis through a study that involved the inclusion of PIs in a clinical protocol. The analysis was part of a real-life study that included patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 treated in a tertiary university hospital in Brazil. Triple therapies (TT) with ribavirin (RBV), peginterferon α-2a (Peg-INF α-2a) and BOC or TVR were compared to dual therapy with RBV and Peg-INF α-2a. Sensitivity analysis of the cost-effectiveness ratio indicated an 88.2% chance of TTs presenting a higher cost per cure. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) exceeded the Brazilian gross domestic product (GDP) per capita by three times in all proposed scenarios. The sensitivity of ICER showed an 88.4% chance of TT not being cost-effective. The impact of PI incorporation was negative and the conduct about this could have been different if a previous cost-effectiveness analysis had been conducted.


Resumo: A análise de custo-efetividade tem sido essencial para a tomada de decisões em saúde. Diversos países utilizam esse tipo de análise como síntese das evidências para incorporar as tecnologias em saúde. Os inibidores de protease (IPs) boceprevir (BOC) e telaprevir (TVR) são indicados para o tratamento da hepatite C crônica e foram incorporados nas diretrizes internacionais. Os ensaios clínicos pré-marketing demonstraram taxas mais altas de resposta virológica sustentada em relação às terapias anteriores, mas a incorporação dos IPs gerou um impacto financeiro significativo. O estudo teve como objetivo discutir a relevância da análise de custo-efetividade, através de um estudo que envolveu a inclusão de IPs em um protocolo clínico. A análise fez parte de um estudo de vida real que incluiu pacientes com infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C, genótipo 1, tratados em um hospital universitário terciário no Brasil. As terapias triplas (TTs) com ribavirina (RBV), peg-interferon α-2a (Peg-INF α-2a) e BOC ou TVR foram comparadas às terapias duplas com RBV e Peg-INF α-2a. A análise de sensibilidade da custo-efetividade indicou odds de 88,2% de TTs apresentarem custo mais elevado por paciente curado. Em todos os cenários propostos, as razões de custo-efetividade incremental (ICERs) superaram em três vezes o produto interno bruto (PIB) per capita brasileiro. A sensibilidade da ICER mostrou probabilidade de 88,4% das TTs não serem custo-efetivas. O impacto da incorporação dos IPs foi negativo, e a conduta teria sido diferente se tivesse sido realizada uma análise prévia de custo-efetividade.


Resumen: El análisis de coste-efectividad ha sido esencial para la toma de decisiones en salud. Diversos países utilizan este tipo de análisis como síntesis de evidencias para incorporar tecnologías en salud. Los inhibidores de proteasa (IPs) boceprevir (BOC) y telaprevir (TVR) se indican para el tratamiento de la hepatitis C crónica y fueron incorporados en directrices internacionales. Los ensayos clínicos pre-marketing demostraron tasas más altas de respuesta virológica sostenida, respecto a las terapias anteriores, pero la incorporación de los IPs generó un impacto financiero significativo. El objetivo del estudio fue discutir la relevancia del análisis de coste-efectividad, a través de un estudio que implicó la inclusión de IPs en un protocolo clínico. El análisis formó parte de un estudio de vida real que incluyó a pacientes con infección por el virus de la hepatitis C, genotipo 1, tratados en un hospital universitario terciario en Brasil. Las terapias triples (TTs) con ribavirina (RBV), peg-interferon α-2a (Peg-INF α-2a) y BOC o TVR se compararon con las terapias dobles con RBV y Peg-INF α-2a. El análisis de sensibilidad del coste-efectividad indicó odds de 88,2% de que las TTs presentaran un coste más elevado por paciente curado. En todos los escenarios propuestos, las razones de coste-efectividad incremental (ICERs) superaron tres veces el producto interno bruto (PIB) per cápita brasileño. La sensibilidad de la ICER mostró una probabilidad de que un 88,4% de las TTs no eran costo-efectivas. El impacto de la incorporación de los IPs fue negativo, y el resultado habría sido diferente si se hubiese realizado un análisis previo de coste-efectividad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Oligopeptides , Antiviral Agents/economics , Polyethylene Glycols , Ribavirin , Recombinant Proteins , Brazil , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Interferon-alpha , Hepacivirus , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Hepatitis C, Chronic/economics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Interferon alpha-2 , Genotype
10.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(6): e00055119, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124290

ABSTRACT

Abstract: In Colombia, dengue is a disease of great impact due to its morbidity and mortality, however, studies on the effects of the economic burden at the local level are scarce. Therefore, our study sought to describe the economic burden of dengue epidemics between 2010 and 2016 in the State of Meta, Colombia. A longitudinal study was performed using information from the records of the epidemiological information system (Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia en Salud Pública - SIVIGILA), and the indicator of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was determined as an estimator of the burden of dengue. To assess the economic impact, two assessment scenarios were considered (minimum range and maximum range), which allowed the estimate of the effects of the years of life lost (YLLs). Mortality cases presented heterogeneity in the age groups, mainly affecting groups under 15 years and over 65 years, with YLLs raging between 158.58 and 300.38. In total, 2010 showed the highest medical care costs of the study period, with USD 664,123 for women and USD 740,221 for men. In the epidemic years (2010, 2012-2015) between 91,072.3 and 184,175.1 DALYs were lost per million inhabitants, which generated social burden costs higher than the USD 669.6 million. In conclusion, dengue can be considered a disease of high cost at the local level, economically affecting the General Social Security System in Health and social welfare.


Resumen: En Colombia, el dengue es una enfermedad de gran impacto, debido a la morbimortalidad. No obstante, se ha estudiado poco sobre los efectos de la carga económica de la enfermedad en el nivel local. Por ello, el estudio tiene como objetivo describir la carga de las epidemias de dengue entre 2010 y 2016 en el estado de Meta, Colombia. Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, utilizando datos del sistema de información epidemiológica (Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia en Salud Pública - SIVIGILA). El indicador AVAIs (años de vida ajustados por incapacidad) se calculó como el estimador de la carga de dengue. Para evaluar el impacto económico, se utilizaron dos escenarios de evaluación (límites inferior y superior de la variación), lo que permitió estimar los efectos de los años de vida perdidos. La mortalidad mostró heterogeneidad entre los grupos de edad, afectando principalmente a los grupos con menos de 15 años y con más de 65 años, con pérdida de años de vida entre 158,58 y 300,38. El año 2010 registró los mayores gastos en cuidados médicos durante el período de estudio, con USD 664.123 para mujeres y USD 740.221 para hombres. Durante los años epidémicos, (2010 y 2012-2015), entre 91.072,3 y 184.175,1 AVAIs se perdieron por millón de habitantes, generando costes de carga social de más de USD 669,6 millones. El estudio concluye que el dengue puede ser considerado una enfermedad de coste elevado en el nivel local, afectando económicamente el Sistema General de Seguridad Social y el bienestar social de la población.


Resumo: Na Colômbia, a dengue é uma doença de grande impacto, devido à morbimortalidade, porém há pouco estudados sobre os efeitos da carga econômica da doença em nível local. Portanto, o estudo teve como objetivo descrever a carga das epidemias de dengue entre 2010 e 2016 no Estado de Meta, Colômbia. Foi realizado um estudo longitudinal, utilizando dados do sistema de informações epidemiológicas (Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia en Salud Pública - SIVIGILA). O indicador AVAIs (anos de vida ajustados para incapacidade) foi calculado como estimador da carga de dengue. Para avaliar o impacto econômico, dois cenários de avaliação foram utilizados (limites inferior e superior da variação), o que permitiu estimar os efeitos dos anos de vida perdidos. A mortalidade mostrou heterogeneidade entre os grupos etários, afetando principalmente os grupos com menos de 15 anos e com mais de 65 anos, com perda de anos de vida entre 158,58 e 300,38. O ano de 2010 registrou os maiores gastos em cuidados médicos durante o período de estudo, com USD 664.123 para mulheres e USD 740.221 para homens. Nos anos epidêmicos, (2010 e 2012-2015), entre 91.072,3 e 184.175,1 AVAIs foram perdidos por milhão de habitantes, gerando custos de carga social de mais de USD 669,6 milhões. O estudo conclui que a dengue pode ser considerada uma doença de custo elevado em nível local, afetando economicamente o Sistema Geral de Seguridade Social e o bem-estar social da população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dengue/epidemiology , Brazil , Longitudinal Studies , Cost of Illness , Colombia/epidemiology , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
11.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200031, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101581

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Introduction: In Brazil, little is known about the trends of chronic respiratory diseases, which was estimated as the third leading cause of deaths in 2017 worldwide. Methods: We analyzed Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates for prevalence, incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALY), a summary measure of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs), and risk factors attributable to chronic respiratory diseases in Brazil from 1990 to 2017. Results: The overall estimates have decreased for all ages and both sexes, and for age-standardized rates. For age-adjusted prevalence, there was a 21% reduction, and nearly 16% reduction for incidence. There was a 42% reduction in mortality for both sexes, though the rate of deaths for men was 30% greater than the rate in women. The increase in the number of DALY was essentially due to the population growth and population ageing. We observed a 34% increase in the absolute number of DALY in Brazil over the study period. The majority of the DALY rates were due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). For all ages and both sexes, smoking was the main attributable risk factor. Conclusion: In Brazil, although mortality, prevalence and incidence for chronic respiratory diseases have decreased over the years, attention should be taken to the DALYs increase. Smoking remained as the main risk factor, despite the significant decrease of tobacco use, reinforcing the need for maintenance of policies and programs directed at its cessation.


RESUMO: Introdução: No Brasil, pouco se sabe sobre as tendências das doenças respiratórias crônicas, que foram estimadas como a terceira principal causa de mortes em 2017 em todo o mundo. Métodos: Analisamos as estimativas do Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 para prevalência, incidência, mortalidade, anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade (DALY), uma medida resumida de anos de vida perdidos (YLL) e anos vividos com deficiência (YLD), e fatores de risco atribuíveis a doenças respiratórias crônicas no Brasil, de 1990 a 2017. Resultados: As estimativas gerais diminuíram para todas as idades e ambos os sexos, assim como para as taxas padronizadas por idade. Para a prevalência ajustada pela idade, houve uma redução de 21% e, aproximadamente, 16% para a incidência. Houve uma redução de 42% na mortalidade para ambos os sexos, embora a taxa de mortes para homens tenha sido 30% maior do que a taxa para mulheres. O aumento no número de DALY deveu-se ao crescimento e envelhecimento da população. Observamos um aumento de 34% no número absoluto de DALYs no Brasil durante o período do estudo. A maioria das taxas de DALY foi devido a Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica (DPOC). Para todas as idades e ambos os sexos, tabagismo foi o principal fator de risco atribuível. Conclusão: No Brasil, embora a mortalidade, a prevalência e a incidência de doenças respiratórias crônicas tenham diminuído ao longo dos anos, maior atenção deve ser dada ao aumento dos DALYs. O tabagismo permaneceu como principal fator de risco, apesar da redução significativa do seu uso, reforçando a necessidade de manutenção de políticas e programas direcionados à sua cessação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Incidence , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Middle Aged
12.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 58, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101875

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the human resources for health and analyze the inequality in its distribution in Mexico. METHODS Cross-sectional study based on the National Occupation and Employment Survey (ENOE in Spanish) for the fourth quarter of 2018 in Mexico. Graduated physicians and nurses, and auxiliary/technician nurses with completed studies were considered as human resources for health. States were grouped by degree of marginalization. Densities of human resources for health per 1,000 inhabitants, Index of Dissimilarity (DI) and Concentration Indices (CI) were estimated as measures of unequal distribution. RESULTS The density of human resources for health was 4.6 per 1,000 inhabitants. We found heterogeneity among states with densities from 2.3 to 10.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. Inequality was higher in the states with a very low degree of marginalization (CI = 0.4) than those with high marginalization (CI = 0.1), and the inequality in the distribution of physicians (CI = 0.5) was greater than in graduated nurses (CI = 0.3) among states. In addition, 17 states showed a density above the threshold of 4.5 per 1,000 inhabitants proposed in the Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health. That implies a deficit of nearly 60,000 human resources for health among the 15 states below the threshold. For all states, to reach a density equal to the national density of 4.6, about 12.6% of human health resources would have to be distributed among states that were below national density. CONCLUSIONS In Mexico, there is inequality in the distribution of human resources for health, with state differences. Government mechanisms could support the balance in the labor market of physicians and nurses through a human resources policy.


RESUMEN OBJETIVO Describir los recursos humanos en salud y analizar la desigualdad en su distribución en México. MÉTODOS Estudio transversal basado en la Encuesta Nacional de Ocupación y Empleo del cuarto trimestre de 2018 en México. Se consideraron como recursos humanos en salud médicos y enfermeras con licenciatura, y personal de enfermería auxiliar/técnica con estudios concluidos. Se agrupó a los estados por grado de marginación y se estimó densidades de recursos humanos en salud por 1.000 habitantes, Índices de Disimilitud e Índices de Concentración (IC) como medidas de desigualdad en la distribución. RESULTADOS La densidad de recursos humanos en salud fue de 4,6 por 1.000 habitantes; se observó heterogeneidad entre los estados con que van 2,3 hasta 10,5 por 1.000 habitantes. La desigualdad fue mayor en los estados con muy bajo grado de marginación (IC = 0,4) que en los estados de muy alto grado (IC = 0,1), y fue mayor la desigualdad en la distribución de los médicos (IC = 0,5) que en las enfermeras profesionales (IC = 0,3) entre los estados. Para que todos los estados tuvieran una densidad igual a la nacional de 4,6, se tendrían que distribuir alrededor de 12,6% de los recursos humanos en salud entre los estados que estuvieron por debajo de la densidad nacional. Adicionalmente, 17 estados tuvieron una densidad superior al umbral de 4,5 por 1.000 habitantes propuesto en la Estrategia Global en Recursos Humanos para la Salud. Eso implica un déficit de casi 60 mil recursos humanos en salud entre los 15 estados por debajo del umbral. CONCLUSIONES En México existe desigualdad en la distribución de recursos humanos en salud, diferenciada en los estados. Mecanismos gubernamentales a través de una política de recursos humanos podrían incentivar el equilibrio en el mercado de laboral de los médicos y enfermeras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Physicians/supply & distribution , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/supply & distribution , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Population Density , Age Distribution , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Geography , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Mexico , Middle Aged
13.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(6): 505-511, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094519

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the fourth most common cancer in Brazil. In the 2000s, better understanding of molecular pathways led to development of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted treatments that have improved outcomes. However, these treatments are unavailable in most Brazilian public healthcare services (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS). OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential number of years of life not saved, the budget impact of the treatment and strategies to improve access. DESIGN AND SETTING: Pharmacoeconomic study assessing the potential societal and economic impact of adopting EGFR-targeted therapy within SUS. METHODS: We estimated the number of cases eligible for treatment, using epidemiological data from the National Cancer Institute. We used data from a single meta-analysis and from the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium (LCMC) study as the basis for assessing differences in patients' survival between use of targeted therapy and use of chemotherapy. The costs of targeted treatment were based on the national reference and were compared with the amount reimbursed for chemotherapy through SUS. RESULTS: There was no life-year gain with EGFR-targeted therapy in the single meta-analysis (hazard ratio, HR, 1.01). The LCMC showed that 1,556 potential life-years were not saved annually. We estimated that the annual budget impact was 125 million Brazilian reais (BRL) with erlotinib, 48 million BRL with gefitinib and 52 million BRL with afatinib. Their incremental costs over chemotherapy per life-year saved were 80,329 BRL, 31,011 BRL and 33,225 BRL, respectively. A drug acquisition discount may decrease the budget impact by 30% (with a 20% discount). A fixed cost of 1,000 BRL may decrease the budget impact by 95%. CONCLUSION: Reducing drug acquisition costs may improve access to EGFR-targeted therapy for lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Care Costs , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/economics , ErbB Receptors/economics , Lung Neoplasms/economics , Quinazolines/economics , Quinazolines/therapeutic use , Brazil , Budgets , Survival Analysis , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics , Risk Sharing, Financial/methods , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Molecular Targeted Therapy/economics , ErbB Receptors/therapeutic use , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
14.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(3): 240-248, may.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094461

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To show lung cancer (LC) mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in Mexico. Materials and methods: With the visualization tools at the Global Burden of Disease Study website, we analyzed LC mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) by state, sex, sociodemographic index (SDI), age, and risk factors between 1990 and 2016. Results: Mortality rate decreased from 13.9 to 9.1 per 100 000 between 1990 and 2016. This reduction is greater among men. However, deaths by LC rose from 5 478 to 8 470. DALYs rate also decreased. Northern states with higher SDI face a larger burden from LC but exhibited greater reductions compared with southern, less developed states. The burden of LC is concentrated among older population. Smoking is the main risk factor for LC. Conclusions: The burden by LC has decreased but is differential between states. LC threatens financially both the health system and individuals, since an important fraction of the population is not protected.


Resumen: Objetivo: Mostrar la mortalidad y los años de vida saludables (Avisas) perdidos por cáncer de pulmón (CP) en México. Material y métodos: Con la herramienta de visualización del estudio de la Carga Global de la Enfermedad, se analizó mortalidad y Avisas por CP según diferentes criterios entre 1990 y 2016. Resultados: La tasa de mortalidad disminuyó de 13.9 a 9.1 por 100 000. Dicha reducción fue mayor entre hombres. Las muertes por CP crecieron de 5 478 a 8 470. La tasa de Avisas se redujo. La carga del CP se concentra en grupos de edad avanzada. Los estados del norte, con mayor nivel sociodemográfico, enfrentan mayor carga, pero presentaron mayores reducciones comparados con estados menos desarrollados. Fumar es el principal factor de riesgo para CP. Conclusiones: La carga por CP ha disminuido pero es diferencial entre estados. El CP amenaza financieramente el sistema de salud y la población, pues una fracción importante no está protegida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Time Factors , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Global Burden of Disease , Mexico/epidemiology
15.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(3): 218-224, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011499

ABSTRACT

Objective: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of donepezil and rivastigmine therapy for mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Method: A hypothetical cohort of 1,000 individuals of both sexes, aged >65 years, and diagnosed with AD was simulated using a Markov model. The time horizon was 10 years, with 1-year cycles. A deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. Results: For mild AD, the study showed an increase in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of 0.61 QALY/21,907.38 Brazilian reais (BRL) for patients treated with donepezil and 0.58 QALY/BRL 24,683.33 for patients treated with rivastigmine. In the moderate AD group, QALY increases of 0.05/BRL 27,414.96 were observed for patients treated with donepezil and 0.06/BRL 34,222.96 for patients treated with rivastigmine. Conclusions: The findings of this study contradict the standard of care for mild and moderate AD in Brazil, which is based on rivastigmine. A pharmacological treatment option based on current Brazilian clinical practice guidelines for AD suggests that rivastigmine is less cost-effective (0.39 QALY/BRL 32,685.77) than donepezil. Probabilistic analysis indicates that donepezil is the most cost-effective treatment for mild and moderate AD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/economics , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Alzheimer Disease/economics , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Rivastigmine/economics , Rivastigmine/therapeutic use , Donepezil/economics , Donepezil/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , National Health Programs
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765317

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study is a retrospective cost-benefit analysis of cervical anterior interbody fusion and cervical artificial disc replacement, which are the main surgical methods to treat degenerative cervical disc disease. METHODS: We analyzed 156 patients who underwent anterior cervical disc fusion and cervical artificial disc replacement from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009, diagnosed with degenerative cervical disc disorder. In this study, the costs and benefits were analyzed by using quality adjusted life year (QALY) as the outcome index for patients undergoing surgery, and a Markov model was used for the analysis. Only direct medical costs were included in the analysis; indirect medical costs were excluded. Data were analyzed with TreeAge Pro 2015™ (TreeAge Software, Inc, Williamstown, MA, USA). RESULTS: Patients who underwent cervical anterior fusion had a total cost of KRW 2501807/USD 2357 over 5 years and obtained a utility of 3.72 QALY. Patients who underwent cervical artificial disc replacement received 4.18 QALY for a total of KRW 3685949/USD 3473 over 5 years. The cumulative cost-effectiveness ratio of cervical spine replacement surgery was KRW 2549511/QALY (USD 2402/QALY), which was lower than the general Korean payment standard. CONCLUSION: Both cervical anterior fusion and cervical artificial disc replacement are cost-effective treatments for patients with degenerative cervical disc disease. Cervical artificial disc replacement may be an effective alternative to obtain more benefits.


Subject(s)
Cervical Vertebrae , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Female , Humans , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fusion , Spine , Total Disc Replacement
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of 21 different national dyslipidemia screening strategies according to total cholesterol (TC) cutoff and screening interval among 40 years or more for the primary prevention of coronary heart disease over a lifetime in Korea, from a societal perspective. METHODS: A decision tree was used to estimate disease detection with the 21 different screening strategies, while a Markov model was used to model disease progression until death, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs from a Korea societal perspective. RESULTS: The results showed that the strategy with TC 200 mg/dL and 4-year interval cost ₩4,625,446 for 16.65105 QALYs per person and strategy with TC 200 mg/dL and 3-year interval cost ₩4,691,771 for 16.65164 QALYs compared with ₩3,061,371 for 16.59877 QALYs for strategy with no screening. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of strategy with TC 200 mg/dL and 4-year interval versus strategy with no screening was ₩29,916,271/QALY. At a Korea willingness-to-pay threshold of ₩30,500,000/QALY, strategy with TC 200 mg/dL and 4-year interval is cost-effective compared with strategy with no screening. Sensitivity analyses showed that results were robust to reasonable variations in model parameters. CONCLUSION: In this study, revised national dyslipidemia screening strategy with TC 200 mg/dL and 4-year interval could be a cost-effective option. A better understanding of the Korean dyslipidemia population may be necessary to aid in future efforts to improve dyslipidemia diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol , Coronary Disease , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Decision Trees , Diagnosis , Disease Progression , Dyslipidemias , Humans , Korea , Mass Screening , Primary Prevention , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1157-1163, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762069

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although the economic and mortality burden of atrial fibrillation (AF) is substantial, it remains unclear which treatment strategies for rate and rhythm control are most cost-effective. Consequently, economic factors can play an adjunctive role in guiding treatment selection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We built a Markov chain Monte Carlo model using the Korean Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service database. Drugs for rate control and rhythm control in AF were analyzed. Cost-effective therapies were selected using a cost-effectiveness ratio, calculated by net cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALY). RESULTS: In the National Health Insurance Service data, 268149 patients with prevalent AF (age ≥18 years) were identified between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015. Among them, 212459 and 55690 patients were taking drugs for rate and rhythm control, respectively. Atenolol cost $714/QALY. Among the rate-control medications, the cost of propranolol was lowest at $487/QALY, while that of carvedilol was highest at $1363/QALY. Among the rhythm-control medications, the cost of pilsicainide was lowest at $638/QALY, while that of amiodarone was highest at $986/QALY. Flecainide and propafenone cost $834 and $830/QALY, respectively. The cost-effectiveness threshold of all drugs was lower than $30000/QALY. Compared with atenolol, the rate-control drugs propranolol, betaxolol, bevantolol, bisoprolol, diltiazem, and verapamil, as well as the rhythm-control drugs sotalol, pilsicainide, flecainide, propafenone, and dronedarone, showed better incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. CONCLUSION: Propranolol and pilsicainide appear to be cost-effective in patients with AF in Korea assuming that drug usage or compliance is the same.


Subject(s)
Amiodarone , Atenolol , Atrial Fibrillation , Betaxolol , Bisoprolol , Compliance , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Diltiazem , Flecainide , Humans , Insurance, Health , Korea , Markov Chains , Mortality , National Health Programs , Propafenone , Propranolol , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Sotalol , Verapamil
19.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 252-263, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rivaroxaban is noninferior to warfarin for preventing stroke or systemic embolism in patients with high-risk atrial fibrillation (AF) and is associated with a lower rate of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). We assessed the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban compared to adjusted-dose warfarin for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular AF. METHODS: We built a Markov model using the Korean Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service database. The base-case analysis assumed a cohort of patients with prevalent AF who were aged 18 years or older without contraindications to anticoagulation. RESULTS: Number of patients with CHA2DS2-VASc scores 0, 1 and ≥2 were 56 (0.2%), 1,944 (6.3%) and 28,650 (93.5%), respectively. In patients with CHA2DS2-VASc scores ≥2, the incidence rate of ischemic stroke was 3.11% and 3.76% in warfarin and rivaroxaban groups, respectively. The incidence rates of ICH were 0.42% and 0.15%, and those of gastrointestinal bleeding were 0.32% and 0.15% in warfarin and rivaroxaban, respectively. Patients with AF treated with rivaroxaban lived an average of 11.8 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) at a lifetime treatment cost of $20,886. Those receiving warfarin lived an average of 11.4 QALYs and incurred costs of $17,151. Patients with rivaroxaban gained an additional 0.4 QALYs over a lifetime with an additional cost of $3,735, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $9,707 per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who had been treated with rivaroxaban may be a cost-effective alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in Korean patients with AF.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Cohort Studies , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Embolism , Health Care Costs , Hemorrhage , Humans , Incidence , Insurance, Health , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Rivaroxaban , Stroke , Warfarin
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788746

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study is a retrospective cost-benefit analysis of cervical anterior interbody fusion and cervical artificial disc replacement, which are the main surgical methods to treat degenerative cervical disc disease.METHODS: We analyzed 156 patients who underwent anterior cervical disc fusion and cervical artificial disc replacement from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009, diagnosed with degenerative cervical disc disorder. In this study, the costs and benefits were analyzed by using quality adjusted life year (QALY) as the outcome index for patients undergoing surgery, and a Markov model was used for the analysis. Only direct medical costs were included in the analysis; indirect medical costs were excluded. Data were analyzed with TreeAge Pro 2015™ (TreeAge Software, Inc, Williamstown, MA, USA).RESULTS: Patients who underwent cervical anterior fusion had a total cost of KRW 2501807/USD 2357 over 5 years and obtained a utility of 3.72 QALY. Patients who underwent cervical artificial disc replacement received 4.18 QALY for a total of KRW 3685949/USD 3473 over 5 years. The cumulative cost-effectiveness ratio of cervical spine replacement surgery was KRW 2549511/QALY (USD 2402/QALY), which was lower than the general Korean payment standard.CONCLUSION: Both cervical anterior fusion and cervical artificial disc replacement are cost-effective treatments for patients with degenerative cervical disc disease. Cervical artificial disc replacement may be an effective alternative to obtain more benefits.


Subject(s)
Cervical Vertebrae , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Female , Humans , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fusion , Spine , Total Disc Replacement
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