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China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5759-5766, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008773


Paeonia veitchii and P. lactiflora are both original plants of the famous Chinese medicinal drug Paeoniae Radix Rubra in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. They have important medicinal value and great potential in the flower market. The selection of stable and reliable reference genes is a necessary prerequisite for molecular research on P. veitchii. In this study, two reference genes, Actin and GAPDH, were selected as candidate genes from the transcriptome data of P. veitchii. The expression levels of the two candidate genes in different tissues(phloem, xylem, stem, leaf, petiole, and ovary) and different growth stages(bud stage, flowering stage, and dormant stage) of P. veitchii were detected using real-time fluorescence quantitative technology(qRT-PCR). Then, the stability of the expression of the two reference genes was comprehensively analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, ΔCT, and RefFinder. The results showed that the expression patterns of Actin and GAPDH were stable in different tissues and growth stages of P. veitchii. Furthermore, the expression levels of eight genes(Pv-TPS01, Pv-TPS02, Pv-CYP01, Pv-CYP02, Pv-CYP03, Pv-BAHD01, Pv-UGT01, and Pv-UGT02) in different tissues were further detected based on the transcriptome data of P. veitchii. The results showed that when Actin and GAPDH were used as reference genes, the expression trends of the eight genes in different tissues of P. veitchii were consistent, validating the reliability of Actin and GAPDH as reference genes for P. veitchii. In conclusion, this study finds that Actin and GAPDH can be used as reference genes for studying gene expression levels in different tissues and growth stages of P. veitchii.

Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Paeonia/genetics , Actins/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Transcriptome , Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases/genetics , Reference Standards , Gene Expression Profiling/methods
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 286-303, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970375


Gelsemium elegans is a traditional Chinese herb of medicinal importance, with indole terpene alkaloids as its main active components. To study the expression of the most suitable housekeeping reference genes in G. elegans, the root bark, stem segments, leaves and inflorescences of four different parts of G. elegans were used as materials in this study. The expression stability of 10 candidate housekeeping reference genes (18S, GAPDH, Actin, TUA, TUB, SAND, EF-1α, UBC, UBQ, and cdc25) was assessed through real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, ΔCT, and RefFinder. The results showed that EF-1α was stably expressed in all four parts of G. elegans and was the most suitable housekeeping gene. Based on the coexpression pattern of genome, full-length transcriptome and metabolome, the key candidate targets of 18 related genes (AS, AnPRT, PRAI, IGPS, TSA, TSB, TDC, GES, G8H, 8-HGO, IS, 7-DLS, 7-DLGT, 7-DLH, LAMT, SLS, STR, and SGD) involved in the Gelsemium alkaloid biosynthesis were obtained. The expression of 18 related enzyme genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR using the housekeeping gene EF-1α as a reference. The results showed that these genes' expression and gelsenicine content trends were correlated and were likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the Gelsemium alkaloid, gelsenicine.

Genes, Essential , Gelsemium/genetics , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/genetics , Transcriptome , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Alkaloids , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reference Standards
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 268-272, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969877


Objective: To establish a rapid and specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic nucleocapsid RNA (SgN) in patients with COVID-19 or environmental samples. Methods: The qPCR assay was established by designing specific primers and TaqMan probe based on the SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequence in Global Initiative of Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) database. The reaction conditions were optimized by using different annealing temperature, different primers and probe concentrations and the standard curve was established. Further, the specificity, sensitivity and repeatability were also assessed. The established SgN and genomic RNA (gRNA) qPCR assays were both applied to detect 21 environmental samples and 351 clinical samples containing 48 recovered patients. In the specimens with both positive gRNA and positive SgN, 25 specimens were inoculated on cells. Results: The primers and probes of SgN had good specificity for SARS-CoV-2. The minimum detection limit of the preliminarily established qPCR detection method for SgN was 1.5×102 copies/ml, with a coefficient of variation less than 1%. The positive rate of gRNA in 372 samples was 97.04% (361/372). The positive rates of SgN in positive environmental samples and positive clinical samples were 36.84% (7/19) and 49.42% (169/342), respectively. The positive rate and copy number of SgN in Wild strain were lower than those of SARS-CoV-2 Delta strain. Among the 25 SgN positive samples, 12 samples within 5 days of sampling time were all isolated with virus; 13 samples sampled for more than 12 days had no cytopathic effect. Conclusion: A qPCR method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 SgN has been successfully established. The sensitivity, specificity and repeatability of this method are good.

Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Subgenomic RNA , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Nucleocapsid/chemistry , COVID-19 Testing
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 74(1): e752, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408896


RESUMEN Introducción: El empleo de técnicas moleculares para el diagnóstico de virus del papiloma humano de alto riesgo oncogénico (VPH-AR) es crucial para la detección precoz del cáncer cervicouterino. Objetivo: Evaluar el desempeño analítico de dos estuches de PCR-tiempo real, comercializados por el Centro de Inmunoensayo de Cuba, para detectar VPH-AR. Métodos: Se utilizaron dos paneles de ADN de muestras cervicouterinas: uno con 150 muestras, para validar el estuche SUMASIGNAL HPV 16/18, el proceso de extracción de ADN y su utilidad como prueba cuantitativa, y otro con 163 muestras para evaluar el estuche HPV 13+2. Se determinó la utilidad clínica del estuche HPV 13+2 en 55 muestras cervicovaginales autocolectadas. Se calcularon los indicadores de desempeño analítico de ambos estuches con respecto a pruebas de referencia. Resultados: Los indicadores de desempeño para SUMASIGNAL HPV 16/18 fueron excelentes (> 95 %), concordancia 96 %, índice kappa=0,93 [0,85-1,01]. La extracción de ADN mostró 100 % de especificidad clínica y analítica y 95 % de sensibilidad analítica. Se obtuvo buena correlación con la prueba de referencia cuantitativa (r = + 0,688). El estuche HPV 13+2 tuvo especificidad y sensibilidad clínicas del 100 %, la especificidad analítica fue del 84 % debido a reactividad cruzada con otros VPH-AR. Su aplicación clínica reveló alta frecuencia de infección (41,8 %): 23,6 % con VPH-AR, particularmente en mujeres jóvenes (50 %). La muestra autocolectada resultó útil (100 %). Conclusión: Los ensayos evaluados mostraron altos estándares de calidad, lo que permitiría su uso con una cobertura nacional en una plataforma tecnológica disponible para todo el país.

ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is crucial for the early detection of cervical cancer. Objective: To evaluate the analytical performance of two real-time PCR kits, commercialized by the Cuban Immunoassay Center, to detect hrHPV. Methods: Two DNA panels from cervical samples were used: one with 150 samples to validate the SUMASIGNAL HPV 16/18 kit, the DNA extraction process and its usefulness as a quantitative test; and another with 163 samples to evaluate the HPV 13+2 kit. The clinical utility of the HPV 13+2 kit was determined in 55 self-collected cervicovaginal samples. The analytical performance indicators of both kits were calculated with respect to reference tests. Results: Performance indicators for SUMASIGNAL HPV 16/18 were excellent (>95%), concordance 96%, kappa index=0.93 [0.85-1.01]. DNA extraction showed 100% clinical and analytical specificity and 95% analytical sensitivity. Good correlation was obtained with the quantitative reference test (r = + 0.688). The HPV 13+2 kit had 100% clinical specificity and sensitivity, analytical specificity was 84% due to cross-reactivity with other hrHPVs. Its clinical application revealed a high frequency of infection (41.8%): 23.6% with hrHPV, particularly in young women (50%). The self-collected sample was viable (100%). Conclusion: The assays evaluated showed high quality standards, which would allow their use with national coverage in a technological platform available for the whole country.

Humans , Male , Female , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 719-725, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984163


OBJECTIVES@#To establish a system for simultaneous detection of miR-888 and miR-891a by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), and to evaluate its application value in semen identification.@*METHODS@#The hydrolysis probes with different fluorescence modified reporter groups were designed to realize the detection of miR-888 and miR-891a by duplex ddPCR. A total of 75 samples of 5 body fluids (including peripheral blood, menstrual blood, semen, saliva and vaginal secretion) were detected. The difference analysis was conducted by Mann-Whitney U test. The semen differentiation ability of miR-888 and miR-891a was evaluated by ROC curve analysis and the optimal cut-off value was obtained.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference between the dual-plex assay and the single assay in this system. The detection sensitivity was up to 0.1 ng total RNA, and the intra- and inter-batch coefficients of variation were less than 15%. The expression levels of miR-888 and miR-891a detected by duplex ddPCR in semen were both higher than those in other body fluids. ROC curve analysis showed that the AUC of miR-888 was 0.976, the optimal cut-off value was 2.250 copies/μL, and the discrimination accuracy was 97.33%; the AUC of miR-891a was 1.000, the optimal cut-off value was 1.100 copies/μL, and the discrimination accuracy was 100%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In this study, a method for detection of miR-888 and miR-891a by duplex ddPCR was successfully established. The system has good stability and repeatability and can be used for semen identification. Both miR-888 and miR-891a have high ability to identify semen, and the discrimination accuracy of miR-891a is higher.

Female , Humans , Male , Body Fluids/chemistry , MicroRNAs/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Saliva/chemistry , Semen/chemistry
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 40-49, May. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343322


BACKGROUND: Scavenger receptor class B (SRB) is a multifunctional protein in animals that participates in physiological processes, including recognition of a wide range of ligands. Astaxanthin is a major carotenoid found in shrimp. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin and SRB protein binding has not been reported. RESULTS: In the present study, a member of the SRB subfamily, named PmSRB, was identified from the transcriptome of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The open reading frame of PmSRB was 1557 bp in length and encoded 518 amino acids. The structure of PmSRB included a putative transmembrane structure at the N-terminal region and a CD36 domain. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that the CD36 domain were conserved. Phylogenetic analysis showed four separate branches (SRA, SRB, SRC, and croquemort) in the phylogenetic tree and that PmSRB was clustered with SRB of Eriocheir sinensis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the PmSRB gene was widely expressed in all tissues tested, with the highest expression level observed in the lymphoid organ and brain. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that PmSRB-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion proteins were predominantly localized in the cell membrane. The recombinant proteins of PmSRB showed binding activities against astaxanthin in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: PmSRB was identified and characterized in this study. It is firstly reported that PmSRB may take as an important mediator of astaxanthin uptake in shrimp.

Animals , Penaeidae , Receptors, Scavenger/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Blotting, Western , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Sequence Alignment , Xanthophylls , Receptors, Scavenger/isolation & purification , Receptors, Scavenger/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Transcriptome
Rev. invest. clín ; 73(2): 120-126, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251872


ABSTRACT Background: Underestimation of the number of cases during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a constant concern worldwide. Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most common method to confirm a case. However, these tests have suboptimal sensitivity. Objective: The objective of the study was to estimate the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths in Mexico, accounting for the probabilities of false-negative tests. Methods: We used publicly available, national databases of all SARS-CoV-2 tests performed at public laboratories in Mexico between February 27 and October 31, 2020. We used the estimated probabilities of false-negative tests based on the day of clinical sample collection after symptom initiation calculated previously. With the resulting model, we estimated the corrected daily number of cases, ICU admissions, and deaths. Results: Among 2,024,822 people tested in Mexico between February 27 and October 31 with an available result, we estimated 1,248,583 (95% confidence interval 1,094,850-1,572,818) cases, compared to 902,343 cases reported with positive tests. ICU admissions and deaths were 15% and 8% higher than reported, respectively. Conclusion: Accounting for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-based diagnostic testsҠprecision is a simple way to improve estimations for the true number of COVID-19 cases among tested persons.

Humans , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Databases, Factual , Sensitivity and Specificity , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , False Negative Reactions , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Mexico/epidemiology
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 53-58, Mar. 2021. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292393


BACKGROUND: Lycium barbarum (also called wolfberry), a famous Chinese traditional medicine and food ingredient, is well recognized for its significant role in preventing obesity; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its preventive effects on fat accumulation are not well understood yet. The aim of this study was to determine the effects and mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. MTT was used to detect the proliferation of 3T3-Ll preadipocytes. Oil red O staining and colorimetric analysis were used to detect cytosolic lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR) technology was used to detect peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor c (PPARc), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein a (C/EBPa), adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (aP2), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression. RESULTS: The concentration of LBP from 25 to 200 lg/mL showed a tendency to inhibit the growth of preadipocytes at 24 h, and it inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In the preadipocytes treated with 200 lg/mL LBP, there were reduced lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, and its effect was opposite to that of rosiglitazone (ROS), which significantly reduced the PPARc, C/EBPa, aP2, FAS, and LPL mRNA expression of adipocytes. CONCLUSIONS: LBP exerts inhibitive effects on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreases the cytoplasm accumulation of lipid droplets during induced differentiation of preadipocytes toward mature cells. Above phenomenon might link to lowered expression of PPARc, C/EBPa, aP2, FAS, and LPL after LBP treatment. Thus, LBP could serve as a potential plant extract to treat human obesity or improve farm animal carcass quality via adjusting lipid metabolism.

Polysaccharides , Plant Extracts , Adipocytes , Lycium/chemistry , Cell Differentiation , 3T3-L1 Cells , Cell Proliferation , Adipogenesis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 34-41, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291638


BACKGROUND: This work studied how the exposure to an unusual substrate forced a change in microbial populations during anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production, with freshwater sediment used as an inoculum. RESULTS: The microbial associations almost completely (99.9%) utilized the glycerol contained in crude glycerol 6 g L 1 within four days, releasing gases, organic acids (acetic, butyric) and alcohols (ethanol, n-butanol) under anaerobic conditions. In comparison with control medium without glycerol, adding crude glycerol to the medium increased the amount of ethanol and n-butanol production and it was not significantly affected by incubation temperature (28 C or 37 C), nor incubation time (4 or 8 d), but it resulted in reduced amount of butyric acid. Higher volume of gas was produced at 37 C despite the fact that the overall bacterial count was smaller than the one measured at 20 C. Main microbial phyla of the inoculum were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. During fermentation, significant changes were observed and Firmicutes, especially Clostridium spp., began to dominate, and the number of Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria decreased accordingly. Concentration of Archaea decreased, especially in medium with crude glycerol. These changes were confirmed both by culturing and culture-independent (concentration of 16S rDNA) methods. CONCLUSIONS: Crude glycerol led to the adaptation of freshwater sediment microbial populations to this substrate. Changes of microbial community were a result of a community adaptation to a new source of carbon.

Bacteria/isolation & purification , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Fresh Water/microbiology , Glycerol/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , Adaptation, Biological , Biofuels , Fermentation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Anaerobiosis
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200118, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1154768


The early symptoms of leptospirosis and dengue fever are difficult to distinguish and can cause diagnostic confusion. Due to the large dengue epidemics that has occurred in Brazil in recent years, it is possible that cases of leptospirosis were unreported. Therefore, we performed a retrospective study to detect leptospirosis in patients who were tested for dengue, but whose laboratory diagnoses were negative. Methods: Sera samples from 2,017 patients from 48 cities located in the central region of São Paulo state, Brazil, were studied. All samples were subjected to the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), 305 of which were taken from patients five days or less since the onset of symptoms, and were additionally subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The overall prevalence of leptospirosis cases was 21 (1.04%), with 20 through MAT (18 for Icterohaemorrhagiae and two for the Cynopteri serogroup) and one through PCR (amplicon sequencing compatible with Leptospira interrogans). According to previously established criteria, eight cases of leptospirosis were classified as "confirmed" and 13 as "probable". The Brazilian notification system for health surveillance had no records for 16 patients positive for leptospirosis and, thus, they were considered unreported cases. Statistical analyses revealed that the prevalence of leptospirosis was higher in men (1.56%) than in women (0.56%), and the mean age was higher in positive patients (43.7 years) than in negative ones (32.3 years). Conclusion: The results indicated that patients suspected of dengue fever had evidence of leptospirosis or Leptospira infection, and most of these cases were unreported in the Brazilian notification system. The high burden of dengue may contribute to the misdiagnosis of leptospirosis, and health professionals should increase their awareness of leptospirosis as an important differential diagnosis of patients with suspicion of dengue.(AU)

Humans , Dengue/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Health Surveillance , Agglutination Tests
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 117-125, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129078


En diciembre de 2019 se identificó el virus SARS-CoV-2, cuya rápida propagación global puso en estado de emergencia al mundo entero, llevando al ser humano a una situación sin antecedente cercano. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir los métodos diagnósticos utilizados actualmente para identificar la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Las manifestaciones clínicas y el espectro imagenológico de la enfermedad son muy inespecíficos y no permiten realizar un diagnóstico certero. Por esta razón, es esencial una apropiada toma de muestra respiratoria en el momento y sitio anatómico adecuado para un diagnóstico preciso de COVID-19. La técnica de muestreo más utilizada es el hisopado nasofaríngeo y la prueba diagnóstica más fiable se basa en la retrotranscripción seguida por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (RT-PCR). No obstante, existen otras técnicas moleculares, como también tests serológicos para detectar anticuerpos o fragmentos antigénicos del SARS-CoV-2. Más allá de la precisión diagnóstica, es importante tener en cuenta la probabilidad basal (pretest) para interpretar correctamente el resultado obtenido y aislar aquellos posibles falsos negativos. Con el objetivo de evitar la saturación del sistema de salud es imprescindible contar con información y métodos diagnósticos precisos para detectar tempranamente los focos de infección y reducir la transmisión comunitaria, utilizando eficazmente los diferentes recursos diagnósticos. (AU)

In December 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 virus was identified for the first time, whose rapid global spread put the entire world in a state of emergency, leading humans to an unprecedented situation with no immediate history. The main purpose of this review is to describe the diagnostic methods currently used to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical manifestations and the imaging spectrum of the disease are nonspecific and do not allow an accurate diagnosis to be made. For this reason, an appropriate respiratory sampling at the right time and anatomical site is essential for an accurate diagnosis of COVID-19. The most widely used sampling technique is nasopharyngeal swab, and the most reliable diagnostic test is by reverse transcription followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, there are other molecular techniques, as well as serological tests to detect antibodies or antigenic fragments of SARS-CoV-2. Beyond the diagnostic precision, it is important to take into account the baseline probability (pre-test) to correctly interpret the result obtained and isolate those possible false negatives. In order to avoid saturation of the health system, it is essential to have accurate information and diagnostic methods to detect outbreaks of infection in early stages and to reduce communitary transmission, making effective use of the various diagnostic resources. Coronavirus infections/diagnosis, viral/diagnosis, pandemics, clinical laboratory techniques, real-time polymerase chain reaction, antigens, viral/analysis. (AU)

Humans , Serologic Tests/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Argentina , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/statistics & numerical data , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , False Negative Reactions , False Positive Reactions , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(2): e522, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149912


Introducción: Los ensayos para cuantificar el ADN del virus de la hepatitis B (VHB) o carga viral son imprescindibles en el diagnóstico y en el seguimiento de los pacientes con hepatitis B crónica; de ahí que estén disponibles estuches diagnósticos para esta función. En el presente estudio se muestra la validación de SUMASIGNAL VHB (un paso), el cual es un sistema de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (RCP-TR) para la cuantificación del genoma del VHB, propuesto por el Centro de Inmunoensayo. Objetivo: Evaluar el desempeño analítico de SUMASIGNAL VHB (un paso). Métodos: Se utilizó un panel de 80 muestras de suero bien caracterizadas y el Tercer Estándar Internacional de la OMS para las técnicas de amplificación de ácidos nucleicos del virus de la hepatitis B. Se determinaron las características del ensayo como especificidad clínica, especificidad analítica (reactividad cruzada), rango lineal o linealidad y exactitud, precisión intraensayo y comparación con un ensayo de referencia. Resultados: La especificidad analítica y clínica fue del 100 por ciento. Al evaluar la linealidad y exactitud con un estándar de referencia de la OMS, se obtuvo que la totalidad de las diferencias entre los Log10 del valor obtenido y el de referencia resultaron inferiores a 0,5 Log10 (r= 0,9977 y r2= 0,9954). Además, se obtuvieron bajos coeficientes de variación intraensayo. La evaluación comparativa con el estuche comercial Artus HBV RG PCR kit mostró una correlación fuerte (r= 0,8882). Conclusiones: SUMASIGNAL VHB (un paso) es un ensayo fácil de realizar manualmente, es rápido e incluye reactivos de extracción de ácidos nucleicos. Teniendo en cuenta la validez del método para el uso previsto, puede ser recomendado para su introducción en el diagnóstico, la vigilancia y la indicación de tratamiento en los pacientes con hepatitis B crónica(AU)

Introduction: Assays to quantify hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA or viral load are indispensable for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with chronic hepatitis B, hence the availability of diagnostic kits for this purpose. The present study deals with the validation of HBV SUMASIGNAL (one step), a real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) system for quantification of the HBV genome proposed by the Immunoassay Center. Objective: Evaluate the analytical performance of HBV SUMASIGNAL (one step). Methods: Use was made of a panel of 80 well characterized serum samples and the Third WHO International Standard for hepatitis B virus nucleic acid amplification techniques. Determination was performed of assay characteristics such as clinical specificity, analytical specificity (cross-reactivity), linear range or linearity and accuracy, intra-assay precision and comparison with a reference assay. Results: Analytical and clinical specificity was 100 percent. Evaluation of linearity and accuracy with a WHO reference standard revealed that all the differences between the log10 of the value obtained and the reference value were lower than 0.5 log10 (r= 0.9977 and r2= 0.9954). The intra-assay variation coefficients obtained were low. Comparative evaluation with the commercial Artus HBV RG PCR kit showed a strong correlation (r= 0.8882). Conclusions: The assay HBV SUMASIGNAL (one step) is easy to conduct manually, fast and includes reagents for nucleic acid extraction. Based on the validity of the method for the use in mind, it may be recommended for incorporation into the diagnosis, surveillance and treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B(AU)

Humans , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Validation Study
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(2)mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127512


The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Spirulina platensis (SP) powder supplementation on immune response in SPF chickens. For this purpose, 120 SPF chicks were randomly clustered into six groups consisting of 20 birds each which assigned to five groups vaccinated by commercial inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine at 21 days of age. The four groups were supplemented with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 g of SP per kg of ration at 7 day of age and other group as control treatment group. Control unvaccinated group still without any treatment. Individual blood samples were collected weekly from all groups, and NDV-HI antibodies were measured using Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. After 28 days post-vaccination, ten birds from all groups were challenged intramuscularly at a dose 0.5 mL/bird containing 106 EID50 of local NDV genotype VII. Challenge virus shedding was detected using real time qrt-PCR of oropharyngeal swabs that were collected from all challenged chicken groups of at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post challenge. Obtained results showed that vaccinated groups of SPF-chickens either supplied with Spirulina or control treatment group induced positive serological response as NDV-HI antibody were measured in sera of immunized chicks (7.6, 8, 8.3, 8.9 and 7.4 log2, respectively) at 4 weeks post vaccination (WPV). Significant differences were observed at 2 WPV in the vaccinated SPF chickens consumed 1, 1.5 and 2 g of SP/kg of ration, compared to untreated vaccinated group (p<0.05). Immunized SPF chickens supplied with different SP concentration confer satisfactory protection against heterologous challenge virus (90 percent, 100 percent, 100 percent and 100 percent respectively), in contrast to untreated vaccinated chickens. Different percentages of reduction of viral shedding (55 percent, 65 percent, 76 percent and 87 percent) of treated vaccinated chickens with different concentration of SP were detected, despite untreated group were reduced 46 percent from total viral shedding. These findings suggest that dietary Spirulina has immune-stimulatory effects on the immune system of SPF chickens. One gram from SP per kg of ration was minimum recommended concentration that able to exhibit optimum immune response, increase protection against heterologous strains and able to reduce viral shedding(AU)

El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los efectos de la suplementación con polvo de Spirulina platensis (SP) sobre la respuesta inmune en pollos SPF. Para este propósito se agruparon al azar 120 polluelos SPF en seis grupos de 20 aves cada uno, que se asignaron a cinco grupos vacunados con la vacuna comercial inactivada contra la enfermedad de Newcastle (ND) a los 21 días de edad. Cuatro grupos se suplementaron con 0,5; 1; 1,5 y 2 g de SP por kg de ración a los 7 días de edad, un grupo vacunado sin suplemento y un grupo sin ningún tratamiento. Semanalmente, se recogieron muestras de sangre individuales de todos los grupos y se midieron los anticuerpos hemaglutinantes contra el virus Newcastle (NDV-HI) mediante la prueba de inhibición de la hemaglutinación (HI). 28 días después de la vacunación, fueron retadas diez aves de cada grupo por vía intramuscular a una dosis 106 EID50 del genotipo VII del NDV local en un volumen de 0,5 mL/ave. Se detectó la eliminación del virus mediante qrt-PCR en hisopos orofaríngeos que se recolectaron en todos los grupos a los 3, 5, 7 y 10 días después del reto. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que los grupos vacunados de pollos y suplementados con Espirulina y el grupo de control vacunado, indujeron una respuesta serológica positiva cuando se determinaron los anticuerpos NDV-HI en los pollitos inmunizados (7,6; 8; 8,3; 8,9 y 7,4 log2 respectivamente) a las 4 semanas después de la vacunación (SPV). Se observaron diferencias significativas a las 2 SPV en los pollos vacunados que consumieron 1, 1,5 y 2 g de SP/kg de ración, en comparación con el grupo vacunado no tratado (p<0,05). Los pollos inmunizados que recibieron diferentes concentraciones de SP mostraron una protección satisfactoria contra el desafío heterólogo viral (90 por ciento, 100 por ciento y 100 por ciento respectivamente), en contraste con los pollos vacunados no tratados. Se observaron diferentes porcentajes de reducción de la diseminación viral (55 por ciento, 76 por ciento y 87 por ciento) entre los pollos vacunados tratados con diferente concentración de SP. En el grupo no tratado se redujo al 46 por ciento. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la Espirulina en la dieta tiene efectos inmunoestimuladores sobre el sistema inmunitario de los pollos. Un gramo de SP por kg de ración fue la concentración mínima recomendada para una respuesta inmune óptima, y de esta forma aumentar la protección contra las cepas heterólogas y disminuir la diseminación viral(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Newcastle disease virus/pathogenicity , Vaccines, Inactivated , Chickens , Spirulina , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Newcastle Disease/diagnosis , Birds
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 1039-1046, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129747


O objetivo deste comunicado é desenvolver um método quantitativo PCR em tempo real, baseado em guia molecular (MB) (MB-qPCR) para detecção de infecção por espécies de Brucella, e avaliar seu potencial de utilização clínica. Os primers e as sondas MB foram desenhados para amplificação específica e determinação de sequência conservada do código do gene para os primeiros 58-aa da proteína de membrana externa OMP-2a, que é compartilhada em cinco espécies de Brucella epidêmicas. A avaliação metodológica foi realizada por análise de sensibilidade, especificidade, coeficiente de variação intra e inter, e a linearidade do qPCR. O potencial diagnóstico foi avaliado comparando-se o método qPCR desenvolvido com ensaios de exames bacteriológicos convencionais, incluindo os testes de soroaglutinação convencionais (SATs) e os testes do Rosa Bengala (RBPTs). O método exibiu alta sensibilidade (tão baixo quanto 50 cópias) e grande faixa de linearidade (102-108 cópias). Nenhuma reação cruzada foi encontrada com bactéria clínica comum. A sensibilidade diagnóstica foi superior ao exame bacteriológico, e a especificidade diagnóstica foi superior ao SAT ou ao RBPT. Um método MB-qPCR altamente sensível e específico para DNA de Brucella foi estabelecido com sucesso, provando ser uma ferramenta útil no diagnóstico molecular de brucelose.(AU)

Brucella/isolation & purification , Genome, Bacterial , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(3): 209-217, may.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249896


Resumen Introducción: A partir del 23 de marzo de 2020, en México se declaró la suspensión de actividades no esenciales en todo el país para mitigar la diseminación de la pandemia de COVID-19. Objetivo: Analizar los datos sobre los primeros 1510 casos de COVID-19 confirmados por laboratorio en México, describir la distribución geográfica de la enfermedad y su dinámica de transmisión. Método: Descripción de los primeros casos de COVID-19 con prueba positiva de RT-PCR en tiempo real, así como evaluación de las medidas epidemiológicas, incidencia acumulada, razón de contagios y tasas de mortalidad y letalidad durante el primer mes de la epidemia. Resultados: La edad promedio fue de 43 años y 58 % fue del sexo masculino; 44 % de los casos iniciales fue importado. La letalidad en la población durante el primer mes pasó de 1.08 a 3.97 por 100 casos; sin embargo, la tendencia es lineal y similar a la observada en Europa. Conclusiones: En México se está aplicando el distanciamiento social, pero aún se requieren estudios sobre la dinámica de la epidemia, la transmisión de persona a persona, la incidencia de infecciones subclínicas y la supervivencia de los enfermos.

Abstract Introduction As of March 23, 2020, suspension of non-essential activities was declared in Mexico throughout the country in order to mitigate the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To analyze data on the first 1510 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Mexico, and to describe the geographical distribution of the disease and its transmission dynamics. Method: Description of the first COVID-19 cases with real-time RT-PCR-positive test, as well as evaluation of epidemiological measures, cumulative incidence, rate of transmission, and mortality and lethality rates during the 1st month of the epidemic. Results: Average age was 43 years, and 58% were males; 44% of initial cases were imported. Lethality in the population during the 1st month went from 1.08 to 3.97 per 100 cases; however, the trend is linear and similar to that observed in Europe. Conclusions: In Mexico, social distancing is being applied, but studies are still required on the dynamics of the epidemic, person-to-person transmission, incidence of subclinical infections, and patient survival.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Isolation , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Survival , Incidence , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Mexico/epidemiology
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(2): 203-209, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127128


RESUMEN Objetivos: Determinar el rendimiento diagnóstico adicional de una prueba serológica rápida que detecta anticuerpos IgM e IgG contra SARS-CoV-2 en relación a la reacción en cadena de polimerasa reversa en tiempo real (RT-PCR). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal incluyendo pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19 en tres hospitales, trabajadores de salud expuestos a la infección y pacientes ambulatorios que cumplían criterios de caso sospechoso, a quienes se les realizó la prueba molecular (RT-PCR) y la prueba serológica rápida. Se evaluó el rendimiento diagnóstico adicional de las prueba serológica rápida en relación a la molecular. Asimismo, se realizó la estimación de sensibilidad y especificidad de dichas pruebas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 144 personas. La prueba serológica rápida obtuvo un 19,4% de resultados positivos en comparación con un 11,1% en la prueba molecular (p=0,03). La prueba serológica rápida detectó 21 casos que habían resultado negativos por el RT-PCR inicial y el rendimiento diagnóstico adicional fue de 56,8% en comparación al RT-PCR. El rendimiento diagnóstico adicional fue 50,0% durante la primera semana, 70,0% durante la segunda y 50,0% durante la tercera semana de inicio de síntomas. La sensibilidad de la prueba serológica rápida fue de 43,8% y la especificidad del 98,9%. Conclusiones: La prueba serológica rápida logró detectar un mayor número de casos respecto a la molecular, sobre todo a partir de la segunda semana de inicio de síntomas. Además, presentó una alta especificidad. Los resultados mostrarían su utilidad como prueba complementaria a la prueba molecular, especialmente durante la segunda y tercera semana de enfermedad.

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the additional diagnostic performance of a rapid serological test for detection of IgM and IgG antibodies compared to the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test; for detection of SARS-CoV-2. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out including patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in 3 hospitals, health workers exposed to the infection and outpatients who met suspicious case criteria, all of which underwent the molecular test (RT-PCR) and the rapid serological test. The additional diagnostic performance of rapid serological test was evaluated in comparison to molecular tests. Likewise, an approximation was made to the sensitivity and specificity of the rapid serological test. Results: 144 people were included. With the rapid test, 19.4% of positive results were obtained compared to 11.1% in the molecular test (p = 0.03). The rapid serological test detected 21 cases that had been negative by the initial (RT-PCR), providing an additional diagnostic performance of 56.8% compared to the RT-PCR. The additional diagnostic performance was 50.0% during the first week, 70.0% during the second week and 50.0% during the third week of symptom onset. The sensitivity of the rapid serological test was 43.8% and the specificity of 98.9%. Conclusions: The rapid serological test was able to detect a greater number of cases than those detected by the molecular test especially after the second week of onset of symptoms. It also showed high specificity. It is therefore useful as a complementary test to RT-PCR, especially during the second and third week of illness.

Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies , Outpatients , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19
Rev. cuba. med ; 59(1): e1320, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139042


Introducción: La enfermedad producida por el Coronavirus 2019 ha impactado al mundo más allá de los límites de la salud pública a tres meses del diagnóstico del primer caso en China. En la actualidad afecta a 182 países, por lo que fue declarada pandemia por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Objetivo: Revisar los aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos más importantes reportados sobre esta enfermedad. Desarrollo: La enfermedad se trasmite por las microgotas de saliva entre personas y por contacto con superficies contaminadas o heces. El periodo de incubación es hasta 14 días, en los cuales puede ocurrir trasmisión viral. Se caracteriza por un espectro sintomático variable, los pacientes pueden permanecer asintomáticos o presentar síntomas como fiebre, dolor de garganta, tos, anosmia y disnea. Aproximadamente 14 por ciento de los casos presenta formas graves y 5 por ciento evoluciona a estado crítico, asociado a complicaciones como el síndrome de distress respiratorio o shock séptico. El diagnóstico confirmatorio es a través de los estudios de reacción en cadena de polimerasa en tiempo real, en muestras respiratorias. No existe un tratamiento efectivo, aunque se emplean medicamentos, la mayoría de ellos como parte de ensayos clínicos. Conclusiones: Es un fenómeno sin precedentes en el último siglo en relación al número de personas y países que ha afectado y al impacto en las dinámicas sociales y económicas del mundo actual(AU)

Introduction: The disease caused by Coronavirus 2019 has impacted the world beyond the limits of public health three months after the first case was diagnosed in China. It currently affects 182 countries; hence it is was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Objective: To review the most important clinical-epidemiological aspects reported on this disease. Findings: The disease is transmitted by droplets of saliva between people and by contact with contaminated surfaces or faeces. The incubation period is up to 14 days, in which viral transmission can occur. It is characterized by a variable symptom spectrum, patients can remain asymptomatic or present symptoms such as fever, sore throat, cough, anosmia and dyspnea. Approximately 14 percent of cases present severe forms and 5 percent progresses to a critical state, associated with complications such as respiratory distress syndrome or septic shock. The confirmatory diagnosis is through real-time polymerase chain reaction studies in respiratory samples. There is no effective treatment, although medications are used, most of them as part of clinical trials. Conclusions: It is, in the last century, an unprecedented phenomenon regarding the number of people and countries it has affected and concerning the impact on the social and economic dynamics currently in the world(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , COVID-19/transmission , World Health Organization , eHealth Strategies
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(1): e775, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126722


RESUMEN Objetivo: Estandarizar una técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real para la detección del parásito e identificar Acanthamoeba en líquidos conservantes de lentes de contacto. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo observacional de corte transversal sobre la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real para la detección de Acanthamoeba, en el Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud de la ciudad de Asunción, en Paraguay. Se analizaron 110 líquidos conservantes aportados por usuarios sanos de lentes de contacto, mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real y cultivo en medio PAGE - SDS. Resultados: Se estandarizó con éxito la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real con límite de sensibilidad de 1 pg/µL. Se aisló Acanthamoeba a partir de una muestra (1 por ciento) por método de cultivo, mientras que la carga parasitaria en el líquido conservante fue inferior al límite de detección de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real. El ADN obtenido del cultivo de dicha muestra fue positivo para Acanthamoeba por este método. Conclusión: El sistema estandarizado presenta buena sensibilidad y podrá ser incorporado en los laboratorios que cuentan con acceso a equipos de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real para un diagnóstico rápido y más eficiente en casos de sospechas de queratitis amebiana. Recomendamos el uso combinado de métodos moleculares y cultivo para aumentar la potencia del diagnóstico, sobre todo en muestras donde la carga parasitaria es muy baja(AU)

ABSTRACT Objective: Standardize a real-time polymerase chain reaction technique for detection of the parasite and identify Acanthamoeba in contact lens solutions. Methods: A cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted about a real-time polymerase chain reaction technique for detection of Acanthamoeba at the Institute of Health Sciences Research in the city of Asunción, Paraguay. A total 110 solutions were analyzed, which were provided by healthy contact lens users, by real-time polymerase chain reaction and culture in SDS-PAGE medium. Results: Successful standardization was achieved of the real-time polymerase chain reaction technique with a sensitivity limit of 1 pg/µl. Acanthamoeba was isolated from one sample (1 percent) by culture, whereas the parasite load in the contact lens solution was below the detection limit of the real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. The DNA obtained from the culture of that sample was positive for Acanthamoeba by the real-time polymerase chain reaction technique method. Conclusion: The system standardized exhibits good sensitivity and may be incorporated into laboratories with real-time polymerase chain reaction technique equipment for a rapid and more efficient diagnosis of suspected amoebic keratitis. We recommend the combined use of molecular methods and culture to enhance diagnostic power, mainly in samples where the parasite load is very low(AU)

Humans , Acanthamoeba/microbiology , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/etiology , Contact Lenses/adverse effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Contact Lens Solutions/therapeutic use , Observational Studies as Topic
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18772, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285509


There is emerging evidence for a dysregulation of insulin signaling in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) with overlapping molecular features to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). In addition, T2DM is a known risk factor of AD. The goal of this study was to investigate the neurogenic and neuroprotective potential of rosmarinic acid (RA) in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced combined with high fat diet (HFD) mouse model of diabetes. Animals were divided into four experimental groups (control, diabetic, diabetic + RA, RA only). Behavioral analysis was performed to assess spatial learning and anxiety levels of animals, whereas quantitative real time PCR was carried out to assess the gene expression levels of neuronal markers of neurogenesis (Ki67, DCX and NeuN). A significant decrease in memory and spatial learning was observed in the diabetic mice, which was substantially improved by RA treatment. RA also increased the gene expression of NeuN, DCX and Ki67, which were dysregulated in the diabetic model. This study proposes RA as a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate neuronal dysfunction associated with T2DM by promoting adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

Animals , Male , Mice , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Streptozocin/pharmacokinetics , Neurogenesis/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(2,supl.1): 4-8, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134833


ABSTRACT The Covid-19 pandemic brought several challenges to the healthcare system: diagnosis, treatment and measures to prevent the spread of the disease. With the greater availability and variety of diagnostic tests, it is essential to properly interpret them. This paper intends to help dialysis units concerning the use of clinical criteria and diagnostic tests for decision making regarding the discontinuation of isolation of patients with suspected or confirmed Covid-19, as well as the return to work activities for employees with suspected or confirmed Covid-19.

RESUMO A pandemia da Covid-19 trouxe desafios ao sistema de saúde em diversas esferas: diagnóstico, tratamento e medidas para evitar a disseminação da doença. Com a maior disponibilização e variedades de testes diagnósticos, torna-se fundamental sua adequada interpretação. Este posicionamento pretende orientar unidades de diálise em relação ao uso de critérios clínicos e testes diagnósticos para a tomada de decisão referente à descontinuação do isolamento de pacientes com suspeita ou confirmação de Covid-19, assim como para o retorno às atividades laborais de colaboradores com suspeita ou confirmação de Covid-19.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Renal Dialysis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Return to Work , Betacoronavirus , Nephrology/standards , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Societies, Medical/standards , Algorithms , Brazil , Urology Department, Hospital/standards , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Checklist , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Clinical Decision-Making , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19